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Evolution of NextGeneration Networks

SONET/SDH meets data

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) Adaptation

GFP supports the rate adaptation betwen frame/

packet-based traffic and synchronuous traffic Edge Core

Native interfaces

Standardized GFP frames GFP idle frame
Escon Generic Virtual Link SONET/SDH T-BERD/MTS-8000
PLI ≤ 03hex PLI ≥ 04hex transmission 1 00 (B6) hex Frame Concatenation Capacity
order 2 00 (AB) hex
Fiber channel Procedure Adjustment
Control frames Client frames
3 00 (31) hex Scheme
PLI = 01 to 03hex PLI = 00hex PTI = 00bin PTI = 100bin 4 00 (E0) hex
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TestPoint family
Other (for further study) Idle frames Client data frames Client management frames Bit Bit transmission order
(scrambled value)

GFP frame
PDU length indicator (PLI) field Virtual Concatenation (VC) and
Events and
Octet 2
2 PLI The 2-octet PLI field:
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)
order Core header A binary number representing the number
3 cHEC
2 of octets in the GFP payload area. Minimum
value of the PLI field in a GFP client frame is Abbreviations
4 octets.
2 VC supports the efficient use of transport capacity, LCAS enables the hitless bandwidth provisioning.
16-bit Payload
Payload Events NewSONET/SDH with NewGen Module 2.5G
header Core HEC (cHEC) field
Length indicator
7 In accordance with ITU-T G.707 / G.783 / G.7041 /G.7042 / ANSI T.105 and IEEE 802.x / ISO-IEC 8802-3
tHEC 2
cHEC 8 The 2-octet core header error control field: Nomenclature for SONET and SDH virtual containers LCAS and VC control packet LCAS communication
(CRC-16) CRC Abbreviation Definintion Generation and detection criteria Abbreviation Definintion Generation and detection criteria
CRC-16 error control code protecting the is uni-directional NewSONET/ NewSONET/
9-66 Extension header 0-58 Extension integrity of the contents of the core header VTn- X v STS-m -X v GID SDH SDH
header by enabling both single-bit error correction Re-sequence STS PATH/TRIBUTARY UNIT GFP Events
Payload headers +1 Frame Sequence Control Source Member Error CTRL
eHEC (optional) and multi-bit error detection. Virtual container n Number of con- Virtual con- acknowledge- OOM1 Out of Multiframe 1 OOM1 error detected in the MFI1 multiframe cH_SNGL Core Header Least significant cHEC bit is inverted
(4 to bytes) 2 counter indicator command identifier status protection
+2 n = 1.5, 2 m = 1, 3c catenated containers catenation ment MFI OOM2 Out of Multiframe 2 OOM2 error detected in the MFI2 multiframe Single Error
or first multiframe is in OOM1 cH_MULT Core Header Two least significant cHEC bits are inverted
+3 SQ Multiple Error
Source Sink SQM Sequence indicator Accepted sequence number does not match
+4 VC-n- X v Mismatch expected sequence number tH_SNGL Payload Type Header Least significant tHEC bit is inverted
MFI SQ CTRL GID RS-Ack MST CRC Source to sink communication LOA Loss of Alignment Alignment process cannot perform alignment Single error
Client payload
information field
+5 Payload type identifier (PTI) Virtual container n Number of con- Virtual con- Sink to source communication
of VCG members. Maximum differential delay tH_MULT Payload Type Header Two least significant tHEC bits are inverted
+6 n = 4, 3, 12, 11 catenated containers catenation Virtual concatenation LCAS specific information exceeded. Multiple error
n Payload area A 3-bit subfield identifying the type of GFP information Virtual Tributary PATH / LO-PATH GFP Payl. FCS Optional CRC errors Check sum errors (CRC) in GFP frame
+7 client frame. RS-Ack LFD Loss of Frame Detect: Type header state machine not in SYNC
OOM1 Out of Multiframe 1 OOM1 error detected in MFI1 multiframe
Delineation state Generate: insert multi bit error in core
+8 GFP client management frame MST OOM2 Out of Multiframe 2 OOM2 error detected in MFI2 multiframe or
High-order VC-3/4, STS-1/3c Low-order VC-11/12, VT-1.5/2 first multiframe is in OOM1 header of GFP frame
Optional payload FCS +9 user payload identifier CSF Client Signal Fail Detect alarm frame with “loss of sign”or
(CRC-32) SQM Sequence indicator Accepted sequence number does not match
+n PTI = 100 Mismatch expected sequence number “loss of character”in Type field UPI Generate:
Frame counter (MFI): Frame counter (MFI): Example for ADD command select “loss of sign”or “loss of character”
+n+1 pFCS UPI value Usage Multi frame counter LOA Loss of Alignment Alignment process cannot perform alignment
A combination of the 1st multiframe and the 2nd multiframe of VCG members. Maximum differential delay MAC Events
0000 0000 and 1111 1111 Reserved
+n+2 pFCS MFI = 0-4095 MFI = 0-31 LCAS memn-1 (EOS) mema (new) mema+1 (new) exceeded.
FCS 0000 0001 Client signal fail NMS S0 Sk Sk Sk In Range errors Only with IEEE 802.3. Payload length differs
+n+3 pFCS
(optional) (loss of client signal) VC Add Cmnd LCAS Events from value in length field
0000 0010 Client signal fail (loss of Sequence indicator (SQ): Sequence indicator (SQ): LOC Loss of Transport Member does not carry payload Runt frame Only with IEEE 802.3 and Eth II. Frame is
+n+4 pFCS Number to identify each member in the VCG Number to identify each member in the VCG shorter than minimum frame length (64 byte)
character synchronization) Capacity
Octets CTRL=ADD Oversized Only with IEEE 802.3 and Eth II frames of
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0000 0011 through 1111 1110 Reserved for future use SQ = 0-255 SQ = 0-63 LOPC (TX-RX) Loss of Partial Certain number of VCG members have no
CTRL=ADD connectivity Transport Capacityl transport capacity maximum length exceeding the 1518/1522
Bits Bit transmission order check bytes and with valid FCS
MST=OK LOTC (TX-RX) Loss of Total No VCG member has transport capacity - all
MAC-FCS Checksum errors (CRC) in MAC frame
Payload FCS indicator (PFI) Transport Capacity in LOC state (number ? threshold x)
Jabber frame Only with IEEE 802.3 and Eth II. Frame
FOP_CRC Failure of Protocol - More than 3 consecutive CRC errors
Member status (MST): Member status (MST): exceeds maximum frame length and has
A 1-bit subfield indicating the presence or CTRL=NORM CTRL=EOS excessive CRC errors
The status of all members (256) is transferred in 64 ms. The status of all members (64) is transferred in 128 ms. invalid FCS
Extension header identifier (EXI) absence of the payload FCS field. RS-Ack inverted Lost frames Missing sequence number in JDSU test frame
LCAS connectivity Errored frame Aggregate all 1. Runt frame 4. FCS errored frame
A 4-bit sub-field of the type field identifying the type of extension PFI = 0 FCS off PFI = 1 FCS on MST = 0 → Link OK MST = 0 → Link OK check
frame errors 2. Too long frame 5. In range length error frame
MST = 1 → Link FAIL MST = 1 → Link FAIL MST=OK 3. Alignment errored frame
LPAC Loss of Performance Checks all valid MAC criteria. No analyzable
GFP extension header identifiers Linear extension header User payload identifier (UPI) CTRL=EOS CTRL=NORM
Assessment frames received for specific time interval or

Extension header Usage

Channel ID (CID) field An 8-bit field identifying the type of payload
Parameters that are identical for high and low order VC RS-Ack inverted Native Services Capability Higher Priority Alarm. Time interval is 10 sec.

identifiers type bits conveyed in the GFP payload information field. Ctrl: → table LCAS CTRL words
0000 Null extension The CID is an 8-bit binary GID: Group identification bit, 1 bit identical for all members of the VCG in the multiframe. The content is given by a PRBS 215-1 Add multiple members Service Naming Line rate Main applications
header number used to indicate PTI = 000
0001 Linear frame User payload GFP frame RS-Ack: Re-sequence acknowledge bit. Toggling value between 0 ↔ 1 Ethernet 10BaseT 12.5 Mb/s LAN, VPN, NAS, data networks
one of 256 communication
0010 Ring frame identifier (binary) payload area This frame-based, connectionless transport protocol is mainly 100BaseT 125 Mb/s
Others Reserved channels at a GFP termination Source state machine used in LANs and supports frames sizes between 48 and 1000BaseT 1.25 Gb/s
0000 0000 Reserved and not available
point. 1111 1111 Norm 1500 Bytes in length. Ethernet frames and types are stand- 10GE WAN 9.953 Gb/s WANs
Sequence and multiframe indicator
0000 0001 Frame-mapped Ethernet Remove ardized according to IEEE 802.x 10GE LAN 10.313 Gb/s Metro networks
for the H4 coding Sequence and multiframe indicator for the Z7/K4 [1] coding Normal life cycle
Spare field 0000 0010 Frame-mapped PPP active member
Null extension header 0000 0011 Transparent Fiber Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 by NMS Fiber Channel FC eighth speed 132.813 Mb/s
The 8-bit spare field, reserved H4 byte multiframe Interruption cycle FC quarter speed 265.625 Mb/s
0000 0100 Transparent FICON Extended Fiber Channel (FC) is a service that is mostly used in combi-
This extension header applies to a for future use. Bit 1 to 4 Bit 5 to 8 Multiframe alignment bits
signal label Reserved
(activated in nation with SANs. Here it is of major importance that the FC half speed 531.250 Mb/s
0000 0101 Transparent ESCON FC full speed 1.063 Gb/s
logical point-to-point configuration, MFI1 (bit 1 to 4) interruption case) DNU channel connections are multi-protocol and allow fast, SANs, Video, networks
0000 0110 Transparent Gb Ethernet ADD Remove FC double speed 2.125 Gb/s
where the transport path is dedicated Extension HEC (eHEC) field 0000 0111 Reserved for future MFI1 MFI2 Sequence and multiframe indicator for the Z7/K4 [2] coding simple data communication.
FC quadruple speed 4.250 Gb/s
to one client signal. MFI2 (bit 1-4) 0 0 0 0 0 n
CRC-16 error control code that 0000 1001 Frame-mapped multiple access 8 bit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2728 29 30 31 32
Protocol over SDH (MAPOS) MFI2 (bit 5-8) 0 0 0 1 1 Other transition Add ESCON / FICON
protects the integrity of the

Frame Sequence

Octet 0000 1001 Transparent DVB ASI CTRL Spare Member status CRC-3
4 bit CTRL 0 0 1 0 count indicator (SQ) active member Escon and Ficon are data transport protocols developed Enterprise Systems CONnection 200 Mb/s SANs, E-commerce
trans- 5 Type contents of the extension 2
Fiber CONnection 1 Gb/s
0000 1010 Frame-mapped IEEE 802.17 by NMS for server-to-server and server-to-storage transport.
mission Type headers. Resilient packet ring 1 bit GID “000x” 0 0 1 1 3 IDLE
order 0000 1011 Frame-mapped Fiber Channel FC-BBW Reserved “0000” 0 1 0 0 4
7 Octet Remove from VCG by NMS
trans- 5 Type 0000 1100 Asynchronous transparent Fiber Channel Reserved “0000” 0 1 0 1 5 LCAS CTRL words
8 tHEC 0000 1101 Frame-mapped MPLS (direct mapping) Abbreviations
mission Type CRC-8 0 1 1 0 6
Octet 6 0000 1110 8 bit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 order
through Reserved for future standardization CRC-8 0 1 1 1 7 Value Com- Remarks Sink state machine ADM Add/Drop Multiplexer GFP-F Frame mapped GFP MAC Media Access Control SAN Storage Area Network
Bit Bit transmission order 7 tHEC msb mand
1110 1111 Member status (MST) 1 0 0 0 8 OK APS Automatic Protection Switching GFP-T Transparent mapped GFP MAPOS Multiple Access Protocol over SONET/SDH SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
tHEC 1111 0000 8 bit ... lsb Normal life cycle cHEC Core Header Error Control GID Group Identification MFI Multi Frame Indicator SLA Service Level Agreement
8 Member status (MST) 1 0 0 1
through Reserved for proprietary use* 9 0000 FIXED non-LCAS mode CID Channel Identification GMPLS Generalized Multi Protocol Label Switching MST Member Status SONET Synchronous Optical Network
9 CID 1111 1110 * The use of proprietary code values is described in Annex A/G.806
1 bit RS-Ack “000x” 1 0 1 0 10 0001 ADD This member is about to be added to the group CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check HEC Header Error Control NAS Network Attached Storage SQ Sequence Indicator
Interruption cycle
Spare 0010 NORM Normal transmission CSF Client Signal Fail HDLC High-level Data Link Control NE Network Element tHEC Type Header Error Control
10 Reserved “0000” 1 0 1 1 11
DVB Digital Video Broadcasting HO NMS Network Management System UPI User Payload Identifier
Ring extension header Reserved “0000” 1 1 0 0 12
0011 EOS End of sequence indication and normal transmission High Order
11 eHEC Type HEC (tHEC) field 0101 IDLE This member is not part of the group or about to Other transition eHEC Extension Header Error Control LAN Local Area Network OTN Optical Transport Network VC Virtual Concatenation
For further study. Reserved “0000” 1 1 0 1 13 be removed IDLE
ESCON Enterprise Systems Connection LAPS Link Access Protocol SDH PDU Protocol Data Unit VCG Virtual Concatenation Group
12 eHEC The 2-octet type header error control field EXI Extension Header Identifier LCAS Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme PFI Payload FCS Identifier VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
Octet SQ (bit 1-4) 1 1 1 0 14 1111 DNU Do Not Use (the payload) the Sk side reported FAIL status ADD to VCG FAIL FC Fiber Channel LO Low Order PLI PDU Length Identifier VPN Virtual Private Network
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 contains a CRC-16 error control code that protects 8 bit by NMS Remove from
SQ (bit 5-8) 1 1 1 1 15 At initiation of a VCG source all members shall send CTRL = IDLE.
FCS Frame Check Sequence PTI Payload Type Identifier WAN Wide Area Network
Bit Bit transmission order the integrity of the contents of the type field. VCG by NMS FICON Fiber Connection RPR Reslient Packet Ring
GFP Generic Frame Procedure RS-Ack Re-Sequence Acknowledge

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