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Foundation Engineering–I [GE-502]

MSc Geotechnical Engineering

Lecture # 2
13-Apr-2017

by
Dr. Muhammad Irfan
Assistant Professor
Civil Engg. Dept. – UET Lahore
Email: mirfan1@msn.com
Lecture Handouts: https://groups.google.com/d/forum/foundation-i-fall-2017
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SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS
- General Principles -
Factors influencing settlement (mathematically)
 Net applied stress - ∆q
 Compressibility of soil - 𝑐𝑐 = 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆⁄𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿

Today’s discussion Discussed in previous


lecture

S = ∆q x c x f(B)

Where,
S = settlement [L]
∆q = net load [F/L2]
c = compressibility [L/(F/L2)]
f(B) = size effect [dimensionless]

2
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO
EXTERNAL LOAD

Determination of stress due to external load at any


point in soil

1. Approximate (2:1) Method


2. Boussinesq’s Theory
3. Westergaard’s Theory

3
APPROXIMATE METHOD
Use of 2:1 (V:H) stress
distribution.

𝑄𝑄
𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 =
(𝐵𝐵 + 𝑧𝑧) � (𝐿𝐿 + 𝑧𝑧)

Where,
σz = Stress at depth ‘z’
Q = Point load
B x L = Footing dimensions
4
APPROXIMATE METHOD
For rectangular foundation
𝑄𝑄 𝑸𝑸
𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝝈𝝈𝒐𝒐 =
𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩
(𝐵𝐵 + 𝑧𝑧) � (𝐿𝐿 + 𝑧𝑧)

For strip footing


𝑄𝑄
𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 =
(𝐵𝐵 + 𝑧𝑧) � 1

Where, 𝑸𝑸
𝝈𝝈𝒛𝒛 =
σz = Stress at depth ‘z’ 𝑩𝑩 + 𝒛𝒛 . (𝑳𝑳 + 𝒛𝒛)
Q = Point load
B x L = Footing dimensions
5
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO
EXTERNAL LOAD

Determination of stress due to external load at any


point in soil

1. Approximate Method
2. Boussinesq’s Theory
3. Westergaard’s Theory

6
Boussinesq’s Theory for Point Load
Boussinesq (1885) solved the problem of stress produced by any point
load on following assumptions;
 The soil mass is elastic, isotropic, homogeneous and semi-infinite.
 The soil mass is weightless.
 The load is a point load acting on the surface.
Q Q

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Boussinesq’s Theory for Point Load
3Qz 3 3Q z3 Q
∆σ z = =
2πL5
2π (r 2 + z 2 )5 2
Where,
r = x2 + y2

L = x2 + y2 + z 2 = r 2 + z 2

 3x 2 z  x2 − y2 y 2 z 
 5 − (1 − 2 µ ) 2
Q
∆σ x = + 3 2 
2π  L  Lr (L + z ) L r  
µ = Poisson’s
Q 3 y 2 z  y2 − x2 x2 z 
 5 − (1 − 2 µ ) 2
ratio
∆σ y = + 3 2 
2π  L  Lr (L + z ) L r  
8
Boussinesq’s Theory
for Point Load Q

3Qz 3 3Q z3
∆σ z = =
2πL5
(
2π r 2 + z 2 ) 52

The above relationship for


∆σz can be re-written as

Q  3 1  Q
∆σ z = 2  52 = 2 IB
z [ ]
 2π (r z ) + 1 
2
z
Q

where
3 1
IB =
[
2π (r z )2 + 1 5 2 ]
Independent of all material properties
9
Vertical Stress caused by Line Load
By integrating the point load equation along a line, stress due
to a line load (force per unit length) may be found.

q
σ z = IL
z
Q/unit length x q is line load in “per unit length”

∆σz Where,
y 2
z 2 1 
IL =  2
A π 1 + (x / z ) 
x
z
11
Practice Problem #1
Following figure shows two line loads and a point load acting
at the ground surface. Determine the increase in vertical stress
at point A, which is located at a depth of 1.5 m.

Q = 10,000 kN q2 = 250 kN/m q1 = 150 kN/m

2m 2m

3m
∆σz 1.5 m

Q  3 1 
∆σ z =  52
A
z2 [
 2π 1 + (r z )2 ] 
Point Load

q  2 1 
∆σ z =  2
[ ]
Line Load
z π 1 + ( x / z )2 
13
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO
EXTERNAL LOAD
Q
 Point load ∆σz = 2 I B
z
q
 Line Load σ z = IL
z
 But engineering loads typically act on areas and
not points or lines.
 Bousinesq solution for line load was thus
integrated for a finite area

Uniformly Loaded Uniformly Loaded Trapezoidal,


Circular Area Rectangular Area Triangular, etc.
14
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
CIRCULAR AREA
Boussinesq equation can be extended to a uniformly loaded
circular area to determine vertical stress at any depth.

Case-A: Vertical stress under the center of


circular footing
RO

 1 
∆σ z = q 1 −
 [( Ro z )2
]
+1 32

z

where,
q = UDL (load/area)
RO = Radius of footing
15
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
CIRCULAR AREA

Case-B: Vertical stress at any point in soil

∆σ z = q ⋅ I Z (m, n)
RO

where,
IZ = Shape function/ Influence factor
zz
m = z/RO; n=r/RO

RO = Radius of footing
r = distance of Δσz from center of footing
z = depth of Δσz ar
16
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED CIRCULAR AREA
(stress in percent of surface contact pressure)

(Foster & Alvin, 1954; U.S. Navy, 1986) Assumptions: Semi-infinite elastic
medium with Poisson’s ratio 0.5.17
Practice Problem #2
A water tank is required to be constructed with a circular
foundation having a diameter of 16 m founded at a depth of 2 m
below the ground surface. The estimated distributed load on the
foundation is 325 kPa.
Assuming that the subsoil extends to a great depth and is
isotropic and homogeneous. Determine the stress σz at points

(i) 10 m below NSL; at center of footing


(ii) 10 m below NSL; at distance of 8 m from central axis of footing
(iii) 18 m below NSL; at center of footing
(iv) 18 m below NSL; at distance of 8 m from central axis of footing

Neglect the effect of the depth of the foundation on the


stresses.
19
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
Bousinesq equation can be extended for uniformly loaded
rectangular area as; q x
dy
∆σ z = q ⋅ I rec (m, n) y dx

where,
∆σz
IZ = Shape function/ Influence factor
m = b/z; n=l/z
A

20
STRESS UNDER •21
UNIFORMLY
LOADED
RECTANGULAR
AREA

B L
m= , n=
z z
Log scale 21
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA

∆σ z = q ⋅ I rec (m, n)

This methods gives stress at the corner of rectangular area

A B A E B

G
F

D C D C
Case I Case II
σz due to ABCD =
4 x σz due to EBFG
22
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
A B A E B

G
H F

D C D I C
Case I Case II
σz due to ABCD =
4 x σz due to EBFG
A E B

Case III
σz due to ABCD = σz due to
I (EBFI + IFCG + IGDH + AEIH)
H F

D G C
24
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
A B A E B

F E

D C D F C
Case IV Case V
σz due to ABCD = 2 x σz due to ABEF σz due to ABCD = 2 x σz due to EBCF
A B E

Case VI
σz due to ABCD = σz due to
(AEGI – BEGH – DFGI + CFGH)
D F
C

I G
H 25
Practice Problem #3
The uniform contact pressure under a rectangular footing of 6m
x 5m is 200kPa. Compute the vertical stress component under
points A and B at a depth of 2m.

27
STRESS UNDER •28
UNIFORMLY
LOADED
RECTANGULAR
AREA

B L
m= , n=
z z
Log scale 28
Practice Problem #3

29
STRESS UNDER
UNIFORMLY
LOADED
TRAPEZOIDAL AREA

Ref: Holtz & Kovacs


(2nd Ed.)
Fig. 10.6 (pp #474)

Stress distribution under


a very long embankment;
length = ∞

(U.S. Navy, 1986, after


Osterberg, 1957)
30
STRESS UNDER
UNIFORMLY
LOADED
TRIANGULAR AREA

Ref: Holtz & Kovacs


(2nd Ed.)
Fig. 10.7 (pp #475)

Influence values for vertical


stress under the corners of a
triangular load of limited
length.

(U.S. Navy, 1986)


31
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED
IRREGULAR SHAPED AREA
How to determine stress in soil caused by irregularly shaped
loaded areas?

 Newmark (1942) influence charts


 Determination of stresses at given depth and location (both
within and outside the loaded area)
 Vertical stress
 Horizontal stress
 Shear stress 32
STRESS UNDER UNIFORMLY LOADED IRREGULAR
SHAPED AREA
– Newmark Influence Charts –
 Based on Bousinesq theory

 Similar charts available for


Westergaard theory (to be
discussed later)

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– NEWMARK
INFLUENCE CHARTS –

 Contours of a cone

 Each ‘area’ or ‘block’ has the


same surface area in cross-
section

 Projection on paper distorts the


block area, i.e. areas look
smaller close to the center and
vice versa

34
– NEWMARK
INFLUENCE CHARTS –

 Drawing to be made on scale


 Distance A-B equal to depth of
interest
 Scale of loaded area to be
selected accordingly
 Center of influence chart to
coincide with point of interest

 Count number of blocks under


loaded area

∆𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 . 𝐼𝐼. (𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵)


qo = contact stress
I = influence factor
35
Practice Problem #4
What is the additional
vertical stress at a depth of 10
m under point A?

∆𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 . 𝐼𝐼. (𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵)


No of elements = 76 (say)

A B
20mm
I = 1/200
36
STRESS
DISTRIBUTION
CHARTS

Ref: Bowles pp #292


Fig. 5-4

Pressure isobars (also called pressure


bulbs) based on the Boussinesq
equation for square and strip footings.

Applicable only along line ab from the


center to edge of the base.

37
STRESS
DISTRIBUTION
CHARTS L/B = 1

L/B = ∞
Ref: Principles of Foundation
Engineering (Das 3rd Ed.)
Fig. 3.4.1

Stress distribution beneath center of


flexible loaded rectangular area

38
STRESS INCREASE (∆q) DUE TO
EXTERNAL LOAD

Determination of stress due to external load at any


point in soil

1. Approximate Method
2. Boussinesq’s Theory
3. Westergaard’s Theory

39
Westergaard’s Theory
 Boussinesq theory derived for homogeneous, isotropic, linearly
elastic half-space.
 Many natural soils sedimentary (layered) in nature; e.g. varved
clays.
 Westergaard theory considers infinitely thin elastic layers of soil.

40
Westergaard’s Theory for Point Load
Westergaard, proposed (1938) a formula for the computation of vertical
stress σz by a point load, P, at the surface as;

P (1 − 2µ ) (2 − 2µ )
∆σ z =
[
2πz 2 (1 − 2 µ ) (2 − µ ) + (r z )2 ] 32

If poisson’s ratio, µ, is taken as zero, the above equation simplifies to


P 1 P
∆σ z = 2 = 2 IW
[
πz 1 + 2(r z )2 ] 32
z

Where, 1 1 Independent of all


IW =
[
π 1 + 2(r z )2 ] 32 material properties.

41
Westergaard
Charts for
Rectangular
Loads

Ref: Holtz & Kovacs (2nd Ed.)


Fig. 10.9 (pp #480)

Influence values for vertical


stress under corners of a
uniformly loaded rectangular
area for Westergaard theory
(after Duncan & Buchignani,
1976)

42
Influence values for vertical stress under
center of a square uniformly loaded area
(Poisson’s Ratio, ν = 0.0)
(after Duncan & Buchignani, 1976)

Ref: Holtz & Kovacs (2nd Ed.)


Table 10.1 (pp #481)

43
Influence values for vertical stress under
center of infinitely long strip load.
(after Duncan & Buchignani, 1976)

Ref: Holtz & Kovacs (2nd Ed.)


Table 10.2 (pp #481)

44
Influence values for vertical stress
under corner of a uniformly loaded
rectangular area.
(after Duncan & Buchignani, 1976)

Ref: Holtz & Kovacs


(2nd Ed.)
Table 10.2 (pp #481)

45
Westergaard vs Boussinesq Coefficient
1 1
IW =
[
π 1 + 2(r z )2 ] 32

3 1
IB =
[
2π (r z )2 + 1 5 2]
The value of IW at r/z = 0 is
0.32 which is less than that of
IB by 33%.

Boussinesq’s solution gives


conservative results at shallow
depth.
46
Westergaard vs Boussinesq vs 2:1

Ref: Basis of Foundation


Design Electronic Edition
(Bengt H. Fellenius)
Fig. 1.8 & 1.9

47
Westergaard vs Boussinesq vs 2:1

Ref: Basis of Foundation


Design Electronic Edition
(Bengt H. Fellenius)
Fig. 1.10 & 1.11

48
Stress Influence from Adjacent Buildings

Ref: Basis of Foundation Design Electronic Edition


(Bengt H. Fellenius) Fig. 1.12
49
Stress Distribution through SIGMA/W

50
Stress Distribution through SIGMA/W

51
Practice Problem #5

52
REFERENCE MATERIAL
An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering (2nd Ed.)
Robert D. Holtz & William D. Kovacs
Chapter #10

CONCLUDED

56