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The folllowing paraameters shaall be considered when

n calculatin
ng NPSH.

a. Vapo
our pressuree

b. Staticc head

c. Frictiion .

d. Strain
ner drop

e. Suction pressuree

The em
mpirical form
mula to calcculate NPSH
H is

1. Assum
me some lin
ne configurration to gett total equivvalent leng
gths and con
nvert that
in to friiction drop..
NG IS 70 M
ead More

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D Data B
Book by Hyu
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Escoe (Pipingg & Pressuree Vessels)
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Design Guidellines for Safeety in Piping Networks
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w of Process Plant Pipingg System Dessign by Carm
magen Engineering
 Engineerring Specificcation of Pipiing Design By Toyo Engin

Posted b
by Ankit Chug
gh on 10:51 AM3
A Comme

Pump iss an importtant rotatin

ng equipmeent which yo
ou will com
me across alll type of ind
Pump ssection, perrformance. IInstallation
n of pump tto get desireed perform
mance and
connecttion of pum
mp piping iss very impo
ortant for piiping engin
neers. We caan understaand
classificcation , worrking and sttandard en
ngineers pra
actice of pump from th
his article.
Terms tto Rememb
ber :
Pump tyype, Head, Head loss , NPSH.

g of centriifugal pum

The cen
ntrifugal is llike the ‘WO
SE’ in a pro
ocess industtry. The folllowing figu
ure shows
major ccomponentss in a centriifugal pump

Liquid is
i pressured
d in to the suction
s of pump
p wherre the impelller impartss a centrifugal
velocityy to the fluid
d. As the liq
quid dischaarges from tthe pump itts velocity h
head conveerts to
pressurre head becaause of typiical shape o
of the casin

Pumps are usuallyy specified eearly in the Process Scchedule , wh

hen lines arre ‘SKETCH
located and sized w
when contrrol valves ha
ave not beeen Sized and
d when pum
mp perform
must bee estimated
d rather thaan establish
hed .

A comp
plex relation
nship existss between th
he system h
head, Pump
p head and valve drop
charactteristics .Meethods of seelecting con
ntrol valve d
drop and im
mpeller perrformance aare not
readily Systematizzed .API-610
0 fixed man
ny mechaniical and pro
ocedural deetails and itt is often
includeed in all Reffinery/Petro
ol chemicall industriess when pum
mps are speccified.

A Desig
gn Engineerr must conssider two ch
haracteristiics of a centtrifugal pum
mp., their d
pressurre and volum
metric flow
w rate throu
ugh them. T
The designerr’s heat and
d material b
will givee the requirred flow ratte hydraulicc Calculatio
ons will dicttate the heaad.
1. HOW

The kg//hr of liquid

d to be pum
mped is calcculated from
m heat and material baalance.


Suppose we have a simple eq


N = = > NaCL + H
= = => (1 mole + 1 mole = = =
=> 1 mole + 1 mole ) Mol.
M wts
= = => 36.5 kg + 4
40 kg = = => 58.5 kg+18 kg .

Hence ffor manufacturing 100

0 kg of NaC
CL you havee to pump 6
62.40 kg of HCL &
68.37 k
kg of NaOH .

Case –

Some tiimes to takee away the reaction heeat , you’ve to add exceess reactantt .It may bee as high
as 5 to 6 times the actual requ
uirement .

Case – 3

For som
me reactions , we have to keep som
me excess rreactant to ensure
complettion of (100
0 %) reactio

Case – 4

As a dessign engineeer, we havee to consideer about 20

0% flow as rre -circulatiion to avoid
cavitations problem
ms in the p

Hence d
designed flo
ow rate shaall be 20% more
m than tthe actual fl
flow rate. Frrom
above p
pump flow rratio is calcculated by fo
following eq

For exa
ample , if on
ne has to pu
ump 1000 kg/hr
k of H2
2SO4 (whicch has speciific gravity
1.8 (98%
% H2SO4 ) , the required m3/hr is

The figu
ure on nextt page show
ws a typical process app

The bassic calculatiion consistss of five com


a. Differrential presssure betweeen two vesssels.

b. Head
d to lift the lliquid.
c. Frictiion head losss in the pip
d. Presssure drop aallowed to Control
C flow
H for the pu


(a) Diffferential pressure::

To calcu
ulate the diifferential p
pressure I head,
h the folllowing form
mula to be used.

Where S
Sp gr. is thee specific grravity of the liquid pum
mped at thee process

(b) He
ead to lift tthe liquid

This is simply
s the difference between
b th
he liquid levvel in the firrst & second
d vessels.

(c) Friction head

d loss :

Actuallyy a design E
Engineer do
oes not lay the piping .Just consid
der that he can allow
0.3kg/ccm2 Pr. dro
op for each other 100m
m of piping and estimaate the apprroximate diistance
the pipiing will run
n . Double th
he calculateed pr.drop to allow forr elbows, beends, valves and
other piipe fittings.. Convert th
he friction p
pressure drrop in to head by samee formula.
(d) Con
ntrol valv
ves / instru

As a thu
umb rule , tthe loss acrross a control valve is eequivalent tto half the ffriction losss of pipe
line or 11.50 kg/cm
m whicheverr is greater .

(e) NP
PSH requir
red by pum

NPSH rrequired byy a pump is normally g

given in thee manufactu
ure’s pump curve whicch is
normallly 0.5-4m .
As a sum
mmary , on
ne can calcu
ulate the tottal pump heead requireed for abovee pump
can be ccalculated aas (sp.gr=0

Some p ow larger prr. drops in ccontrol valvves and other

people may like it to play safe allo
ments. This will lead to
o a bad selecction of a p
pump wheree in sometim
mes you ma
ay get
lower m
models of pu

Now wee have arrivved two bassic requirem

ments of sellecting the pump
p that is Q & H(vo
flow ratte and head

As in th
he case of tu
urbines , sp
pecific speed d design basis for a tecchnical
d is a sound
classificcation of ceentrifugal pu
umps .

Specificc speed is d
defined as th
he speed off geometrica
ally similarr impeller (p
when delivering on
ne m3./sec against a h
head of 1 m..
ding on the specific speeed , the typ
pe of impelller can be selected
s fro
om the follo

Pumps having a sp
pecific speeed less than
n 12 are geneerally not rrecommend
ded. Infect tthe
efficiency falls draastically if th
he specific speed
s is lesss than 20. T
This is becaause impelller
becomees disproportionate, th
he dia. being too large relative to width.
It resultts in leakag
ge and higher disc fricttion and flu
uid friction losses owin
ng to narrow
passagee of fluid . It is therefore advisable to use impellers of small diameeters conseq
high specific speed

This willl reduce th

he disc frictiion losses which
w vary with the ra
adius. The eefficiency w
will rise &
cost willl fall in succh case. Thu
us using hig
gher stage p
pumps cam
me in to pictture.

If we seelect higherr stages, H w

will be divid
ded for thatt many stag
ges and sing
gle impellerr head
reduce and Ns incrreases.

ding on the blade shap
pe, the efficiiency chang
ges and it can have one of the folllowing
nt shapes.
In order to have hiigh efficien
ncy, the blad
des bent baackward sha
all be selectted. Straigh
ht blades
can be u
used for sm
mall pumps where econ
nomy is imp
portant. Blaades bent fo
orward yielld very
low efficiency and hence rareely used.

Selectiing a pum
mp’s impelller

The encclosed figurre shows the typical seet of curves,, representiing characteristic of an
ual impelleer .The top ccurve is for the largestt size impelller that can
n physicallyy fit in to
the pum
mp. Impelleers are easilly machined
d for any in
ntermediatee size betweeen those in
on pum
mp curves.

-Never select a pum

mp which requires
r maaximum sizze of impelleer, when seelecting the size to
avoid fu
uture modiffications im
mpossible .

Selectiing a Pum
mp motor

An expeerienced deesign engineeer shall ussually selectt a motor fo

or centrifug
gal pumps b
based not
on the ssize of impeeller used but
b on the max.
m impeller dia that w
will fit in to
o the pump
ps .The
reasonss for selectin
ng higher K
KW rating m
motors are :-

- It doessn’t trip forr higher inittial torque

- If engiineer want to expand tthe pump ccapacity .

wise the mottor shall be selected att the end off the curve p with the following
power OR w
correlattions as perr normal prractice depeend on the aabsorbed p
power .

SHUT IIN pressuree is the presssure the pu

ump will pu
ut up at zero flow .Thee larger the impeller,
the larg
ger the shutt in pressurre . The maxx. allowablee shut in prr. is the critiical variable when
ng the size o
of an impelller.

The dessign engineeer shall be assured thaat eventuallly the opera

ator will blo
ock in a pum
mp down

For the illustration

n of importance of shu
ut in pressu
ure , see folllowing figurre.

If opera
ator acciden
ntally closes this valvee , the shell of heat of h
heat exchan
nger shall bee
subjecteed to shut iin pr. of thee pump . In case HE sh
hell is not designed
d forr shut in prr. , we get
three op

a. Use ssmall impelller

b. Instaall relief valvve on shell

c. Elimiinate valve

A design engineer ignores thee consequen

nces to dow
wnstream eq
quipment w
when expan
nding the
capacityy of pump. The need to design alll process eq
quipment between
b pum
mp and a block
valve fo
or the pump
p shut in prressure is a legal requirrement.

These aare two inex

xpensive meethod to exxpand pump
ping capaciity .

1. Redu
uce down strream pr. drrop

2. Increease size of impeller

1. Redu
uce down
nstream pr
ressure dr
rop :

The typ
pical causes of excessivve pr. drop and suggessted remediies are listed below , id
by man
ny practical experimen
nts .

a. High tube side p

pr. drop thrro’ a shell & tube HE .

-Reducee no. of tub

be side passses

Going ffrom 4 to 2 passes . pr.. drop cuts by 7/8 ths.

b. High
h shell side p
pr. drop in a S/T HE

-A new tube bundlle with larg

ger spaces between
b bafffles . (Expeensive)

c. High pr. drop th

hro’ a wide open
o contro
ol valve

-changee control vaalve port sizze or trim to

o the max. ssize permittted in the ccontrol valvve body .
e.g. 3” control
c valvve can accom
mmodate 2 port size .

d. Excesssive piping
g Losses –
- Increa
ase diameteer of piping
g or parallell piping run
ns .

2. Larg
ge impelle
er :

The tricck to select a larger im

mpeller when
n expandin
ng a pump ccapacity is tto match th
impelleer size to thee capacity existing
e mo
otor drive. T
The changin
ng of impelller is easy aand
cheaperr when com
mpared to ch
hanging thee motor and
d its associa
ate compou
unds .

The cha
anging of th
he dia . of im
mpeller is d
done thro’ fo
following em
mpirical rellations .

To decide on the maximum

m size impeller that can b
be used exissting motorr , it is best to
observee following in field .

a. Placee the contro

ol valve posiition WIDE

b. Meassure amperage drawn by motor .

The rateed capacityy of the mottor (in amp

ps) can be m
multiplied b
by its servicee factor (typ
10-15 %
%). To calculate max. siize of impeller that can
n be used w
with existing motor shall be
Where aare is the raated amperrage of motor includin
ng its servicee factor .


When d
discharge off pump is cllosed .pum
mp will overh
heat . The m
motor’s elecctric powerr is
convertted to heat as
a the pum
mp churns th
he trapped lliquid . Thee pump’s caase and bea
becomee hotter and
d hotter and
d eventuallyy the bearin
ngs will burrn out also damage thee pump
seal .

In addittion many large

l head p menon calleed “internal
pumps are subjected tto a phenom
recircullation”, whiich damagees pumps in
nternal partts when thee pump is operated at rreduced
rate .

A simplle modificattion in the process as shown belo

ow will auto
omatically p
prevent pum
damagee due to low
w flow .

The dessigner shou

uld considerr whether th
he min. flow
w by pass iss necessaryy, considerin
ng the
processs variables o
of the plantt designed .Never tie th
he min. flow
w dischargee line in to tthe
suction of pump .T
This defeatss the purpo
ose of line ; it must be rrouted back
k to a pointt in the
processs where the pumping h
heat is dissiipated .


When a centrifugaal pump loses suction d

due to low N
NPSH , thee pumped flluid begins to flash
at the eyye of impelller .This reesults bubblles of vaporrs which wh
hen carried
d towards diischarge
are com
mpressed an
nd collapse.. This phen
nomenon is called cavittations , wh
hich is a com
cause fo
or failure off pump .
A designer can preevent damaage to manyy pumps by applying a few simplee ideas .

a) Locatte coolers o
on suction sside of pum
mps .The deccreased pum
mp suction
n pressure w
will be
usually more than offset by th
he reductio
on in the flu
uid’s bubblee point .

b) Provvide vortex b
breakers in
n bottom of all vessels rregardless of the anticcipated liqu
uid level
in vesseel .

c) Proviide adequatte liquid ho

old in proceess vessels aacting as su
urge drums . As a thum
mb rule 5-
15 min. hold up is a typical raange.

nued to Centrifuga
al Pumps - 2

ead More

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 Downloaad PDS Equiipment Modeelling Trainin
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 Engineerring Specificcation of Pipiing Design By Toyo Engin
 [PPT] Download Dessign & Consttruction of Piping System
 Overview
w of Process Plant Pipingg System Dessign by Carm
magen Engineering

Design of C
Cross – Coun
ntry Pip
pe Line
Posted b
by Ankit Chug
gh on 10:11 A
AM4 Comme

In the modern age of Industrial word, the Oil refineries, petroleum products, and
petrochemicals form the major part of the industrial set-up all over the world. It is often
economical and practical to carry the liquid and Gaseous products through pipe-lines rather
than by Tankers over ling distance. When a pipe-line has to carry such products like crude
oil, refined oil, chemicals like naphtha, ethylene, propylene etc. over long distance ranging
from 10 km to even 1000 km,. Passing through land, rivers, sea, mountains, marshy areas,
private and public land and land, rivers, sea, mountains, marshy areas, private and public
land and crossing other services like roads, railways, transmission lines, underground
Pipes/Cables etc, such a pipeline is called “Cross-Country Pipe-Line”. As the name suggests
it transfers the liquid/Gas products from one place to another at far distance.

Engineering and Installation of Cross-Country Pipe-Lines form a special branch of piping

design and engineering., as it involves many aspects and parameter which are normally
faced with, in inplant piping system within the boundaries of refinery or a chemical /
petrochemical plant Special Techniques have to be adopted for design, laying
welding/jointing, corrosion protection, testing, commissioning etc. The most common line
familiar to all, is water-line from reservoirs to different consumption points, like, water-
main from vaiterna/ Tansa dam to city of Mumbai Unlike water line, the hazardous
chemical conveying Pipelines, involves many more stringent precautions in their design and
installation. This is mainly due to fire and explosion hazards associated with the oils and

This write-up highlights the main features of the eng ineering and construction of Cross-
Country Pipe-Lines. The objective of this note is to make the reader familiar with the broad
perspective of the Cross-Country Pipe-Line Work and the pipe-lines which are already
installed in India. These also include the submarine lines and en-land pipe-lines.

Advantages of Cross-Country, Pipe-Lines over transport by Roads / Railways /


The most common modes of transport known to all include Trucks running over Roads,
Railway goods train and Ships/Launches/Boats/Barges on waterways. The transport by
Airway be cargo Air-crafts is also another way of bulk-transport. These modes of Transport
have following limitations.
a) Availability of sufficient roads, rail-tracks and port-harbour facilities to take
up the traffic load.

b) Condition of the tracks.

c) Hurdles and conditions of the vehicles

d) Maintenance and conditions of the vehicles

e) Procedures and control involved in the Transport operation (permits/

licenses/octroi/toll/RTO etc.)

f) Manpower to run and maintain the transport system

g) Availability of fuel and power required to run the system.

h) Effect of Nature on the system like rains, storms, earthquakes, thundering, mist etc.

i) Pollution generated by the transporting vehicles.

k) Safety, insurance and security of the transported goods and materials.

l) Time taken for transportation and delays

m) Overall efficiency of the system.

While transportation by roads, railways, water and air-ways is widely used all over the
world, it has its own limitations due to the features used all over the world, it has its own
limitations due to the features (a) to (m) mentioned above. These limitations especially
restrict or forbid their use when large quantities of Oil, petroleum, water, chemicals are to
be continuously supplied from the source to the consumption point at users’ end. Hence the
most reliable and efficient system can be provided only be Cross-Country pipe-lines.

The advantages are as given below :

a) Continuous un-interrupted transport is ensured.

b) No dependence on availability of roads, railways, bridges etc.

c) Least manpower requirement to operate the transport system except for inspection and
maintenance of minimum required level.

d) No hindrances on way due to any reasons which are listed in problems (a) to (m) for
surface transport, air/water ways.

e) Possibility of crossing any odd areas like seas, oceans, rivers, mountains and
underground space.

f) Safety & purity of the product is ensured. The product reaches exactly in the same
condition from source to the supply point, with minimal loss of quality or quantity.

g) Once laid down, the system works automatically especially with the help of modern
instrumentation, safety devices, interlocks, communication system and remote control

h) Minimum or no tampering on the way.

h) Cost of Transport per Unit of the product conveyed is far less than the transport by
Trucks/railways/ water/ Airways.

j) Fastest mode of transport even between two countries or continents.

k) Comparatively much less hazardous than surface transport & minimum dependence on
human factors.

There are of course certain disadvantages but they are offset by the advantages, to a large
extent, so as to make them ignorable as far as safety & techno-economic aspects are
concerned. They are listed as given below :

a) Right of way Acquisition to run the pipeline, especially thru’ private & agricultural land
& habituated areas.

b) High fire & explosion Hazards potential.

c) Problem of corrosion & leakages & repair work involved.

d) Daily on-route inspection, testing & quick arrangements for attending to repairs and
rectification work.

e) Possibility of laying other services in future (like other pipe-lines due to ignorance of
its existence, among other agencies) causing damage.

f) Special Techniques & Agencies are required to design, engineer, install & operate the
pipe- line system.

g) Expensive cathodic protection required for the protection of u/g lines running in close
proximity of overhead High Tension electrical Transmission lines which induce the currents
in the metallic pipelines, causing the corrosion by stray-currents.

The modern techniques are well developed to offset the effects of the above disadvantages.
Even if a line has to shut-off for a day or two, the storage facilities at the users end take care
of such stoppages even for 15 days to 1 month.

Preliminary work for A Cross-Country Pipe-Line Project :

The following necessary work on planning & collection of information/data is required to be

for preproject activities, once it is decided to install a Cross-Country Pipe-Line.

Data on the Product to be carried :

- Name, Qty/day, properties of the product

- Source of supply & location details

- Names & location of consumers.

- Qty/day to be supplied to each consumer

- Storage facilities at suppliers’ end & consumer end

- Pumping facilities at Suppliers’ end

- Unloading facilities at receivers’ end

- Safety requirements for the product

- Risk& Hazards associated with product.

- Interruptions in supply at suppliers’ end & at receiving end.

Route Survey & Analysis

There may be many alternatives for routing the pipe line from supplier to the consumer. It is
necessary to study the techno-economic comparison of the alternative routes. This survey
includes the following activities :

a) Spot-level survey at every 50 to 100 metres & at least over 10 m on either side of the
probable route.

b) Soil Conditions in the form of bore-logs, trial pits, chemical tests on subsoil & ground
water etc.

c) Alignment Map With lengths, bearings, angles etc. to know the exact route & the total
length of the pipe-line.

d) Details on the route and their locations dimensions etc sea, roads (crossing and along
side the route) rivers, Nallas, pipe-lines, bridges, rail-tracks, transmission lines,
underground services including cables/pipes etc, Hills and mountains, buildings,
plantation, forests, agricultural land etc.

e) Cadestral Survey –The route may be passing thru’ so many lands belonging to private
owners, farmers, govt. authorities, defence wings etc. En-route information and data has to
be collected for such land pieces. Such data will include :

- Type of land and the owner’s name

- Length of the route thru’ the land.

- Problems in acquiring Right of Way (R.O.W.)

- Authority which will permit/grant Row

- Survey maps for the land available from the local Land Authorities (such as collector,
Tahasildar, Gram-Panchayat etc.)
- Land records regarding the title and ownership of the land

- Approx compensation required for acquiring the R.O.W.

- Status of Habitation on the land.

- Similar information of the adjacent plots on 50 to 100 m on either side of the route.

- Plans for future installations by others on the proposed route and/ or in the vicinity such
as roads/ rail-tracks/ buildings/pipe-lines etc.

f) Availability of construction Materials, Labour & facilities

Since the pipe-line has to pass thru’ different areas and over a long distance, it is essential
to know the availability of construction Labour and Materials on the way. Such as
excavation labour, transport facilities, access roads, construction material like stones,
aggregates, sand, cement, steel, structurals, etc., workshop facilities. This information will
be useful in working out project schedule and cost estimates and assessing the problems in

g) Soil Resistivity Survey – required for design of cathodic protection system.

Names and addresses of the statutory and public bodies required to be contacted for
acquiring ROW, construction permission, blasting licences, excavating the public facilities
(Roads, rivers, rail-tracks etc.) and cathodic protection work, power supply/water supply

Such authorities include the following but not limited to the listed ones.

 Local land authorities – distr. Collector, Municipal corporation, Tahsildars, D.I.L.R.

etc. Owners of the respective Land.
 P.W.D. authorities – Local Office
 Irrigation Dept.
 Electricity supply Agencies/bodies/Boards.
 Water-supply and Public Health Dept.
 Controller of Explosives and use of Hazardous chemicals.
 Industrial Development corporations
 Railway Authorities
 Marine and Port Authorities
 Salt-commissioner and controller
 Competent Authorities for Land and Row acquisition.
 State and Central Govt. for necessary permissions, licences, clearances etc.
 Import/export rules/ regulations authorities
 Controller of Quarrying and Mining
 Navy/Army/Air force (Defence Authorities)
 Plants for future installations.
 Forest authorities

Project Schedule

Base on various data collected as in 3.1 and the cost Estimates, over all project schedule
has to be prepared based on past experience, and specific problems unique to the project
under consideration. This schedule should cover only broad activities to serve as a guide
line for preparation of detail activity schedule.

This should generally include :

a) Preliminary Survey / Data Collection

b) Finalising the route

c) Cost Estimates / budget sanctions

d) Acquisition of R.O.W. and land

e) Basic Engineering package

f) Detail Engineering work

d) Construction work (Civil/Mech./Piping/Electr, Marine crossing, river crossing etc /

cathodic protection)

h) Testing/Flushing/Pigging.

j) Commissioning and Hand over

This willl establish the overalll completion time for tthe entire p
project work

sing the m
most optim
mum route

This invvolves the ccomparison

n of alternattive router surveyed ass in 3.1. Thee analysis should
includee various paarameters which
w are taabulated in the following format :

Under p
parameter columns,
c fo
ollowing miinimum iteems should be included

1. Estim
mated Cost

- Row A

- Land Acquisition
A n

- Statuttory Permisssion

- Basic Engineerin

- Detaill Engineerin

- Materrial Procureement (pipees/Valves/E


- Constrruction Cosst

- Civil

- Piping

- Mechaanical
- Electrical

- Cathodic Protection

- On line buildings

- Marine / River Crossings

- Testing Commissioning

- Cathodic Protection

2. Overall completion – Time

3. Total length

4. Cost per km.

5. Other features

- Rock area (L)

- Marine Zone (L)

- No. of Road Crossings

- No. of Railway Crossings

- No. of Nalla Crossings

- Underground portion lengths

- Above ground portion lengths

- No. of Isolation Valves

- Pipe-line dia.

- No. of rectifier stations.

- No. of Diode Stations

6. Cost of operation / year

7. Cost of Maintenance / year

8. Hazard Classifications

9. Risk-Factor

10. Disaster Management Category

11. Stoppages / shut down due to ext. factors

12. Threat to Security and Safety etc.

Value analysis should be done for each alternative routes considering appropriate
weightages assigned to these parameters and costs of the same. Thus final and most
optimum route can be selected.

Salient Steps in Detail Engineering

After deciding the final route, cost estimates, broad project schedule and engineering. The
detail engineering will involve following main steps.

Detail Design of each system

§ Civil works including trenching, sand filling, back filling, buildings, concreting, river-
weights, valve-chambers, Test points, markers and construction infrastructure like site
office, construction water, power, site godown/open yards etc.

§ Construction Equipment required for transport, laying, welding, erection testing etc.

§ Piping : Stringing/ Welding/ Laying/ Testing pipe support system

§ Catodic protection system design, diode stations, sacrificial anodes, UPSinstallations,

on-line test-points, insulation flanges

§ Specific designs for submarine portions and river-crossings

§ Designs of all crossings, pipe-bridges, supports

§ Preparing Detail Design and Fabrication Drawings for all Systems

§ Quantity calculation for materials and work items.

Implementation Planning and Organising

§ Selection and appointing Agencies/Contractors/Suppliers for various activities and


§ Division of work among the staff on the project.

§ Progress monitoring and reporting system

§ Mobilising planning (manpower deployment planning) (Resource-planning)

§ Implementation work packages

§ Payment to subcontractor system

§ Inventory-control-planning

§ Safety/Security Guidelines

Organising Revisions/Change/alternatives/improvements in system design/drawing

during the project-process.

Preparation of As-Built construction drawings and final costing.

Data-Bank for the executed project, useful for future project.

Salient Features of Construction

Trenching : See. fig. 1

Generally Cross-Country Pipe-Lines are laid underground in an excavated Trench while

crossing the land-areas. Minimum depth of the Trench should be Trench while crossing the
land-areas. Minimum depth of the Trench should be (1 M + Pipe dia + 150 mm). 1 M – is the
depth o
of overburden i.e. back
k-filled soil,, and 150mm
m is the thiickness of ssand cushio
on to be
laid beffore lowerin
ng the pipe in the trench. Width o
of the trencch is generaal minimum
m 1 M or
as requiired by high
her dia. Pip
pes. Thus width
w should
d be (Dia. O
Of Pipe + 0..4 M on eith
her side)
or 1 mettre whichevver is higheer.

on in Yard

- Inspecction/Testin
ng of Pipes//Numbering

- Edge-Preparation
n for weldin

- Wrapp
ng (generallly reinf. bittiminous) aand its testing

- Testin
g bends/elb

- Pipe-S
Sleeves for rroad crossiing

- Valve--testing/staacking/num

- Other accessoriess like blinds/spectaclee blinds, gasskets, boltss, nuts, wash

hers etc.
- Selecting/ Stacking welding machine/electrodes etc.

Stringing at Site and Welding

After trenching is ready over substantial length pipe-lines made ready in the yard as in 5.2
are transported to the site and lined up over sleepers placed across the trench for welding
and lined up over sleepers placed across the trench for welding the joints. The joints are
welded continuously in 2 or 3 shifts. They are subject to inspection by D.P. check and
Radiography. Wrapping/ coating is completed over portions about the weld.


Once a fairly long length say 100 m to 150 m is welded/Tested, then if is lowered into trench
over sand-bed already laid-Necessary small/big cranes, lifting tackles are used for lowering
the line. Back filling with soft earth free from stones is done after lowering.


A long length after lowering a back filling is hydrotested for the test-pressure which is
generally 1.5 times the operation pressure or as stipulated for specific service.

Overall Total Welding

After each 100 to 150 m length is lowered, tested, then they have to be welded to form a
continuous pipeline.

Testing of entire line is then taken up by filling the whole or section of line with water &
pressuring. Any leaks found are repaired and tested.


For flushing and cleaning the entire length of all muck, dirt, welding rod bits etc, a pig is
passed thru the line, from one end, and it is pushed by water pressure. The pig travels
through the pipe, scrapping the muck and pushing it forward. At intermediate points
flanged joints are left to pass-out the muck. If a pig gets stuckup, its location is detected by
passing an ‘ISOTOPE’ and detecting its location by external instruments which tracks the
isotope as it is travelling through the pipe. The pipe line is cut, pig removed, pipe cleaned
and rew
welded. Thee pig is passsed through
h from that point onwaards to flush the rema
n in the forw
ward directiion.


It is don
ne as per th
he procedurre laid down
n for the sp
pecific prod
duct to be caarried throu
ugh the

dic Protection

This pro
ovides the p
protection tto the undeerground piipe from th
he corrosion
n by electrollytic
processs in subsoil water, wheenever in e--m-f is indu
uced’ in it (w
when pipe m
material is a good
conducttor e.g. carb
bon. Steel)

Basic Principal
P l and Phen

H.T. ovverhead Traansmission lines condu

uct A.C. currrent underr very high vvoltages of the
order off 11 kv to 33
3000 kv an
nd more. Du
ue to fluctuations in vo
oltage, mag
gnetic field around
the conductors alsso changes ccontinuoussly. Any con
nductor in tthe magnetiic field, thu
us cuts
gnetic flux and
the mag a e-m-f is
i induced in
i it. (Ref. Fig). 2 be

u/g pipeline of meetal (viz. carrbon steel) is a conducctor of electtricity. If it lies within the
magnettic field of eelectricity. If
I is lies witthin the magnetic field H. lines, then it
d of the O.H
developes a potential higher than the ‘Ground’ potential. As we know, earth i.e. ground is at
‘Zero’ potential. When the u/g pipe is subjected to an induced e.m.f. if is supposed to be
higher potential than the surrounding ground. The subsoil water always contains many
dissolved salts of sodium, potassium and other elements. This makes the subsoil also a
conductor of electricity. Thus the current flows from the pipe at flow of current depends on
the resistivity of the subsoil. This phenomenon sets up an ‘Electrolytic’ process between the

pipe which acts as ‘ANODE’ and the ground which acts as ‘CATHODE’. Once this process
starts, pipe starts losing the positively charges ions say Fe++ or Fe++ into the subsoil
around the pipe. This is the corrosion process by which the pipe. This is the corrosion
process by which the pipe gives up its material & develops a hole or a reduction in

Prevention of Effects of Induced EMF

To prevent this phenomenon, it is necessary to prevent the current from ‘PIPE’ to

“GROUND’. This is not possible, but it is possible to reverse the flow i.e. from ‘GROUND’ to
‘PIPE’. In other words pipe must act as ‘CATHODE’ and ground should act as ‘ANODE’.
This type of system is called ‘CATHODIC PROTHECTION’. In this case (ref. Fig. 3), the
current flows from ‘ground’ to ‘pipe’ and the pipe is said to be at –ve potential since the
ground has zero potential. The fig.3 is self explanatory. Applying a voltage by means of
a battery set or D.C. current (rectified from A.C. supply or from D.G.) to the ‘anodes’
inserted in the ground surrounding the pipe and at regular regular intervals along the pipe
This system, is maintained to see that the pipe always acts as ‘cathode’ then there are no
chances of corrosion of pipe.
3 – [Cu
urrent Flowss From Gro
ound to pipe]

Diode Station in the Viciinity of R

ks with Electic Trac

The sysstem describ

bed in 5.10.2, is often disturbed d
due to preseence of oth
her sources of
electric conductorss in additio
on to the O. H. transmiission liness, (e.g. Electtric Tractio
on). In
this casse, as shown
n in fig.4 strray currentts flow from
m rails (which act as th
he path of reeturn
currentt) to the surrrounding g
ground. Thiis phenomeenon, causees ground att-ve potenttial and
quite offten at loweer potentiall than the pipe. This caauses the flo
ow of curreent from pip
pe to
ground and the corrosion can
n take placee. By supplyying the currrent to a diiode introd
duced in
the circcuit joining the rail to tthe pipe in such magn
nitude that tthe surroun
nding groun
nd will
conductt the curren
nt from gro
ound to pipee,
but not in the reveerse way as diode acts like a ‘NON
N’ valve. Thee calculatio
ons of
diode ca
apacity, volltage to be applied
a etc. have to bee made baseed on the su
urvey conducted on
fluctuattions in thee Traction fiield voltagee. This arran
ngement prrevents the pipe workiing as
anode, b
but maintaains it at catthodic levell and thus p
prevents thee corrosion

ficial Anod

In addittion to the iimpressed D.C. curren

nt as in 5.10
0.2, sacrificcial anodes are introdu
uced into
the grou
und, which
h maintain tthe pipe at lower
l poten
ntial than th
he ground, in case thee D.C.
supply ffails for som
me reason. These anocces are mad
de of Metalss which aree ‘NOBLET’’ than the
pipe maaterials. By this, it is m
meant that tthe metal w
which electrrons surrou
unding or ad
metals iin contact iis called a ‘N
NOBLE’ meetal e.g. Maangessium ((REF. FIG. 5)

This maakes the GR

R. WATER at + ve poteential with respect to tthe pipe. Th
herefore thee current
flows frrom magnessium to thee pipe. In th
his case mag
gnesium An
nodes slowlly lose its own
o metal
to the su
g and in cou
urse of timee dis This iss why it is ccalled ‘SACR
periodiccally they h
have to be replaced by new anodees, say everyy 3 to 4 yea

al Subsoiil Corrosion

Ever of there is no
o presence o
of Electric O
O.H. lines, o
or ‘Traction
n’ lines, anyy conductin
ng metal
buried in
i the ground gets corrroded by th
he similar p
phenomenaa. The subso
oil water wh
hich itself
is a ‘solu
ution’ of so
o many saltss, contains +ve and –vve ions. Thee presence of
o metal conductor
such as ‘pipe causees movements of theree ions and o
often the cu
urrent from
m pipe to gro
This cau
uses corrossion of the p
pipes which
h get electro
ostatically ccharged duee to friction
n between
pipe an
nd the fluid flowing thrrough it. Heence the saccrificial Ano
odes are reequired to be
provideed (Ref. fig
g. 6)

ne installlations

a) Testt Points: O
Once the system of app
plying imprressed curreent into gro
ound to keeep the
pipe at –ve potenttial, it is neccessary to ccheck the po
otential diffference bettween the pipe and
the grou
und at regu
ular intervalls, say at evvery 500 m. ‘Test poin
nts’ are instaalled close tto the
pipe. (s
se fig. 7) T.P. Box ind
dicating volttage betweeen ground aand the pip
pe. Ground sshould be
at least 1.5 v abovee pipe poten
ntial Volt-m
meter is carrried by the inspector aand the volttage
n Terminals inside thee T.P. Box is checked and
a recordeed.

b) Insu
ulating Fla
anges : If aany portion
n of the pipe is above g
ground, theen the samee has to
be ‘Elecctrically Iso
olated’ from
m the under ground porrtion. This is required
d so as to prrevent the
flow of any other ccurrents fro
om sources outside and
d also the p
path of leastt resistancee which
the currrent may fin
nd through
h above grou
und pipe reesting on steel or metaal supports.. (see
fig. 8 o
on next pa

All insta
allations an
nd systems described iin section 5
5.10.1 to 5.10.6 from th
he Total Sysstem of
Cathodiic Protectio

onal Infor
rmation o
on Cathod
dic Protecttion (C.P.)

essity of ca
athodic pr
rotection is establis
shed on fo
ollowing c

a) Typee of soil with

h its constittuents like PH value, contents
c of chlorides aand sulphattes.

b) Soil rresistivity w
which deterrmines corrrosion level.

c) Impo
ortance of liine(s) to bee protected..

d) Stud
dy of stray currents i.e. induction from EHV//HV lines, rrail lines.
e) Dis-similar metals structures in the vicinity

f) Life of object to be protected e.g. 30/50 years

2.Two methods of C.P.

a) Sacrificial

Sacrificial is adopted for less important object & remotely located objects where electric
supply is not available early. Zinc, Aluminium & Magnesium are used as anode material.

b) Impressed current

Impressed current system is used for important objects and is dependent on electric power
supply. Hi-silicon coast iron graphite are normally used as anode material for impressed
current system.

3. Impressed current system comprises the following major equipment and


a) Transformer Rectifier Unit

b) Anodes with tail cables

c) Anode junction boxes

d) Reference cell/electrode

e) Backfill material

f) Cables.

4. Criteria of selecting anodes and electrical equipment for buried pipelines.

Generally pipe lines which are buried, are buried, are coated and wrapped. This brings down
the current level (and potential level) which is required to be provided. Generally 10 mA/sq.
meter current criteria is used. For Pipe lines which are in sea water higher current upto 110
mA/sq. meter are used.
5. Following Data is necessary for engineering of C.P.

a) Dia meter of Pipe-line(s)

b) Length of buried pipeline

c) Material of construction

d) Type of coating.

6. Monitoring/maintenance of C.B. System

a) Potentials are measured on frequent basis (or daily)

b) Maintenance of electrical equip on periodic basis.

7. When construction period is long, during such period temporary cathodic

protection has to be provided, until the permanent C.P. system is ready and
7. Majo
or Cross – Country
C Pip
pe Line in In

NOTE:: No. of cru

ude oil liness (Submarin
ne and Land
d) are in usse for last seeveral yearss,
g between G
Gulf – Coun

nued to D
Design of C
Cross – Country
C Piipe Line - 2

ead More

d For You
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ng Guide
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Design Guidellines for Safeety in Piping Networks
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 Piping Design
D Data B
Book by Hyu

Design of C
Cross – Coun
ntry Pip
pe Line
Posted b
by Ankit Chug
gh on 10:08 A
AM0 Comments

nued from
m Design of Cross – Country
y Pipe Lin
ne - 1

Additiional Feattures abo

out Piping

Pipe Th
hickness : The thickness is calcculated in acccordance with
w the staandard metthods and
codes fo
or differentt services an
nd duty, inccluding duee corrosion allowance..

or blocks aat change off direction, made of co
oncrete sho
ould be used
d to counterract the
effects o
of outward thrust due to change iin direction
n of fluid veelocity.

If moree than one p

pipe lines arre running in parallel, minimum,, clearance between th
nt pipelines should be the largest of

(a) O.D. of the larg

ger pipe diaa over insulation if anyy

0 mm or
(b) 600

(c) as sttipulated fo
or specific rrequiremen
nt like workiing spacer for
f excavatiion/repairss,
restrictiions due to
o ROW spacce, adjacentt features liike road edg
ge, building
g etc.

Surge Effect : W
Whenever th
he valve at o
or near the rreceiving en
nd is shut-o
off, there may
m be
surge pressure effeect on the p
pipeline as w
well as Pum
mps/Valves at the supp
ply end. It iis
thereforre necessarry to decidee the time-p
period for vvalve closing
g with apprropriate
unication beetween supp
plier and reeceiver. At times
t it maay be advisaable to intro
oduce a
surge taank or vesseel at both th
he ends. Th
his avoids th
he effects of
o ‘Fluid-Haammer in th

g : When a m
ose pipelinee is used forr carrying d
different pro
oducts periiodically,
g has to be done
d in add
dition to flu
ushing and m
making thee line ready for new flu

PIPE-LINE supported on Brackets attached to a Road or Railway Bridge :

When a line runs along-side a bridge, the vibrations of the bridge due to Traffic Movement,
are also transmitted to the Pipe-line. It is necessary to estimate the vibration-levels
(frequency and Amplitudes) of the bridge. Generally these data will be available with the
respective authorities or designers of the bridge. We have to check and prevent the natural
frequencies of the pipe-line, matching with the exciting frequencies of the bridge, to avoid
resonance effects. It is advisable to provide lateral spring-loaded supports at random
intervals, to get damping effect and random frequencies. In case of railway-bridges, regular
patterns of vibrations are more probable when the train is passing.


As the line is exposed to out-side atmosphere, whenever it runs along the bridge-side,
thermal expansion and contraction take place due to Temperature variations. Generally a
long and wide loop is provided under the bridge as shown in fig. 10 structural behaviour of
short and long arms of the Loop will depend on the deflections and the stiffness of the arms.

Due analysis should be made to calculate the stresses induced in the pipe. Also note the
supporting arrangement of the pipe as shown in fig. 10. which has following main features.

§ The rollers are provided to allow free longitudinal movement of the pipe due to
expansion and contraction

§ Loose clamps are provided over pipe-line at intervals with 25 to 30mm gap allaround,
to prevent possibility of the line slipping off the supports due to long-length. (Long pipe-line
behaves like a flexible wire and when expanded, may tend to moveout from the supports.

§ Lateral spring supports are provided at random intervals to prevent possibility of

pipe-natural frequencies matching with Bridge-frequencies.

Erection Stresses

The handling of pipes may induce local and excessive stresses in following conditions.

a) When cranes are used for lowering long lengths in position, local deformation/bending
may take place.
b) When pipe is pulled along the trench or through the sleeve laid across the road.

c) When the sub-marine portion of the line is gradually lowered from water level to below
the sea or river bed, it undergoes deformations at local points.

d) When long un-supported (un-back filled Trenches) lengths are hydrotested, the flexibility
of long lengths, sometimes causes vibrating movements on micro-scale and
are more predominant than in case of small in-plant piping. These have to be correctly
assessed or damped by intermediate Temporary and / or permenant supports, thrust
blocks, anchors, backfilled portions etc.

e) When the pipe-line crosses a Hillock, it goes up the inclined plane and from peak runs
down the slope. The up-going line is subjected to a sort of compression due its own weight
due to sliding tendency or tension due to pulling effect, down the plane. The stresses due to
any of these effects should be estimated and provided for.


In normal in-Plant piping, standard corrosion allowances are specified for various duties in
different design codes. Cross-Country pipe-lines run over a long distance and the leaks on
any account cannot be permitted. Hence extra corrosion allowance is specified for cross
country pipelines. In any case minimum of 3mm or as specified, whichever is greater, is
provided as corrosion allowance.

Design codes generally followed for cross-country piping (in addition to normal codes for all

§ ASME B-31.4/ 31.8 for thickness Design

§ API – 1104 for welding and related tests specifically on cross-country Gas and Oil

§ API – 5L for material of construction

Generally, in non-hazardous fluid line, say water-lines. Breather valves (pressure and
Vacuums) are provided at he highest points, say on Bill-top, to prevent ‘Air-lock’ or to suck-
in Air in case vacuum or cavitation takes place. But in pipelines carrying Gas or Hydro-
carbon liquids like crude oil, refined oil, naptha, ethylene, propylene etc. No BRATHER
VALVE is PERMITED any where on the line. This is because the hazardous liquid cannot be
allowed to come out into the atmosphere and Air (which contains oxygen) cannot be allowed
to be sucked-in as the fluid may combine with atmospheric oxygen and catch fire. Anytime
the line is to be commissioned, the fluid to be carried is filled into the pipeline by first
passing the pig from supply end. There are no chances of Air-Lock. In this case.


1.1 Cleaning / Scraping external pipe-surface

1.2 Priming with synthetic primer

1.3 First Coat of coal Tar Enamel

1.4 First layer of Inner Wrapping of Fibre-glass tissue fabric

1.5 Final Coat (2nd Coat) of Coal Tar Enamel

1.6 Outer wrap of coal-tar impregnated Fibre-glass tissue Fabric

1.7 White Wash


All materials conform to AWWA C – 203-86 or BS – 4164-1987 or ASTM Standards


Coal-Tar enamel based coating-wrapping should withstand the liquids carried upto
Temperature of 60 deg C


Applied coating/wrapping should be tested by SPARK TEST to be applied with HOLIDAY

DETECTOR Any sections found defective with pin-holes, cracks, internal hollows, pockets,
wrinkles, airpockets, less thickness etc. should be removed redone and retested until they
are made defects-free


The pipes already coated/wrapped should be carefully using special strap-type lifting
clamps to prevent concentrated loads and forming dents or depressions. The straps shall be
of flexible but strong and soft rubber sheet wide-enough to distribute the self weight of lifted
pipes within the intensity which coating/wrapping can withstand without getting damaged
or depressed.



Mr T K Roy, Vice President—Technology, STP Limited


Like the selection of pipe materials, coating materials for• protection of pipes vary
depending upon various factors. The paper summarizes the basic needs for selection of
coating material for the long in service life of gas and liquid transmission system.


It is most important to recognise that the coating material by itself will not result in
optimum corrosion protection of the pipeline. A total pipeline protection system includes
consideration of steel quality, coating application, surface condition and treatments, design
of coating and Cathodic protection system.

Practical experience, as well as soil corrosion •studies has led to the conclusion that the
properties of soil are more important than the composition of metallic material in
determining the character and rate of corrosion. Soil corrosion tests are for this reason
concerned largely with determining the nature and predominance’s of the corrosive and
protective factors of those environments.

The elements of soil may be classified roughly as corrosive or accelerative and protective
or repressive. Relative concentration and composition of these two types of elements are
the determining factors for selection of pipe coating materials. The physical texture and
drainage of soils affects the concentration and availability of oxygen. Contact of soil
particles with metal surfaces gives rise to oxygen concentration cells and it is mainly by
means of the operation of cells of this type that metal corrodes in soils. Pores and holidays
and other imperfections comprise an important source of corrosion cells.


Surface conditioning:

Abrasive cleaning of the pipe surfaces to a white or near white blast quality is not
sufficient for a good coating operation as ill effects of chloride contamination is not
removed by this process. It has been established that most harm is done by the
presence of ferrous salts which is not removed by abrasive cleaning process or by
high pressure water’ blasting. The steel surface energy plays a critical role for
accepting coating material A non contaminated steel surface has a surface energy
higher than 73 dynes/cm2.

In normal condition even after blast cleaning the surface energy of steel surfaces
varies from 45 to 50 dynes/cm2 . In order to have a good wet ability the coating material
should have a surface energy well below 45 dynes/cm2 (As per ASTM D
2578)., Another criteria for steel surface which is to be considered for selection of
coating material is its mixed surface potential (micro anodes arid cathode). In order
to overcome the surface anomaly it is necessary to treat the blast cleaned surface.
A chemically cleaned surface by removing the contaminants help wetting of the
coating effectively. Treatments with chromates and silicates or by using adhesion
promoter the surface potential of the steel surface can he made more uniform which reduces
the driving force between anode and cathode, increasing resistances to electron flow and
passivating the surface.


Adhesion of the coating material is the most important factor while selecting a
proper material for steel pipes.

The adhesion is based on three mechanism~ mechanical polar and chemical adhesion.

Mechanical adhesion is achieved through physical anchoring of coating material in

the peaks and valleys obtained by blasting. This is not very strong in nature.

Polar adhesion is most widely occurring mechanism of coatings. The bond strength depend
on the availability of polar sites on both the substrates and the coatings. Adhesion achieves
the highest value when polar groups are in close molecular proximity. A good wetting of the
coating satisfies this condition.
Though chemical adhesion gives the strongest bond, it is rarely used for protective
coatings of Pipe Lines, Chemical bond is achieved by functional groups on the substrate and
coating interacting chemically; This is focused for Pipe Lines other than steel. Adhesion is
extremely important against resistance to Cathodic disbondment. It has been found that the
effects of electrolytes particularly, if sodium and potassium ions are present, can be very
destructive in the interfacial bond under the Cathodic protection influence. This can lead to
ineffective Cathodic Protection.

Type of Coatings:

Coatings can be classified as organic and inorganic and in many cases a combination of the
two is used.

Coatings provide corrosion protection through passivation, barrier and sacrificial ways.
Most pipeline coatings are based on barrier concept. Three types of organic coatings are in
use for giving barrier properties Thermoplasts, Thermosets and Elastomers.

Thermoplast coatings are generally applied by hot melt technique and solvent evaporation
technique. Examples are Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Nylon, PVC, Coal Tar Enamel and
Asphalts. Common characteristics of these polymers are good mechanical properties and
resistance to moisture but sensitive to exposure to high temperature.

Thermosets costing are formed through cross linking induced chemicals by hear, chemicals
or radiation. Examples are Epoxy, Polyester, Phenolics which have generally good heat but
resistance but relatively poor in mechanical properties.

Elastomers are classified as hybrid of the two. Examples are urethanes.

Selection of coating materials

In selecting a coating material the nature of the soil corrosion and the soil movement are of
prime importance. Many materials pass the basic properties for the control of corrosion but
only a limited number meet the overall needs of pipeline protection.

Correct selection of the products most suitable for the required duty from the range
available is equally important taking into account the size of the pipeline, operating
temperature, comprehensive site survey information relating to soil condition including
resistivities, acidity, redox potential, presence of a sulphate reducing bacteria and the nature
of the terrain through which the pipeline, route passes.

In the design of corrosion protection system for a burned pipeline and its subsidiary
components, both coating and Cathodic protection system must be considered together.

As the coating for a pipeline is considered to be the primary method of corrosion control
then it is to be decided which coating should be used for most effective method of protection
in the environmental conditions appertaining along the total pipeline route. Essentially the
Sating material must be stable for the required length of service for the pipeline under
consideration and due regard must be given at th! planning stages to the choice of coating
that will meet all the conditions of service.

In addition the coating must be totally compatible with the micro environment surrounding
and with the Cathodic protection system.

Whatever may be the nature of the coating material, the effectiveness is corelated
with a number of technical characteristics which the protective coating must possess to a
satisfactory degree. These may be classified as follows:

1. Be chemically inert to any corrosive agents present around the pipeline

2. Be resistant to the action of any micro-organism and bacterial degradation present in the
environment in which the pipeline is laid, both aerobic and anaerobic.

3. Be resistant to marine organism for submarine pipelines, coating should not be easily
penetrable by marine life such boners, barnacles.

4. Posses a high degree of electrical resistively, sufficient to ensure the electrical

insulation of the metal pipe from the laying environment.

5. Be highly impermeable to water and water vapour and shows negligible water absorption.

6. Be closely bonded to the metal, in order both to prevent the spreading of corrosion
under the coating in the case of local faults and to oppose the forming of moisture
containing pockets at the metal coating interface, due to parting by mechanical actions or
electrolytic effect of the cathodic protection.
7. Possess an adequate impact resistance, so as to allow the pipes to be transported
and handled without undue deterioration of the coating.

8. Be capable of withstanding the stresses induced by the soil in which the pipe is laid
and due to its physical and chemical nature and . resistance to considerable stress from soil
movement such as contraction by clay during prolonged dry spell.

9. Have a service life atleast as long as that expected of the pipe to be protected, retaining
unchanged its chemical & physical characteristics.

10. Suffer no alteration under the condition created by Cathodic protection (high
alkalinity, nascent hydrogen and nascent chlorine)

11. Be very easy to apply, avoiding the use of sophisticated technological processes,
complicated machinery and high cost, hard to replace skill labour.

12. Special technical characteristics may be required by particular environmental

conditions in the laying and operation of the pipeline to be protected.

13. Be flexible enough.

Moreover, in the choice of coating two economic conditions will have to be made:
ease of application and repair and an acceptable overall cost. The matter will include the
cost of the coating material, of its application and repairs of any damage incurred in
transportation and handling.

Among the recent development of coating materials the hybrid system of Coal Tar Epoxy,
Coal Tar Polyurethane and rigid Polyurethane are in consideration. The hybrid system is
aimed to reduce the shortcoming of both the individual material without increasing cost.
Coal Tar Epoxy and Coal Tar Urethane are specially suitable for lower dia steel pipes below
12” where costly Fusion bonded Epoxy is mostly being used in some countries. Rigid PU
system can go to coat bigger dia pipes but it is costlier than Coal Tar Enamel which is
normally preferred material for pipes above 12” dia.

In FRE system also instead of using straight epoxy hybrid epoxy polyester system is under
study.This hybrid system improves the short comings of straight epoxy system viz impact
strength and mechanical resistance.