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Project Report






A Carjack is a mechanical device that can increase the magnitude of an effort force. In this

project we make a jack which will work automatically. In this project first of all we will make a

Carjack with the help of bevel gears types some mechanism. Carjack is a very useful thing

today but there are many heavy vehicle so working which a Carjack is very difficult to every

person. So by keeping this concept in our mind we have made an automatic Carjack which is

controlled by motor. We use a DC motor because the direction of rotation is very easily of Dc

motor which is required for Carjack is very must.

The effort force for a Carjack when neglecting friction can be expressed as

F = Q p / 2 π R (1)


F = effort force at the end of the arm or handle (lb)

Q = weight or load (lb)

p = pitch distance or lead of thread in one turn (in)

r = pitch radius of Car(in)

R = lever-arm radius (in)











When we supply dc voltage to two way switches, the dc motor starts rotating. As the

freewheels are connected to the dc motor, hence the chain starts moving according to the

speed of the motor. CAR JACK is attached with the second sprocket gear with the movement

of the second freewheel it operates the car jack as well.


An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse task, that of

converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, is accomplished by a generator or

dynamo. Traction motors used on locomotives often perform both tasks if the locomotive is

equipped with dynamic brakes. Electric motors are found in household appliances such as

fans, exhaust fans, fridges, washing machines, pool pumps and fan-forced ovens.

Most electric motors work by electromagnetism, but motors based on other electromechanical

phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect, also exist. The

fundamental principle upon which electromagnetic motors are based is that there is a

mechanical force on any current-carrying wire contained within a magnetic field. The force is

described by the Lorentz force law and is perpendicular to both the wire and the magnetic

field. Most magnetic motors are rotary, but linear motors also exist. In a rotary motor, the

rotating part (usually on the inside) is called the rotor, and the stationary part is called the

stator. The rotor rotates because the wires and magnetic field are arranged so that a torque is

developed about the rotor's axis. The motor contains electromagnets that are wound on a

frame. Though this frame is often called the armature, that term is often erroneously applied.

Correctly, the armature is that part of the motor across which the input voltage is supplied.

Depending upon the design of the machine, either the rotor or the stator can serve as the

armature. A simple DC electric motor. When the coil is powered, a magnetic field is generated

around the armature. The left side of the armature is pushed away from the left magnet and

drawn toward the right, causing rotation.

Stepper motors

Stepper motors are special kind of heavy duty motors having 2 or 4 coils. The motors will be

stepping each time when it get the pulse. As there are many coils in the motors we need to
energize the coils in a specific sequence for the rotation of the motor. These motors are

mostly used in heavy machines. The figure shown below consists of a 4 coil stepper motor

and the arrow mark will rotate when the coils are energized in the sequence. Unlike DC

motors stepper motors can be turned accurately for the given degrees.

Servo motors

Servo motors unlike the stepper motor it has to be controlled by the timing signal. This motor

has only one coil. It is mostly used in robots for its lightweight and low power consumption.

The servo motors can also be accurately rotated by the making the control signal of the servo

motor high for a specific time period. Actually the servo motor will be having 3 wires where 2

are for power supply and another one is for the control signal. Driving the servomotors is so

simple that you need to make the control signal high for the specific amount of time. The

width of the pulse determines the output position of the shaft.


A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct current electrical power

into mechanical power. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly

all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to

periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor .DC motors were the first type

widely used, since they could be powered from existing direct-current lighting power distribution

systems. A DC motor's speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply

voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC motors are used in tools,

toys, and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight motor used

for portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles,
elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills. The advent of power electronics has made

replacement of DC motors with AC motors possible in many applications.

Electromagnetic motors

A coil of wire with a current running through it generates an electromagnetic field aligned with the

center of the coil. The direction and magnitude of the magnetic field produced by the coil can be

changed with the direction and magnitude of the current flowing through it.

A simple DC motor has a stationary set of magnets in the stator and an armature with one or more

windings of insulated wire wrapped around a soft iron core that concentrates the magnetic field. The

windings usually have multiple turns around the core, and in large motors there can be several parallel

current paths. The ends of the wire winding are connected to a commutator. The commutator allows

each armature coil to be energized in turn and connects the rotating coils with the external power

supply through brushes. (Brush less DC motors have electronics that switch the DC current to each coil

on and off and have no brushes.)

The total amount of current sent to the coil, the coil's size and what it's wrapped around dictate the

strength of the electromagnetic field created.

The sequence of turning a particular coil on or off dictates what direction the effective electromagnetic
fields are pointed. By turning on and off coils in sequence a rotating magnetic field can be created.

These rotating magnetic fields interact with the magnetic fields of the magnets (permanent or

electromagnets) in the stationary part of the motor (stator) to create a force on the armature which

causes it to rotate. In some DC motor designs the stator fields use electromagnets to create their

magnetic fields which allow greater control over the motor.

At high power levels, DC motors are almost always cooled using forced air.

Different number of stator and armature fields as well as how they are connected provide different

inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by

changing the voltage applied to the armature. The introduction of variable resistance in the armature

circuit or field circuit allowed speed control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power

electronics systems which adjust the voltage by "chopping" the DC current into on and off cycles

which have an effective lower voltage.

Since the series-wound DC motor develops its highest torque at low speed, it is often used in traction

applications such as electric locomotives, and trams. The DC motor was the mainstay of electric

traction drives on both electric and diesel-electric locomotives, street-cars/trams and diesel electric

drilling rigs for many years. The introduction of DC motors and an electrical grid system to run

machinery starting in the 1870s started a new second Industrial Revolution. DC motors can operate

directly from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles and

today's hybrid cars and electric cars as well as driving a host of cordless tools. Today DC motors are

still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills

and paper machines. Large DC motors with separately excited fields were generally used with winder

drives for mine hoists, for high torque as well as smooth speed control using thyristor drives. These are

now replaced with large AC motors with variable frequency drives.

If external power is applied to a DC motor it acts as a DC generator, a dynamo. This feature is used to

slow down and recharge batteries on hybrid car and electric cars or to return electricity back to the
electric grid used on a street car or electric powered train line when they slow down. This process is

called regenerative braking on hybrid and electric cars. In diesel electric locomotives they also use their

DC motors as generators to slow down but dissipate the energy in resistor stacks. Newer designs are

adding large battery packs to recapture some of this energy.


A brushed DC electric motor generating torque from DC power supply by using an internal mechanical

commutation. Stationary permanent magnets form the stator field. Torque is produced by the principle

that any current-carrying conductor placed within an external magnetic field experiences a force,

known as Lorentz force. In a motor, the magnitude of this Lorentz force (a vector represented by the

green arrow), and thus the output torque,is a function for rotor angle, leading to a phenomenon known

as torque ripple) Since this is a single phase two-pole motor, the commutator consists of a split ring, so

that the current reverses each half turn ( 180 degrees).

The brushed DC electric motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied to the motor by

using internal commutation, stationary magnets (permanent or electromagnets), and rotating electrical


Advantages of a brushed DC motor include low initial cost, high reliability, and simple control of

motor speed. Disadvantages are high maintenance and low life-span for high intensity uses.

Maintenance involves regularly replacing the carbon brushes and springs which carry the electric

current, as well as cleaning or replacing the commutator. These components are necessary for

transferring electrical power from outside the motor to the spinning wire windings of the rotor inside

the motor. Brushes consist of conductors.

Brush less

Main articles: Brush less DC electric motor and Switched reluctance motor

Typical brush less DC motors use one or more permanent magnets in the rotor and electromagnets on
the motor housing for the stator. A motor controller converts DC to AC. This design is mechanically

simpler than that of brushed motors because it eliminates the complication of transferring power from

outside the motor to the spinning rotor. The motor controller can sense the rotor's position via Hall

effect sensors or similar devices and can precisely control the timing, phase, etc., of the current in the

rotor coils to optimize torque, conserve power, regulate speed, and even apply some braking.

Advantages of brush less motors include long life span, little or no maintenance, and high efficiency.

Disadvantages include high initial cost, and more complicated motor speed controllers. Some such

brush less motors are sometimes referred to as "synchronous motors" although they have no external

power supply to be synchronized with, as would be the case with normal AC synchronous motors.


Other types of DC motors require no commutation.

Homo polar motor – A homo polar motor has a magnetic field along the axis of rotation and an electric

current that at some point is not parallel to the magnetic field. The name homo polar refers to the

absence of polarity change. Homo polar motors necessarily have a single-turn coil, which limits them

to very low voltages. This has restricted the practical application of this type of motor.

Ball bearing motor – A ball bearing motor is an unusual electric motor that consists of two ball bearing-

type bearings, with the inner races mounted on a common conductive shaft, and the outer races

connected to a high current, low voltage power supply. An alternative construction fits the outer races

inside a metal tube, while the inner races are mounted on a shaft with a non-conductive section (e.g.

two sleeves on an insulating rod). This method has the advantage that the tube will act as a flywheel.

The direction of rotation is determined by the initial spin which is usually required to get it going.

Permanent magnet stators

A PM motor does not have a field winding on the stator frame, instead relying on PMs to provide the
magnetic field against which the rotor field interacts to produce torque. Compensating windings in

series with the armature may be used on large motors to improve commutation under load. Because this

field is fixed, it cannot be adjusted for speed control. PM fields (stators) are convenient in miniature

motors to eliminate the power consumption of the field winding. Most larger DC motors are of the

"dynamo" type, which have stator windings. Historically, PMs could not be made to retain high flux if

they were disassembled; field windings were more practical to obtain the needed amount of flux.

However, large PMs are costly, as well as dangerous and difficult to assemble; this favors wound fields

for large machines.

To minimize overall weight and size, miniature PM motors may use high energy magnets made with

neodymium or other strategic elements; most such are neodymium-iron-boron alloy. With their higher

flux density, electric machines with high-energy PMs are at least competitive with all optimally

designed singly fed synchronous and induction electric machines. Miniature motors resemble the

structure in the illustration, except that they have at least three rotor poles (to ensure starting, regardless

of rotor position) and their outer housing is a steel tube that magnetically links the exteriors of the

curved field magnets.

Wound stators

A field coil may be connected in shunt, in series, or in compound with the armature of a DC machine

(motor or generator)

There are three types of electrical connections between the stator and rotor possible for DC electric

motors: series, shunt/parallel and compound (various blends of series and shunt/parallel) and each has

unique speed/torque characteristics appropriate for different loading torque profiles/signatures.

Series connection

A series DC motor connects the armature and field windings in series with a common D.C. power
source. The motor speed varies as a non-linear function of load torque and armature current; current is

common to both the stator and rotor yielding current squared (I^2) behavior[citation needed]. A series

motor has very high starting torque and is commonly used for starting high inertia loads, such as trains,

elevators or hoists. This speed/torque characteristic is useful in applications such as drag line

excavators, where the digging tool moves rapidly when unloaded but slowly when carrying a heavy


A series motor should never be started at no load. With no mechanical load on the series motor, the

current is low, the counter-EMF produced by the field winding is weak, and so the armature must turn

faster to produce sufficient counter-EMF to balance the supply voltage. The motor can be damaged by

overspend. This is called a runaway condition.

Series motors called universal motors can be used on alternating current. Since the armature voltage

and the field direction reverse at the same time, torque continues to be produced in the same direction.

However they run at a lower speed with lower torque on AC supply when compared to DC due to

reluctance voltage drop in AC which is not present in DC.Since the speed is not related to the line

frequency, universal motors can develop higher-than-synchronous speeds, making them lighter than

induction motors of the same rated mechanical output. This is a valuable characteristic for hand-held

power tools. Universal motors for commercial utility are usually of small capacity, not more than about

1 kW output. However, much larger universal motors were used for electric locomotives, fed by special

low-frequency traction power networks to avoid problems with commutation under heavy and varying


Shunt connection

A shunt DC motor connects the armature and field windings in parallel or shunt with a common D.C.

power source. This type of motor has good speed regulation even as the load varies, but does not have
the starting torque of a series DC motor. It is typically used for industrial, adjustable speed applications,

such as machine tools, winding/unwinding machines and pensioners.

Compound connection

A compound DC motor connects the armature and fields windings in a shunt and a series

combination to give it characteristics of both a shunt and a series DC motor. This motor is

used when both a high starting torque and good speed regulation is needed. The motor can

be connected in two arrangements: cumulatively or differentially. Cumulative compound

motors connect the series field to aid the shunt field, which provides higher starting torque but

less speed regulation. Differential compound DC motors have good speed regulation and are

typically operated at constant speed.


An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external

connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smart phones, and electric cars.

When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal

is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an

external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to an

external circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be

completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit. It is the movement of

those ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.

Historically the term "battery" specifically referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the

usage has evolved to additionally include devices composed of a single cell. Primary (single-use or

"disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed
during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of

portable electronic devices. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries can be discharged and recharged

multiple times using mains power from a wall socket; the original composition of the electrodes can be

restored by reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion

batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smart phones. Batteries come in many shapes

and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to small, thin cells used in

smart phones, to large lead acid batteries used in cars and trucks, and at the largest extreme, huge

battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby or emergency power for telephone exchanges and

computer data centers. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48

billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy

per unit mass) than common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat offset by the higher efficiency of

electric motors in producing mechanical work, compared to combustion engines.

Free Wheels:

In mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a

transmission that disengages the drive shaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster
than the drive shaft. An overdrive is sometimes mistakenly called a freewheel, but is otherwise

unrelated. The condition of a driven shaft spinning faster than its drive shaft exists in most bicycles

when the rider holds his or her feet still, no longer pushing the pedals. In a fixed-gear bicycle, without a

freewheel, the rear wheel would drive the pedals around.An analogous condition exists in an

automobile with a manual transmission going down hill or any situation where the driver takes his or

her foot off the gas pedal, closing the throttle; the wheels want to drive the engine, possibly at a higher

RPM. In a two-stroke engine this can be a catastrophic situation: as many two stroke engines depend on

a fuel/oil mixture for lubrication, a shortage of fuel to the engine would result in a shortage of oil in the

cylinders, and the pistons would seize after a very short time causing extensive engine damage. Saab

used a freewheel system in their two-stroke models for this reason and maintained it in the Saab 96 V4

and early Saab 99 for better fuel efficiency.


The simplest freewheel device consists of two saw-toothed, spring-loaded discs pressing against each
other with the toothed sides together, somewhat like a ratchet. Rotating in one direction, the saw teeth

of the drive disc lock with the teeth of the driven disc, making it rotate at the same speed. If the drive

disc slows down or stops rotating, the teeth of the driven disc slip over the drive disc teeth and continue

rotating, producing a characteristic clicking sound proportionate to the speed difference of the driven

gear relative to that of the (slower) driving gear.

A more sophisticated and rugged design has spring-loaded steel rollers inside a driven cylinder.

Rotating in one direction, the rollers lock with the cylinder making it rotate in unison. Rotating slower,

or in the other direction, the steel rollers just slip inside the cylinder.

Most bicycle freewheels use an internally step-toothed drum with two or more spring-loaded, hardened

steel pawls to transmit the load. More pawls help spread the wear and give greater reliability although,

unless the device is made to tolerances not normally found in bicycle components, simultaneous

engagement of more than two pawls is rarely achieved.

Advantages and disadvantages:

By its nature, a freewheel mechanism acts as an automatic clutch, making it possible to change gears in

a manual gearbox, either up- or downshifting, without depressing the clutch pedal, limiting the use of

the manual clutch to starting from standstill or stopping. The Saab freewheel can be engaged or

disengaged by the driver by respectively pushing or pulling a lever. This will lock or unlock the main

shaft with the freewheel hub.

A freewheel also produces slightly better fuel economy on carbureted engines (without fuel turn-off on

engine brake) and less wear on the manual clutch, but leads to more wear on the brakes as there is no

longer any ability to perform engine braking. This may make freewheel transmissions dangerous for

use on trucks and automobiles driven in mountainous regions, as prolonged and continuous application

of brakes to limit vehicle speed soon leads to brake-system overheating followed shortly by total


A bicycle chain is a roller chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive-wheel of a bicycle,

thus propelling it. Most bicycle chains are made from plain carbon or alloy steel, but some are nickel-

plated to prevent rust, or simply for aesthetics.


A bicycle chain can be very energy efficient: one study reported efficiencies as high as 98.6%.[4] The

study, performed in a clean laboratory environment, found that efficiency was not greatly affected by

the state of lubrication.[4] A larger sprocket will give a more efficient drive, because moves the point of

pressure farther away from the axle, placing less stress on the bearings, thus reducing friction in the

inner wheel. Higher chain tension was found to be more efficient: "This is actually not in the direction

you'd expect, based simply on friction"


A city bicycle's chain protected by a chain case

How best to lubricate a bicycle chain is a commonly debated question among cyclists.[5] Liquid

lubricants penetrate to the inside of the links and are not easily displaced, but quickly attract dirt. "Dry"

lubricants, often containing wax or Teflon, are transported by an evaporating solvent, and stay cleaner

in use. The cardinal rule for long chain life is never to lubricate a dirty chain, as this washes abrasive

particles into the rollers.[6] Chains should be cleaned before lubrication. The chain should be wiped

dry after the lubricant has had enough time to penetrate the links. An alternative approach is to change

the (relatively cheap) chain very frequently; then proper care is less important. Some utility bicycles

have fully enclosing chain guards, which virtually eliminate chain wear and maintenance. On
recumbent bicycles the chain is often run through tubes to prevent it from picking up dirt, and to keep

the cyclist's leg free from oil and dirt.


On most upright bicycles, the chain loops through the right rear triangle made by the right chain stay

and seat tube. Thus a chain must be separated, (or "broken" ) unless the triangle can be split (usually

the seat stay). Chain can either be broken with a chain tool or at a master link. A master link, also

known as a connecting link, allows the chain to be inserted or removed with simpler tools, or even no

tools, for cleaning or replacement.

Some newer chain designs, such as Shimano and Campagnolo 10-speed chains, require a special

replacement pin to be used when installing or reinstalling a separated chain. An alternative to this

process is to install a master link, such as a SRAM Power Link or a Wippermann Connex.


Chain wear, often called chain stretch, becomes an issue with extensive cycling. The wear is removal of

material from the bushings and pins (or half-bushings, in the Se dis design) rather than elongation of

the side plates. The tension created by pedaling is insufficient to cause the latter. Because the spacing

from link to link on a worn chain is longer than the 1⁄2 inch (12.7 mm) specification, those links will

not precisely fit the spaces between teeth on the sprockets, resulting in increased wear on the sprockets

and possibly chain skip on derailleur drive trains, in which pedaling tension causes the chain to slide up

over the tops of the sprocket teeth and skip to the next alignment, that reduces power transfer and

makes pedaling uncomfortable.

Since chain wear is strongly aggravated by dirt getting into the links, the lifetime of a chain depends

mostly on how well it is cleaned (and lubricated) and does not depend on the mechanical load.

Therefore, well-groomed chains of heavily used racing bicycles will often last longer than a chain on a

lightly used city bike that's cleaned less. Depending on use and cleaning, a chain can last only 1,000

kilometers (600 miles) (e.g. in cross-country use, or all-weather use), 3,000 to 5,000 km (2,000 to 3,000

mi) for well-maintained derailleur chains, or more than 6,000 kilometers (4,000 mi) for perfectly

groomed high-quality chains, single-gear, or hub-gear chains (preferably with a full cover chain guard).

Nickel-plated chain also confers a measure of self-lubrication to its moving parts as nickel is a

relatively non-galling metal.[dubious – discuss]

Chain wear rates are highly variable, so replacement by calendar is likely premature or continued use

of a worn chain, damaging to rear sprockets. One way to measure wear is with a ruler or machinist's

rule. Another is with a chain wear tool, which typically has a "tooth" of about the same size found on a

sprocket. They are simply placed on a chain under light load and report a "go/no-go" result—if the

tooth drops in all the way, the chain should be replaced.

Twenty half-links in a new chain measure 10 inches (254 mm), and replacement is recommended

before the old chain measures 10 1⁄16 inches (256 mm) (0.7% wear). A safer time to replace a chain is

when 24 half-links in the old chain measure 12 1⁄16 inches (306 mm) (0.5% wear). If the chain has

worn beyond this limit, the rear sprockets are also likely to wear, in extreme cases followed by the front

chain rings. In this case, the 'skipping' mentioned above is liable to continue even after the chain is

replaced, as the teeth of the sprockets will have become unevenly worn (in extreme cases, hook-

shaped). Replacing worn sprocket cassettes and chain rings after missing the chain replacement

window is much more expensive than simply replacing a worn chain.

Exploded view of a few bicycle chain links

The chain in use on modern bicycles has a 1⁄2 inch (12.7 mm) pitch, which is the distance from one pin

center to another, ANSI standard #40, where the 4 in "#40" indicates the pitch of the chain in eighths of

an inch, and metric #8, where the 8 indicates the pitch in sixteenths of an inch. Its roller diameter is

5⁄16 inch (7.9 mm).

1976: Shimano briefly made their own 10 pitch Dura-Ace track-specific system with 10 mm (3⁄8 in)

pitch from about 1976[12] to 1980[13]—called Shimano Dura-Ace 10 pitch. The Shimano 10 pitch

system is incompatible with ANSI standard #40 (1/2") e.g. chains, sprockets and so on,[14][15] and

was outlawed by the Japanese Kierin Federation, helping in it's demise.


Chains come in 3⁄32 in (2.4 mm), 1⁄8 in (3.2 mm), 5⁄32 in (4.0 mm), or 3⁄16 in (4.8 mm) roller widths,

the internal width between the inner plates. 1⁄8 in (3.2 mm) chains are used on bikes with a single rear

sprocket: those with coaster brakes, hub gears, fixed gears such as track bicycles, or BMX bikes.

Chains with 3⁄32 in (2.4 mm) wide rollers are used on bikes with derailleurs such as racing, touring,

and mountain bikes.[16] Fixed sprockets and freewheels are also available in 3⁄32 in (2.4 mm) widths

so fixed-gear and single-speed bikes can be set up to use narrow and lighter 3⁄32 in (2.4 mm) chains.

Finally, chains with 5⁄32 in (4.0 mm) wide rollers are used on freight bicycles and tricycles.

With derailleur equipped bicycles, the external width of the chain also matters, because chains must not

be too wide for the cogset or they will rub on the next larger sprocket or too narrow that they might fall

between two sprockets. Chains can also be identified by the number of rear sprockets they can support,
anywhere from 3 to 11, and the list below enables measuring a chain of unknown origin to determine

its suitability.

6 speed – 7.8 mm (5⁄16 in) (all brands)

7 speed – 7.3 mm (9⁄32 in) (all brands)

8 speed – 7.1 mm (9⁄32 in) (all brands)

9 speed – 6.6 to 6.8 mm (1⁄4 to 9⁄32 in) (all brands)

10 speed – 6.2 mm (1⁄4 in) (Shimano, Campagnolo)

10 speed (Narrow) – 5.88 mm (7⁄32 in) (Campagnolo, KMC)

10 speed (Narrow, Direction) – 5.88 mm (7⁄32 in) (Shimano CN-5700,CN-6700,CN-7900)

11 speed – 5.5 mm (7⁄32 in) (Campagnolo, KMC, Shimano CN-9000)

The Wiki book, "Bicycle Maintenance and Repair", has more details on this topic.


New chains usually come in a stock length, long enough for most upright bike applications. The

appropriate number of links must be removed before installation in order for the drive train to function

properly. The pin connecting links can be pushed out with a chain tool to shorten, and additional links

may be added to lengthen.

In the case of derailleur gears the chain is usually long enough so that it can be shifted onto the largest

front chain ring and the largest rear sprocket without jamming, and not so long that, when shifted onto

the smallest front chain ring and the smallest rear sprocket, the rear derailleur cannot take up all the

slack. Meeting both these requirements is only possible if the rear derailleur is compatible with the gear

range being used on the bike.

In the case of single-speed bicycles and hub gears, the chain length must match the distance between

crank and rear hub and the sizes of the front chain ring and rear sprocket. These bikes usually have

some mechanism for small adjustments such as horizontal dropouts, track ends, or an eccentric

mechanism in the rear hub or the bottom bracket. In extreme cases, a chain half-link may be necessary.


In order to reduce weight, chains have been manufactured with hollow pins and with cut-outs

in the links.[17] Chains have also been made of stainless steel for corrosion resistance[18]

and titanium for weight reduction, but they are expensive.[19] A recent trend is chains of

various colors, and at least one manufacturer offers a chain model specifically for electric



A jack, screw jack or jack screw is a mechanical device used as a lifting device to lift heavy loads or to

apply great forces. A mechanical jack employs a screw thread for lifting heavy equipment. A hydraulic

jack uses hydraulic power.[1] The most common form is a car jack, floor jack or garage jack, which
lifts vehicles so that maintenance can be performed. Jacks are usually rated for a maximum lifting

capacity (for example, 1.5 tons or 3 tons). Industrial jacks can be rated for many tons of load.

Jack screw Vehicle

Jack screws are integral to the scissor jack, one of the simplest kinds of car jack still used.

Scissor car jacks usually use mechanical advantage to allow a human to lift a vehicle by manual force

alone. The jack shown at the right is made for a modern vehicle and the notch fits into a hard point on a

unibody. Earlier versions have a platform to lift on a vehicle's frame or axle.

Electrically operated car scissor jacks are powered by 12 volt electricity supplied directly from the car's

cigarette lighter receptacle. The electrical energy is used to power these car jacks to raise and lower

automatically. Electric jacks require less effort from the motorist for operation.

House jack

Threaded rod, 7 inches fully extended

2.5-ton house jack that stands 24 inches from top to bottom fully threaded out

A house jack, also called a screw jack, is a mechanical device primarily used to lift buildings from their

foundations for repairs or relocation. A series of jacks is used and then wood cribbing temporarily

supports the structure. This process is repeated until the desired height is reached. The house jack can

be used for jacking carrying beams that have settled or for installing new structural beams. On the top

of the jack is a cast iron circular pad that the jacking post rests on. This pad moves independently of the

house jack so that it does not turn as the acme-threaded rod is turned with a metal rod. This piece tilts

very slightly, but not enough to render the post dangerously out of plumb.
Hydraulic jack

In 1851, inventor Richard Dudgeon was granted a patent for a "portable hydraulic press" - the

hydraulic jack, a jack which proved to be vastly superior to the screw jacks in use at the time.

Hydraulic jacks are typically used for shop work, rather than as an emergency jack to be carried with

the vehicle. Use of jacks not designed for a specific vehicle requires more than the usual care in

selecting ground conditions, the jacking point on a vehicle, and to ensure stability when the jack is

extended. Hydraulic jacks are often used to lift elevators in low and medium rise buildings.

A hydraulic jack uses a liquid, which is incompressible, that is forced into a cylinder by a pump

plunger. Oil is used since it is self lubricating and stable. When the plunger pulls back, it draws oil out

of the reservoir through a suction check valve into the pump chamber. When the plunger moves

forward, it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve into the cylinder. The suction valve ball is

within the chamber and opens with each draw of the plunger. The discharge valve ball is outside the

chamber and opens when the oil is pushed into the cylinder. At this point the suction ball within the

chamber is forced shut and oil pressure builds in the cylinder.

In a floor jack (aka 'trolley jack') a horizontal piston pushes on the short end of a bellcrank, with the

long arm providing the vertical motion to a lifting pad, kept horizontal with a horizontal linkage. Floor

jacks usually include castors and wheels, allowing compensation for the arc taken by the lifting pad.

This mechanism provides a low profile when collapsed, for easy maneuvering underneath the vehicle,

while allowing considerable extension.

Bottle jack
A bottle jack or whiskey jack is a hydraulic jack which resembles a bottle in shape, having a cylindrical

body and a neck, from which the hydraulic ram emerges. In a bottle jack the piston is vertical and

directly supports a bearing pad that contacts the object being lifted. With a single action piston the lift

is somewhat less than twice the collapsed height of the jack, making it suitable only for vehicles with a

relatively high clearance. For lifting structures such as houses the hydraulic interconnection of multiple

vertical jacks through valves enables the even distribution of forces while enabling close control of the


They have a capacity of up to 50 tons and may be used to lift a variety of objects. Typical uses include

the repair of automobiles and house foundations. Larger, heavy-duty models may be known as a barrel


This type of jack is best used for short vertical lifts. Blocks may be used to repeat the operation when a

greater amount of elevation is required.

Pneumatic jack

A pneumatic jack is a hydraulic jack that is actuated by compressed air - for example, air from a

compressor - instead of human work. This eliminates the need for the user to actuate the hydraulic

mechanism, saving effort and potentially increasing speed. Sometimes, such jacks are also able to be

operated by the normal hydraulic actuation method, thereby retaining functionality, even if a source of

compressed air is not available.

Strand jack

A strand jack is a specialized hydraulic jack that grips steel cables; often used in concert, strand jacks

can lift hundreds of tons and are used in engineering and construction.
Farm jack

The farm jack is also known as a Hi-Lift Jack. The farm jack, invented in 1905, consists of a steel beam

with a series of equally spaced holes along its length, and a hand operated mechanism which can be

moved from one end of the beam to the other through the use of a pair of climbing pins. Typical sizes

for the farm jack are 4 feet (1.2 m), 5 feet (1.5 m)and 6 feet (1.8 m) referring to the length of the beam.

The jack's versatility stems from its use for such applications as lifting, winching, clamping, pulling

and pushing. It is this versatility, along with the long travel it offers and its relative portability, which

make the farm jack so popular with off-road drivers.


In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "break" or "make" an

electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.The

mechanism of a switch removes or restores the conducting path in a circuit when it is

operated. It may be operated manually, for example, a light switch or a keyboard button, may

be operated by a moving object such as a door, or may be operated by some sensing

element for pressure, temperature or flow.


Two way switching is most commonly found on stairs and landings, and long corridors. There are a few

different methods of providing a 2-way switching circuit, these are shown below. Please note that the

some of the below diagrams have been drawn with the older cable core colours, others with the new

cable colors. As a rule for these diagrams, RED = BROWN ; YELLOW = BLACK ; BLUE = GREY ;
BLACK = BLUE. The cores should be sleeved with the appropriate colour brown / red for live and

black / blue for neutral. You may find that the cables between the switches in your property have been

connected with a different color coding. This makes no difference to operation, as long as the colour at

one switch matches that of the other


1. The developed automatic car jack can only withstand below 1000kg of load

II. The developed automatic car jack must be operated on a flat surface

III. The developed automatic car jack is only a prototype and not readily functioning as

commercial product.

IV. The design is based on current scissor jack in the market.

V. The developed automatic car jack is only for normal person

VI. The developed automatic car jack can only work by using the DC POWER.


If you have the space and you do your own maintenance and repair, you’re going to love
having a table lift. The table lifts made by Handy, though a bit heavy and space hungry, are

strong, well built, simple to use and should last a lifetime. They require only a periodic drop of

oil and shot of grease as maintenance. Sure, there are some table lifts that are lighter and

more compact, but when I work on my bike I want something that’s solid, sturdy and versatile.

And if I can demonstrate that it can be used for other purposes, it’s easier to sell to the Mrs. If

the cost is a stumbling point, you could do like I’ve done in the past and go in with some

friends on the cost. Just be sure to lobby real hard to get it to reside in your garage