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Seminar Report
in partial fulfilment
for the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in Department of Mechanical Engineering

Supervisor: Submitted By:

Mr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma Shubham Pandey
Assistant Professor , SKIT 14ESKME105

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management & Gramothan, Jaipur

Rajasthan Technical University, Kota

Month and Year

Candidate's Declaration

I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in the Seminar, titled “Evacuated
Tube Collectors” in partial fulfilment for the award of Degree of “Bachelor of Technology”
in Department of Mechanical Engineering, and submitted to the Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management &
Gramothan, Jaipur is a record of my own investigations carried under the Guidance of Mr.
Dinesh Kumar Sharma Department of Mechanical Engineering, SKIT.

I have not submitted the matter presented in this report anywhere for the award of any
other Degree.

Shubham Pandey

Mechanical Engineering



Name of Supervisor

Mr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma

Swami Keshvanand Institute
of Technology, Management & Gramothan, Jaipur
Department of Mechanical Engineering


This is to certify that Shubham Pandey,14ESKME105 of VIII Semester, B.Tech (Mechanical

Engineering ) 2017-18, has presented a seminar titled “Evacuated Tube Collector” in partial
fulfilment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology under Rajasthan Technical
University, Kota.


Seminar Faculty - Supervisor-

Mr. Ankit Agarwal Mr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma
Mr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma


I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to Mr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Assistant
Professor, who has given guidance and a light to me during this Seminar. His versatile
knowledge about “Evacuated Tube Collector” has eased me in the critical times during the span
of this Seminar.
I am very grateful to our course faculties Mr. Ankit Agarwal (Assistant Professor, SKIT),
who analyzed my presentation and suggest me to improve in my grey areas of my presentation.
I extend my sincere thanks towards Prof. N. C. Bhandari (Head, Mechanical Engineering
Department) for his kind support throughout my span of degree. I am also thankful to Prof. S. L.
Surana (Director - Academics) and Shri Jaipal Meel (Director) for their kind support.
I acknowledge here out debt to those who contributed significantly to one or more steps. I
take full responsibility for any remaining sins of omission and commission

Shubham Pandey
B. Tech IV Year
(Mechanical Engineering)


Solar water heaters (SWHs) are a well-established renewable energy technology that have been
widely adopted around the world. In this study we have significantly improved the Evacuated
Tube solar Collectors (ETCs) by utilizing the ‘‘dry-drawable” Carbon Nano tube (CNT) sheet
coatings to increase the solar energy absorption and Phase Change Materials (PCMs) to increase
the heat accumulation for application in solar water heaters. The proposed solar collector utilizes
a phase change material namely Octadecane paraffin, with melting temperatures of 28oC which
is categorized as non-toxic with long term chemical stability PCM. As PCMs particularly in
powder form may not be effective by itself due to the poor heat transfer rate, low thermal
diffusivity and thermal conductivity, by combining CNT layers with the high thermal diffusivity
and thermal conductivity compare to phase change materials, we are able to overcome the
shortcomings of PCMs and design an innovative and efficient solar water heater. With the
current technology, we can provide a near ideal black body surface, absorbing a maximum of
98%, between 600 and 1100 nm, of solar light striking the surface, and providing additional
spectral absorption which improves the performance of the solar heater. Applying CNT sheets in
conjunction with PCM enables heat storage directly on the collector for a more constant output,
even on a cloudy day and prolonged output of heat at night

1.1. A brief introduction about the topic undertaken

A number of systems have been developed to collect solar energy and convert it into an
alternative form of energy, electricity, or to use the solar energy to perform work, such as in the
case of a solar water heater. An important component of all these systems is the solar collector,
which absorbs the solar radiation from the sun and transfers it to some transfer medium such as
water, which delivers the heat as hot water to a house or to a heat storage unit. Among different
types of solar collectors, one example of an advanced and highly effective type of solar collector
is an Evacuated Tube solar Collectors (ETCs).

Evacuated tube solar collectors are designed in such a way that heat loss to the environment is
reduced. Heat loss due to convection cannot cross a vacuum, as it forms an efficient isolation
mechanism to keep the heat inside the collector tubes. Since two flat sheets of glass are normally
not strong enough to withstand a vacuum, the vacuum is rather created between two concentric
tubes. The concentric glass tubes in ETCs are half spherically closed on one side and fused
together on the other side. In order to absorb the solar power, an environmentally friendly, highly
selective absorber layer is provided on the external surface of the inner glass tube. The heat pipe
is immersed inside of the inner tube and it transfers the absorbed heat to the manifold, which
transfers the heat to a circulating water line. This design enables the evacuated tubes to have a
maximum production, as they are optimized in geometry and performance.

Current selective absorbers are made of Aluminum-Nitride (AlN) layers with solar absorption of
92%, thus 8% of solar energy is lost due to reflectivity of the absorber material. In addition,
selective coating requires careful control over the sputtering process and thus the manufacturing
costs are expensive. Such coating with high reflectivity is less efficient compared to a black body
coating layer that has a high absorption amount of 98%. Current solar absorbers require a gas or
electric booster heater to provide functionality at night, on cloudy days, or in general when
incident solar energy is insufficient, which this adds to installation and maintenance costs. Our
target is to improve the ETCs by a qualitatively new technical approach for the selectiv
absorptive layer. There is great potential to utilize carbon-based materials for the selective solar

absorption coating in order to reduce the maintenance cost and removing the need for booster

1.2. Objectives
Objective of this report are as following-
1. Understanding the limitations of the conventional sources of energy.
2. Accounting the advantages of solar energy over other sources of energy.
3. Understanding the construction and working of the components used in solar power plant, and
more focus will be on the solar collector.
4. To understand the construction and working of the various components used in solar collector.
5. To compare evacuated tube solar collector with other various collectors available in market on
numerous criterion.
6. Scope of solar energy for our country.

1.3. Scope of Work

a) Selection of a topic for the seminar.
b) An initial literature study to learn about the evacuated tube solar collector.
c) Detailed study of evacuated tube collectors including the components used, material used for
construction of these components etc.
d) Consulting with the supervisor and clear any doubts or queries.
e) Preparing power point presentation and the report.
During this project, after an initial literature study to learn about different types of the solar
collectors used in the market and their application in various fields . Most of the project time and
effort was spent in collecting the information and organizing them in a presentable format.

Solar Thermal Collectors:

A solar thermal collector is a solar collector designed to collect heat by absorbing sunlight. The
term is applied to solar hot water panels, but may also be used to denote more complex
installations such as solar parabolic, solar trough and solar towers or simpler installations such as
solar air heat. The more complex collectors are generally used in solar power plants where solar
heat is used to generate electricity by heating water to produce steam which drives a turbine

connected to an electrical generator. The simpler collectors are typically used for supplemental
space heating in residential and commercial buildings. A collector is a device for converting the
energy in solar radiation into a more usable or storable form. The energy in sunlight is in the
form of electromagnetic radiation from the infrared to the ultraviolet wavelengths. The solar
energy striking the Earth's surface depends on weather conditions, as well as location and
orientation of the surface, but overall, it averages about 1kW/m2under clear skies with the
surface directly perpendicular to the sun's rays.

1.5. Classification of solar collectors:

There are basically two types of solar collectors:

 Non-concentrating
 Concentrating

In the non-concentrating type, the collector area (i.e. the area that intercepts the solar radiation) is
the same as the absorber area (i.e., the area absorbing the radiation). In these types the whole
solar panel absorbs the light.
Concentrating solar collector usually has concave reflecting surfaces to intercept and focus the
sun’s beam radiation to a smaller receiving area, thereby increasing the radiation flux. This
reduces heat losses and increases efficiency at high temperatures. Another advantage is that
reflectors can cost substantially less per unit area than collectors. This class of collector is used
for high-temperature applications such as steam production for the generation of electricity.
These collectors are best suited to climates that have an abundance of clear sky days.

Types of Non-concentrating Solar Collector:

Non-concentrating solar collectors can be classified as:

 Flat Plate Solar Collectors

 Evacuated Tube Solar Collector

Flat Plate Solar Collector:

In flat-plate collectors there is no optical concentration of sunlight and they are generally
stationary . In addition to this their outlet temperature capability is below 100 °C. Temperature

close to the boiling point of water can be achieved using flat plate solar collector. However to reach
higher temperatures evacuated-tube collectors and focusing collectors are used. In evacuated-tube
collectors they use vacuum to reduce heat lost and to protect the absorber coating from detraction.
By this way they can reach temperatures up to 140 °C and they can collect both direct and diffuse
solar radiation. A flat plate collector is basically a black surface that is placed at a convenient path of
the sun. And a typical flat plate collector is a metal box with a glass or plastic cover (called glazing)
on top and a dark-colored absorber plate on the bottom. The sides and bottom of the collector are
usually insulated to minimize heat loss.[11] The main components of flat plate solar collector are:
 Absorber Plate
 Flow Passage
 Cover Plate
 Insulation
 Enclosure

Evacuated Tube Solar Thermal Collectors

The evacuated tube solar collector works by absorbing solar energy in the form of UV rays and
converting it into thermal energy. An evacuated tube solar collector contains a number of
evacuated tubes. Each evacuated tube is responsible for independently absorbing the sun's
radiation that reaches it.
Evacuated tube heat pipe collectors can more easily attain the higher temperatures needed, they
can collect and retain heat even when it is very cold outside, and due to their superior Incidence
Angle Modifier they collect solar energy more evenly throughout the day resulting in a lower buffer
or thermal storage requirement.

Types of Concentrating Solar Collector:
Concentrating solar collectors can be classified as:

1. Parabolic trough collector

2. Mirror Strip Collector

3. Fresnel Lens collector

4. Point focusing collector

5. Compound Parabolic collector


2.1 Introduction
The Evacuated tube collector consists of a number of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes
connected to a header pipe and which are used in place of the blackened heat absorbing plate we
saw in the previous flat plate collector. These glass tubes are cylindrical in shape. Therefore, the
angle of the sunlight is always perpendicular to the heat absorbing tubes which enables these
collectors to perform well even when sunlight is low such as when it is early in the morning or
late in the afternoon, or when shaded by clouds. Evacuated tube collectors are particularly useful
in areas with cold, cloudy wintry weathers.
Evacuated tube collectors are made up of a single or multiple rows of parallel, transparent glass
tubes supported on a frame. Each individual tube varies in diameter from between 1" (25mm) to
3" (75mm) and between 5′ (1500mm) to 8′ (2400mm) in length depending upon the
manufacturer. Each tube consists of a thick glass outer tube and a thinner glass inner tube, (called
a “twin-glass tube”) or a “thermos-flask tube” which is covered with a special coating that
absorbs solar energy but inhibits heat loss. The tubes are made of borosilicate or soda lime glass,
which is strong, resistant to high temperatures and has a high transmittance for solar irradiation.
2.2 Types Of Evacuated Tube Collector
Evacuated-tube can broadly be classified into two main groups.
• Direct-flow evacuated-tube collectors
• Heat pipe evacuated-tube collectors
• Integrated Tank Solar Collectors

2.3 Direct Flow Evacuated Tube Collector

Direct flow evacuated tube collectors also known as “U” pipe collectors, are different from the
previous ones in that they have two heat pipes running through the centre of the tube. One pipe
acts as the flow pipe while the other acts as the return pipe. Both pipes are connected together at
the bottom of the tube with a “U-bend”, hence the name. The heat absorbing reflective plate acts
like a dividing strip which separates the flow and the return pipes through the solar collector
tubes. The absorber plate and the heat transfer tube are also vacuum sealed inside a glass tube
providing exceptional insulation properties.

Constuction and Working
The hollow heat pipes and the flat or curved reflector plate are made out of copper with a
selective coating to increase the collectors overall efficiency. This particular evacuated tube
configuration is similar in operation to the flat plate collectors, with the exception of the vacuum
provided by the outer tube.

Since the heat transfer fluid flows into and out of each tube, direct flow evacuated tube collectors
are not as flexible as the heat pipe types. If a tube cracks or breaks it can not be easily replaced.
The system will require draining as there is a “wet” connection between the tube and manifold.


Many solar industry professionals believe that direct flow evacuated tube designs are more
energy efficient than heat pipe designs, because with direct flow, there isn’t a heat
exchange between fluids. Also, in an all-glass direct flow construction the two heat tubes are
placed one inside the other so the fluid being heated passes down the middle of the inner tube
and then back up through the outer absorber tube.Direct flow evacuated tubes can collect both

direct and diffuse radiation and do not require solar tracking. However, various reflector shapes
placed behind the tubes are sometimes used to usefully collect some of the solar energy, which
may otherwise be lost, thus providing a small amount of solar concentration.

2.4 Heat Pipe Evacuated Tube Collectors

In heat pipe evacuated tube collectors, a sealed heat pipe, usually made of copper to increase the
collectors efficiency in cold temperatures, is attached to a heat absorbing reflector plate within
the vacuum sealed tube. The hollow copper heat pipe within the tube is evacuated of air but
contains a small quantity of a low pressure alcohol/water liquid plus some additional additives to
prevent corrosion or oxidation. This vacuum enables the liquid to vapourise at very lower
temperatures than it would normally at atmospheric pressure. When sunlight in the form of solar
radiation hits the surface of the absorber plate inside the tube, the liquid in the heat pipe quickly
turns into a hot vapour type gas due to presence of the vacuum. As this gas vapour is now lighter,
it rises up to the top portion of the pipe heating it up to a very high temperature.

Construction and Working

Basic components used in heat pipe evacuated tube collector-
1.Heat Pipe
Heat pipe design comprises a long hollow copper pipe with a larger diameter bulb at one end. A
small amount of high purity water is added into the heat pipe and then heated to high
temperatures to evacuate any air from within the space. In a heat pipe, the vacuum is not used for
insulation, but rather to alter the behavior of the liquid inside.
The heat pipes used in solar collectors have a boiling point of only around 30oC (86oF), so when
the heat pipe is heated above this temperature the water begins to vaporize. This vapour rapidly
rises to the top of the heat pipe and carries with it large amounts of heat. As the heat is off-
loaded to the to the cooler liquid circulating through the solar collector header pipe at the bulb,
the vapour condenses to form a liquid (water) and returns to the bottom of the heat pipe to once
again repeat the cycle. At sea level water boils at 100oC / 212oF, but if you climb to the top of a
mountain the boiling temperature will be lower. This is due to the difference in air pressure, and
a vacuum is a state of very low pressure. Based on this principle of water boiling at a lower
temperature with decreased air pressure, by evacuating the heat pipe we can achieve the same
result. At room temperature the water in the heat pipe forms a small ball shape. When the heat
pipe is shaken, the ball of water can be heard rattling inside. Although it is just water, it sounds
like a piece of hard metal. Making a quality heat pipe requires more than 20 manufacturing steps
with strict quality control.

The job of the heat pipes in the evacuated tubes is to rapidly transfer away the heat. The heat
pipe capacity must therefore be greater than the evacuated tube's maximum output to avoid a
bottle neck in the heat transfer chain. Material quality and cleaning are extremely important to
the creation of a good quality heat pipe. The purity of the copper itself must also be very high,
containing only trace amounts of oxygen and other impurities. If the copper contains too many
impurities, they will leach out into the vacuum over time forming a pocket of air in the top of the
heat pipe. This has the effect of moving the heat pipe's hottest point downward away from the
bulb where the heat transfer is required to occur.

2. Evacuated Glass Tube

Evacuated Tubes are the heart of solar collector responsible for absorbing sunlight and
converting it into usable heat. The evacuated tube design was originally developed in the 1980s

and has proven to be extremely robust. Referred to as the "Sydney" tube, "twin-tube" or "all-
glass", the tube is essentially two glass tubes that are fused at the top and bottom. The inner tube
has a solar absorbing coating, and the space between the two tubes is evacuated to form a
vacuum. The tubes are made from a type of glass called Borosilicate, the same base material as
used in many Pyrex glass products used in kitchens around the world. Borosilicate glass has the
characteristic of being very strong and also has excellent light transparency.
The wall thickness of the glass greatly impacts the strength, longevity and naturally also the cost.
Evacuated tubes are custom made to strict requirements that exceed the industry standards,
including a 1.8mm thick wall ensuring excellent strength and resilience to hail impact. To
confirm the strength of the tubes, each batch of evacuated tubes assembled in the factory have
randomly selected samples tested by dropping a 30mm / 1.2" diameter steel ball onto the tube
from various heights.

The name "evacuated" is used to describe the process that expels the air from within the space
between the tube tubes, forming a vacuum. A vacuum is an excellent insulator against heat loss,
and so evacuated tubes are able to operate very efficiently when there is a big difference between
the inside of the tube and the outside ambient air. For this reason evacuated tubes are the ideal
choice for high temperature hot water applications or locations that get cold in the
winter. Barium Getter is used to help maintain the vacuum over the 15-20 year life of the
evacuated tube. The absorber coating comprises a base layer of Aluminium on the outside of the
inner glass tube followed by thin layer of the dark coloured AL/N material. These coatings are
applied using a method called dc reactive sputtering which is extremely reliable after having
been fine tuned over the past 20 years since it was developed.

The combination of the highly efficient absorber coating and the vacuum insulation means that
the coating can be well over 200oC / 392oF and the outer glass is cool to touch. In strong
sunlight, each evacuated tube can provide over 60 Watts / 204 Btu of water heating output.

3. Absorber Plate
Absorber plate is the heart of evacuated tube collector is absorber plate. It takes up the energy in

sunlight and converts it into heat. The more efficient the absorber, the greater the collector's
output. These products absorb 95% of incident sunlight. At the same time, they only lose some
4% of heat radiation, so that around 90% of the solar energy can be used as heat. In this way,
manufacturers of flat-plate and evacuated-tube collectors can ensure the greatest quality and
maximum yield for their customers. Until about 20 years ago the absorber sheet was almost
always made entirely of copper, which is one of the best thermal conductors known. However,
price increases in copper began to make such collectors too expensive and the attention of
designers turned to ways of achieving good collection efficiency with cheaper materials.
Unfortunately, there is nothing like copper for corrosion resistance in the actual waterways and,
even now, most solar water heaters still have copper water pipes. The next best readily available
conductor for the sheet is aluminium whose conductivity not as good as that of copper, is still
quite good. To reduce the cost by replacing copper tubes with GS tube and copper plate with
aluminium (Al) plate, the aluminium plate is wrapped over the GS tube by a special wire wound
technique so that good contact of plate with risers and headers is maintained. The absorber plate
is usually black, since dark surfaces demonstrate a particularly high degree of sunlight

The purposes of the absorber plate are:

 To take up the maximum possible amount of solar irradiance, which means it should have
high absorptance (or absorptivity). The absorptance value depends upon the material.
 To conduct heat into the working fluid with a minimum temperature difference, which
means it should exhibit high thermal conductivity
 To lose a minimum amount of heat back to the surroundings. This loss mechanism is a
function of the emittance of the surface.

4.Heat Exchanger
A heat exchanger is a device designed to efficiently transfer or "exchange" heat from one matter
to another. When a fluid is used to transfer heat, the fluid could be a liquid, such as water or oil,
or could be moving air. The most well known type of heat exchanger is a car radiator.
There are various types of heat exchangers

1. Air-to-liquid cooling,
2. Liquid-to-air cooling.
3. Liquid-to-liquid cooling
4. Air-to-air cooling

In Evacuated tube collector air to liquid type of heat exchanger as the heat is absorbed by the
absorber plate and then it is absorbed by the heat pipe. Heat pipe transmits the heat collected
from one end to the other end , at the other water to be heated is placed and it is heated by the
heat pipe.

5. Insulated Box
The tubes in which water to be heated are stored are kept in an insulated box. Insulated boxes are
generally made up of copper, insulated box are used in order to minimise the heat loss due to
convection. Insulated box helps in transmitting heat to the water and maintaining as little heat
loss as possible.

6.Inlet and Outlet Valve

Separate valves are provided for the entrance and exit of water. Inlet valves carries cold water
which is required to be heated while outlet valves carried heated water which is used for either
domestic or commercial purpose.


The main advantage of Heat Pipe Evacuated Tube Collectors is that there is a “dry” connection
between the absorber plate and the manifold making installation much easier than with direct
flow collectors. Also, in the event an evacuated tube cracking or breaking and the vacuum
becoming lost the individual tube can be exchanged without emptying or dismantling the entire
system. This flexibility makes heat pipe evacuated tube solar hot water collectors ideal for closed
loop solar designs as the modular assembly allows for easy installation and ability to easily
expand by adding as many tubes as you want.

2.5 Integrated Tank Solar Collector
Where temperatures are not likely to drop into the freezing zone, many evacuated tube solar
collectors are made with an integrated storage tank at the top of the collector. This design has
many advantages over a system that uses a separate standalone heat-exchanger tank. With the
tank separate, you are required to operate solar controllers, water pumps, expansion tanks, etc.
All this extra equipment can greatly increase the cost of the system. The separate heat exchanger
tank can also be the single most expensive component in your system.
With the tank included in the design, water flow is controlled via your standard household water
pressure. The reduction in electronics not only reduces the cost but also reduces failure points
and operational complexity.


Comparison with other collectors on various criterions-

3.1. Comparison Of Maximum Temperature

Flat Plate 30 - 80
Evacuated Tube 77 - 177
Parabolic Trough upto 400
Point Focus 650 - 750

Table 3.1 Comparison of Maximum Temperature

3.2. Comparison Of Working Condition

Flat Plate More efficient during sunny days, efficiency
decreases as intensity of sunlight decreases.
Evacuated Tube Performs well in sunny, humid, overcast as well as
cold weather.
Parabolic Trough Due to parabolic trough maximum sunlight
collection takes place, works comparatively well
than other collectors during overcast condition
Point Focus Solar tracking is requires, point focus collectors can
generate very high temperature but in order to do
that it focuses the sunlight by using a lens and the
sun must be tracked by the collector throughout the

Table 3.2 Comparison of Working Conditions

3.3. Comparison of Cost

Flat Plate 15,000 – 20,000 Rs./m2
Evacuated Tube 24,000 – 40,000 Rs.(20 tubes)
Parabolic Trough 32,000 – 45,000 Rs./m2
Point Focus above 50,000 Rs/ m2

Table 3.3 Comparison of Cost

3.4. Comparison of Applications

Flat Plate Used for heating water for domestic purposes.
Evacuated Tube Due to high cost these are used for heating
water for industrial and commercial purposes.
Parabolic Trough Used to generate steam for electricity
generation and are not used in residential
Point Focus Used for steam generation or for
driving Sterling Engines.

Table 3.3 Comparison of Application



India, a rapidly growing economy with more than 1 billion people, is facing a huge energy
demand. The country stands fifth in the world in the production and consumption of electricity.
The electricity production has expanded over the years but we cannot deny the fact that the
population of the country is also expanding. The power produced in the country is mostly from
coal (53%) and it is predicted that country’s coal reserves won’t last beyond 2040-50. More than
72% population living in villages and half of the villages remain without electricity. It’s high
time that our country should concentrate more on energy efficiency, conservation and renewable
energy. To meet this surging demand, solar energy is the best form of energy to fulfill the energy
needs of India and bridge the energy demand-supply gap.

India has tremendous scope of generating solar energy. The geographical location of the country
stands to its benefit for generating solar energy. The reason being India is a tropical country and
it receives solar radiation almost throughout the year, which amounts to 3,000 hours of sunshine.
This is equal to more than 5,000 trillion kWh. Almost all parts of India receive 4-7 kWh of solar
radiation per sq metres. This is equivalent to 2,300–3,200 sunshine hours per year. States like
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab,
Rajasthan, and West Bengal have great potential for tapping solar energy due to their location.
Since majority of the population lives in rural areas, there is much scope for solar energy being
promoted in these areas. Use of solar energy can reduce the use of firewood and dung cakes by
rural household.

As the solar energy is promoted in India definitely the use of solar collectors will also be
encouraged. Evacuated tube collectors are suitable commercial or industrial purposes and it has
seen rapid increase in it's adoption. Government of India is providing several schemes and
benefits to the citizen for adopting solar energy. As the adoption of solar energy reduces the load
on power plants and reduces the pollution level. Initial cost of installation is high but it will be
beneficial for long time period as it requires very low maintenance and cost per unit energy
produced is very low.

4.1 Advantages

 A north facing roof is not necessary. However, the collectors tubes should and can be
pitched so they face north.
 When operating as a solar hot water system they draw 20 -30 Watts of power compared
to electric hot water systems that draw 3600 Watts of power.
 If installed properly, they are less prone to freezing when compared to similar flat
panelled solar hot water systems.
 Produces higher fluid temperature then flat plate collectors
 Good performance even in cold weather.
 Do not need direct sunlight to operate.
 Conversion efficiency is over 90%.
 When evacuated tubes break, which is quite rare, the tubes are cheap to replace when
compared to flat panels. See how to repair a broken evacuated tube
 They do not make a noise like heat pumps do when the solar hot water system is on.
 They attract a higher STC rebate ( solar hot water rebates) than many other solar hot
water systems because of their efficiency.
 They are available in both electric and gas boosted models and various tank sizes.
4.2 Disadvantages

 They are more expensive to have supplied and installed than most other types of solar hot
 Evacuated tube, solar hot water systems require more maintenance than the less efficient
glycol filled tank on roof flat panel systems.
 Evacuated tubes overheat too easily when installed flat against roofs, when the
circulation in the system is too slow or if the system is oversized.
 Becomes extremely hot in summer.
 Installation process is complicated.
 Suitable only for commercial and industrial purposes.

{1} http://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Solar_collector
{3} http://www.elektromag.com/Solar_Material_Absorber_Coatings.aspx
{5} https://greenterrafirma.com/evacuated_tube_collector.html
{6} https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X97000467
{7} https://greenterrafirma.com/evacuated_tube_collector.html
{8} https://www.thegreenage.co.uk/article/how-do-evacuated-tube-solar-thermal-hot-