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MinistryofEnergiandMineralResources

PURNOMOYUSGIANTORO

Headof AgencyforResearchandDevelopmentofEnergiandMineralResources

SIMONF.SEMBIRING

HeadofGeologicalResearchandDevelopmentCentre

BAMBANGDWIYANTO

HeadofProgrammeandInformationDivision

DJADJANGSUKARNA
STRATIGRAPHIC LEXICON
OF INDONESIA

By
BhaktiH. Harahap, Syaiful Bachri, Baharuddin,
N.Suwarna, H.Panggabean andT.O. Simanjuntak

Editedby
Nana Ratman and Sudijono

Geological Research and Development Centre


2003
Stratigraphic Lexicon ofIndonesia

FirstEdition,2003

Copyright@2003
TheGeologicalResearchandDevelopmentCentre
Jl.DiponegoroNo.57Bandung40122 Indonesia
Phone:062227203205 08(hunting),Fax.062227202669
e-mail: grdc@grdc.esdm.go.id or grdc@melsa.net.id

TheGeological Research andDevelopment Centre


Special Publication
ISSN:0852 873XDecember2003

Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyany
means:electronics,electrostatics,magnetictape,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwisewithout writtenpermission
oftheGeologicalResearchand DevelopmentCentre .

ManuscriptandLayoutby DikdikPribadi,SusadmoAdiandHariDayaSatya
Coverdesignby RidwanRisnadiandAgusGarniwa
Illustratedmapsby IyepSupriatna,Kusnama,AchmadSufniHakimandEkoSusanto
ComputerGraphicdesignby AgusGarniwa

Thephotographonfrontcover : “TheTriassicKeskainFormation, interbeddedinduratedshalesandstoneandmudstone inMisool


Island” byDharmaSatriaNas,1991.
CONTENT

Pages

Preface v-vi
Foreword vii-ix
Introduction xi
Acknowledgement xiii
Lexicon:
A 1-38
B 39-99
C 101-128
D 129-151
E 153-158
F 159-162
G 163-187
H 189-196
I 197-208
J 209-218
K 219-267
L 269-320
M 321-377
N 379-392
O 393-404
P 405-452
Q 453-457
R 459-476
S 477-544
T 545-595
U 597-629
V 631-641
W 643-661
Y 663-672
Z 673
AlphabeticalRegister 675-705
StratigraphicalIndex 707-715
References 717-729
SystematicofGeologicalMapQuadrangles
Type LocalityMapofSumatera
Type LocalityMapofKalimantan
Type LocalityMapofJawa
Type LocalityMapofIrianJaya
Type LocalityMapofTimorandSouthMaluku
TypeLocalityMapofSulawesiandtheAdjacentIsland
Type LocalityMapofWestNusatenggaraArea
Type LocalityMapofBandaArcandHalmahera

Abreviation:
Sprgrp=SuperGroup, Grp=Group, Fm=Formation, Mbr=Member, m.a.=Millionyears

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PREFACE

Thisneweditionof StratigraphicLexiconofIndonesiacontainscontaine1856lithostratigraphicunits
consistinglargelyofthenewlydefinedorintroducednomenclaturesmainlyonthebasisofdataobtained
during thesystematicgeologicalmappingof239mapscoveringthewholeIndonesianregionandall
stratigraphicunitsofthepreviousedition(Marks,1957).Thesystematicgeologicalmappingwascarried
outfrom1969to1978bytheGeologicalSurveyofIndonesiaandcontinuedfrom1978to1992bythe
GeologicalResearchandDevelopmentCentre(GRDC).Allthemaps,mostofwhich accompaniedwith
explanatorynotes,havebeenpublishedby1995.

Thenomenclaturesarepresentedinanalphabeticalorderintheformoflithostratigraphicterminologies
in accordance with the Indonesian Stratigraphic Code (ISC 1973). Some of the nomenclatural
terminologiesarestronglyinfluencedbyvariousinstitutions whichwereinvolved inthe mappingand
compilingprocessesofthegeologicalmapssuchastheUnitedStates GeologicalSurveyortheUSGS
(UnitedStatesofAmerica),BritishGeologicalSurveyorBGS(UnitedKingdom),BureauofMineral
Resources(BMR)orlaterknownastheAustralianGeologicalSurveyOrganisation(AGSO)ofAustralia,
oilcompanies(mainlysubsurfacedata),and universities(InstituteofTechnologyBandung,Padjadjaran
University,Gadjahmada University).Eachofthem has adoptedtheirownsystem andpreferencein
proposing anddefining newstratigraphicunits.The readerstherefore,wouldfindthatsomeofthe
nomenclaturesinthislexicondonotbydefinition,conformtotheIndonesianStratigraphicCode(ISC
1996).

Thereaderswouldalsofindsomeinconsistencieswithregardto thenomenclaturesofmetamorphic,
igneousandvolcanicrocks sincemostofthemareasyet,not presented intermoflithostratigraphy
whichisbasedonlithodemicclassificationorvolcanostratigraphyasdefinedinthelatesteditionofthe
Indonesian Stratigraphic Code (ISC 1996). Some of the tectonite rocks, such as melange and
olistostromesareintroducedasstratigraphicunitsinthislexicon,althoughithasnotbeenconsideredin
thecurrentIndonesianStratigraphicCode(ISC1973and1996).

The lithostratigraphicunits,in particular those whichconsist ofsedimentaryrocks,maydirectlyor


indirectlyrefle ctoratleastpointtotheirtectonicenvironments,whichinturn indicatetheirbasinal
setting.Inthepresentlexicon,thecompilershavetriedtodotheirbestinidentifyingthebasinalsettingof
someoftheentries.

Someofthegeologicalmaps,especiallythoseoftheEasternIndonesianregion,showtheoccurrencesof
allochthonousaswellasautochthonousterrains.Insuchcases,thestratigraphyispresentedintermof
tectonostratigraphy, by distinguishing the former from the latter. This matter has to be put into
considerationintheIndonesianStratigraphicCode(ISC)inthenearfuture.

TheIndonesianregionconsistsofabouttwobillionsquarekilometresoflandareawithmany villages,
towns,rivers,mountains,hillsandisletssomeofwhichunavoidablysharecommonnames(homonyms)
evenifoneislocated farawayfromtheother(e.g.interisland).Asaconsequence,readerswillfindin
thislexiconthatonenameofacertainlithostratigraphicunitissharedbytheotheralthoughtheyare
completelydifferentsubjects.Mostofthetypelocalityoftheunits introducedinthislexiconarejustthe
plainname ofthenominated places(localities)without theircoordinatenumbers.Thisoccursbecause
during the fieldwork, Geographic Positioning Systeminstrument (GPS)was not available yet.In
addition,itwasoftendifficulttolocatea placeprecisely. Apartfromtheabovementionedmatters,the
numberoflithostratigraphicunitsissolarge,mappedthroughout thewholeIndonesianregionbasedon
themapscaleof1:100.000forJawa-Maduraislands(58sheets)and 1:250.000forthose areaoutsideof
Jawa-Madura(181sheets).

Besidedescriptionofthewholelithostratigraphicunitsthislexiconalsocontainseightsheetsofindex
map (Jawa,Sumatera,Kalimantan,NusaTenggaraTimurandBarat,SouthMaluku,Sulawesi,North

v
Maluku andIrianJayaorPapua)toshowmostoftheirlocalities.Thedescriptionofeachunitcover
variousaspects whichincludesname,age,typelocality,lithology,fossilcontents,thickness,geographic
distribution, stratigraphic relationship with other unit/s, depositional environment, tectonic setting,
economicaspect,remarksandreference/s.Inthenearfuture,thesemapswillbepresentedintheformof
digitalatlas.

Asamatteroffact,thedescriptionofunitsvaries(inconsistent), from verysimple to quitecomplete


ones. This variations could have been the results various factors including: a. skill, educational
backgroundaswellasindividualinterestofgeologists, b. physicalcondition ofthesurveyarea,in
particular outcrops (mostoftheIndonesianregioniscoveredbythedensetropicalforest,therefore
intenseweatheringoftenaffectsrocktosomedepth), c. accessibilityof thesurveyarea, d. facilitiesand
accommodationduring the survey, a n d e. laboratory services, references,remote sensingimages,
equipments,budgets,etc.

Geologicaldescriptions inthislexiconand thecorrespondinggeologicalmapsthatcoverthewhole


Indonesiaregioncanbeconsideredastheoriginalgeologicaldatabasewhichcanbeusedasthebasic
informationforthedevelopment ofvarioussectorssuchasmining,oilandgasexploration,forestry,
agriculture,transmigrationandurbandevelopmentaswellasforearthscienceseducation.

This lexicon i s o n e o f masterpiece product (publication) of the GRDCwhichobviouslyismore


completethanitspredecessor, Mark'sStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia (1957).Nevertheless,we
admit that this first edition isstillfar frombeingperfect andwetherefore,welcome constructive
criticisms,suggestions,andadditionaldata,foritsimprovementinthefuture edition.Suggestions,etc.
shouldbesenttothestratigraphiclexiconworkinggroupoftheGRDC.

Toconclude,wewishtoextendourcongratulationtotheworkinggroupfortheirgreatjobandhardwork
incompilingandpreparingthisneweditionoftheStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia.Wewouldalsolike
to express ourhighappreciationtotheIndonesianAssociationofGeologists(IAGI),universities,oil
companies,andindividualsfortheirsupports,discussionsandparticipationduringthepreparationofthis
lexicon.

Editors

vi
FOREWORD

bytheChairman oftheStratigraphicCommisionofIAGI

TheStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesiawaswrittenforthefirsttimebyP.Marks andpublishedbythe
Geological Survey of Indonesia in 1957. To date, it represents the only available lexicon of the
stratigraphyofIndonesia.This isabigironysincemanygeological worksandresearches havebeen
carriedout,andtheGeologicalResearchandDevelopmentCentre(GRDC)has geologicallymapped
thewhole areaofthecountry,althoughbasicallyintheformoflithostratigraphicmaps.

Since the establishment of the Indonesian Stratigraphic Code in 1973 ( SSI'73), stratigraphic
nomenclature has been expanding greatly as a result of the development of modern stratigraphic
concepts.Newnamesofstratigraphicunits,inparticularlithostratigraphicones,appearedamounting
1856 unitsforthewholeIndonesianregion.Theappearancesofnewstratigraphicunitstendtogenerate
confusionofcommunication,andmorethan90%ofthemarecategorizedasinformalstratigraphicunits.
Takethename NgimbangFormation asanexample.Thisunitnamewas usedbyRoskamil(1979)for
thelithostratigraphicsequenceofwell Ngimbang-1ineastJawa.Todate,thesamename Ngimbang has
beenusedforsomeotherrockunitslike NgimbangShale,NgimbangCarbonate, NgimbangClastics,
andeven NgimbangCycle (MudjionoandPiero,2001).Theinadequaciesofthedocumentationandthe
ambiguities of the stratigraphic nomenclatural systems inspired the Commissionof the Indonesian
Stratigraphic Code of the IndonesianAssosiaciation ofGeologists(IAGI)toputhighpriorityinits
2003-2005 work program to encode the stratigraphyof Indonesia. To solve the aforementioned
problemsitisnecessarytotakeinventoryandtodocument theexistingstratigraphicunitsintoawell
structuredandregularlyupdatedlexicon.

Harahap etal. (2001,2002) havetakeninventoryofthelithostratigraphicunits usedinthegeological


mapspublishedbytheGRDCandtheresultwasdocumentedin tworeportsentitled Nomenclature
Compilation of the Stratigraphy of the Eastern Indonesian Region (Harahap et al. 2001) and
NomenclatureCompilationoftheStratigraphyoftheWesternIndonesianRegion (Harahap etal. 2002)
respectively. Therearenotlessthan453lithostratigraphicunitsin the Eastern and986 intheWestern
Indonesianregions.

ThedocumentationandinventoryofthelitostratigraphicunitscompletedbyHarahap etal. (2001,2002)


representsaninitialattemptoftheestablishmentofthislexicon.Thisworkwascarriedoutwithhigh
expectationstohaveacomprehensiverecordingofthestratigraphic(especiallylithostratigraphic)unit s
inIndonesia.Thefirstresultofdocumentationhasbeen exposedtoparticipantsof thesymposiumof
SSI'96held in Yogyakarta (Harahap& Gafoer, 2 0 0 2 ) a s w e l l a s t h e workshoponthelexiconof
stratigraphyheldinBandung(2003),fordiscussion.There,itwasconcluded thatthisreportshouldbe
publishedasa newStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia. Beforethenhowever,manyimprovements
whichincludecorrectionandadditionofnecessaryinformationmustbemade.The firsteditionofthis
StratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia isnaturallynotatallfreefromerrorsorambiguitieswhich aretobe
correctedinthefuture. Nevertheless,itstillrepresentsafirstseriousefforttoupdatethepreviouslexicon
aftera43yearperiod developmentofthelitostratigraphicnomenclatureinIndonesia.

The workshoponthestratigraphyofJawaIslandhasbeenheldin20-21October2003,andsimilar
workshopswhichwilldealwiththestratigraphyoftheremainingIndonesianislandssuchasSumatera,
Kalimantan,Sulawesi,IrianJaya(WestPapua),MalukuandNusatenggarawillbeheldintheyearsto

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come. Alltheworkshopsareheldwithanaimtocorrecttheambiguities withrespecttothestratigraphic
nomenclatureofIndonesia,aneffort whichismadetocontinuallycorrectandupdatethelexicon.
IamsurethattheStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia whosecompilationwasinitiatedbyHarahap etal .
(2003)willbe substantiallyimproved,correctedandinnovatedto eventually aformallitostratigraphic
accountwhichconformtothecurrentIndonesianStratigraphicCode(1996version)isestablished.

The publicationof thislexiconisagreatachievementof Harahap andfriendswhoare expectedto


continuetheireffortstoconsistentlyimproveandupdatetheseresults. Here,theIndonesianAssociation
ofGeologists,inparticulartheCommissionoftheIndonesianStratigraphicCode,wouldliketoexpress
itsspecialthanksandhighappreciationtothem fortheirsuccessfulefforts. Hopefullythisappreciation
isalsosharedbyallmembersoftheIAGIandindividualstratigraphersalike.

Itisalsohopedthatthepublicationofthis StratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia willprovideaconcrete


contributioninsolvingthestratigraphicproblemswhichareoftenfacedbyallthosewhoworkinthe
geologyofIndonesia.

Bandung,December2003
CommissionoftheIndonesianStratrigraphicCode
IndonesianAssociationofGeologist2003-2005,

Djuhaeni
Chairman

viii
FOREWORD

bytheHeadoftheGeologicalResearchandDevelopmentCentre

It certainlyis of a great value totheIndonesiangeological societies tohavethisnew series of the


StratigraphicLexiconofIndonesiapublishedbytheGeologicalResearch andDevelopmentCentreof
Indonesia(GRDC).This publicationwasmadepossiblebytheencouragementofpartiesconcernedsuch
as staff, and thegeologists of GRDC,IndonesianAssociationofGeologist (IAGI), inparticularthe
CommissionoftheIndonesianStratigraphicCode,universities,researchinstitutions,oil and mineral
industries,consultantsandother geologicalcommunities.

Thefirst StratigraphicLexiconofIndonesiawascompiledby P.Marks,andpublishedin1957.Since


then, the lexicon has never been updated, although huge amounts of new stratigraphic data from
systematicgeologicalmappingofthewholeIndonesianTerritoryhasbeensuccessfullycollectedand
publishedbytheGRDC.Thedataofgeology,mineral,andenergyresourcescollectedduringtheperiod
ofmorethanthirtyyearsofsystematicgeologicalandgeophysicalmapping,aswellotherpublisheddata
contributedbymanypersonsareaninvaluablesourceofbasicinformationandanationalasset.Many
professional geologistsandpeopleofrelatedinstitutions aswellasindividualsconcerned with the
geologyofIndonesiaarepleasedwiththeproductionofastandardcodeandnomenclatureofIndonesian
stratigraphy,especiallylithostratigraphy.Accordingly,GRDChasaspiredtothisendandmadetheeffort
totaketheinitiativetogeneratethenewseriesoftheStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesia.

Thepreliminaryworkwasbegunin1994soonafterthe CoordinatingCommitteforCoastalandOffshore
Geoscience ProgrammesinEastandSoutheastAsia (CCOP) requested the GRDC toproduce the
Lexicon of StratigraphyofIrianJaya.Subsequently in 1999, the GRDC has arrangedandmade a
comprehensiverecordconcerningallnomenclatureofrockunitsintheIndonesianregion.Sincethen,the
mainconceptsandprimarymaterialoftheStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesiahavebeendiscussedduring
the“SymposiumoftheCommissionoftheIndonesianStratigraphicCode-1996”inAugust28-29,2002
inJogyakarta.ThesubsequentmeetingwasheldinJuly19,2003inITB,Bandung. InAugust22,2003,a
forumofcommunicationontheLexiconoftheStratigraphyofIndonesiawasheldbytheGRDCin
Bandung.ItwasthenfollowedbyaWorkshoponthestratigraphyofJavaIslandinOctober20-21,2003,
inBandungheldbytheIAGIandtheGRDC.Theentiredialoguesofmeetingsrelatedtothestratigraphy
ofIndonesiawereveryconstructiveinpreparingthepublicationofthelexicon.Undoubtedly,weshould
acceptthefactthatthisfirsteditionisfarbeyondcompletion.Nevertheless,allsuggestions,criticisms
and/orpropositionswillbebeneficialforthepublicationofthenexteditionofthelexicon.Wedohope
thatthisLexiconwillbeausefulguideforallusers,especiallythoseactiveinthefieldofgeologyand
mineralandenergyresourcesfornationaldevelopment.

Onbeha lf of theAgencyfor Researchand Development of Energy andMineralResourcesand the


Department of EnergyandMineral Resources, through the Geological Research and Development
Centre, we wish to record deep appreciation to the IAGI and the Commission of the Indonesian
StratigraphicCode.Finally,specialthanksgotoallpersonswhowereinvolvedincompilingeditingand
publishingthislexicon.

Bandung,December2003
GeologicalResearchandDevelopmentCentre,

BambangDwiyanto

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INTRODUCTION

Theimportanceofastratigraphiclexicontogeoscientistshaslongbeenrealizedbyus.Ithasbecomea
kindofapreliminaryguidebooktotheunderstandingofthegeologyofanareatobestudied.Througha
lexicon, also known as nomenclature, earth scientists can find all the existing lithostratigraphic
terminologiesoftheirrespectivecountries.ItisthereforeimportanttoupdatetheStratigraphicLexicon
ofIndonesiacompiledbyMarks(1957),andtheresultisaspresentedinthisvolume.

Likemoststratigraphiclexicon,thepresentonealsocontainsinformationonthelithostratigraphicunits
whichareavailableintheliterature,eitherformalorinformalones,accompaniedbynameofunit,age,
nomenclature, type locality, description, fossil content, thickness, distribution, depositional
environment,tectonicsetting,economicaspect,remark,andreference.

SincetheoutsetofthePELITAI(thefirstFiveYearDevelopmentProgram)in1969,variousgeological
researchactivitiescarriedoutbythegovernmentalinstitutions(eitherwithorwithoutthecooperationof
foreigninstitutions),miningcompanies(inparticularoilcompanies),academicians,andindividualearth
scientistshavebeentakingplace.ThishasbroughtabouttoIndonesiathefastgrowingaccumulationof
new geological information which include stratigraphic nomenclatures, stratigraphicconcept, and
tectonism.Therefore,itisnatural thatafter30yearsofbusyyearsthe lexiconofMarks(1957)has
becomeleftfarbehindandinanurgentneedofupdating.

1856 lithostratigraphic units have been listed in the new lexicon. The high/vast number of the
nomenclaturemighthavebeenduetothefactsthatthegeologyofthiscountryiscomplexbeinglocatedat
thetriplejunctionof threemajortectonicplates,namelythePacific,Indo-AustralianandtheEurasian
PlatesmovingNNW,NNEandSSErespectively.Thevastsizeofthecountrymayalsoberesponsiblefor
it,nottomentiontheoccurrenceofsynonymyofsomelithostratigraphicunitsgivenrisebydifferent
conceptsamongworkersorsimplyduetotheirignorance.

Themainsourceofthislexiconisthe239systematicgeologicalmapsproducedbytheGRDC,covering
JawaandMaduraatascaleof1:100.000andthoseoutsideofJawaatascaleof1:250.000.

ByNovember2001,abounddraftofthestratigraphiclexiconoftheEasternpartofIndonesiaentitled
Nomenclature Compilation of the Stratigraphy of the Eastern Indonesian Region was completed,
followedbythatofthewesternpartentitled NomenclatureCompilationoftheStratigraphyoftheWestern
Indonesian Region which wascompletedbyNovemberthefollowingyear.Beforebeingfinalizedfor
publication,thedraftshavebeenexposedfordiscussionsinsomemeetingorseminarsonstratigraphy
whichwereheldbyuniversities,IndonesianAssociationofGeologistsandthe GRDC itself,during
whichinvaluablecomments,suggestions,andcriticismswereobtained.

Asamatterofcourse,thispresenteditionoflexiconisbeyondperfectionandthereforeonemayfindit
unsatisfactory to their need. Many things such as inconsistencies, synonymies, lack of proper
information,andunavoidablemistakes,aretobedealtwithinthefutureedition.Forthis,weareinneed
offurthersuggestions,criticisms,andcontributionfromthosewhocareaboutthedevelopmentofthe
stratigraphyofIndonesia.

xi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TheauthorswouldliketothanktheDirectoroftheGRDCforhisencouragementduringthepreparation
ofthislexicon.ThisStratigraphicLexiconofIndonesiawouldnothavebeenmaterializedwithoutthe
goodcooperationofMessrs.Amiruddin,BambangHermanto,UntungMargono,EkoEdiSusanto,Sigit
Maryanto, Suharsono, AgusNursikuagus, Sri Sulistiono, Suudi Gafoer, SumitraAtmawinata, Eko
Partoyo andDrsRabSukamtoandFauzieHasibuan, all of the GRDC,whohavecontributedtheir
expertise's,duringthepreparationof this lexicon. Wearealso gratefulto Messrs.HarryP.Siagian,
Purnama Senjaya, TetepHidayat , and Drs SutiknoBronto,Sardjono, Herman Moechtar,andUdi
Hartono,allalsooftheGRDC,whoimplementedthemajortaskinorganizingtheworkshopandother
meetingwithregardtothediscussionofthislexicon.Lastbutnotleast,weareindebtedtoMr.Andang
Bachtiar,ChairmanofIAGI,andDr.DjuhaenioftheStratigrahicCommissionofthesameorganization
fortheirsupportandkindattentionduringthepreparatoryworkofthislexicon.

xiii