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This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems

Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)

The correct citation for the paper is:

Spitler, J.D., F.C. McQuiston, K. Lindsey. 1993. The CLTD/SCL/CLF Cooling Load
Calculation Method, ASHRAE Transactions. 99(1): 183-192.

Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. #99, Part 1, pp. 183-192).
© 1993 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

which would use tabulated CLTD and CLF The research revealed that factors not taken into account in values. 1993). access of engineers to personal computers had 40 °N/July 21 was used. Harris and McQuiston 1988) The cooling loads were then normalized. 1993) describes the rest of INTRODUCTION the load calculation manual.C. 3638 RP-626 THE CLTD/SCL/CLFCOOLING LOAD CALCULATIONMETHOD J. the widespread (CLTD/CLF) method.D.which is more accurate and easier techniques or data had also been published since the to use. Faye C. and material properties. revealed some limitations of the Duran (1975). ASH RAETransactions:Research 183 .. the limited number ofzone ment of software that could access the data developed by types used to generate the original CLTD/CLF data RP-472. which yielded cooling ASHRAE Research Project 472. function coefficient data developed by ASHRAE RP-472 The above factors taken together suggested the need for were used to generate new CLTD and CLF data. Previously. This method was developed as a hand calcu applicability of the CLTD!CLF factors given in GRP-158. completed in 1988 loads for standard environmental conditions and zone types. Lindsey Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT zones. F. P. using the transfer function method. MeQuiston is a professoremeritus. the solar GRP-158. Previously.E. Other research that impacted load calculation cooling load (S C L ).D. as well as normalized CTF coefficients and weight ing factors that corresponded to the categorization schemes. and Kirk L. A a new load calculation manual. Originally developed C L T D 1 C LM F ethod as a hand calculation technique.L. 1988c. and below. This paper describes the revised CLTD/CLF resulted in sign jfi cant error for some zones. cooling loads due to solar radiation development of GRP-158—particularly in the areas of solar transmitted throughfenestration were somewhat inaccu radiation. revision of the CLTD/CLF method.D. appliance heat gains. which made the use of 2. Stiliwater. However. roofs. Ph. This paper describes a thorough revision of the The data base of weighting factors developed was much too cooling load temperature dfference / cooling load factor large to be used in printed form. A third paper describes the software developed to access the RP-472 data (Falconer et The cooling load temperature difference I cooling load al. The major revisions made to the availability of personal computers allows the possibility of original CLTD/CLF method are: distributing the data on diskette. P. factor (CLTD/CLF) method has been a popular method for performing cooling load calculations since the publication BACKGROUND of ASHRAE GRP-158. now known as the CLTD/SCL/CLF method. Spitler is an assistant professor. 1988h. K. so that the designer could calculate the cooling load Jeffrey D. drastically improved since 1979. completed in 1984 (ASHRAB 1979) is based on work done by Rudoy and (Sowell and Chiles 1985). method. as described resulted in new categorization schemes for walls. and develop and CLF tables. (Sowell 1988a. The new weighting factor and conduction transfer more sophisticated load calculation techniques possible. The tabulated CLTD and CLF data were calculated the original work could significantly affect the results.. load factor (CLTD/CLF) method described in GRP 158 ASHRAE Research Project 359. Lindsey is a graduate student in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringat Oklahoma State University. rate when a latitude/month combination other than Furthermore. the Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (ASHRAE 1979). McQuiston. The calculation procedure for cooling loads due to represented the possibility of substantial improvement in the solar radiation transmitted through fenestration was CLTD/CLF load calculation method and data compared to revised with the introduction of a new factor. it was constrained to use some approximations that resulted in significant inaccuracies The current cooling load temperature difference I cooling under some conditions.Ph. lation method. ASHRAE Research Project limited data set is available in printed form. Spitler. A companion paper (Spitler et al. and 626 focused on three areas: revision of the load calculation software has been developed to generate custom CLTD manual. The results of ASHRAE Research Projects 359 and 472 1.E.

and by multiplying the maximum solar heat gain for the day by CLTDs were tabulated for eight facing directions. Walls the day so that the cooling load for that hour could be found were then grouped into seven different categories. Normalizing the solar heat gain in this manner resulted 2. found in a table. where To find the radiant portion of the cooling load. Complicated and questionable adjustments are required in what was probably the most serious error in the CLTD/ 184 ASH R AE Transactions:Research . and a relation was provided to correct for outdoor dividing by the roof or wall area and the overall heat daily average temperatures other than 85°F and indoor transfer coefficient. Btu/h. and solar radiation under a set of standard conditions. The cooling if a wall or roof does not match one of thegroups listed loads for each component were then summed to obtain the (e. which was tabulated The drawbacks with the original CLTD method for walls for all directions. CLTD (CLTD + LM) SHGF = maximum solar heat gain factor. No latitude-month correction for any wall or roof by the following relation was provided. date of July 21. 1/8 in. The cooling load at a particular latitude and month was then found by multiplying the SHGF. making 26 categories in where all. The CLTDs were A cooling load factor (CLF) was derived for each hour of analyzed for similarity in profile and peak value. for different fenestration orientations using the ASHRAE CLTD = area. GRP 158 Q = SHGF . ft2 clear sky model. and an inside design temperature of 78°F. Btu/h. medium type of zone construction. for each increase of 7 in R-value above that of total zone cooling load. but the conductive load from fenestration is q = U A CLTD (1) such a small portion of the overall load that this was deemed negligible. Using the weighting factor equation. the wall structure in the listed group. LM = latitude month correction factor. (2) CLF = cooling load factor. move up one Walls and Roofs The transfer function method (TFM) group if insulation is on the interior of the structure was used to compute cooling loads for 36 types of roofs and and two groups if on the exterior.. applied after latitude latitude. and heavy zone constructions CLTDs were calculated for 96 types of walls for a without interior shading and for zones with interior shading.. °F. material (double-strength. of all summer months (May through September) at all room temperature. possible constructions well. These cooling loads corre 3. and northern latitudes from 0 to and roofs are as follows: 60 deg. CLF A (3) grouped the roofs into 13 categories with suspended ceilings and 13 without suspended ceilings. the hourly CLF as follows: CLTDs were calculated for 36 types of roofs. a single standard zone type was used. the heat gain was divided into radiant and conductive of 21°F. cooling loads corresponding to these heat gains were calculated for light. CLFs were tabulated for July 21 at 40 deg north K = color adjustment factor. months. equivalent temperature difference. The inaccuracy of correcting for other months and spond to the heat gain caused by outdoor air temperature latitudes can be significant. temperatures: Btufh. Btu/hft2 °F. ft2 . solar heat gain for other latitudes and dates could be ade quately accounted for using SHGFJ. These CLFs were considered to be representative month correction. for that month 1. ratio cooling load to K + (78—TR) + (T0-85) maximum solar heat gain. daily temperature range tion. °F. The following equation was given to adjust for other latitudes and months and other indoor and outdoor design Q cooling load for reference glazing system. Fur portions. northern latitudes. The cooling load due to conduction was calculated thermore. SC = solar heat gain of fenestration system where solar heat gain of reference glass A = area of fenestration.for each hour with a simple multiplication. which included a latitude of 4ON. the solar heat gain for each hour through a reference glazing q = cooling load.g. The wall and roof groups don’t cover the range of and latitude by the CLF calculated for July at 40 deg north. SC . CLTDs for windows were listed for standard condi cooling load temperature difference (CLTD) values by tions. maxi Fenestration To find the cooling load due to fenestra mum outdoor temperature of 95°F. It was presumed that the variation in = outdoor temperature. sheet glass) was calculated UA overall heat transfer coefficient.) 96 different wall constructions. The cooling load could be calculated temperatures other than 78°F. using the same relation used for roofs and walls (Equation Hourly cooling loads for each hour were converted to 1). medium.. OF.

mass out. mass placement with respect to insulation (mass in.). the basis of these thermal characteristics into 41 groups of walls and 42 groups of roofs with a set of CTF coefficients ASHRAERP-472 / S ow ell assigned to each group.640 parametric zones. particularly the time lag Cooling load factors for people and equipment were and amplitude reduction for a sinusoidal driving function. in turn. the material with which the principal material is significant and complex effects that various zonal parame combined (such as gypsum. on mass were determined for the surface in question and four hours. People. the R-value of the wall. ASHRAETransactions:Research 185 . Therefore. lighting. etc. Since a unit heat gain is used. Cooling The amplitude ratios and time lags were studied for 2.600 load factors for lighting were determined using several zone walls and 500 roofs. Following their publication. = latent heat gain. ters could have on zone response. RP-472 (Sowell 1988a. project. Btufh. combinations that had significantly different sunrise/sunset This software is described in a companion paper (Falconer times than 4ON. and Equipment For people. Correlation methods were used to find correlations The main reason for the limited number of zone types between the amplitude ratio and time lag and the wall or available in the original CLTD/CLF method was the limited roof’s physical properties or geometry. q. and The third paper (Sowell 1988c) describes the procedure 4. Harris and McQuiston 1988). and another ASHRAE research project. Lights. the cooling compared to those of the tabulated surface types. presence or absence of a suspended ceiling. July 21. The 1. and equipment.). highlighted the 2. Btu/h. light fixture types. 1988c. the weighting to determine which wall or roof type a particular surface factor equation was used to determine the cooling load for matched. one had zone. If a load factor (CLF) is simply the cooling load. 1988b. cients that would cover a broad range of constructions. the overall conductance and thermal a unit heat gain with various schedules (on two hours. etc. 1993). a then uses the following equation to determine the hourly complicated set of instructions were followed to pick the cooling load: best match. the hourly heat gains are specified by the ASHRAE RP-472 I M cQ u isto na nd H arris designer. used to categorize the zones into groups with similar zone responses for each of the four different heat gain categories: Using these parameters. The walls and roofs were grouped on types. exhaust ively analyzed the effect of 14 separate zone parameters on zone response. To do this. Harris and McQuiston (1988) performed a study to where devise a method for grouping walls and roofs with similar transient heat transfer characteristics in order to obtain a Q = cooling load. one can determine to which of solar. lights. 4. An ASHRAE research the wall). or integral mass). The tabulated CLFs could be significantly in rather large and certainly would be too unwieldy to use in error for other dates and latitudes. mass placement with respect to insulation (mass in. This. one part of ASHRAE RP-626 severe for off-peak hours. Each group The resulting set of grouped weighting factors was still was assigned a unique set of conduction transfer function (CTF) coefficients so as to produce conservative results. led to 3. which mass out. For people. and ventilation schemes. et al. These errors were most printed form. This error was particularly involved the development of a transportable data base of noticeable near sunrise and sunset for latitude/month weighting factors and access software in C and FORTRAN. conduction. The cooling load depends on the magnitude of the heat gain for each hour and the thermal response of the To use the CLTD method for walls and roofs. or integral mass). The designer surface did not exactly match a listed surface type. Btu/h. verification of the weighting factor calculation methodology. determined using a single medium-weight zone. and people/equipment. principal wall material (the most massive material in loads could be significantly in error. This method was tedious to apply and its Q = q 5 CLF + q1 (4 ) accuracy was questionable under certain conditions. and equipment. it was noticed that for some cases the resulting 1.lc. DOE 2. Important grouping amount of weighting factor data available at the time the parameters for walls were found to be CLTD and CLF tables were tabulated. lights. to calculate the weighting factors with a modified version of 2. compact set of conduction transfer function (CTF) coeffi = sensible heat gain. RP-359 (Sowell and Chiles 1985). the groups a particular waIl or roof will belong. The second paper (Sowell 1988b) describes the 3.CLF method. principal roof material (the most massive material in first paper (Sowell 1988a) describes the methodology used the roof). The walls and roofs were classified on the basis of their thermal response characteristics. Important grouping parameters for roofs were found to be Three papers published by Sowell detail the methods used to classify and group 200. the R-value of the roof.

the name of the method has been revised. the solar cooling load (SCL). If the interpolation or extrapolation of supplied tabular computer-oriented mode (number 3 in the “Objec results. and month. put into a set of printed tables or produced at the user’s The program will generate tables to facilitate the request by a computer program. Primarily as a manual method. Printed tables were designed (5) and published in the manual for quick and convenient Q = SCL ‘SC ‘A . To some degree. these goals conflict. The cooling loads due to solar heat gain through fenes made by RP-472 and other research. With respect to the CLTD/CLF method.These coefficients are to be used in the CTF equation to 1. It was and it is now called the CLTD/SCL/CLF method. both of which would be func set of printed tables. A one-time run of the computer printed tables. program will eliminate the need for interpolation due to different latitudes and allow hand cooling load calcula The methodology used to develop the new CLTD/ tions for months other than July. with as little loss in accuracy as possible. It is applied with 1. function method. some accuracy is given up in order printed tables in the manual for any month and latitude that the data be reduced to a reasonable number of specified by the user. Instead. Only a limited and thereby retaining the same equation. provide a method that could be used without a comput introduced. 1993). Primarily as a computer method. it would have amount of improvement to the method can be made without involved a totally unnecessary step—multiplying the relying on either a computer or an impractically unwieldy SHG FM JCby the CLF. The only limit is the mode of for northern latitudes from 20 to 50 degrees by using operation in which the designer chooses to work. which 3. to generate CLTD/SCL/CLF data. rigorously following the transfer each table. except for latitude and month. the SCL takes into ing three different ways the method may be used: account both the solar heat gain and the zone response for any latitude/month combination. Tables can be generated for any The computer software is described in a companion month and latitude of the user’s choosing. talcing advantage of advances in the state of the art 1. SCL/CLF data can be broken into several sections. and tration are now calculated differently. Zone Specific option. The effects of zone response are inadequately account O BJEC TIVES ed for. The printed accurate manner. paper. using the computer follow. •I’h isconflict was resolved by provid tions of latitude and month. hand calculations covering most common constructions Accordingly. The general methodology is used to compute the program CLTDTAB. using a small set of printed the following equation: tables in the new manual. latitude. using the weighting factors developed tables can also be used alone to calculate cooling loads in ASHRAE RP-472. using the computer only be accounted for with approximately the same accuracy to generate a set of tables equivalent to the printed as the transfer function method. The calculation of cooling loads due to solar heat gain calculate a representative heat gain for any wall or roof in through fenestration is flawed due to the methodology that particular group. would have been possible to fix the old method by also tabulating CLFs as a function of month and latitude. regardless of whether it is eventually a set of tables for a specific zone. with either a single zone type or a few zone types for each type of heat gain. A new factor is 2. resolves the two problems as follows: 1. Solely as a manual method. the general methodology can be described problems: as using the transfer function method to determine the cooling loads for a given heat gain type and then nornializ 186 A S HR A E T ra n s ac tio ns R :e se a rch . Although it er for engineers who do not make use of a computer. employed to normalize the data 2. described below. It is also described in considerably more depth by Lindsey (1991). the goals of this project were to The revised methodology. The zone response can now be accounted for in a more load calculations during the month of July. improve the accuracy of the CLTD/CLF method. METHODOLOGY General Methodology for DevelopingTable Data The inaccuracies of the original CLTD/CLF method discussed above can be condensed into two fundamental In capsule. the effects of zone response can 2. The computer manual modes (numbers 1 and 2 in the “Objectives” program CLTDTAB can generate tables identical to the section) are used.’ If one of the two tables. (Falconer et al. decided to design the printed tables so that they could be used if needed as a stand-alone reference for cooling 2. tives” section) is used. The printed tables require cooling load calculation for any zone with any roof some further analysis to choose the zone or zones used for type and wall type.

The inward-flowing fraction is calculated by neglecting the Btu/h.)/h0 + (cXF)/h0 (6) = diffuse radiation reflected from ground and sky. = to + (aXI./(h0 + h 1 ) 0 = time interval. Btufhft2 where = coefficients for radiation transmission through DSA glass. = absorptance of surface. partition.ing the load to yield either CLTD or CLF or SCL. air temperature. is used to beforehand when analyzing a 24-hour time period. q0 0 = heat gain through wall. the heat gain for a wall or (8) ‘Ir = t. the rest is convected and radiated to the by Harris and McQuiston (1988) were used in the conduc outside. For more complete tcO. JV = h. The heat gain model uses revised A. Heat Gain for Fenestration Heat gain to a zone due as described by McQuiston and Spitler (1992) to to windows is broken into two parts. At that time. acosjO + ‘d 2 a / ( j 2) (9) c = emittance of surface.cosjO + 2 t/(J÷2) roof can be calculated using the sol-air temperature (tj. given by McQuiston and Spitler (1992) or the detailed conduction transfer function coefficients. 1ab q0 = b(t00_. Btu/lrft2 combined. Btu/hft2 OF. as follows: Heat Gain for Walls and Roofs Once the solar irradiation has been calculated. glass resistance: A = indoor surface area of a wall or roof. roof. ft2 (11) 0 = time. a Only a fraction of the energy absorbed by the glass The conduction transfer function coefficients developed enters the zone. °F. = the inward flowing fraction of absorbed radiation. °F. see the description of the transfer function method = constant indoor room temperature. + F = difference between the long-wavelength radiation with incident on the surface from the sky and the radiation emitted by a black body at the outdoor = coefficients for radiation absorption by DSA glass. Initially. In addition. ‘DY.)is calculated as follows: for any hour () due to walls or roofs as follows: (10) IIfl N . which is the temperature the outside air would have to be where to cause the same heat gain to the inside surface as that caused by the outdoor air temperature and solar radiation = radiation directly striking surface.) — d{(q)IA} — ç (7) A[ c0j with where N. h.. Equation 7 must be solved iteratively because the heat Solar Irradiation The first step in the analysis is the flux history terms on the right-hand side are not known calculation of solar irradiation.“Fenestration” chapter (ASHRAE 1989). A brief the coefficients). description of the table development given by Lindsey (1991). tals . the radiation transmit mo1ified compute the transmitted and absorbed components of solar ted through the glass (T a )and the fraction of the radiation heat gain separately. B.. So the heat gain to the zone due to radiation tion transfer function equation to calculate thfe heat gain absorbed by the window (Ii. — details. It is defined by the following equation: U = angle of incidence. which. B tm ’h ft2. and C coefficients as recommend due to radiation transmitted through the glass is calculated ed by Machler and Iqbal (1985). in turn. The method used Equation 7 is calculated for successive 24-hour periods until for calculating the solar irradiation is similar to the standard convergence is reached. It is. Btu!hft2 the following formula: = outside convective and radiative heat transfer coefficient. the results are one presented in the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamen independent of the values assumed initially. h. at calculation hour 0 . etc. ‘•m. °F.r = sol-air temperature at time U no. where n = summation index (each summation has as many terms as there are non-zero values of ASHRAETransactions:Research 187 . The radiation absorbed by the glass (Jab) is calculated with I. determine sol-air temperatures for opaque surfaces or solar the heat flux history terms are assumed to be zero. and heat gain factors (SHGF) for fenestration. the ASHRAE clear sky absorbed by the glass that enters the zone. = outside air temperature. description of the methodology follows. total radiation incident on surface. in fact.

coefficients (weighting factors) different. slab type.4. between accuracy and the number of pages required for = cooling load at time t. Previous cooling loads and heat gains are initially assumed which can easily create a set of zone-specific tables.x20ft. 8 ZL Zone location Single-story. was redundant. it may be desirable to work manner until the results for a 24-hour cycle converge. Q 0based on past loads and current and past heat gains using = v 0 q 0 + v1q0 + — w1Q08 w2Q0 (12) — Printed Tables where Development of a set of printed tables for use with the CLTD/SCL/CLF method inevitably involves a compromise ô time interval. CLTD are calculated for steps had to be taken: TA B LE1 Zone P aram eterLevelsU sedin D evelopingP rintedTables Il2 Parameter Meaning Levelsconsiclcrcd 1 ZG Zone geometty lOOft.50%. floor. In order to produce a set of printed tables the cooling loads have been determined. 3 7 PT Partitiontype 5/8 in. 1 in. the relation to convert inward-flowing fraction of the solar energy absorbed by the the heat gain to cooling load is the same.46 Btu/lvfi2°F. 10 ft. Type 2. suitable for use in the load calculation manual. load at time 0.vinyl tile 14 GL Glass percent 10. 2. CLF values are simply the cooling load due to a unit Weighting factors are used to calculate the zone cooling heat gain from people. 2. 50. whether from walls.Middle floor. of course. 4.. each wall and roof group by dividing the hourly cooling 1. l5ftx lSft. SCL. and CLF Values After tion manual. 9 MF Mid fir. however. tables for one latitude and one month would require approx q0 = heat gain at time 0. ext. 188 A S H R A ET ra n s a ctio nRs:esearch . Bik. tables. 2 ZH Zone height 8 ft. windows. 3. or people. to be zero.2. SCL. and calculations are performed in an iterative In some cases. Gyp-Air-5/8in. is computer-based table-generation software.0 Btufhft2°F. lights.000 pages to print! A more practical approach.5 in.3 13 FC Floor covering Carpetwith rubber pad. the CLTD.0 4 IS Interiorshade 100%.Top floor.so is not includedhere. walls 1 . due to the transmitted portion of the solar energy to the roofs. Gyp. equipment. Wood 11 CT Ceilingtype W ith suspendedceiling. wall cons. C onc. or lights. withoutsuspendedceiling 12 RT Roof type 1.. 90 Note:The originalparameter 10. 8 in. Bottom. for that surface. 1 . imately 22. several and CLF can be easily calculated. 3 NW Num. = inside heat transfer coefficient. load per square foot for the surface by the overall U-value h0 = outside heat transfer coefficient. Conc. from the set of printed tables contained in the load calcula Calculation of CLTD. The hourly SCL values are the hourly cooling load values for the reference glazing system for the latitude and Conversion of Heat Gain to Cooling Load Once month listed and are obtained by adding the cooling load the heat gain has been calculated. A complete set (all zone groups) of just the SCL V1 and w 1 = weighting factors. 0%t 5 FN Furniture With 6 EC Ext. with only the reference glazing system.

there is already some each group. Note that the representative zone type weighting factor was then placed into groups with similar was chosen so that a small underprediction of the load responses. one (or more) zone type was selected The heat gains were converted to cooling loads using to develop the table data. the represen printed tables. some compromise is Roof No. the maximum location parameter was further restricted so as to exclude amount of error was determined and tabulated. limiting the number and bulk of tables. As discussed above. In the interest of in a heuristic manner to minimize the amount of error. and a representative zone type was chosen for might be made. 3. This is explained in more detail below. For each roof type. the errors tabulated in step 3 are actually in TA B LE2 addition to those from the original grouping procedure. A S H R A ETransactions:Research 189 . the heaviest included a date of July 21. The grouping criteria ensured that the weight overprediction built into the data by virtue of the first ing factors of the representative zone type would give a grouping procedure used. For each table and each selected zone type. only the with tables were developed for latitudes of 24’ N. It was assumed that the primary use of the methodology described above.6 hour of the peak that would he given by Wall CLTD Tables Harris and McQuiston (1988) any of the zone types in the group and that the amplitude utilized 41 wall groups in their categorization scheme. Furthermore. maximum outdoor temperature level of exterior construction and roof type were not of 95 ‘F. As zone’s weighting factors was determined. However. hourly cooling loads tive computation was performed that determined the using every reasonable permutation of the zone parameters amount of error for every zone type when the data for with the levels given in Table 1 were calculated. In other words. (Users can ed. The zone types were chosen weighting factors for one zone type. For would be within + 18%I-0%. as well as the For SCLs and CLFs. daily temperature range of 21 F.640 zones. but this was the maximum error.1. an exhaus In order to quantify the error. the authors attempted to 3 12% 5% develop a set of data that resulted in more accurate load calculations than possible under the GRP-158 manual and 4 13% 5% at the same time clearly point out and quantify the potential 5 11% 4% error associated with using the printed tables. the error in cooling load at the peak hour resulting from using the It should be noted that this grouping process is actually representative zone’s weighting factors instead of the actual the second grouping procedure performed on the data. Errors for off-peak hours were types of weighting factors for 200. 36’ N. Then. The levels of each zone parameter that were either interpolate for their latitude or use the computer to considered are listed in Table 1. P o te n tia El rro rA sso ciatedw ith U se o f th e P rin tedT ab les Unfortunately. nor were the highest level of zone geometry design temperature of 75 F. there is no way to get around this problem to D eterm ineR oofC LTD s and still have a practical set of printed tables in the load calculation manual. In 1 13% 5% developing the printed tables described below and published 2 13% 5% in the load calculation manual. peak within ±0. The standard conditions the printed tables would be for light commercial and previously used by Rudoy and Duran (1975).) 2. Positive * Negative required between accuracy and the size of the table set. and furniture” level of the furniture parameter was includ 48 N. 8 10% 4% users of the method may reach their own decision whether 9 10% 4% to use the printed tables or custom computer-generated tables. zone types without roofs. The maximum part of ASHRAE RP-472. underprediction. were used. separate and zone height included. the grouping 13 7% 4% procedure developed by Harris and McQuiston (1988) 14 5% 4% utilized 42 roof groups. Therefore. For each table. four zone types were selected and complexity of choosing the correct zone type. The types of zones to which the printed tables apply The heat gain for each roof type was calculated using were limited. Each type of generally smaller. CLTD tables were only printed for 12 * Positive error represents overprediction as compared to the transfer function method. In this way. tative zone type would overpredict the peak load by as A procedure analogous to that described for roofs was used much as 18% but never underpredict it. 10 9% 3% Roof CLTD Tables As discussed above. and an inside included. Sowell (1988c) calculated four errors are given in Table 2. The zone type was chosen heuristically to zone types. only the 15 most common groups were used. only one zone all permutations were categorized into one of the four type was used. which retail buildings. Based on this assumption. give minimum error. (Many of the groups are smaller. Due to space limitations in the load calculation manual. avoiding the latitude-month correction. The zone the selected zone type were used. negative error represents of the most common groups. print a table set for their latitude.) Therefore.

and Unhooded * t ransfer function method. Blk. C. and a scheme for mapping any zone type into 10 10% 6% one of the four representative zone types was developed. Note: This table only covers single story buildings. Full C C C 9 0 3 Vinyl Con. Full B B B 9 2 3 Carpet Con. or D) can be chosen 13 4% 4% using T able 4. negative error represents Equipment The CLF tables were developed using a underprediction. Bik. Again. People. A single zone type was chosen Potential Error Associated with U se of the Printed Tables heuristically to give minimal error. Bik. Floor Partition Inside Glass People & Lights Plus Minus Walls overin T Shade Solar ui ment 1 or 2 Carpet Gypsum ** A B B 9 2 lor2 Carpet Con. 190 ASHRAETransactions:Research . scheme analogous to the one used for developing the SCL TABLE4 Zone Types for Use with S C L and C LF Tables. The error band for Lights. Positive error represents overprediction as compared to the CLF TableS for Lighting. Half to None B C C 9 0 3 Vinyl Gypsum Full C C C 9 0 3 Vinyl Gypsum Half to None B C C 16 0 3 Vinyl Con. People & Equipment is approximately plus or minus 10 percent. Single-StoryBuilding Zone Parameters* Zone Type Error Band No. a single representative 6 14% 6% zone could not be used and. Therefore. Resulting cooling loads were 17% 7% investigated for all permutations of the 13 zone parameters.similar tables cover other building types. four representative 7 12% 6% zone types were used. all reasonable to DetermineWall C L T D S permutations were used to quantify the error given in N e ative Table 3. 3 4 1 6 910 Over the range of zone types. ** The effect of inside shade is negligible in this case. instead. B. Bik. Bik. Blk. Positive * SCL Tables The methodology described above was 1 18% 7% used to determine the heat gain due to transmission of solar 2 17% 8% radiation through fenestration. a 12 4% 7% representative zone type (A. These potential errors are tabulated in the last two columns of Table 4. The errors were quantified by calculating solar cooling 14 59’ 891 loads for each reasonable permutation and comparing those 15 11% 6% to cooling loads calculated using the appropriate representa 16 8% 7% tive zone. ** B C C 9 0 1 or 2 Vinyl Gypsum Full B C C 9 0 1 or 2 Vinyl Gypsum Half to None C C C 16 0 1 or 2 Vinyl Con. Blk. Half to None A B B 3 Carpet Gypsum ** A B B 9 2 3 Carpet Con. Full C D D 8 0 D D D 10 6 1 or 2 Vinyl Con. Half to None A B B 16 0 4 Carpet Gypsum B C C 6 3 4 Vinyl Gypsum ** Full C C C 11 6 4 yin I G sum Half to None 19 -1 * The error band shown in the right hand column is for Solar Cooling Load (SCL). TABLE 3 to develop the CLTD tables. Wall No. Again. By 11 8% 3% specifying the seven most important zone parameters. there is a much larger 79 10 variance in cooling loads due to solar heat gain than due to 5 13% 8% conductive heat gain. the four representative zone types were chosen 9 13% 6% heuristically.

four representative zone types were used. Again.g. for 24-hour periods beginning with the first hour that loads (SCL). the results will match those generated by the equipment is on. provement in accuracy over what was previously 2. leaving only the radiant portion to the load calculation manual can produce custom SCL deal with. The CLF for hooded equipment is derived by tables for any month and latitude. Again. Subtract the standard convective fraction (0. cooling load due to heat gain from walls and roofs has been improved for most situations. now called the The development of the Cooling and Heating Load CLTD/SCL/CLF method has the following features: Calculation manual described in this paper was funded by the American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air- 1. The calculation of cooling loads due to solar radiation Cooling load factors for people and unhooded equip transmitted and absorbed fenestration was revised by ment were tabulated for each of the four representative zone the introduction of tabulated values of solar cooling types. In this case. it is difficult to make a direct load (all 24 hours) by the actual radiative fraction of comparison between the current method and the old the heat gain divided by the radiative fraction of the method. It is recommended that this be investigated heat gain that was assumed in the unhooded CLF further. hooded and unhooded equipment. Cooling loads calculated with the unhooded equipment. Once the CLTDTAB program has been run.0/0.0 / 0. This represents a Cooling load factors for lighting were tabulated for significant improvement over the old method and each of the four representative zone types. this is a clear im of the cooling load. ASHRAETransactions:Research 191 . When the zone of increase in radiant percentage (i. for 24-hour allows generation of CLTDs that will result in calculat periods beginning with the first hour that the lights are ed cooling loads approximately equivalent to those turned on. a direct comparison between the fraction is 0. the heat gain is assumed to be 30% printed SCL tables will be more accurate than previ convective and 70 % radiative. and the operation. 10. Then all CLF values are multiplied by the ratio calculations are easier than before. Using four different representative zone types resulted computer program CLTDTAB. or previously available data. 1979. described by 14 zone variables. new method and the old method has not been made. The printed 1. When this option radiant fraction of the cooling load for the hours the is used.0.tables. Cooling and heating load calculation ing a wall or roof type and ensured a reasonable level manual. procedure is enumerated here and can be used to change the the SCLs will give approximately the same results as radiant/convective split to other ratios for equipment or the TFM for unshaded fenestration. and for “lights on” periods of 8. However. 2. convective portion of the heat gain is assumed to all be In addition. no unhooded equipment CLF for the hours the equipment is in interpolation between latitudes is required. and lighting. 1. For hooded equipment. calculation (e. lighting CLFs: 3. C.e. New CLF data have been developed for people.30) from tables utilize four representative zone types and yield the urihooded CLF values for the hours the equipment cooling loads within 10% of those generated by the is in operation to obtain the unhooded radiative portion TFM. Multiply the unhooded radiative portion of the cooling available. B. as well as any zone subtracting the convective portion of the heat gain from the type.7). The general parameters are specified for the CLTDTAB program. 1. The accuracy of the CLTD/CLF method for predicting Conditioning Engineers.. Add the actual convective fraction to the newly derived custom CLFs for specific zone types. the CLTDTAB program provided with removed from the zone. Atlanta: ASHRAE. The CLTDs listed in the printed tables and Table 4 also contains the information necessary to represent all zones and are an improvement over the choose the correct representative zone type (A. 14.7). contain SCL values for three latitudes and four repre CLF Tablesfor Hooded Equipment For people and sentative zone types. the ously possible. For people and equipment. the actual convective TFM exactly. CLTDs for walls and in errors of less than ± 10% for virtually all hours and zone roofs can he custom generated for a particular zone as types. The improved grouping method developed by Harris and McQuiston (1988) allowed generation of representative conduction REFERENCES transfer function coefficients for any reasonable wall or roof design. Printed tables between 2 and 18 hours. The CLTDTAB program can be used to generate 3. 16 hours. This both simplified the process of select ASHRAE.. and calculated by the TFM method. and for periods with heat gain problems with the CLTD/CLF method. 12. with the supplied D). CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The revised CLTD/CLF method. This revision fixes one of the main the heat gain existed. of accuracy. For lighting.

ASHRAE Transactions 99(1).640 Harris. Spitler. Sowell. 192 ASHRAETransactions:Research . McQuiston. Spitler. 91(1A): 106-115. J. 1985. and J.. 1988.D. 1988a. vich. E. E.M. Zone Dynamic Response for CLF/CLTD Tables. D. Electronic tables for the ASHRAE load calculation manual.F. and B. 1989 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals.C. Duran.. Sowell. 1988b. ASHRAE Transactions 94(2): 688-715.. F. categorize walls and roofs on the basis of thermal response. Todoro. 1993. Sowell.A.F.F. Classification of 200. K. Iqbal. Development of an Spitler. Cross-check and modification of the Lindsey. ASIIRAE Transactions 94(2): 737-753.S. M. A modification of the zones for cooling load calculations. and D. and F. 1993. Cooling and Sowell.C. Lindsey. University. Load calculations for 200.D. Oklahoma State factors. W. ASHRAE Transactions 94(2): 716-736. Characterization of Atlanta: ASHRAE. heating load calculation manual. E. M.. Atlanta: ASHRAE.. Sowell.640 parametric Machler.C.R. 1991. 1991. and M. Sowell.ASHRAE. ASHRAE Development of a revised heating and cooling load Transactions 81(2): 19-69. A study to zones. personal communication. ASHRAE Transactions tions 94(2): 754-777. K. improved cooling load calculation method. calculation manual. ASHRAE Transac ASHRAE clear sky model. McQuiston. Rudoy. Falconer. Chiles. thesis. 1992.C..F.F. S. J. E. E. 1988c. 1989.F. McQuiston. 1985.. E. ASHRAE Transactions 99(1). 1975. and F. Revision of the CLTD/CLF cooling load DOE-2 program for calculation of zone weighting calculation method. ASHRAE Transactions 91(2A): 163-178.D. and F.