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# Foundation Engineering–I [GE-502]

## MSc Geotechnical Engineering

Lecture # 2
13-Apr-2017

by
Assistant Professor
Civil Engg. Dept. – UET Lahore
Email: mirfan1@msn.com
1
SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS
- General Principles -
Factors influencing settlement (mathematically)
 Net applied stress - ∆q
 Compressibility of soil - 𝑐𝑐 = 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆⁄𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿

## Today’s discussion Discussed in previous

lecture

S = ∆q x c x f(B)

Where,
S = settlement [L]
∆q = net load [F/L2]
c = compressibility [L/(F/L2)]
f(B) = size effect [dimensionless]

2
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO

point in soil

## 1. Approximate (2:1) Method

2. Boussinesq’s Theory
3. Westergaard’s Theory

3
APPROXIMATE METHOD
Use of 2:1 (V:H) stress
distribution.

𝑄𝑄
𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 =
(𝐵𝐵 + 𝑧𝑧) � (𝐿𝐿 + 𝑧𝑧)

Where,
σz = Stress at depth ‘z’
Q = Point load
B x L = Footing dimensions
4
APPROXIMATE METHOD
For rectangular foundation
𝑄𝑄 𝑸𝑸
𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝝈𝝈𝒐𝒐 =
𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩
(𝐵𝐵 + 𝑧𝑧) � (𝐿𝐿 + 𝑧𝑧)

## For strip footing

𝑄𝑄
𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 =
(𝐵𝐵 + 𝑧𝑧) � 1

Where, 𝑸𝑸
𝝈𝝈𝒛𝒛 =
σz = Stress at depth ‘z’ 𝑩𝑩 + 𝒛𝒛 . (𝑳𝑳 + 𝒛𝒛)
Q = Point load
B x L = Footing dimensions
5
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO

## Determination of stress due to external load at any

point in soil

1. Approximate Method
2. Boussinesq’s Theory
3. Westergaard’s Theory

6
Boussinesq’s Theory for Point Load
Boussinesq (1885) solved the problem of stress produced by any point
load on following assumptions;
 The soil mass is elastic, isotropic, homogeneous and semi-infinite.
 The soil mass is weightless.
 The load is a point load acting on the surface.
Q Q

7
Boussinesq’s Theory for Point Load
3Qz 3 3Q z3 Q
∆σ z = =
2πL5
2π (r 2 + z 2 )5 2
Where,
r = x2 + y2

L = x2 + y2 + z 2 = r 2 + z 2

 3x 2 z  x2 − y2 y 2 z 
 5 − (1 − 2 µ ) 2
Q
∆σ x = + 3 2 
2π  L  Lr (L + z ) L r  
µ = Poisson’s
Q 3 y 2 z  y2 − x2 x2 z 
 5 − (1 − 2 µ ) 2
ratio
∆σ y = + 3 2 
2π  L  Lr (L + z ) L r  
8
Boussinesq’s Theory
for Point Load Q

3Qz 3 3Q z3
∆σ z = =
2πL5
(
2π r 2 + z 2 ) 52

## The above relationship for

∆σz can be re-written as

Q  3 1  Q
∆σ z = 2  52 = 2 IB
z [ ]
 2π (r z ) + 1 
2
z
Q

where
3 1
IB =
[
2π (r z )2 + 1 5 2 ]
Independent of all material properties
9
Vertical Stress caused by Line Load
By integrating the point load equation along a line, stress due
to a line load (force per unit length) may be found.

q
σ z = IL
z
Q/unit length x q is line load in “per unit length”

∆σz Where,
y 2
z 2 1 
IL =  2
A π 1 + (x / z ) 
x
z
11
Practice Problem #1
Following figure shows two line loads and a point load acting
at the ground surface. Determine the increase in vertical stress
at point A, which is located at a depth of 1.5 m.

## Q = 10,000 kN q2 = 250 kN/m q1 = 150 kN/m

2m 2m

3m
∆σz 1.5 m

Q  3 1 
∆σ z =  52
A
z2 [
 2π 1 + (r z )2 ] 

q  2 1 
∆σ z =  2
[ ]
z π 1 + ( x / z )2 
13
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO
Q
 Point load ∆σz = 2 I B
z
q
 Line Load σ z = IL
z
 But engineering loads typically act on areas and
not points or lines.
 Bousinesq solution for line load was thus
integrated for a finite area

Circular Area Rectangular Area Triangular, etc.
14
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
CIRCULAR AREA
Boussinesq equation can be extended to a uniformly loaded
circular area to determine vertical stress at any depth.

## Case-A: Vertical stress under the center of

circular footing
RO

 1 
∆σ z = q 1 −
 [( Ro z )2
]
+1 32

z

where,
q = UDL (load/area)
RO = Radius of footing
15
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
CIRCULAR AREA

## Case-B: Vertical stress at any point in soil

∆σ z = q ⋅ I Z (m, n)
RO

where,
IZ = Shape function/ Influence factor
zz
m = z/RO; n=r/RO

RO = Radius of footing
r = distance of Δσz from center of footing
z = depth of Δσz ar
16
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED CIRCULAR AREA
(stress in percent of surface contact pressure)

(Foster & Alvin, 1954; U.S. Navy, 1986) Assumptions: Semi-infinite elastic
medium with Poisson’s ratio 0.5.17
Practice Problem #2
A water tank is required to be constructed with a circular
foundation having a diameter of 16 m founded at a depth of 2 m
below the ground surface. The estimated distributed load on the
foundation is 325 kPa.
Assuming that the subsoil extends to a great depth and is
isotropic and homogeneous. Determine the stress σz at points

## (i) 10 m below NSL; at center of footing

(ii) 10 m below NSL; at distance of 8 m from central axis of footing
(iii) 18 m below NSL; at center of footing
(iv) 18 m below NSL; at distance of 8 m from central axis of footing

## Neglect the effect of the depth of the foundation on the

stresses.
19
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
Bousinesq equation can be extended for uniformly loaded
rectangular area as; q x
dy
∆σ z = q ⋅ I rec (m, n) y dx

where,
∆σz
IZ = Shape function/ Influence factor
m = b/z; n=l/z
A

20
STRESS UNDER •21
UNIFORMLY
RECTANGULAR
AREA

B L
m= , n=
z z
Log scale 21
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA

∆σ z = q ⋅ I rec (m, n)

## This methods gives stress at the corner of rectangular area

A B A E B

G
F

D C D C
Case I Case II
σz due to ABCD =
4 x σz due to EBFG
22
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
A B A E B

G
H F

D C D I C
Case I Case II
σz due to ABCD =
4 x σz due to EBFG
A E B

Case III
σz due to ABCD = σz due to
I (EBFI + IFCG + IGDH + AEIH)
H F

D G C
24
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
A B A E B

F E

D C D F C
Case IV Case V
σz due to ABCD = 2 x σz due to ABEF σz due to ABCD = 2 x σz due to EBCF
A B E

Case VI
σz due to ABCD = σz due to
(AEGI – BEGH – DFGI + CFGH)
D F
C

I G
H 25
Practice Problem #3
The uniform contact pressure under a rectangular footing of 6m
x 5m is 200kPa. Compute the vertical stress component under
points A and B at a depth of 2m.

27
STRESS UNDER •28
UNIFORMLY
RECTANGULAR
AREA

B L
m= , n=
z z
Log scale 28
Practice Problem #3

29
STRESS UNDER
UNIFORMLY
TRAPEZOIDAL AREA

## Ref: Holtz & Kovacs

(2nd Ed.)
Fig. 10.6 (pp #474)

## Stress distribution under

a very long embankment;
length = ∞

Osterberg, 1957)
30
STRESS UNDER
UNIFORMLY
TRIANGULAR AREA

## Ref: Holtz & Kovacs

(2nd Ed.)
Fig. 10.7 (pp #475)

## Influence values for vertical

stress under the corners of a
triangular load of limited
length.

## (U.S. Navy, 1986)

31
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
IRREGULAR SHAPED AREA
How to determine stress in soil caused by irregularly shaped

##  Newmark (1942) influence charts

 Determination of stresses at given depth and location (both
within and outside the loaded area)
 Vertical stress
 Horizontal stress
 Shear stress 32
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED IRREGULAR
SHAPED AREA
– Newmark Influence Charts –
 Based on Bousinesq theory

##  Similar charts available for

Westergaard theory (to be
discussed later)

33
– NEWMARK
INFLUENCE CHARTS –

 Contours of a cone

##  Each ‘area’ or ‘block’ has the

same surface area in cross-
section

##  Projection on paper distorts the

block area, i.e. areas look
smaller close to the center and
vice versa

34
– NEWMARK
INFLUENCE CHARTS –

##  Drawing to be made on scale

 Distance A-B equal to depth of
interest
 Scale of loaded area to be
selected accordingly
 Center of influence chart to
coincide with point of interest

## ∆𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 . 𝐼𝐼. (𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵)

qo = contact stress
I = influence factor
35
Practice Problem #4
What is the additional
vertical stress at a depth of 10
m under point A?

## ∆𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 . 𝐼𝐼. (𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵)

No of elements = 76 (say)

A B
20mm
I = 1/200
36
STRESS
DISTRIBUTION
CHARTS

Fig. 5-4

## Pressure isobars (also called pressure

bulbs) based on the Boussinesq
equation for square and strip footings.

## Applicable only along line ab from the

center to edge of the base.

37
STRESS
DISTRIBUTION
CHARTS L/B = 1

L/B = ∞
Ref: Principles of Foundation
Engineering (Das 3rd Ed.)
Fig. 3.4.1

## Stress distribution beneath center of

flexible loaded rectangular area

38
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO

## Determination of stress due to external load at any

point in soil

1. Approximate Method
2. Boussinesq’s Theory
3. Westergaard’s Theory

39
Westergaard’s Theory
 Boussinesq theory derived for homogeneous, isotropic, linearly
elastic half-space.
 Many natural soils sedimentary (layered) in nature; e.g. varved
clays.
 Westergaard theory considers infinitely thin elastic layers of soil.

40
Westergaard’s Theory for Point Load
Westergaard, proposed (1938) a formula for the computation of vertical
stress σz by a point load, P, at the surface as;

P (1 − 2µ ) (2 − 2µ )
∆σ z =
[
2πz 2 (1 − 2 µ ) (2 − µ ) + (r z )2 ] 32

## If poisson’s ratio, µ, is taken as zero, the above equation simplifies to

P 1 P
∆σ z = 2 = 2 IW
[
πz 1 + 2(r z )2 ] 32
z

## Where, 1 1 Independent of all

IW =
[
π 1 + 2(r z )2 ] 32 material properties.

41
Westergaard
Charts for
Rectangular

## Ref: Holtz & Kovacs (2nd Ed.)

Fig. 10.9 (pp #480)

## Influence values for vertical

stress under corners of a
area for Westergaard theory
(after Duncan & Buchignani,
1976)

42
Influence values for vertical stress under
center of a square uniformly loaded area
(Poisson’s Ratio, ν = 0.0)
(after Duncan & Buchignani, 1976)

## Ref: Holtz & Kovacs (2nd Ed.)

Table 10.1 (pp #481)

43
Influence values for vertical stress under
center of infinitely long strip load.
(after Duncan & Buchignani, 1976)

## Ref: Holtz & Kovacs (2nd Ed.)

Table 10.2 (pp #481)

44
Influence values for vertical stress
under corner of a uniformly loaded
rectangular area.
(after Duncan & Buchignani, 1976)

## Ref: Holtz & Kovacs

(2nd Ed.)
Table 10.2 (pp #481)

45
Westergaard vs Boussinesq Coefficient
1 1
IW =
[
π 1 + 2(r z )2 ] 32

3 1
IB =
[
2π (r z )2 + 1 5 2]
The value of IW at r/z = 0 is
0.32 which is less than that of
IB by 33%.

## Boussinesq’s solution gives

conservative results at shallow
depth.
46
Westergaard vs Boussinesq vs 2:1

## Ref: Basis of Foundation

Design Electronic Edition
(Bengt H. Fellenius)
Fig. 1.8 & 1.9

47
Westergaard vs Boussinesq vs 2:1

## Ref: Basis of Foundation

Design Electronic Edition
(Bengt H. Fellenius)
Fig. 1.10 & 1.11

48
Stress Influence from Adjacent Buildings

## Ref: Basis of Foundation Design Electronic Edition

(Bengt H. Fellenius) Fig. 1.12
49
Stress Distribution through SIGMA/W

50
Stress Distribution through SIGMA/W

51
Practice Problem #5

52
REFERENCE MATERIAL
An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering (2nd Ed.)
Robert D. Holtz & William D. Kovacs
Chapter #10

CONCLUDED

56