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Lecture on Vibrations and Acoustics

Data · October 2016


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22500.17289

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Jean-Mathieu Mencik
Institut National des Sciences Appliquées Centre Val de Loire
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Vibrations and Acoustics
J.-M. Mencik

INSA Centre Val de Loire


Blois, France

jean-mathieu.mencik@insa-cvl.fr

INSA CVL - GSI 5A - PMAT option

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Preliminary comments

Scope of the study


Analytic modeling of vibrating structures interacting with fluids
Strong coupling (internal fluids) and acoustic radiation in infinite media
Forced response computation

Model order reduction


Component mode synthesis

Example : Automotive structure

Internal acoustics
Sound transmission
Acoustic modes

External acoustics
Acoustic radiation

2 / 14
Application
Vibrating plate coupled with an acoustic cavity
Simply supported plate
Kirchhoff Love theory
Mode expansion
Acoustic cavity
Compressible and barotropic fluid
Mode expansion
Acoustic radiation of the baffled plate
Light external fluid
Sommerfeld condition

Outline of the lecture


Plate modeling
Governing equation
Simply supported rectangular plate
Basics of acoustics
Governing equation
Parallelepiped cavity with hard walls
External acoustics
Helmholtz integral equation
Baffled plate
3 / 14
Kirchhoff Love plate : dynamic equilibrium equation
Infinitesimal plate element dx × dy with height h

Force balance (z−direction)


dx Qx dy + dy Qy dx + (f − ρhw,tt )dxdy = 0
• w : transverse displacement at the mid-plane
(z = 0) [m]
• Qx : shearing force acting on surface (y, z) [N/m]
• Qy : shearing force acting on surface (z, x) [N/m]
• f : surface force applied to the plate [N/m2 ]

Moment balance (x−direction)


−dy Mx dx − dx Mxy dy + Qy dxdy = 0
R h/2
• Mx = −h/2 σyy zdz : bending moment around x [N]
R h/2
• Mxy = −h/2 σxy zdz : twisting moment around x [N]

Moment balance (y−direction)


dx My dy + dy Mxy dx − Qx dydx = 0
R h/2
• My = σ zdz : bending moment around y [N]
−h/2 xx
R h/2
• Mxy = −h/2 σyx zdz : twisting moment around y [N]

4 / 14
Kirchhoff Love plate : dynamic equilibrium equation (cont’d)
Governing equation
Force/moment balance : summary
dx Qx dy + dy Qy dx + (f − ρhw,tt )dxdy = 0
−dy Mx dx − dx Mxy dy + Qy dxdy = 0
dx My dy + dy Mxy dx − Qx dydx = 0

−My,xx − Mx,yy − 2Mxy,xy + ρhw,tt = f

Stress/strain relationships (plane stress)


E E E
σxx = (εxx + νεyy ) , σyy = (εyy + νεxx ) , σxy = γ
2(1+ν) xy
1−ν 2 1−ν 2

Kinematic assumptions (Kirchhoff Love theory)


εxx = −zw,xx , εyy = −zw,yy , γxy = −2zw,xy

R h/2 R h/2
Mx = σ zdz = −D(w,yy + νw,xx )
−h/2 yy
, My = −h/2
σxx zdz = −D(w,xx + νw,yy ) ,
R h/2
Mxy = σ zdz = −D(1 − ν)w,xy
−h/2 xy


Governing equation : ρhw,tt + D∇4 w = f
Eh3
• ∇4 w = w,xxxx + w,yyyy + 2w,xxyy , •D= : bending rigidity
12(1−ν 2 )

5 / 14
Vibration modes of the simply supported plate
Free vibrating solutions, plate vibrating at pulsation Ω
Governing equation
−Ω2 ρhw + D∇4 w = 0 (0 ≤ x ≤ Lx , 0 ≤ y ≤ Ly )
where w = w(Ω, x, y)

Possible solution
Ω2 ρh
w = Asin(kx x)sin(ky y) ⇒ (kx2 + ky2 )2 − D =0

Boundary conditions
w=0 for x = 0, x = Lx , y = 0, y = Ly

rπ sπ
sin(kx Lx ) = 0 , sin(ky Ly ) = 0 ⇒ kx = Lx , ky = Ly r, s = 1, 2, . . .
⇓ 
q 2  2 
D 2 r s
Ω = Ωrs = ρh π Lx + Ly

Vibration modes 
q 2  2 
D 2 r s
Eigenpulsations : Ωrs = ρh
π r, s = 1, 2, . . .
Lx
+ Ly
   
Mode shapes : Xrs = sin rπx
L
sin sπy
L
r, s = 1, 2, . . .
x y

6 / 14
Harmonic forced response of the simply supported plate
Damped plate (loss factor η) subject to point force
Governing equation
−Ω2 ρhw + (1 + iη)D∇4 w = Fδx−x0 δy−y0
• δx−x0 , δy−y0 : Dirac delta functions

Variational form
RLx RLy RLx RLy RLx RLy
−Ω2 ρh δw w dxdy + (1 + iη)D ∇2 δw∇2 w dxdy = δwFδx−x0 δy−y0 dxdy
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0

Mode expansion
P
w= αrs Xrs and δw = Xpq
rs
• Xrs = Xrs (x, y) : mode shapes , • αrs = αrs (Ω) : mode amplitudes

! !
RLx RLy RLx RLy
−Ω2 ρh ∇2 δXpq ∇2 Xrs dxdy
P P
Xpq Xrs dxdy αrs + (1 + iη)D αrs =
rs x=0 y=0 rs x=0 y=0
RLx RLy
Xpq Fδx−x0 δy−y0 dxdy
x=0 y=0

7 / 14
Harmonic forced response of the simply supported plate (cont’d)
Mode properties
RLx RLy RLx RLy
Xpq Xrs dxdy = 0 , ∇2 Xpq ∇2 Xrs dxdy = 0 for (r, s) 6= (p, q)
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0
RLx RLy Lx Ly
• mpq = ρh Xpq Xpq dxdy = ρh 4 : modal mass
x=0 y=0
RLx RLy
• kpq = D ∇2 Xpq ∇2 Xpq dxdy = Ω2pq mpq : modal stiffness
x=0 y=0

Equation of motion in modal coordinates


⇒ −Ω2 mpq + (1 + iη)kpq αpq = Fpq

∀pq
 
⇒ −Ω2 + (1 + iη)Ω2pq αpq = Fpq /mpq
Fpq /mpq
⇒ Mode amplitudes : αpq =
−Ω2 +(1+iη)Ω2pq

RLx RLy
• Fpq = Xpq Fδx−x0 δy−y0 dxdy = FXpq (x0 , y0 ) : modal force
x=0 y=0

Determination of the displacement


P
w(Ω, x, y) = pq αpq (Ω)Xpq (x, y) ∀(x, y) for p = 1, . . . , ∞, q = 1, . . . , ∞

Expansion using a reduced basis {X̃pq } ⊂ {Xpq }


P
w(Ω, x, y) ≈ pq α̃pq (Ω)X̃pq (x, y) for p = 1, . . . , np , q = 1, . . . , nq
8 / 14
Acoustic fluid
Governing equation
Assumptions - compressible inviscid fluid undergoing small perturbations
around a reference configuration
Pressure : p0 + p with p << p0
Density : ρ0 + ρ with ρ << ρ0

Wave equation - conservation laws and constitutive equations


Mass conservation : ρ,t + ρ0 ∇T v = ṁδx−x0
Force balance (Euler equation) : ρ0 v,t = −∇p
Barotropic fluid : p,t = c20 ρ,t

1
p,tt − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0
c2
0
• Q = ṁ,t

Helmholtz equation - harmonic case


Q(t, x) = QeiΩt and p(t, x) = peiΩt where Q = Q(Ω, x) and p = p(Ω, x)

−k2 p − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0
• k = Ω/c0 : wave number

9 / 14
Vibration modes of a parallelepiped acoustic cavity
Free vibrating solutions

Governing equation
−k2 p − ∇2 p = 0 where p = p(Ω, x, y, z)

Possible solution
p = cos(kx x)cos(ky y)cos(kz z)

(kx2 + ky2 + kz2 ) − k2 = 0

Boundary conditions
p,n = 0 for x = 0, x = Lx , y = 0, y = Ly , z = 0, z = Lz

rπ sπ tπ
sin(kx Lx ) = 0 , sin(ky Ly ) = 0 , sin(kz Lz ) = 0 ⇒ kx = Lx , ky = Ly , kz = Lz

⇓ r 2  2  2
r s t
Ω = Ωrst = c0 π Lx + Ly + Lz

Vibration modes r 
2  2  2
r
Eigenpusations : Ωrst = c0 π Lx
+ Ls + Lt r, s, t = 0, 1, 2, . . .
    y  z
rπx sπy tπz
Mode shapes : Xrst = cos L cos L cos L r, s, t = 0, 1, 2, . . .
x y z
10 / 14
Harmonic forced response of the cavity
Parallelepiped cavity subject to point source
Governing equation : −k2 p − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0 δy−y0 δz−z0
Variational form :
RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz
−k2 δpp dxdydz + ∇δp∇p dxdydz = δp Qδx−x0 δy−y0 δz−z0 dxdydz
x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0

Mode expansion :
P
p= αrst (Ω)Xrst (x, y) and δp = Xopq (x, y)
rst

Mode properties
RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz
Xopq Xrst dxdydz = 0 , ∇Xopq ∇Xrst dxdydz = 0 for (r, s, t) 6= (o, p, q)
x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0

Lx Ly R Lz
• mopq = 1
R R
Xopq Xopq dxdydz : modal mass
c2 x=0 y=0 z=0
0
Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz
= (o, p, q 6= 0) ; = (o or p or q = 0) ; = (o, p or o, q or p, q = 0) ; = (o, p, q = 0)
8c2 4c2 2c2 c2
0 0 0 0
Lx Lz Lz
∇Xopq ∇Xopq dxdydz = Ω2opq mopq : modal stiffness
R R R
• kopq =
x=0 y=0 y=0

Equation of motion in modal coordinates


 
−Ω2 + Ω2opq αopq = Fopq /mopq
Lx
R Ly
R Lz
R
• Fopq = Xopq Qδx−x δy−y δz−z dxdydz = QXopq (x0 , y0 , z0 ) : modal force
x=0 y=0 z=0 0 0 0

11 / 14
Simply supported plate coupled with a cavity
Damped plate subject to point force - acoustic cavity subject to excitation
source

Governing equations
−Ω2 ρhw + (1 + iη)D∇4 w = Fδx−x0 δy−y0 + p
−k2 p − ∇2 p = Qδx−x0 δy−y0 δz−z0
0 0 0

Variational forms
RLx RLy RLx RLy RLx RLy
−Ω2 ρh δww dxdy + (1 + iη)D ∇2 δw∇2 w dxdy = δw(x0 , y0 )F + δwp dxdy
x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0 x=0 y=0

RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy


−Ω2 1
δpp dxdydz + ∇δp∇p dxdydz = δw(x00 , y00 , z00 )Q + δpp,z dxdy
c2
0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0


RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy RLz RLx RLy
−Ω2 12 δpp dxdydz + ∇δp∇p dxdydz = δw(x00 , y00 , z00 )Q + Ω2 ρ0 δpwdxdy
c
0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0 z=0 x=0 y=0

Mode expansions
α0rst Xrst
0
P P
w= αrs Xrs , p=
rs rst
12 / 14
Simply supported plate coupled with a cavity (cont’d)
Damped plate subject to point force - acoustic cavity subject to excitation
source
Equations of motion in modal coordinates
!
RLx RLy 0
−Ω2 mpq αpq + (1 + iη)kpq αpq = Fpq + α0rst
P
Xpq Xrst dxdy
rst x=0 y=0
!
RLx RLy
−Ω2 m0opq α0opq + kopq
0
α0opq = Fopq
0
+ Ω2 ρ0 0
P
Xopq Xrs dxdy αrs
rs x=0 y=0

Alternative formulations !
RLx RLy
−Ω2 mu αu + (1 + iη)ku αu = Fu + Xu Xv0 dxdy α0v
P
v x=0 y=0
!
RLx RLy
−Ω2 m0v α0v + kv0 α0v = Fv0 + Ω2 ρ0 Xv0 Xu dxdy
P
αu
u x=0 y=0

Matrix system
diag{−Ω2 mu + (1 + iη)ku }u
    
−C α F
=
−Ω2 ρ0 CT diag{−Ω2 m0v + kv0 }v α0 F0
RLx RLy
• C = {Cuv } where Cuv = Xu Xv0 dxdy
x=0 y=0

13 / 14
Acoustic radiation of a baffled plate
Helmholtz integral equation
Green’s function :
−k2 G(r, r0 ) − ∇2 G(r, r0 ) = δr−r0
√ −ik||r−r0 ||
Free space solution : G0 (r, r0 ) = e 4π||r−r0 ||

G satisfies the Sommerfeld radiation condition

G can be chosen as G = G0 + G̃0 such that
G,n0 (r, r0 ) = 0 for r0 ∈ ∂Ωfext

Kirchhoff integral formula :


G,n0 (r, r0 )p(r0 ) − G(r, r0 )p,n0 (r0 ) dSr0
R 
p(r) =
f
∂Ωext

Quick proof.
• Multiply −k2 G − ∇2 G = δ by p and multiply −k2 p − ∇2 p = 0 by G ;
Substract the resulting equations to each other.
• Invoke Green’s formula [(∇2 G)p − G(∇2 p)]dV = − [(G,n0 )p − G(p,n0 )]dS
R R

Case of a baffled plate


p,n0 = −iΩρ0 vn0 = 0 on the baffle

G(r, r0 )vn0 (r0 )dSr0
R
p(r) = iΩρ0
Splate
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