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PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES

1. Which of the following amino acids does not have a hydrophobic side chain?
a. Alanine c. Methionine
b. Isoleucine d. Serine

2. A solution of gold nitrate is electrolyzed with a 0.5 ampere current. If


2.57 g of gold is deposited on the cathode, what is the duration of the
electrolysis in minutes?
a. 26 c. 126
b. 62 d. 162

3. This is a membrane process in which solutions of two different


concentrations are separated through an applied pressure greater than the
osmotic pressure.
a. Reverse osmosis c. Pervaporation
b. Ion exchange d. Electrodialysis

4. What is the compressibility factor of a gas at 12.57 atm and 300 K if it


follows the equation of state described by the equation: P = RT/V + 1/V2
where V is in liters and T is in Kelvin?
a. 0.20 c. 1.02
b. 0.94 d. 2.01

5. Which of the following indicators can be used for titration whose end
point is at extreme basicity?
a. Phenolphthalein c. Bromocresol
b. Methyl orange d. Bromothymol blue

6. Calculate the change in internal energy for the adiabatic and reversible
compression of 1 mol of He gas initially at 25 degC from 0.10 m3 to 0.01
m3. What is its corresponding change in enthalpy?
a. 0 kJ, 0 kJ c. 13.6 kJ, 22.6 kJ
b. 7.2 kJ, 12.5 kJ d. 15.1 kJ, 25.1 kJ

7. Predict which of the following compounds will have a lower boiling point
that 1-butanal?
a. 1-butanol c. 1-butene
b. 2-butanol d. Butanoic acid

8. Chlorine gas effuses through a small opening at a rate of 3 moles/min.


How fast will helium gas effuse through the same opening?
a. 6.93 moles/min c. 18.59 moles/min
b. 12.63 moles/min d. 25.18 moles/min

9. Which of the following statements about an sp-hybridized carbon is false?


a. It is divalent.
b. It forms bonds that are linear.
c. It has two p orbitals.
d. It always forms triple bonds to carbon.

10. An ideal O2 gas, whose volume is 2.5 liters, is expanded isothermally


from 4.25 atm to atmospheric pressure at 0 degC. What is the work involved
in the process?
a. 0 calories c. 372 calories
b. -372 calories d. None of the above

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11. Synthetic rubber can be made from the polymerization of a variety of


monomers such as the following, except:
a. Butadiene c. Isoprene
b. Chloroprene d. Styrene

12. What is the entropy change in converting 100 grams of ice at -10 degC
to steam at 130 degC under atmospheric conditions?
a. 87 cal/K c. 121 cal/K
b. 112 cal/K d. 211 cal/K

13. What is the pH of a solution obtained from mixing 50 mL of a 0.1 M HCl


solution and 50 mL of a 0.2 M NaOH solution?
a. 1.3 c. 9.4
b. 7.0 d. 12.7

14. Which among the following thermoplastics is preferred for


semiconductor, bioprocessing, and pharmaceutical applications?
a. Polyethylene c. Polytetrafluoroethylene
b. Polyvinyl chloride d. Polyvinylidene fluoride

15. Which of the following statements is not true regarding fatty acids?
a. Fatty acids dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
b. Triglycerides are esters of fatty acids.
c. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have trans double bonds.
d. Fatty acids are biosynthesized from acetate.

16. A 10 molal solution of sodium sulfate in ethyl alcohol has a density of


1.07 g/cc. What is the molarity of the solution?
a. 3.86 M c. 9.35 M
b. 4.42 M d. 10.70 M

17. The growth rate of E. coli in synthetic medium can be expressed by the
following Monod kinetics, r(X) = 0.941SX/(0.83 + S) g/L-hr. You are going
to cultivate E. coli in a CSTR (10 L) with a flow rate of 7 L/hr. The
initial substrate concentration is 10 g/L and the cell yield is 0.6. The
feed stream is sterile. What will be the substrate concentration of the
outlet stream?
a. 0.23 g/L c. 2.41 g/L
b. 1.45 g/L d. 4.29 g/L

18. Which of the following cycloalkanes has the most strain energy?
a. Cyclobutane c. Cyclohexane
b. Cyclopentane d. Cycloheptane

19. It refers to the fraction of an incident beam that gets through a


sample solution subjected to spectroscopic analysis.
a. Attenuation c. Absorbance
b. Absorptivity d. Transmittance

20. If 0.40 mole of H2 and 0.40 mole of CO2 are placed in a 1.0 liter
container at 986 degC, what is the final equilibrium concentration of
water vapor? H2 (g) + CO2 (g) = H2O (g) + CO (g), K = 1.60
a. 0.22 M c. 0.66 M
b. 0.44 M d. 0.88 M

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21. Bone dry air is allowed to flow into a 750 mL water-filled saturator in
order to increase its moisture content. If the saturator is operating at
the equilibrium conditions of 50 degC and 1 atm, determine the mole
fraction of water in the exit air stream.
a. 0.03 c. 0.12
b. 0.07 d. 0.18

22. What is the color of lead chromate?


a. Black c. Red
b. Orange d. Yellow

23. Which of the following physical properties differ for each of a pair of
enantiomers?
a. Boiling point and melting point
b. Direction of rotation of plane-polarized light
c. Index of refraction
d. Solubility in ethanol

24. Which among the following is the most abundant isotope of hydrogen?
a. Deuterium c. Protium
b. Elerium d. Tritium

25. Which element has the highest percentage by mass in seawater?


a. Sodium c. Hydrogen
b. Chlorine d. Oxygen

26. Which of the following is the chemical name for vitriol?


a. Ascorbic acid c. Nitric acid
b. Butyric acid d. Sulfuric acid

27. What is the osmotic pressure of a solution that contains 0.10 mol of
sodium chloride dissolved in a liter of water at 25 degC?
a. 1.75 atm c. 3.02 atm
b. 2.29 atm d. 4.88 atm

28. It is a catalyst also known as poisoned palladium, which is palladium


soaked in lead acetate and is used in oxidation-reduction titrations.
a. Devarda alloy c. Nichol’s catalyst
b. Walden reductor d. Lindlar’s catalyst

29. The Williamson ether synthesis produces ethers by reacting an:


a. Alcohol with a metal c. Alkoxide with an alkyl halide
b. Alkoxide with a metal d. Alkyl halide with an aldehyde

30. In which part of the cell does the synthesis of lipids, phospholipids,
and steroids occur?
a. Lysosome c. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Golgi apparatus d. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

31. A solution containing 4.48 ppm of KMnO4 has a transmittance of 0.576 in


a 1.00 cm cell at 520 nm. If the transmittance of an unknown solution is
0.735, what is the concentration of the unknown KMnO4 solution in ppm?
a. 1.65 c. 2.50
b. 2.15 d. 3.85

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32. The sweetener saccharin is a weak monoprotic acid with Ka = 2.1 x 10-
12. What is the pH of a 5 M saccharin solution in water?
a. 5.24 c. 6.63
b. 5.49 d. 8.05

33. For the following equilibrium reaction: 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) -> 2SO3 (g),
dH = -45 cal. The number of moles of oxygen in equilibrium will decrease
if _____? The concentration of SO2 at equilibrium will increase if _____?
The concentration of SO3 at equilibrium will increase if _____?
a. A catalyst is added; temperature of the system is lowered; the
volume of the container is increased
b. An inert gas is added to the system; O2 is added to the system; SO2
is removed from the system
c. Oxygen is added to the system; SO2 is removed from the system; an
inert gas is added to the system
d. SO3 is removed from the system; the volume of the container is
increased; temperature of the system is lowered

34. Which molecule has the largest dipole moment?


a. CCl4 c. HCl
b. CO2 d. H2S

35. What is the solubility of CaF2 in water in moles of CaF2 per L of


solution? The Ksp for CaF2 is 1.7E-10.
a. 0.0000065 c. 0.00035
b. 0.0000092 d. 0.00044

36. When 2.0 g of methane is burned in a bomb calorimeter containing 2000 g


of water, it causes the temperature of the water to rise by 13.3 degC.
What is the molar heat of combustion of methane?
a. 111 kJ c. 892 kJ
b. 213 kJ d. 1001 kJ

37. This is the process that is used to treat sewage and industrial
wastewater by introducing air or pure oxygen, together with
microorganisms, to develop biological flocs that reduce organic content.
a. Activated sludge c. Aerobic digestion
b. Aeration d. Flocculation

38. A student obtained 2.257 g of a material containing alum, KAl(SO4)2


12H2O, the rest being inerts. The sample was dissolved in distilled water
and excess barium nitrate was added to the resulting solution to
precipitate all the sulfate ions. The precipitate was filtered out of
solution through a Buchner funnel and Whatman No. 2 filter paper (1.675
g). After drying the filter paper inside a 50 degC oven, the weight was
determined to be 2.715 g. What was the purity of the original sample?
a. 25.5% c. 51.0%
b. 46.8% d. 93.7%

39. A soap molecule has both a polar and a non-polar ends. The polar end
is soluble in water while the non-polar end is soluble in non-polar
solvents. Molecules like these are also called _____.
a. Amphiprotic c. Amphipathic
b. Amphoteric d. Ampholytic

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40. A glycoside is the carbohydrate form of an:


a. Acetal c. Alcohol
b. Aglycone d. Ether

41. Which of the following is not a colligative property of solutions


a. Elevation of boiling point upon addition of a solute
b. Depression of freezing point upon addition of a solute
c. Lowering of vapor pressure upon addition of a solute
d. Increase of reaction rates with increase in temperature

42. A hazardous waste incinerator is to burn 100 kg/h of a PCB waste that
is 22% PCB, among other organic solvents. In a trial run, the
concentration of PCB in the emission is measured as 0.02 g/m3 and the
stack gas flow rate is 40 m3/min. No PCB is detected in the ash. What
destruction efficiency (destruction of PCB) does the incinerator achieve?
a. 26.7% c. 89.1%
b. 60.6% d. 99.8%

43. EDTA is a very widely-known chelating agent. What does it stand for?
a. Ethyldimethyltetraldehyde c. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
b. Ethyldimethyltriamine d. Ethylenediaminetetraldehyde

44. The rate constant of a reaction depends upon ___.


a. The initial concentration of the reactants
b. The reaction time
c. The reaction temperature
d. All of the above

45. Which of the following compounds does not give a tertiary alcohol upon
reaction with methylmagnesium bromide?
a. 3-methylpentanal c. 4,4-dimethylcyclohexanone
b. Ethyl benzoate d. 4-heptanone

46. What is the organic nitrogen to protein ratio for meat products used as
sample for Kjeldahl analysis?
a. 8:100 c. 20:100
b. 16:100 d. 32:100

47. What is the enthalpy associated with the burning of propane with pure
oxygen to carbon dioxide and water vapor?
a. -1655 kJ c. -1940 kJ
b. -1762 kJ d. -2043 kJ

48. The average wastewater flow of a municipal wastewater plant is 3.2


million gallons per day. If the total volume of the two primary
clarifiers, which are operated in parallel, is 2080 m3, and the total
surface area of both clarifiers equals 600 m2, determine the hydraulic
retention time.
a. 3.1 hours c. 5.1 hours
b. 4.1 hours d. 6.1 hours

49. Which of the following may be separated by ordinary physical methods?


a. A pair of diastereomers c. A pair of identical atoms
b. A pair of enantiomers d. A pair of identical molecules

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50. Which among the following chemists is responsible for the Law of
Definite Proportions?
a. Amedeo Avogadro c. Joseph Louis Proust
b. Dmitri Mendeleev d. Ernest Rutherford

51. What is the molarity of a KMnO4 solution standardized against 1.356


grams of Na2C2O4 requiring 25.1 mL of the solution in acidic medium?
a. 0.161 M c. 0.856 M
b. 0.365 M d. 1.258 M

52. Which compound has the lowest melting point?


a. Decane c. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane
b. Tetramethylbutane d. Octadecane

53. In the nitrogen cycle, the process of conversion of ammonia into


nitrate ions by specific species of microorganisms is:
a. Ammonification c. Nitrification
b. Nitrogen fixation d. Denitrification

54. 100 grams of hydrochloric acid reacts with 100 grams of calcium to form
hydrogen and calcium chloride. Which of the following is the limiting
reagent? How much of the excess reagent is found in the product?
a. Calcium; 1.26% c. Hydrochloric acid; 22.52%
b. Calcium chloride; 4.43% d. Hydrogen; 76.05%

55. What is the change in the internal energy for the solid phase change of
lithium sulfate from one crystalline form (S1) to another (S2)? The
reaction takes place at 298 K with an enthalpy change of 27.2 kJ. The
densities of S1 and S2 are 2.07 x 10^3 kg/m3 and 2.221 x 10^3 kg/m3
respectively.
a. 0.36 kJ c. 14.6 kJ
b. 8.24 kJ d. 27.2 kJ

56. This refers to the wastewater process of destabilizing colloidal


particles to facilitate particle growth by either double-layer compression
or charge neutralization, interparticle bridging or precipitate
enmeshment.
a. Chemical oxidation c. Eutrophication
b. Biological Contactor d. Coagulation

57. The oxidation of a molecule involves


a. Gain of electron c. Gain of proton
b. Loss of electron d. Loss of proton

58. In what form does the product of glycolysis enter the TCA cycle?
a. Acetyl COA c. Pyruvate
b. NADH d. Glucose

59. An industrial treatment process uses activated carbon to remove color


from the water. The color is reduced as a first-order reaction in a batch
system. If the rate constant k = 0.35 days-1, how long will it take to
achieve 90% removal?
a. 0.3 days c. 4.3 days
b. 2.9 days d. 6.6 days

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60. Saliva contains all of the following except:


a. Hormones c. Bacteria-killing enzymes
b. Amylase d. Antibodies

61. The vapor pressure of ethanol is 135.3 mm at 40 degC and 542.5 at 70


degC. What is its molar heat of vaporization?
a. 12100 J/mol c. 38500 J/mol
b. 15900 J/mol d. 41400 J/mol

62. The empirical formula of a compound is CH. At 200 degC, 0.145 g of this
compound occupies 97.2 mL at a pressure of 0.74 atm. What is the molecular
formula of the compound?
a. C2H2 c. C4H4
b. C3H8 d. C6H6

63. Which of the following is not a disaccharide?


a. Amylose c. Lactose
b. Cellobiose d. Maltose

64. How many kilograms of acetic acid will be obtained from the hydrolysis
of 100 kg of ethyl acetate?
a. 20 kg c. 68 kg
b. 52 kg d. 100 kg

65. Which of the following occurs while charging a lead storage battery?
a. The amount of sulfuric acid decreases
b. Sulfuric acid is regenerated
c. The lead electrode becomes coated with PbSO4
d. Lead dioxide dissolves

66. What is the molecular formula of L-carnitine?


a. C12H25COOH c. C3HCl5
b. C7H15NO3 d. C5H11SO4

67. A 15-mL wastewater sample is placed in a standard 300-mL BOD bottle,


and the bottle is filled with dilution water. The bottle had an initial
dissolved-oxygen concentration of 8 mg/L. The BOD reaction-rate
coefficient for the waste is 0.4 per day and a final dissolved oxygen of 2
mg/L. Calculate the 5-day BOD and ultimate BOD of the wastewater.
a. 6 mg/L; 6.9 mg/L c. 120 mg/L; 138.8 mg/L
b. 8 mg/L; 11.4 mg/L d. 160 mg/L; 229.0 mg/L

68. Which of the following is not a characteristic on an alcohol?


a. Their boiling points rise uniformly with a rise in molecular weight.
b. Lower members have a pleasant smell but burning taste, and the
higher ones are odorless and tasteless.
c. These are lighter than water.
d. Lower members are insoluble in water and organic solvents but
solubility increases with increase in molecular weight.

69. An isotope which has too high a neutron-proton ratio can gain stability
by:
a. Beta-emission c. Gamma-emission
b. Proton emissions d. K-capture

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70. Vitamin A may be found in the form of:


a. Retinol c. Thiamine
b. Riboflavin d. Pyridoxine

71. The results of a water analysis are: calcium 29.0 mg/L, magnesium 16.4
mg/L, potassium 17.5 mg/L, bicarbonate 171 mg/L (as HCO3), sulfate 36.0
mg/L and chloride 24.0 mg/L. Calculate hardness as mg/L of CaCO3 for this
water.
a. 80 mg/L c. 120 mg/L
b. 100 mg/L d. 140 mg/L

72. A buffer was prepared by dissolving 0.100 mol of the weak acid HA plus
0.050 mol of its conjugate base NaA in 1.00 L. Find the pH of the
solution. Ka = 0.00001
a. 3.4 c. 7.9
b. 4.7 d. 9.5

73. A 0.8870-g sample of a mixture of NaCl and KCl is dissolved in water,


and the solution is then treated with an excess of AgNO3 to yield 1.913 g
of AgCl. Calculate the percent by mass of each compound in the mixture.
a. 34% NaCl, 66% KCl c. 44% NaCl, 56% KCl
b. 39% NaCl, 61% KCl d. 49% NaCl, 51% KCl

74. A mixture of ethanol and 1-propanol behaves ideally at 36 degC and is


in equilibrium with its vapor. If the mole fraction of ethanol in the
solution is 0.62, calculate its mole fraction in the vapor phase at this
temperature. The vapor pressure of pure ethanol and 1-propanol at 36 degC
are 108 mmHg and 40.0 mmHg, respectively.
a. 0.462 c. 0.815
b. 0.724 d. 0.938

75. This is a pale yellow explosive solid compound which was first made in
1863 by German chemist Joseph Wilbrand.
a. Ammonium nitrate c. Glyceryl trinitrate
b. Diazomethane d. Trinitrotoluene

76. Which among the following elements plays a major role in cellular
respiration, specifically by acting as a transport medium for electrons
within the cells?
a. Calcium c. Iron
b. Sodium d. Potassium

77. What poisonous gas is present in the exhaust fumes of a car?


a. Methane c. Acetylene
b. Carbon dioxide d. Hydrochloric acid

78. The boiling point of acetone is:


a. 56 degC c. 74 degC
b. 60 degC d. 88 degC

79. How many grams of ozone were degraded if a certain CFC pollutant was
able to capture 2.37 moles of atomic oxygen?
a. 37.92 g c. 56.88 g
b. 45.50 g d. 113.76 g

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80. The rusting of iron is an example of


a. Oxidation c. Absorption
b. Reduction d. Adsorption

81. An industrial plant discharges wastewater containing a certain


pollutant to a river flowing with a velocity of 0.5 m/s. At this point in
the river, the concentration of the pollutant is 50 ppm. The pollutant
follows first order degradation with a rate constant equal to 0.35 hr-1.
What will be the concentration of the pollutant in the river when it
reaches a city 12 km from the industrial plant?
a. 0.5 ppm c. 8.23 ppm
b. 4.85 ppm d. 15.4 ppm

82. What is the percentage of gold in 20-karat gold?


a. 20% c. 83%
b. 58% d. 100%

83. Which of the following is true with regards to chemical equilibrium?


a. Both forward and reverse reactions have ceased.
b. The forward and reverse reactions are proceeding at the same rate.
c. The forward reaction has come to stop and the reverse reaction is
just about to begin.
d. A considerable amount of heat evolved.

84. What is the theoretical oxygen demand of 100 grams of fructose?


a. 107 grams c. 161 grams
b. 120 grams d. 180 grams

85. Gamma rays are:


a. High energy electrons
b. Low energy electrons
c. High energy electromagnetic waves
d. High energy positrons

86. A Carnot engine, operating between 70 degF and 2000 degF, is modified
by raising the high temperature to 2150 degF and raising the low
temperature to 180 degF. What is the new efficiency of the engine?
a. 75.5% c. 91.6%
b. 78.5% d. 96.5%

87. How many kilograms of water should be used to dissolve 293 g of NaCl to
produce a 0.25 molal solution?
a. 0.25 kg c. 5 kg
b. 0.5 kg d. 20 kg

88. Morphine is a narcotic pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe


pain. What is its chemical formula?
a. C8H11NO2 c. C17H19NO3
b. C8H9NO2 d. C15H15NO2

89. Which among the following is not a major contributor to the greenhouse
effect?
a. Carbon dioxide c. Methane
b. Carbon monoxide d. Nitrous oxide

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90. The Lucas test is used to determine the type of:


a. Alcohol c. Amine
b. Acid d. Aldehyde

91. Sewage containing organic waste should not be disposed in water bodies
because it causes major water pollution. Fishes in such a polluted water
die because of:
a. Large number of mosquitoes
b. Increase in the amount of dissolved oxygen
c. Decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen
d. Clogging of gills by mud

92. Which among the following has the highest pH?


a. 0.1 M NaOH c. 0.1 M NaC2H3O2
b. 0.1 M NH4OH d. 0.1 M C2H5OH

93. A sample of 3.0 moles of a perfect diatomic gas at 200 K is compressed


reversibly and adiabatically. If the work associated with the process is
4.1 kJ, determine the final temperature.
a. 250 K c. 283 K
b. 266 K d. 300 K

94. Which of the following alcohols is least soluble in water?


a. CH3OH c. C6H13OH
b. C3H7OH d. C10H21OH

95. In enzymatic reactions, which type of inhibitor has a strong


resemblance to the substrate?
a. Competitive c. Noncompetitive
b. Uncompetitive d. Sub-competitive

96. Which of the following refers to the spherical bacteria arranged in


grape-like clusters?
a. Coccibacilli c. Staphylobacilli
b. Staphylococci d. Streptococci

97. When excess silver nitrate was added to a 25 ml sample of a solution of


calcium chloride, 0.9256 g of silver chloride is precipitated. What is
the concentration of the calcium chloride solution?
a. 11.28 g/L c. 14.34 g/L
b. 13.07 g/L d. 15.92 g/L

98. This refers to the hydrolysis of triglycerides by using a base to form


salt and carboxylates.
a. Glycerolysis c. Saponification
b. Hydroxylation d. Solvation

99. Calculate the change in Gibbs Free Energy of hydrogen gas when it is
compressed isothermally from 1 atm to 100 atm at 298K.
a. 11 kJ/mol c. -11 kJ/mol
b. 15 kJ/mol d. -15 kJ/mol

100. Which of the following is not soluble in water?


a. Sodium sulfate c. Barium sulfate
b. Zinc sulfate d. Calcium sulfate

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