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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

TITLE

OF

THE

THESIS:

A

study

on

traffic

volume

Mymensingh Highway 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

&

capacity

of

Dhaka

One of the most critical necessity in traffic engineering is a clear understanding of how much traffic a given facility can accommodate and under what operating conditions. These important issues are addressed in high way capacity and level of service analysis. The basis for all capacity and level of service analysis is a set of analytic procedures that relate demand of existing flow levels, geometric characteristic, and controls to measures of the resulting quality of operations.

Highway capacity is the ability of road to accommodate traffic volume. It is the maximum hourly rate at which vehicles can reasonably be expected to cross a point on a roadway during a given time period under prevailing traffic roadway and control condition. For multilane highway it is 2000 people and for 2- lane highway is 2800 pcph (passenger car per hour) units: vph (vehicle per hour) or vphpl (vehicle per hour per lane).

In a road traffic system, intersections are one of the important bottlenecks, which interrupt smooth flow traffic and thereby cause delays. To avoid unnecessary delay or to get an efficient traffic flow, intersections need to be designed properly and carefully. Along with appropriate road geometry, the necessary traffic control devices also need to be applied wisely.

A high way in any public road or other public way on land; the term exists in distinction to waterway. In north American and Australian English, the term frequently implies a major road such as a controlled access highway or an arterial, generally under control of a state or provincial agency instead of a local road authority. In British English, highway primarily a legal term, and normal usage implies roads, while legal usage covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc. the term has led to several related derived terms, including system, highway and highway patrol.

The Dhaka-Mymensingh highway in the most important transportation highway in Bangladesh, accounting for 16 percent of the area of the country, 50 percent of the population, 57 percent of the nation’s import- export flows. Mymensingh port handles about 90 percent of the countries overseas traffic.

People from several districts use this high way to connect with the capital. Every day they come to the capital on morning & return home on evening. If they do not need to stay in Dhaka, then the living cost can be saved. As the distance between Dhaka and Mymensingh is about 108 km and the travel time is approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes, so it will be

possible to move from Mymensingh to Dhaka. Besides this, this will also reduce the overpopulation problem in Dhaka. There are 60% industries in Bangladesh which are located nearby Dhaka Mymensingh highway and also 2530 garments are located on Gazipur, Tongi, Valuka & Mymensingh. As per above description the Dhaka Mymensingh highway is very important to maintain communication among the people living near by the highway.

  • 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

    • 01. To provide information to the authority helping them in decision making for traffic control.

    • 02. To find out the capacity of Dhaka- Mymensingh highway

    • 03. To determine the level of service (LOS).

    • 04. To determine the degree of saturation.

    • 05. To find out the traffic volume of Dhaka Mymensingh highway

  • 1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

  • The road has been selected for our study from Dhaka to Mymensingh. Data have been collected from our selected intersection of the roads and volume of traffic have been found by calculating and analyzing these data and which is show on pi-chart and bar-chart. In within short time we have tried to complete the work. To do the work we faced some problems as follow: Calculate the length and width was hard for so many vehicles.

    1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS Chapter 1:

    This chapter includes background, objectives, scope & limitations of the study,

    organization of the thesis.

    Chapter 2:

    Include a general, definition, factors affecting traffic volume, using count period to

    determine study method.

    Chapter 3:

    Includes the general, flow chart of study, selection of study area, methodology, traffic

    factor used during data collection, vehicle types, capacity and degree of saturation.

    Chapter 4:

    The chapter includes general, volume calculation, capacity calculation, Level of service,

    degree of saturation.

    Chapter 5:

    Includes results and discussions.

    Chapter-6

    Conclusions and gives recommendations and suggestion for future traffic rules and

    regulation.

    CHAPTER TWO

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    • 2.1 General

    Important terminology and concept are carried out in this chapter. It includes the definitions of the basis parameters of the concerned topic as well as different factors

    affecting the PCU values of traffic volume various literatures regarding the thesis were studied in order to precede the work. Traffic volume studies are conducted to determine the number movements and classifications of roadway vehicles at a given location. This data can help identify critical low time periods, determine the influence of large vehicles or pedestrians on vehicular traffic flow or documents traffic volume trends.

    • 2.2 Definitions

    Here some important definition and terminology related to the thesis topic is given.

    • 2.2.1 Volume/Flow

    The total number of vehicles that pass over a given point or section of a lane or roadway

    during a given time interval. It may be expressed in terms of annual, daily, hourly, or sub- hourly periods, usually in vph or vpd. Volume is an actual number of vehicles observed or predicted to passing a point during a given interval.

    • 2.2.2 Traffic Volume

    Traffic volume is a measure of the total work done by a resource or facility, normality over 24 hours and is measured in units of erlang-hours. It is defined as the product of the average traffic intensity and the time period of the study.

    Traffic Volume = Traffic intensity x time A traffic volume of one erlang-hour can be caused by two circuits being occupied continuously for half an hour or by a circuit being half occupied (0.5

    erlang) for a period of telecommunication operators are vitally interested in traffic volume, as it directly dictates their revenue.( wikipedia)

    • 2.2.3 Traffic Control

    Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public. Traffic control also includes the use of CCTV and other means of monitoring traffic by local or state roadways authorities to manage traffic flows and providing advice concerning traffic congestion. This is not dealt with in this article. Traffic controllers (TC's) are often known as "lollipop men" (usually this name only applies to TC's working near schools to aid pupils in road crossing) from the appearance of their Stop/Slow signs, known as "Stop bats". (Wikipedia)

    • 2.2.4 Rate of Flow

    The equivalent hourly rate is which vehicles pass over a given point or section of a lane or

    roadway during a given time interval less than 1 hr. Usually 15 min. It represents the number of vehicles passing during a time interval less than 1 hr, but expressed a s an equivalent hourly rate.

    • 2.2.5 Saturated flow

    The saturation flow rate crossing a signalized stop line is defined as the number of vehicles per hour that could cross the line if the signal remained green all of the time. It is

    not practical to measure this quantity directly in the field because the signal does not usually remain green for more than a minute or soon each cycle. The Units of saturation flow rate are "Vehicles per hour of green" (vphg). This is sometimes expressed on a per- lane basis as "vehicles per hour of green per lane". (H.M.Zhang,1998).

    • 2.2.6 Degree of saturation

    In traffic engineering, the degree of saturation of an intersection (typically under traffic signal control) or road is a measure of how much demand it is experiencing compared to its total capacity.

    The degree of saturation (%) is a ratio of demand to capacity on each approach to the junction, with a value of 100% meaning that demand and capacity are equal and no further traffic is able to progress through the junction. Values over 85% are typically regarded as suffering from traffic congestion, with queues of vehicles beginning to form. The term practical reserve capacity (PRC) is often used to the available spare capacity at a junction. A negative PRC indicates that the junction is over capacity. (Transportation Research Board)

    • 2.2.7 Passenger Car Unit (PCU)

    It is a vehicle unit used for expressing highway capacity. One car is considered as a single

    unit, cycle, motorcycle is considered as half car unit. Bus, truck causes a lot of inconvenience because of its large size and is considered equivalent to 3 cars or 3 PCU.

    • 2.2.8 Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE)

    It is the method of expressing various types of vehicles having different characteristics in a common equivalent unit. It is needed to remove the effects of traffic composition from flow calculation. One car is considered as one unit. In repeat of it road occupancy and operational requirements each type of vehicle is equivalent to a number of passenger cars this is called the passengers car Equivalent / Unit (PCE/PCU). (Institute of Traffic Engineers)

    • 2.2.9 Level of Service

    Level of service (LOS) is a qualitative measure used to relate the quality of traffic service.

    LOS is used to analyze highways by categorizing traffic flow and assigning quality levels of traffic based on performance measure like speed, density, etc. (Hobeika et.al, 2004)

    2.2.10 Average Daily Traffic (ADT)

    The volume during a given time period (in the whole days greater than arc day but less

    than year) divided by the number of days in that time period and expressed in terms of veh/day or vpd. (Institute of Traffic Engineers)

    2.2.11 Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT)

    It is the total yearly volume divided by the number of days in a year and expressed in

    terms of veh/day or vpd.

    2.2.12 Average Daily Traffic and Average Daily Traffic Counts

    Average daily traffic (ADT) Counts represent a 24 hour count at any specified location. These counts are obtained by placing an automatic counter at the analysis location for a 25

    hour period. Accuracy of the ADT data depends on the count being performed during typical roadway, weather and traffic demand conditions. Local levels of movement will typically conduct this type of count. (Institute of Traffic Engineers)

    2.2.13Design Hourly Volume

    It is the economic hourly flow of future year, which is used for designing geometric features of roadway. It is chosen ip such a way that during the design period it should not be exceeded too often or too much.

    2.3 Factors Affecting Traffic Volume

    These factors can be classified as

    Geometric Factors Signal Operation Traffic Factor Environmental Factors Other Factors

    2.3.1

    Geometric Factor

    These factors usually control the capacity of an approach and the physical layout of the

    approach. Some geometric factors are described below with their effects.

    2.3.2

    Signal Operations

    The Principal factors are The number of vehicle crossing the stop line in a given period of time.

    The cycle length (Hence the number of cycle per hour)

    The preparation of time during the signal is effectively green. (Baher Abdulhai

    et.al,1999)

    2.3.3

    Traffic Factors

    Factors are used to adjust short term Traffic Counts. They are used to estimate "average"

    conditions and to account for variability in the traffic stream. Short term counts are typically collected for 48 hour counters that record hourly data.

    2.3.4

    Environment Factors

    Environment factors are mainly depends on effect of site characteristics, weather

    condition, and upon human characteristics.

    • 2.4 Using Count Period to Determine Study Method

    Two methods are available for conducting traffic volume counts: (1) Manual and (2)

    Automatic. Manual Counts are typically used to gather data for determination of vehicle classification, turning movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements, or vehicle occupancy. Automatic counts are typically used to gather data for determination of vehicle hourly patterns, daily or seasonal variations and growth trends, or annual traffic estimates.

    2.4.1

    Manual Count Method

    Most applications of manual counts require small samples of data at any given location. Manual counts are sometimes used when the effort and expense of automated equipment are not justified. Manual counts are necessary when automatic equipment is not available. Manual counts are typically used for periods of less than a day. Normal internals for a manual count are 5, 10 or 15 minutes.(Botswanq Guideline 9,2004)

    2.4.1.1

    Advantages

    By traffic volume method as well as vehicle classification and turning proportions

    can be obtained. Data can be immediately after collection.

    Can easily get knowledge about the road, intersections and the nature of the road.

    2.4.1.2

    Disadvantages

    Error is common especially when volume is high.

    Count cannot be crossed checked.

    • 2.4.2 Manual Count Recoding Methods

    Manual counts are recorded using one of three methods; tally sheets, mechanical counting

    boards, or electric counting boards.

    • 2.4.3 Tally Sheets

    Recording data onto tally sheets is the simplest means of conducting manual counts the data can be recorded with a tick mark on a pre-prepared field form. A watch or stopwatch

    is necessary to measure the desired count interval. A blank traffic volume count intersection tally sheet is provided.

    • 2.4.4 Mechanical Counting Boards

    Mechanical count boards consist of country mounted on a board that record each direction

    of travel. Common counts include pedestrian, bicycle, vehicle

    Classification and traffic volume counts. Typical counters are push button devices with three of five registers. Each button represents a different stratification of type of vehicle or pe4destrian being counted. The limited number of buttons on the counter can restrict the number of classifications that can be counted on a given board. A watch or a stopwatch is also necessary with this method to measure the desired count interval. (Botswanq Guideline 9,2004)

    Classification and traffic volume counts. Typical counters are push button devices with three of five registers.

    Fig: 2.1: Mechanical Counting Board

    2.4.5 Electronic Counting Boards

    Electric Counting boards are battery operated, hand-held devices used in collecting traffic count data. They are similar to mechanical counting boards, but with some important differences. Electronic counting boards are lighter, more compact, and easier to handle, They have an interval clock that automatically separates that the data by time interval. Special functions include automatic data reduction and summer. The data can also be downloaded to a computer, which saves time. Hence is an example of electronic counting board. (Botswanq Guideline 9,2004) Key steps to a manual count study. A manual count study includes three key steps.

    Perform necessary office preparations.

    Select proper observer location.

    Label data sheets and record observations.

     Label data sheets and record observations. Fig2.2: Electric Counting Board. 2.5 Automatic Count Method a)

    Fig2.2: Electric Counting Board.

    2.5 Automatic Count Method

    a) The automatic count method provides a means for gathering large amounts of traffic data. Automatic counts are usually taken in 1-hour intervals for each 24-hour period. The counts may extend for a week, month, or year. When the counts are recorded for each 24- hour time period, the peak flow period can be identified. (FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide, June 2013).

    2.5.1.1 Advantages

    • This method is suitable for long duration or continuous count.

    • It is used permanent counting station.

    • It does not need manpower and is free from human error.

    2.5.1.2 Disadvantages

    It requires strict lane discipline.

    Non-motorized vehicles are hard to detect by this method.

    Accuracy is less than manual method.

    Installation cost his high.

    • 2.5.2 Automatic Count Recording Methods

    Automatic counts are recorded using are of three methods: Portable counters, Permanent

    counters, and videotape.

    • 2.5.3 Portable Counters

    Portable counting is a form of manual observation. Portable counters serve the same

    purpose as manual counts but with automatic counting equipment. The period of data collection using this method is usually longer than when using manual counts. The portable counter method is mainly used for 24-hour counts. (Sheriflashak et.al, 2003)

    2.5.1.2 Disadvantages  It requires strict lane discipline.  Non-motorized vehicles are hard to detect by

    Fig 2.3: Pneumatic Road tube and Recorder

    2.5.4

    Permanent Counters

    Permanent Counters are used when long-term counts are to be conducted. The counts could be performed every day for a year or more. The data collected may be used to monitor and evaluate traffic volumes and trends over a long period of time. Permanent counters are not a cas-effective option in most situations. Few jurisdictions have access to this equipment.(Botswanq Guideline 9, 2004)

    • 2.5.5 Videotape

    Observation can record count data by videotaping traffic. Traffic volumes can be counted by viewing videotapes recorded with a camera at a collection site. A digital clock in the

    video image can prove useful in noting time intervals. Videotaping is not a cost effective option in most situations. Few small jurisdictions have access have access to this equipment. In this method, data is collected using video camera. Video is captured for long time and data is collected later by rewinding. (Botswanq Guideline 9, 2004)

    Advantages

    Besides traffic volume, several traffic parameters can be obtained from recorded film. Data can be cross checked and quality can be ensured. This method is applicable when

    volume is high. It is suitable for non-lane based Traffic operation.

    Disadvantages

    A suitable elevated place is required for filming operation data cannot be used

    immediately after collection.

    • 2.5.6 Key Step to an Automatic Count Study

    An automatic count study includes three key steps.

    Perform necessary preparations.

    Deploy and calibrate data collection equipment.

    Check data and retrieve equipment.

    CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

    3.1 General

    The Study we have been done that divided into four parts. First: investigation of the roads and lanes. Second: get knowledge and information about the roads and lanes. Third: the traffic data at specific route. Fourth collecting all the data and calculate all of them using a face to face technique and video recording, imperial data were collected for the study by sample survey method. Based on the information and the data, collected from the visits, several meetings of the term members were held and an inter term test information checklist was prepared.

    CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 General The Study we have been done that divided into four parts.

    Fig 3.1: Map of Dhaka-Mymensingh Highway

    3.2 Flow Chart of Study

    Preliminary survey Select the Proper Location Preparations of Data Collection Field Survey Video Recording Collect the
    Preliminary survey
    Select the Proper Location
    Preparations of Data Collection
    Field Survey
    Video Recording
    Collect the data
    Data Analysis
    Evaluate the Data
    Calculate Volume
    the traffic
    Calculate the capacity
    Completion File the report
    Completion
    File the report

    3.3 Selection of Study Area

    Observers must be positioned where we have a clear view of the traffic. Observers should be positioned away from the edge of the roadway. It observers are positioned above ground level and clear of obstructions we usually have the best vantage point. Visual contract must be maintained if there are multiple observers at a site. If views are unobstructed, observers may count from inside a vehicle. Gazipur Chowrasta lane, Bhaluka lane and Mymensingh lane is our 3 selected areas.

    3.3 Selection of Study Area Observers must be positioned where we have a clear view of

    3.2.1: Gazipur Chowrasta Lane

    3.2: Bhaluka Lane and Mymensingh Lane

    3.2: Bhaluka Lane and Mymensingh Lane

    3.4 Layout of Study Area

    S N POOTPATH TO MYMENSINGH Pavement ? Road Divider Pavement TO MAHAKHALI FOOTPATH
    S
    N
    POOTPATH
    TO MYMENSINGH
    Pavement
    ?
    Road Divider
    Pavement
    TO MAHAKHALI
    FOOTPATH

    Fig 3.3: Gazipur Chowrasta road

    POOTPATH TO MYMENSINGH Pavement Road Divider Pavement TO MAHAKHALI FOOTPATH
    POOTPATH
    TO MYMENSINGH
    Pavement
    Road Divider
    Pavement
    TO MAHAKHALI
    FOOTPATH

    Fig 3.3: Bhaluka Road

    POOTPATH TO MYMENSINGH Pavement Road Pavement Road Divider Pavement Road To MAHAKHALI FOOTPATH
    POOTPATH
    TO MYMENSINGH
    Pavement
    Road
    Pavement
    Road Divider
    Pavement Road
    To MAHAKHALI
    FOOTPATH

    Fig 3.5: Mymensingh Road

    3.5 Methodology

    After selecting the lanes, the width is been measured for each lane by the measurement tape. The Gazipur Chowrasta lane, Valuka lane and Mymensingh lane were been choose for study. To get the best position for vehicle recording related to the visibility of the approach to be surveyed of the stop line and the signal. And to see whether the study can hamper pedestrian and other local activates, if so then changing the recording position. To fix the best suitable location for video recording to cover discharge process and best time for data collection (Pick hour). The recorded video was observed thoroughly to get a clear view of the pattern of queue formation, the vehicle performance and their behavior.

    The volume of all traffic is been calculated properly by manual counting method

    from the recorded video. The total number of passenger is also been calculated carefully.

    Then the data was being converted in PCU by the standard rule of data conversion. Capacity analysis of this lane is done after getting traffic volume, which is done after getting traffic volumes.

    3.6 Traffic Factor Used During Data Collection

    Classified vehicle count data for Dhaka-Mymensingh Highway has been collected at video

    tape recording method of an hour. After sampling final data are presented in this chapter.

    (Source: Roads & Highways Department, May 2000, Geometric Design Standards for)

    The following PCU values were used:

    Type of vehicle

    PCU

    Bus

    3.0

    Truck

    3.0

    Micro

    1.0

    Car

    1.0

    Pick up

    1.0

    Leguna

    1.0

    Honda

    0.5

    3.7 Vehicle Types

    The different types of vehicles present in the heterogeneous traffic, for the purpose of this

    study, were grouped into eight categories as follows:

    • Motorized two wheelers (M.T.W) which include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds.

    • Motorized three wheelers (M.T.W) which include auto rickshaw- three wheeled motorized par transit vehicles to carry maximum of three passengers and tampos- three wheeled motorized vehicles to carry small quantities of goods.

    • Cars including, Jeeps and small vans.

    • Light commercial vehicles (LCV) comprising large passenger vans and small four wheeled good vehicles.

    • Bus.

    • Truck.

    • Bicycle and

    • Tricycle, which includes cycle rickshaw three wheeled pedal type

    • par transit vehicles to carry a maximum of two passengers and three wheeled pedal type vehicles to carry small amount of goods over short distance.

    Fig 3.6: Various types vehicle of road As the study pertains to traffic flow on urban

    Fig 3.6: Various types vehicle of road

    As the study pertains to traffic flow on urban articles, animal drawn vehicles were not considered as these vehicles are not permitted / present in negligible number on these roads. Each animal drawn vehicles, if present was taken to be equivalent to two tricycles for the purpose of simulation.

    Fig 3.6: Various types vehicle of road As the study pertains to traffic flow on urban

    Fig 3.7: Gazipur Chowrasta lane

    .

    . Fig 3.8 Mymensingh lane Fig 3.9 Top view at Gazipur bypass

    Fig 3.8 Mymensingh lane

    . Fig 3.8 Mymensingh lane Fig 3.9 Top view at Gazipur bypass

    Fig 3.9 Top view at Gazipur bypass

    Fig 3.9 Dhaka Mymensingh highway (Shalna Bypass) Fig 3.9 Dhaka Mymensingh highway (Bhaluka Bypass)

    Fig 3.9 Dhaka Mymensingh highway (Shalna Bypass)

    Fig 3.9 Dhaka Mymensingh highway (Shalna Bypass) Fig 3.9 Dhaka Mymensingh highway (Bhaluka Bypass)

    Fig 3.9 Dhaka Mymensingh highway (Bhaluka Bypass)

    Fig 3.12: Two lane highway 3.8 Calculation of Capacity Capacity is a. central concept in the

    Fig 3.12: Two lane highway

    3.8 Calculation of Capacity

    Capacity is a. central concept in the design of roads and traffic control. It is desirable to be

    able to predict the times and places where congestion Cars, the amount of delay involved, and the volume of traffic expected in bottom necks . Therefore it is important that capacity is clearly defined, is measurable, and can be used in modeling and operational decision making.

    Calculate Free Flow Speed :( Source: C.Jotin Khisty & B.Kent Lall, Third Edition,

    Transportation Engineering An Introduction) FFS = BFFS - f LW - f LC -f N f ID Where,

    FFS = estimated free-flow speed mph BFFS = base free flow speed, 70 mph for urban area f LW = adjustment factor for lane width (table: 3.14) f LC = adjustment factor for right shoulder lateral clearance (table: 3.15) F N = adjustment factor for number of lanes (table: 3.16) F ID = adjustment factor for interchange density (table: 3.17)

    Calculate Base Capacity

    Base Cap = 1,700 + 10FFS; for FFS <= 70

    Base Cap = 2,400; for FFS > 70

    Determine Peak Capacity (Peak Cap):

    Peak Cap = Base Cap x PHF * N x f HV - f p Where, PHF = Peak Hour Factor N = Number of lanes in one direction. Number of Peak Lanes f HV = adjustment factor for heavy vehicles f P - adjustment factor for driver population = 1 (familiar driver)

    PHF=

    415

    Where, V p = 15-min passenger-car flow rate (pc/k/ln) V = Hourly Volume (veh/h) V IS = peak 15 min volume

    f HV =1/(1 + T(T − 1) + R(ER − 1)

    Where,

    E t , E R = Passenger-car equivalents for trucks/buses and recreational vehicles, per fig: 3.18 and fig:

    3.18 respectively

    P T .P R = Proportion of trucks/buses and recreational vehicles in the traffic stream respectively,

    (Source: Transportation Research Board, 2000)

    Table 3.13: Level of Service for Basic Freeway Segments and Varying Free-Flow Speed

    Level of

    Maximum Density (

    Minimum Speed

    Maximum v/c

    Maximum Service

    Service

    Pc/mi/ln)

    (mph)

    ratio

    Flow Rate )pc/hr/In)

     

    Free Flow Speed -70 mph

    A

    11

    75.0

    0.34

    820

    B

    18

    74.8

    0.56

    1,350

    C

    26

    70.6

    0.76

    1,830

    D

    35

    62.2

    0.90

    2,170

    E

    45

    53.3

    1.00

    2,400

    F

    varies

    varies

    varies

    varies

     

    Free Flow Speed -70 mph

    A

    11

    75.0

    0.34

    820

    B

    18

    74.8

    0.56

    1,350

    C

    26

    70.6

    0.76

    1,830

    D

    35

    62.2

    0.90

    2,170

    E

    45

    53.3

    1.00

    2,400

    F

    varies

    varies

    varies

    varies

     

    Free Flow Speed -65 mph

    A

    11

    65.0

    0.30

    710

    B

    18

    65.0

    .50

    1,170

    C

    26

    64.6

    0.71

    1,680

    D

    35

    59.7

    0.89

    2,090

    E

    45

    52.2

    1.00

    2,350

    F

    varies

    varies

    varies

    varies

     

    Free Flow Speed -60 mph

    A

    11

    60.0

    0.29

    660

    B

    18

    60.0

    0.47

    1,080

    C

    26

    60.0

    0.68

    1,560

    D

    35

    57.6

    0.88

    2,020

    E

    45

    51.1

    1.00

    2,300

    F

    varies

    varies

    varies

    varies

     

    Free Flow Speed -55 mph

       

    A

    11

    55.0

    0.27

    600

    B

    18

    55.0

    0.44

    990

    C

    26

    55.0

    0.64

    1,430

    D

    35

    54.7

    0.85

    1,910

    E

    45

    50.0

    1.00

    2,250

    F

    varies

    varies

    varies

    varies

    Table 3.14: Freeway Adjustments for Lane Width

     

    Lane Width* (ft)

     

    Reduction in Free-Flow Speed, FLW (mph)

     

    12

     

    0.0

     

    11

     

    1.9

     

    10

     

    6.6

    Interpolation may be used for lane width values between those provided in table

    Interpolation may be used for lane width values between those provided in table

     

    Source: Highway Capacity Manual, U.S. Customary Units, Transportation Research Board 2000.

     

    Table 3.15: Freeway Adjustments for Right- Shoulder Lateral Clearance

    Right-Shoulder

    Reduction in Free-Flow Speed, FLC (mph)

     

    Lateral

     

    Clearance* (ft)

    Lanes in One Direction

     

    2

     

    3

    4

    5

     

    6

     
    • 0.0 0.0

    • 0.0 0.0

     
     

    5

     
    • 0.6 0.2

    • 0.4 0.1

     
     

    4

     
    • 1.2 0.4

    • 0.8 0.2

     
     

    3

     
    • 1.8 0.6

    • 1.2 0.3

     
     

    2

     
    • 2.4 0.8

    • 1.6 0.4

     
     

    1

     
    • 3.0 1.0

    • 2.0 0.5

     
     

    0

     
    • 3.6 1.2

    • 2.4 0.6

     
    Interpolation may be used for lane width values between those provided in table Source: Highway Capacity

    Interpolation may be used for lane width values between those provided in table Source: Highway Capacity Manual, U.S. Customary Units, Transportation Research Board 2000.

    Table 3.16: Freeway Adjustments for Number of Lanes

     

    Number of Lanes (One Direction)

    Reduction in Free-Flow Speed, FN (mph)

     

    5

     

    0.0

     

    4

     

    1.5

     

    3

     

    3.0

     

    2

     

    4.5

    Note: For all rural freeway segments, F N =0.0 Source: Highway Capacity Manual, U.S Customary Units, transportation Research Board, 2000

    Table 3.17: Freeway Adjustments for Interchange Density

    Interchanges per Mile

    Reduction in Free-Flow Speed, FN (mph)

    0.50

    0.0

    0.75

    1.3

    1.00

    2.5

    1.25

    3.7

    1.50

    5.0

    1.75

    6.3

    2.00

    7.5

    Source: Highway capacity Manual U.S Customary Units, Transportation research Board, 2000

    3.9 Calculation of Degree of Saturation

    In traffic engineering, the degree of saturation of an intersection or road is a measure of

    how much demand it is experiencing compared to its total capacity.

    Degree of Saturation =

    Where,

    • V = Volume

    • C = Capacity

    Table 3.18: Passenger-Car Equivalents for Trucks and Buses on Upgrades

     

    E T

    Grade

    Length

     

    Percent Trucks and Buses

     

    (%)

    (Miles)

    2

    4

    5

    6

    8

    10

    15

    20

    25

    >2

    All

    • 1.5 1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       

    2.3

    0.00.025

    • 1.5 1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >0.25-0.50

    • 1.5 1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >0.50-0.75

    • 1.5 1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >0.75-1.00

    • 2.0 2.0

       
    • 2.0 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 2.0 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >1.00-1.50

    • 2.5 2.5

       
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.0

     
    • 2.5 2.0

      • 2.0 2.0

       
     

    >1.50

    • 3.0 3.0

       
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.0

     
    • 2.5 2.0

      • 2.0 2.0

       

    3-4

    0.00.025

    • 1.5 1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >0.25-0.50

    • 2.0 2.0

       
    • 2.0 1.5

    2.

     
    • 2.0 1.5

      • 2.0 1.5

       
     

    >0.50-0.75

    • 2.5 2.5

       
    • 2.0 2.0

    2.0

     
    • 2.0 2.0

      • 2.0 2.0

       
     

    >0.75-1.00

    • 3.0 3.0

       
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.5

     
    • 2.5 2.0

      • 2.5 2.0

       
     

    >1.00-1.50

    • 3.5 3.5

       
    • 3.0 2.5

    3.0

     
    • 3.0 2.5

      • 3.0 2.5

       
     

    >1.50

    • 4.0 3.5

       
    • 3.0 2.5

    3.0

     
    • 3.0 2.5

      • 3.0 2.5

       

    4-5

    0.00.025

    • 1.5 1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >0.25-0.50

    • 3.0 2.5

       
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.0

     
    • 2.5 2.0

      • 2.0 2.0

       
     

    >0.50-0.75

    • 3.5 3.0

       
    • 3.0 2.5

    2.5

     
    • 3.0 2.5

      • 2.5 2.5

       
     

    >0.75-1.00

    • 4.0 3.5

       
    • 3.5 3.0

    3.0

     
    • 3.5 3.0

      • 3.0 3.0

       
     

    >1.00

    • 5.0 4.0

       
    • 4.0 3.0

    3.5

     
    • 4.0 3.0

      • 3.5 3.0

       

    5-6

    0.00.025

    • 2.0 2.0

       
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

      • 1.5 1.5

       
     

    >0.25-0.30

    • 4.0 3.0

       
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.0

     
    • 2.5 2.0

      • 2.0 2.0

       
     

    >0.30-0.50

    • 4.5 4.0

       
    • 3.5 2.5

    2.5

     
    • 3.0 2.5

      • 2.5 2.5

       
     

    >0.50-0.75

    • 5.0 4.5

       
    • 4.0 3.0

    3.0

     
    • 3.5 3.0

      • 3.0 3.0

       
     

    >0.75-1.00

    • 5.5 5.0

       
    • 4.5 3.0

    3.0

     
    • 4.0 3.0

      • 3.0 3.0

       
     

    >1.00

    • 6.0 5.0

       
    • 5.0 3.5

    3.0

     
    • 4.5 3.5

      • 3.5 3.5

       

    >6

    0.00.025

    • 4.0 3.0

       
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.5

     
    • 2.5 2.0

      • 2.5 2.0

       
     

    >0.25-0.30

    • 4.5 4.0

       
    • 3.5 2.5

    3.5

     
    • 3.5 2.5

      • 3.0 2.5

       
     

    >0.30-0.50

    • 5.0 4.5

       
    • 4.0 2.5

    3.5

     
    • 4.0 2.5

      • 3.0 2.5

       
     

    >0.50-0.75

    • 5.5 5.0

       
    • 4.5 3.0

    4.0

     
    • 4.5 3.0

      • 3.5 3.0

       
     

    >0.75-1.00

    • 6.0 5.5

       
    • 5.0 4.0

    4.5

     
    • 5.0 3.5

      • 4.0 3.5

       
     

    >1.00

    • 7.0 6.0

       
    • 5.5 4.0

    5.0

     
    • 5.5 4.0

      • 4.5 4.0

       

    Table 3.19: Passenger car Equivalents for Recreational Vehicles on Specific Upgrades

     

    E T

    Grade

    Length

     

    Percent Trucks and Buses

     

    (%)

    (Miles)

    2

    4

    5

    6

    8

    10

    15

    20

    25

    >2

    All

     
    • 1.5 1.5

    1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.5

    • 1.5 1.5

     

    >2-3

    0.00.025

     
    • 1.2 1.2

    1.2

       
    • 1.2 1.2

     
    • 1.2 1.2

    • 1.2 1.2

     
     

    >0.50

     
    • 3.0 1.5

    1.5

       
    • 1.5 1.5

     
    • 1.5 1.2

    • 1.2 1.2

     

    >3-4

    0.00.0.25

     
    • 1.2 1.2

    1.2

       
    • 1.2 1.2

     
    • 1.2 1.2

    • 1.2 1.2

     
     

    0.25-0.50

     
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.5

       
    • 2.0 2.0

     
    • 2.0 1.5

    • 1.5 1.5

     
     

    >0.50

     
    • 3.0 2.5

    2.5

       
    • 2.5 2.0

     
    • 2.0 1.5

    • 2.0 1.5

     

    >4-5

    0.00.0.25

     
    • 2.5 2.0

    2.0

       
    • 2.0 1.5

     
    • 2.0 1.5

    • 1.5 1.5

     
     

    0.25-0.50

     
    • 4.0 3.0

    3.0

       
    • 3.0 2.5

     
    • 2.5 2.0

    • 2.0 2.0

     
     

    >0.50

     
    • 4.5 3.0

    3.5

       
    • 3.0 2.5

     
    • 3.0 2.0

    • 2.5 2.0

     

    >5

    0.00.0.25

     
    • 4.0 2.5

    3.0

       
    • 2.5 2.5

     
    • 2.5 2.0

    • 2.0 1.5

     
     

    0.25-0.50

     
    • 6.0 4.0

    4.0

       
    • 3.5 3.0

     
    • 3.0 2.5

    • 2.5 2.0

     
     

    >0.50

     

    4.5

    • 6.0 4.0

       
    • 4.0 3.0

     
    • 3.5 2.5

    • 3.0 2.0

     

    CHAPTER FOUR

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

    • 4.1 Introduction

    In this chapter the result of the analysis and various things are presented equally. The aim

    of this study was to observe and identify mixed traffic situation, their behavior, volume, geometric calculation, degree of saturation, los etc.

    • 4.2 Volume calculation (Video Tape Recording) Methods of an hour

    Location Gazipur Chowrasta Counting Method:

    Indirect Manual

    Table 4.2.1: Traffic Volume of various vehicles during peak hour at Gazipur Chowrasta.

    Traffic volume of various vehicles during peak hour at gazipur chowrasta.

    Type of vehicle

    No

    PCE

    PCU

    bus

    • 260 780

    3

     

    Truck

    • 231 693

    3

     

    Micro

    • 120 120

    1

     

    Car

    • 319 319

    1

     

    Pickup

    • 128 128

    1

     

    Leguna

    • 188 188

    1

     

    Honda

    90

    1

    90

    Total = 2318 nos

    Table 4.2.2: Traffic Volume of various vehicles during off peak hour at Gazipur Chowrasta.

    Type of vehicle

    No

    PCE

    PCU

    bus

    • 166 498

    3

     

    Truck

    • 255 765

    3

     

    Micro

    • 154 154

    1

     

    Car

    • 202 202

    1

     

    Pickup

    • 116 116

    1

     

    Leguna

    • 104 104

    1

     

    Honda

    59

    1

    59

    Total = 1898 nos

    LocationBhaluka Counting Method:

    Indirect Manual

    Table 4.2.3: Traffic Volume of various vehicles during offpeak hour at Bhaluka

     

    No.

    PCE

    PCU

    Type of Vehicle Bus

    136

    3.00

    408

    Truck

    145

    3.00

    435

    Micro

    111

    1.00

    111

    Car

    166

    1.00

    166

    Pickup

    68

    1.00

    65

    Leguna

    59

    1.00

    59

    Honda

    291

    0.50

    291

     

    Total = 1538 nos

    Type of Vehicle

    No.

    PCE

    PCU

    Bus

    150

    3.00

    456

    Track

    124

    3.00

    372

    Micro

    45

    1.00

    45

    Car

    96

    1.00

    96

    Pickup

    33

    1.00

    33

    Leguna

    81

    1.00

    81

    Honda

    68

    0.50

    34

    Table 4.2.4: Traffic Volume of various vehicles during peak hour at Bhaluka

    Total=1117 nos

    LocationMymensingh Counting Method:

    Indirect Manual

    Table 4.2.5: Traffic Volume of various vehicles during offpeak hour at Mymensingh

       

    No.

    PCE

    PCU

    Type of Vehicle Bus

     
    • 121 363

    3.00

     

    Truck

     
    • 256 768

    3.00

     

    Micro

     

    85

    1.00

    85

    Car

     
    • 254 254

    1.00

     

    Pickup

     
    • 139 139

    1.00

     

    Leguna

     
    • 161 161

    1.00

     

    Honda

     

    65

    1.00

    65

     

    Type of Vehicle

    No.

    PCE

    PCU

    Bus

    158

    3.00

    474

    Truck

    146

    3.00

    438

    Micro

    91

    1.00

    91

    Car

     
    • 178 178

    1.00

     

    Pickup

     
    • 101 101

    1.00

     

    Leguna

     
    • 117 117

    1.00

     

    Honda

    85

    1.00

    85

    Total = 1835 nos

    Table 4.2.6: Traffic Volume of various vehicles during peak hour at Mymensingh

    Total = 1425 nos

    4.3 Speed calculation Location: GazipurChowrasta Table 4.3.1: Speed of vehicles during peak hour at Gazipur,Chowrasta

    Type of

     

    Time

    Duration

    Distance

    Velocity

    Average

    Vehicle

    No.

    Start(s)

    Finish(s)

    0

    (m)

    (m/s)

    Velocity(m/s)

     

    1

    0

    4

    4

    41.5

    10.38

     

    2

    4

    8.2

    4.2

    41.5

    9.88

    Bus

    3

    8.2

    12.2

    4

    41.5

    10.38

    10.33

    4

    12.2

    16

    3.8

    41.5

    10.92

    5

    16

    20.1

    4.1

    41.5

    10.12

     

    1

    0

    6.00

    6

    41.5

    6.92

     

    2

    6

    9.00

    3

    41.5

    13.83

    Truck

    3

    9

    15.00

    6

    41.5

    6.92

    8.81

    4

    15

    20.50

    5.5

    41.5

    7.55

    5

    20.5

    25.20

    4.7

    41.5

    8.83

     

    1

     
    • 0 5.00

    5

    41.5

    8.30

     

    2

     
    • 5 9.00

    4

    41.5

    10.38

    Micro

    3

     
    • 9 12.20

    3.2

    41.5

    12.97

    12.61

    4

    12.2

    15.00

    2.8

    41.5

    14.82

    5

    15

    17.50

    2.5

    41.5

    16.60

     

    1

    0

    3.00

    3

    41.5

    13.83

     

    2

    3

    6.50

    3.5

    41.5

    11.86

    Car

    3

    6.5

    9.20

    2.7

    41.5

    15.37

    12.00

    4

    9.2

    14.20

    5

    41.5

    8.30

    5

    14.2

    18.10

    3.9

    41.5

    10.64

     

    1

    18.1

    5.20

    5.2

    41.5

    7.98

     

    2

    5.2

    9.50

    4.3

    41.5

    9.65

    Honda

    3

    9.5

    13.80

    4.3

    41.5

    9.65

    9.3

    4

    13.8

    18.50

    4.7

    41.5

    8.83

    5

    18.5

    22.50

    4

    41.5

    10.38

     

    1

    0

    4.50

    4.5

    41.5

    9.22

     

    2

     
    • 4.5 8.40

    3.9

    41.5

    10.64

    Leguna

    3

     
    • 8.4 12.50

    4.1

    41.5

    10.12

    9.57

    4

    12.5

    17.00

    4.5

    41.5

    9.22

    5

    17

    21.8

    4.8

    41.5

    8.65

    Table 4.3.2: Speed of vehicles during peak hour at Gazipur Chowrasta

         

    Time

    Duration

    Distance

    Velocity

    Average

    Type of

               

    Vehicle

    No.

    Start(s)

    Finish(s)

    0

    (m)

    (m/s)

    Velocity(m/s)

       

    0

    • 1 8.40

    8.40

     

    41.5

    4.94

     
     

    8.40

    • 2 7.70

    16.10

     

    41.5

    5.39

    Bus

     

    16.10

    • 3 8.30

    24.40

     

    41.5

    5.00

    5.40

     

    24.40

    • 4 5.00

    29.40

     

    41.5

    8.30

     
    • 5 41.80

    29.40

     

    12.40

    41.5

    3.35

       

    0

    • 1 6.20

    6.20

     

    41.5

    6.69

     
     

    6.2

    • 2 6.40

    12.60

     

    41.5

    6.48

    Truck

     

    12.6

    • 3 3.80

    16.40

     

    41.5

    10.92

    8.00

     

    16.4

    • 4 3.80

    20.20

     

    41.5

    10.92

     

    20.2

    • 5 8.30

    28.50

     

    41.5

    5.00

       

    0

    • 1 4.70

    4.70

     

    41.5

    8.83

     
     

    4.7

    • 2 7.70

    12.40

     

    41.5

    5.39

    Micro

     

    12.4

    • 3 5.80

    18.20

     

    41.5

    7.16

    7.36

     

    18.2

    • 4 6.30

    24.50

     

    41.5

    6.59

     

    24.5

    • 5 4.70

    29.20

     

    41.5

    8.83

       

    0

    • 1 3.90

    3.90

     

    41.5

    10.64

     
     

    3.9

    • 2 3.60

    7.50

     

    41.5

    11.53

    Car

     

    7.5

    • 3 5.40

    12.90

     

    41.5

    7.69

    9.09

     

    12.9

    • 4 5.00

    17.90

     

    41.5

    8.30

     

    17.9

    • 5 5.70

    23.60

     

    41.5

    7.28

       
    • 1 23.6

    6.50

    -17.10

    41.5

    -2.43

     
     

    6.5

    • 2 4.60

    11.10

     

    41.5

    9.02

    Honda

     

    11.1

    • 3 6.00

    17.10

     

    41.5

    6.92

    9.3

     

    17.1

    • 4 5.90

    23.00

     

    41.5

    7.03

     

    23

    • 5 5.80

    28.80

     

    41.5

    7.16

       

    0

    • 1 4.50

    4.50

     

    41.5

    9.22

     
       
    • 2 3.90

      • 4.5 8.40

     

    41.5

    10.64

    Leguna

       
    • 3 4.10

      • 8.4 12.50

     

    41.5

    10.12

    9.57

     

    12.5

    • 4 4.50

    17.00

     

    41.5

    9.22

     

    17

    • 5 4.80

    21.8

     

    41.5

    8.65

    Location: Bhaluka Table 4.3.3: Speed of vehicles during peak hour at Bhaluka

       

    Time

    Duration

    Distance

    Velocity

    Average

    Type of

               

    Vehicle

    No.

    Start(s)

    Finish(s)

    0

    (m)

    (m/s)

    Velocity(m/s)

     

    1

    0

    4.00

    • 4.00 41.5

     

    10.38

     

    2

    4.00

    8.10

    • 4.10 41.5

     

    10.12

    Bus

    3

    8.10

    12.40

    • 4.30 41.5

     

    9.65

    11.10

    4

    12.40

    15.40

    • 3.00 41.5

     

    13.83

    5

    15.40

    19.00

    • 3.60 41.5

     

    11.53

     

    1

    0

    3.90

    • 3.90 41.5

     

    10.64

     

    2

    3.9

    8.00

    • 4.10 41.5

     

    10.12

    Truck

    3

    8

    13.90

    • 5.90 41.5

     

    7.03

    9.89

    4

    13.9

    17.30

    • 3.40 41.5

     

    12.21

    5

    17.3

    21.70

    • 4.40 41.5

     

    9.43

     

    1

     
    • 0 3.00

    • 3.00 41.5

     

    13.83

     

    2

     
    • 3 8.10

    • 5.10 41.5

     

    8.14

    Micro

    3

    8.1

    10.50

    • 2.40 41.5

     

    17.29

    12.46

    4

    10.5

    13.50

    • 3.00 41.5

     

    13.83

    5

    13.5

    18.00

    • 4.50 41.5

     

    9.22

     

    1

    0

    3.00

    • 3.00 41.5

     

    13.83

     

    2

    3

    6.10

    • 3.10 41.5

     

    13.39

    Car

    3

    6.1

    9.90

    • 3.80 41.5

     

    10.92

    13.71

    4

    9.9

    12.40

    • 2.50 41.5

     

    16.60

    5

    12.4

    15.40

    • 3.00 41.5

     

    13.83

     

    1

    0

    4.10

    • 4.10 41.5

     

    10.12

     

    2

    4.1

    9.50

    • 5.40 41.5

     

    7.69

    Honda

    3

    9.5

    14.00

    • 4.50 41.5

     

    9.22

    9.3

    4

    14

    18.10

    • 4.10 41.5

     

    10.12

    5

    18.1

    22.30

    • 4.20 41.5

     

    9.88

     

    1

    0

    4.50

    • 4.50 41.5

     

    9.22

     

    2

    4.5

    9.40

     
    • 4.90 8.47

    41.5

     

    Leguna

    3

    9.4

    15.60

     
    • 6.20 6.69

    41.5

     

    8.42

    4

    15.6

    20.60

     
    • 5.00 8.30

    41.5

     

    5

    20.6

    25

     
    • 4.40 9.43

    41.5

     

    Table 4.3.4: Speed of vehicles during off peak hour at Bhaluka

       

    Time

    Duration

    Distance

    Velocity

    Average

    Type of

               

    Vehicle

    No.

    Start(s)

    Finish(s)

    0

    (m)

    (m/s)

    Velocity(m/s)

     

    1

    0