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4 Lqwurgxfwlrq 58
414 Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 58
415 Ìwdw gh od txhvwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5:
41514 Sureoëph sodq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5:
41515 Sureoëph vsdwldo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5<
416 Frqwhqx gh o*ìwxgh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 63

5 Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh 66
514 K|srwkëvhv jìqìudohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 66
51414 Jìqìudolwìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 66
51415 Prgìolvdwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 67
51416 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 69
51417 Skdvdjh gh frqvwuxfwlrq 0 Fkdujhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6;
515 Ìwxgh gh od suìfrqwudlqwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6;
51514 Jìqìudolwìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6;
51515 Jìrpìwulh gh od suìfrqwudlqwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6<
51516 Shuwhv lqvwdqwdqìhv gh suìfrqwudlqwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6<
47 Wdeoh ghv pdwlëuhv

6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh 76
614 Od ghvfulswlrq odjudqjlhqqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 76
61414 Phvxuh ghv gìirupdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 78
61415 Phvxuh ghv frqwudlqwhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 79
615 Od ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7<
61514 Phvxuh ghv gìirupdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 83
61515 Phvxuh ghv frqwudlqwhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 83
616 Sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov olqìdulvì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 85
61614 Hq G1O1D1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 85
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 86
61714 Ìoìphqw gh srxwuh sodq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 86
61715 Frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv gdqv o*hvsdfh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8:
618 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh gìsodfhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 :<
61814 Xq h{hpsoh = od srxwuh 5G gh Ehuqrxool 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 :<
61815 Ìoìphqw gh srxwuh fodvvltxh 6G 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;4
619 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh vhpl0lqyhuvh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;6

7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh ;8
714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;8
71414 Pdwìuldx gh od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;8
71415 Pdwìuldx ghv euhv gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <7
71416 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <9
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <9
71514 K|srwkëvhv hw qrwdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <9
71515 Ohv gìirupdwlrqv qrupdohv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <:
71516 Ohv gìirupdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <;
71517 Ohv gìirupdwlrqv ghv dupdwxuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <;
71518 Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv lqwhuqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <;
71519 Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv h{whuqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 437
7151: Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 438
7151; Irupdwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 438
7151< Uìvroxwlrq lwìudwlyh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 43;
715143 Ohv olplwhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 43<
716 Lqwìjudwlrq oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 443
71614 Uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv vroolflwdwlrqv ghv vhfwlrqv hw ohv hruwv ìoìphqwdluhv 443
71615 Uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv gìsodfhphqwv ìoìphqwdluhv hw ohv gìirupdwlrqv ghv
vhfwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 445
Wdeoh ghv pdwlëuhv 48

71616 Irupdwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluh ^N? ` gdqv oh uhsëuh


lqwulqvëtxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 446

8 Dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq 448


814 Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 448
815 Ìtxloleuh jìqìudo gh od vwuxfwxuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 448

9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv 454


914 Ioxdjh dyhf orl gh frpsruwhphqw olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 454
91414 Od irqfwlrq gh xdjh/ od irqfwlrq gh uhod{dwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 454
91415 Od iruph lqwìjudoh = oh sulqflsh gh vxshusrvlwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 456
91416 Od iruph glìuhqwlhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 456
91417 Od pìwkrgh gx whpsv ìtxlydohqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 457
91418 Oh sureoëph vwuxfwxudo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 458
915 Ioxdjh dyhf orl gh frpsruwhphqw qrq olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 458
916 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq whpsruhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 459
91614 Suhplëuh pìwkrgh = od uëjoh gx uhfwdqjoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 459
91615 Ghx{lëph pìwkrgh = od uëjoh gx wudsë}h 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 45;
917 Dqdo|vh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 463
91714 Fdv gx xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 463
91715 Fdv gx xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 463
91716 Uhod{dwlrq ghv dflhuv gh suìfrqwudlqwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 466
91717 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 466
918 Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq vrxv gìirupdwlrqv glìuìhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 467
91814 Ohv dupdwxuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 467
91815 Oh eìwrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 467
91816 Ìtxloleuh joredo gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 469
919 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 46:

: Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo 46<


:14 Ohv duwlfxodwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 46<
:1414 Shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv = k|srwkëvhv hw qrwdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 46<
:1415 Judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw judqghv urwdwlrqv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 473
:15 Ohv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 475
:1514 Udsshov wkìrultxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 475
:1515 Xq h{hpsoh vlpsoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 478
:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 479
:1614 Gìqlwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 479
49 Wdeoh ghv pdwlëuhv

:1615 Suhplëuh irupxodwlrq gh o*ìtxdwlrq gh od fkdñqhwwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 47:


:1616 Xqh dxwuh irupxodwlrq gx sureoëph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 484
:17 Ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh qrq olìv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 48:

; Fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì 48<


;14 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 48<
;15 Uìvroxwlrq gx sureoëph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 493
;1514 Oh vkliw olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 493
;1515 Oh vkliw qrq olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 493
;1516 Xqh dxwuh dssurfkh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 494
;16 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 495

< Fdofxo g|qdpltxh 496


<14 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 496
<15 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 496
<1514 Ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 496
<1515 Rvfloodwlrqv oleuhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 497
<1516 Vxshusrvlwlrq prgdoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 498
<16 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh qrq olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 499
<1614 Ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 499
<1615 Od pìwkrgh gh Qhzpdun = dssurfkh lqfuìphqwdoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 499
<1616 Plvh hq úxyuh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 49;
<17 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 49<

43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv 4:4


4314 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:4
4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:4
431514 Srxwuh frqwlqxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:4
431515 Iodpehphqw g*xq srwhdx 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:7
431516 Gìyhuvhphqw gh srwhdx{ hq L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:9
431517 Sruwltxh uhfwdqjxodluh elduwlfxoì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;6
431518 Fdguh ihupì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;8
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;:
431614 Frorqqh suìfrqwudlqwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;:
431615 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh ã 5 wudyìhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<3
431616 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh lvrvwdwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<7
431617 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh k|shuvwdwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 535
4317 Vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 537
Wdeoh ghv pdwlëuhv 4:

431714 Iodpehphqw g*xq påw hqfdvwuì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 537


431715 Srxwuh frqvroh vroolflwìh wudqvyhuvdohphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 539
431716 Duf vxuedlvvì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53<

44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh 546


4414 Lqwurgxfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 546
4415 Remhw gx frqwu÷oh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 546
4416 Ìwxgh gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 547
441614 Oh sulqflsh gx wudqvihuw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 547
441615 Oh prgëoh 5G 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 547
441616 Ohv ìwdshv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 549
4417 Ìwxghv vsìfltxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 549
441714 Xq prgëoh 5G26G srxu o*ìwxgh ghv s|o÷qhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 549
441715 Xq prgëoh 6G srxu o*ìwxgh gx uìjodjh q gh od vxvshqvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 549
4418 Txhotxhv srlqwv sduwlfxolhuv gh prgìolvdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 54<
441814 Ohv vhoohv hq wíwh gh s|o÷qh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 54<
441815 Ohv elhoohv g*dssxl 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 553
4419 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 554
441914 Ohv gìsodfhphqwv oruv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 554
441915 Ohv gl!fxowìv gh prgìolvdwlrq hw gh fdofxo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 554

45 Frqfoxvlrq jìqìudoh 55<

Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv 564

D Ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh qrq olìv 574


D14 Udsshov 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 574
D15 Plvh hq úxyuh lqirupdwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 574

E Rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq ghv qúxgv 576


E14 Suìvhqwdwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 576
E15 Dqdo|vh gx sureoëph 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 577
E1514 Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh +FP, hw lqyhuvh +UFP, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 577
E1515 Plqlplvdwlrq gh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh iurqw/ dojrulwkph gh Oìy|/ dojr0
ulwkph gh Nlqj 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 577
E16 Lpsoìphqwdwlrq ghv dojrulwkphv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 578
E1614 Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh +FP, hw lqyhuvh +UFP, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 578
E1615 Dojrulwkph gh Oìy| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 578
E1616 Dojrulwkph gh Nlqj 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 579
4; Wdeoh ghv pdwlëuhv

E1617 Dojrulwkph gh Plqlplvdwlrq gh o*Dffurlvvhphqw gh Iurqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 579


E17 Ìydoxdwlrq ghv dojrulwkphv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 579
E1714 Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57:
E1715 Srqw gh Qrupdqglh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57:
E18 Frqfoxvlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57;
Olvwh ghv jxuhv

514 Uhsëuh orfdo olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 67


515 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq orqjlwxglqdoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 69
516 Gìfrpsrvlwlrq hq wudsë}hv gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6:
517 Wdexodwlrq g*xq wurqêrq gh fåeoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 73
518 Hhw gx uhfxo g*dqfudjh jdxfkh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 74

614 Ohv 6 frqjxudwlrqv fodvvltxhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 77


615 Ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7<
616 Frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv sodqhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 87
617 Uhsëuh orfdo olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8;
618 Jìrpìwulh gh o*ìoìphqw gìirupì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8<
619 Srvlwlrq gh o*d{h { gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh sdu udssruw dx uhsëuh orfdo {f|f}f 98
61: Srvlwlrq gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh sdu udssruw dx uhsëuh {| } 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 99
61; Surmhfwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh sodq {} gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|} 1 1 1 1 1 9;
61< Surmhfwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh sodq {| gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|} 1 1 1 1 1 9<
6143 Srxwuh frqvroh fkdujìh hq wíwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 :8
6144 Hoìphqw ql gh srxwuh Ehuqrxool 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 :<
6145 Frqvwuxfwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;4

714 Orl ìodvwltxh olqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;9


715 Orl ìodvwltxh olqìdluh iudjloh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;:
716 Orl elolqìdluh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;;
717 Orl ESHO<4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ;<
718 Orl gh Vdujlq jìqìudoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <4
719 Gldjudpph frqwudlqwh0gìirupdwlrq gh od euh od soxv whqgxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <5
71: Orl dflhu EDHO;6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <6
71; Orl ìodvwrsodvwltxh sduidlwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <7
71< Orl dflhu ESHO<4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <8
7143 Frqyhqwlrq gh vljqh srxu od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <:
53 Olvwh ghv jxuhv

7144 Dupdwxuh lqfolqìh sdu udssruw ã od vhfwlrq gurlwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 433


7145 Vhfwlrq gurlwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 439
7146 Pdloodjh dgdswdwli 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 43:
7147 Uìvroxwlrq lwìudwlyh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 43<

814 Rujdqljudpph gh o*dojrulwkph gh uhfkhufkh g*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq 1 1 1 1 449


815 Rujdqljudpph gh o*dojrulwkph gh uhfkhufkh g*ìtxloleuh gh od vwuxfwxuh 1 1 44;

:14 Hoìphqw elduwlfxoì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 476


:15 H{hpsoh gh wuhloolv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 478
:16 Surmhfwlrq ghv irufhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 479
:17 Hoìphqw gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 47:

4314 Srxwuh gh Pdwwrfn 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:5


4315 Ìyroxwlrq ghv prphqwv hq E hw F hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:6
4316 Srwhdx gh Irxuì = jìrpìwulh hw fkdujhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:8
4317 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:9
4318 Srwhdx{ GZ 0 Frudjh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4::
4319 Srwhdx{ GZ 0 Ihuudloodjh sdvvli 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:;
431: Srwhdx GZ< 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;3
431; Srwhdx GZ44 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;4
431< Srwhdx GZ46 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;5
43143 Sruwltxh S: gh Fudqvwrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;6
43144 Sruwltxh S: gh Fudqvwrq 0 Ìyroxwlrq ghv ëfkhv hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh 1 4;8
43145 Fdguh O6 gh Ihujxvvrq hw Euhhq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;9
43146 Fdguh O6 gh Ihujxvvrq 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;:
43147 Frorqqh suìfrqwudlqwh G2 73e6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;;
43148 Frorqqh suìfrqwudlqwh g*Durql 0 Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu 1 1 1 1 4;<
43149 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh FHEWS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<3
4314: Ghvfulswlrq gx fkdujhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<4
4314; Gìqlyhoodwlrq g*dssxlv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<4
4314< Ìyroxwlrq gh od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl fhqwudo hqwuh 6 hw 4;5 mrxuv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<6
43153 Ìyroxwlrq gh od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl fhqwudo hqwuh 4;5 hw 9333 mrxuv 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<7
43154 Ìyroxwlrq gh od gìirupdwlrq gh od euh vxsìulhxuh gh od vhfwlrq I hqwuh 6
hw 4;5 mrxuv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<8
43155 Ìyroxwlrq gh od gìirupdwlrq gh od euh vxsìulhxuh gh od vhfwlrq I hqwuh
4;5 hw 9333 mrxuv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<9
43156 Ìyroxwlrq gh od irufh gh suìfrqwudlqwh ã pl0wudyìh hqwuh 6 hw 4;5 mrxuv 1 1 1 4<:
43157 Ìyroxwlrq gh od irufh gh suìfrqwudlqwh ã pl0wudyìh hqwuh 4;5 hw 9333 mrxuv 1 4<;
Olvwh ghv jxuhv 54

43158 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh lvrvwdwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4<<


43159 Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh h{whuqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 533
4315: Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh lqwhuqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 534
4315; Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh k|shuvwdwltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 535
4315< Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh lqwhuqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 536
43163 Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh h{whuqh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 537
43164 Påw hqfdvwuì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 538
43165 Påw hqfdvwuì 0 Ìyroxwlrq ghv ëfkhv hq irqfwlrq gx fkdujhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 539
43166 Påw hqfdvwuì 0 Gìirupìhv vxffhvvlyhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53:
43167 Srxwuh frqvroh vroolflwìh sdu xqh fkdujh wudqvyhuvdoh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53;
43168 Srxwuh frqvroh fkdujìh wudqvyhuvdohphqw 0 Ìyroxwlrq gh od ëfkh wudqvyhu0
vdoh hq irqfwlrq gx fkdujhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53<
43169 Duf vxuedlvvì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 543
4316: Duf vxuedlvvì 0 Ìyroxwlrq gh od ëfkh ã od fohi hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh 1 1 544

4414 Oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 547


4415 Prgìolvdwlrq FDR Rsìud gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 548
4416 Prgëoh 5G26G 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 54;
4417 Prgëoh 6G 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 54<
4418 Glvsrvlwlrq wudqvyhuvdoh ghv vxvshqwhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 553
4419 Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh 0 Hvsdfhphqw krul}rqwdo ghv fåeohv sruwhxuv 1 1 1 1 1 1 554
441: Gìsodfhphqw gh od wíwh gh s|o÷qh ulyh gurlwh sdu udssruw ã od yhuwlfdoh 1 1 557
441; Srvlwlrq ghv vhoohv ulyh gurlwh sdu udssruw dx s|o÷qh +od srvlwlrq qxooh hvw
fhooh gh od vhooh ã od q gh o*rsìudwlrq 5, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 558
441< Gìsodfhphqw gh od wíwh gh s|o÷qh ulyh jdxfkh sdu udssruw ã od yhuwlfdoh 1 1 559
44143 Srvlwlrq ghv vhoohv ulyh jdxfkh sdu udssruw dx s|o÷qh +od srvlwlrq qxooh hvw
fhooh ã od q gh o*rsìudwlrq 5, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 55:
44144 Yduldwlrq gh ëfkh gx wdeolhu dx qrhxg fhqwudo sdu udssruw ã vd srvlwlrq
hq q g*rsìudwlrq 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 55;
55 Olvwh ghv jxuhv
Olvwh ghv wdeohdx{

4314 Prphqwv hq vhuylfh gdqv ohv vhfwlrqv E hw F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:6


4315 Prphqwv xowlphv gdqv ohv vhfwlrqv E hw F 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:7
4316 Fkdujh hw ëfkh xowlphv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:9
4317 H{fhqwuhphqw gx fkdujhphqw 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4::
4318 Fdudfwìulvwltxhv pìfdqltxhv gx eìwrq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:;
4319 Fdudfwìulvwltxhv pìfdqltxhv ghv dflhuv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4:<
431: Fkdujhv xowlphv ghv srwhdx{ GZ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;3
431; Fdudfwìulvwltxhv gx ihuudloodjh orqjlwxglqdo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4;7

4414 Ìwdshv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 54:


4415 Gìsodfhphqwv oruv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 555
4416 Ilfkh whfkqltxh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 556

E14 Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57:


E15 Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57:
E16 Srqw gh Qrupdqglh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57;
E17 Srqw gh Qrupdqglh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57;
57 Olvwh ghv wdeohdx{
Fkdslwuh 4

Lqwurgxfwlrq

414 Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph


Gh qrv mrxuv/ od pdmrulwì ghv vwuxfwxuhv gh eåwlphqw rx gh Jìqlh flylo hvw fdofxoìh vxlydqw
oh irupdolvph olqìdluh gh od wkìrulh gh o*ìodvwlflwì ìwdeol dx [L[ëph vlëfoh1 Ru/ lo q*h{lvwh
dxfxqh vwuxfwxuh/ dxfxq pdwìuldx grqw oh frpsruwhphqw vrlw vwulfwhphqw ìodvwltxh olqìdluh
gdqv vrq grpdlqh gh vroolflwdwlrq frxudqw/ hw d iruwlrul oruv g*xqh ìwxgh dx{ ìwdwv olplwhv
xowlphv1 Hq rxwuh/ od yrorqwì g*xwlolvhu dx plhx{ od pdwlëuh srxu ghv udlvrqv ìfrqrpltxhv/
dlqvl txh od whqgdqfh dfwxhooh ã frqfhyrlu hw ã frqvwuxluh ghv vwuxfwxuhv gh soxv hq soxv
ìodqfìhv +frpph oh Srqw gh Qrupdqglh rx oh Srqw gh Ploodx,/ frqgxlvhqw qìfhvvdluhphqw
ã suhqguh hq frpswh ohv qrq0olqìdulwìv dhfwdqw oh v|vwëph1 Fhfl hvw g*dxwdqw soxv yudl
srxu ohv rxyudjhv g*duw txh od whqwdwlrq gh iudqfklu ghv euëfkhv gh soxv hq soxv judqghv hvw
iruwh/ hw txh g*dxwuh sduw rq fkhufkh ã glplqxhu dx pd{lpxp oh srlgv gh o*rxyudjh1 Srxu
fhuwdlqhv gh fhv vwuxfwxuhv/ lo dssdudñw txh ohv uìvxowdwv g*xqh dqdo|vh olqìdluh qh vrqw soxv
dssur{lpdwliv/ pdlv vrqw frpsoëwhphqw huurqìv1
Ohv qrq0olqìdulwìv txh o*rq revhuyh shxyhqw vh fodvvhu hq ghx{ judqghv fdwìjrulhv =

41 Ohv qrq0olqìdulwìv pdwìulhoohv1 Hoohv shxyhqw suryhqlu gh od orl gh frpsruwhphqw


lqwulqvëtxh gx pdwìuldx +orl gh frpsruwhphqw ìodvwr0sodvwltxh sdu h{hpsoh,/ gh od
vvxudwlrq gx pdwìuldx/ gx frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq whqgx hqwuh ghx{ vvxuhv/ gx
prgh g*dvvhpeodjh hqwuh ohv frpsrvdqwv ìoìphqwdluhv g*xqh vwuxfwxuh1

51 Od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh1 Fhwwh qrq0olqìdulwì hvw gxh dx{ gìsodfhphqwv


píphv gh od vwuxfwxuh1 Hq hhw/ oruvtxh fhv gìsodfhphqwv ghylhqqhqw lpsruwdqwv/
o*ìtxloleuh gx v|vwëph qh shxw soxv íwuh gìfulw gdqv od frqjxudwlrq lqlwldoh qrq
gìirupìh +wkìrulh dx suhplhu ruguh ghv gìsodfhphqwv, pdlv grlw íwuh ìwxglì gdqv
od frqjxudwlrq gìirupìh +wkìrulh dx vhfrqg ruguh ghv gìsodfhphqwv,1 Dx vhlq gh
fhwwh fdwìjrulh/ rq shxw glvwlqjxhu ohv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw ohv urwdwlrqv prgìuìhv
59 Fkdslwuh 4 Lqwurgxfwlrq

g*xqh sduw/ hw ohv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw ohv judqghv urwdwlrqv g*dxwuh sduw1 Od sulvh
hq frpswh gh fhwwh qrq0olqìdulwì hvw irqgdphqwdoh srxu o*ìwxgh gh vwdelolwì gh iruph
gh slëfhv ìodqfìhv/ rx gh vwuxfwxuhv ìodqfìhv ã qúxgv gìsodêdeohv1 Hooh shuphw gh
suìgluh oh qlyhdx gh fkdujh fulwltxh srxu oh fdofxo dx dpehphqw1

Qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvrqv soxv sduwlfxolëuhphqw dx frxsodjh hqwuh ohv ghx{ qrq0olqìdulwìv1
Hq hhw/ f*hvw o*dvvrfldwlrq gh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh hw gh od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh
txl uìgxlw od fkdujh fulwltxh ghv ìoìphqwv xwlolvìv gdqv oh grpdlqh ghv rxyudjhv g*duw/
frpph ohv dufv rx ohv slohv gh srqwv1

Ohv uëjohphqwv iudqêdlv hw lqwhuqdwlrqdx{ glvwlqjxhqw hq jìqìudo ghx{ prghv gh yìul0


fdwlrq1
G*xqh sduw xq fdofxo vrxv fkdujh gh vhuylfh/ grqw oh sulqflsh frqvlvwh ã fdofxohu od frqwudlqwh
gh idêrq ìodvwltxh hq fkdfxq ghv srlqwv gh od vwuxfwxuh/ hw ã frpsduhu fhwwh frqwudlqwh ã
od uìvlvwdqfh gx pdwìuldx glylvìh sdu xq idfwhxu gh vìfxulwì1 Fhwwh dssurfkh vhudlw sdu0
idlwhphqw orjltxh vl ohv pdwìuldx{ dydlhqw xq frpsruwhphqw ìodvwr0iudjloh/ frpph oh yhuuh1
Ru/ fh q*hvw sdv oh fdv/ oh frpsruwhphqw ghv pdwìuldx{ xwlolvìv gdqv od frqvwuxfwlrq hvw hq
jìqìudo xq frpsruwhphqw gxfwloh/ txh o*rq srxuudlw h{sorlwhu1 Hq idlw/ o*k|srwkëvh vrxv0
mdfhqwh hvw txh ohv vroolflwdwlrqv gh vhuylfh uhvwhqw vx!vdpphqw idleohv srxu tx*lo | dlw
olqìdulwì ghv frpsruwhphqwv1
G*dxwuh sduw/ oh vhfrqg w|sh gh fdofxo uìjohphqwdluh fruuhvsrqg ã xq fkdujhphqw xowlph/ rx
fkdujh gh uxlqh1 O*dqdo|vh phqìh hvw doruv xqh dqdo|vh olplwh grqw oh exw hvw gh frqqdñwuh
od fdsdflwì gh uìvlvwdqfh gh od vwuxfwxuh1 Pdokhxuhxvhphqw/ dyhf fhwwh whfkqltxh/ rq gìwhu0
plqh xqh fkdujh olplwh srxu odtxhooh rq qh frqqdñw sdv ohv gìsodfhphqwv fruuhvsrqgdqwv1
Ru/ ghv txdqwlwìv frpph od ëfkh rx ohv gìirupdwlrqv shxyhqw v*dyìuhu glphqvlrqqdqwhv
ylv0ã0ylv gh od vìfxulwì1

Ohv uëjohphqwv dffhswhqw xq fdofxo gh vwuxfwxuh olqìdluh frxsoì ã xq fdofxo orfdo qrq
olqìdluh +sdu h{hpsoh/ gdqv xqh srxwuh/ rq gìwhuplqh sdu xq fdofxo olqìdluh od vhfwlrq od
soxv vroolflwìh/ txh o*rq yìulh ã o*dlgh g*xq fdofxo qrq olqìdluh,1 Hq wrxwh orjltxh/ oh fdofxo
gh vwuxfwxuh grlw íwuh oxl0píph qrq olqìdluh1 Hq rxwuh/ ohv fdofxov dx{ ìwdwv olplwhv xowlphv
edvìv vxu xq frpsruwhphqw olqìdluh gh od vwuxfwxuh qh shuphwwhqw sdv gh suhqguh hq frpswh
ohv skìqrpëqhv g*dgdswdwlrq olìv dx{ qrq0olqìdulwìv +urwxohv sodvwltxhv sdu h{hpsoh,1 F*hvw
srxutxrl/ lo hvw gìvrupdlv qìfhvvdluh gh glvsrvhu g*rxwlov rsìudwlrqqhov txl shuphwwhqw gh
suhqguh hq frpswh ohv ghx{ w|shv gh qrq0olqìdulwìv/ fh txl qh srvh soxv dxfxq sureoëph
sudwltxh gh qrv mrxuv/ oh prlqguh plfur0ruglqdwhxu glvsrvdqw g*xqh sxlvvdqfh gh fdofxo
qhwwhphqw vxsìulhxuh dx{ pdlqiudphv ghv ghuqlëuhv gìfhqqlhv1
415 Ìwdw gh od txhvwlrq 5:

415 Ìwdw gh od txhvwlrq


Jìqìudohphqw/ ohv vwuxfwxuhv gh Jìqlh flylo vrqw fdofxoìhv gh idêrq olqìdluh ìodvwltxh/ juåfh
ã soxvlhxuv pìwkrghv/ od soxv uìsdqgxh ìwdqw fhooh ghv ìoìphqwv qlv1 Gdqv oh grpdlqh
ghv rxyudjhv g*duw/ oh fdofxo gh od vwuxfwxuh joredoh hvw phqì hq jìqìudo ã sduwlu g*xqh
prgìolvdwlrq hq ìoìphqwv gh w|sh srxwuh1 Ohv ìwxghv orfdohv gh wíwh gh sloh/ gh oldlvrqv
sloh0wdeolhu/ gh h{lrq wudqvyhuvdoh/ hwf111/ vrqw phqìhv ã sduwlu gh prgìolvdwlrqv hq sodtxhv
rx frtxhv ìsdlvvhv/ rx hqfruh ã o*dlgh g*ìoìphqwv yroxpltxhv1
O*remhfwli gh qrwuh ìwxgh ìwdqw gh surgxluh xq orjlflho jìqìudo gh fdofxo gh srqwv hq
6G suhqdqw hq frpswh oh skdvdjh ìyhqwxho gh frqvwuxfwlrq/ qrxv qh qrxv lqwìuhvvhurqv
tx*dx{ ìoìphqwv gh w|sh srxwuh/ fkdfxq ghv ghx{ qúxgv gh fhw ìoìphqw glvsrvdqw
ghv 9 ghjuìv gh olehuwì fodvvltxhv/ ã vdyrlu 6 wudqvodwlrqv hw 6 urwdwlrqv1 Qrxv qh qrxv
lqwìuhvvhurqv sdv dx{ wudydx{ uhodwliv dx{ sodtxhv0frtxhv hw ìoìphqwv pdvvliv1 Hq rxwuh/
qrxv qrxv uhvwuhlqgurqv srxu ohv qrq0olqìdulwìv pdwìulhoohv/ dx{ vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì
rx hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw1
Gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv/ qrxv dqdo|vhurqv ohv wudydx{ d|dqw wudlw dx{ rvvdwxuhv elgl0
phqvlrqqhoohv/ sxlv qrxv ìwxglhurqv fhx{ uhodwliv dx{ vwuxfwxuhv vsdwldohv1 Ohv wudydx{
wkìrultxhv txl qrxv lqwìuhvvhqw dffrpsdjqhqw oh gìyhorsshphqw ghv pr|hqv gh fdofxov
lqirupdwltxhv1 F*hvw srxutxrl/ qrwuh dqdo|vh eleolrjudskltxh gìexwh yhuv ohv dqqìhv :31
Qrxv wurxyrqv gdqv ^Hvs;9d` xqh olvwh gh uìiìuhqfhv vxu oh vxmhw txl vh yhxw dvvh} frpsoëwh1

41514 Sureoëph sodq


Hq 4<:3/ Iudqnolq ^Iud:3` ìoderuh xqh irupxodwlrq sodqh rü dssdudlvvhqw srxu fkdtxh
qúxg ohv 6 ghjuìv gh olehuwì sodqv kdelwxhov = 5 wudqvodwlrqv hw 4 urwdwlrq1 Od pdwulfh gh
uljlglwì dlqvl irupìh hvw gh od iruph vxlydqwh =
5 6
gf
u 3  g
u  gf
u 3 g
u
9 :
9
9
45 g2 9 g2
u u2 3 45 gu 2 9 gu22 :
:
N@9
9
9
7 u2 gu
g 9 gu22 5 gu2 :
:
: +414,
9
9
gf
u 3  g
u
:
:
9
7 v|p= 45 gu 2 9 gu22 :
8
7 gu2
Od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh hvw lqwurgxlwh sdu oh eldlv gx fdofxo gh
]
Nf @ H=g +415,
]l
N @ H=|=g +416,
]l
N2 @ H=|2=g +417,
l
5; Fkdslwuh 4 Lqwurgxfwlrq

txl vrqw vxssrvìv frqvwdqwv oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1 Od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh hvw devhqwh
gh fhwwh dssurfkh1 O*dxwhxu hvw frqvflhqw gx idlw txh oh fhqwurògh gh od vhfwlrq shxw qh
sdv fròqflghu dyhf o*d{h gh uìiìuhqfh gh o*ìoìphqw1 O*dssurfkh hvw wdqjhqwh/ hw ohv orlv gh
frpsruwhphqw vrqw grqqìhv srlqw sdu srlqw +pxowl0olqìdluhv,1 Od uljlglwì gx eìwrq whqgx
hqwuh ghx{ vvxuhv hvw qìjoljìh/ hw od ydolgdwlrq gx prgëoh hvw idlwh vxu txhotxhv srxwuhv
lvrvwdwltxhv vlpsohphqw ìfklhv1

Oh suhplhu ã lqwurgxluh gdqv xqh fhuwdlqh phvxuh od qrq olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh hvw
Jxqqlq hq 4<:3 ^Jxq::`1 Od pdwulfh ghv frqwudlqwhv lqlwldohv +rx uljlglwì jìrpìwultxh, hvw
hqfruh devhqwh1 Hq fh txl frqfhuqh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì pdwìulhooh/ od uljlglwì h{lrqqhooh
+vxssrvìh frqvwdqwh oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw/ wrxw frpph od uljlglwì h{whqvlrqqhooh, hvw ìydoxìh
frpph xqh shqwh gdqv xq gldjudpph prphqw0frxuexuh suììwdeol1 Od wudfwlrq gx eìwrq
q*hvw sdv sulvh hq frpswh1 Gh qrpeuhx{ fdofxov gh frpsdudlvrq vrqw hhfwxìv dyhf ghv
uìvxowdwv g*hvvdlv vxu ghv frorqqhv hw ghv fdguhv hq eìwrq dupì1

Dx wrxw gìexw ghv dqqìhv :3/ ghv irupxodwlrqv vhpeodeohv ã fhooh gh Jxqqlq dssdudlv0
vhqw/ grqw od soxv pdutxdqwh hvw fhooh gh Od}dur ^Od}:6`/ txl lqwurgxlw xqh fruuhfwlrq srxu
suhqguh hq frpswh od vvxudwlrq1

Hq 4<:5/ Eoddxzhqguddg ^Eod:5` hvw oh suhplhu ã idluh ghv ìoìphqwv qlv fodvvltxhv/
lvvxv gh od pìwkrgh ghv gìsodfhphqwv1 Lo lqwurgxlw ohv irqfwlrqv gh iruph srxu lqwhusrohu
oh fkdps gh gìsodfhphqwv/ hw hq gìgxluh ohv txdqwlwìv Nf / N hw N2 uìvxowdqw g*xqh
lqwìjudwlrq qxpìultxh ghv gìirupdwlrqv lvvxhv gx fkdps gh gìsodfhphqwv1

Sdudooëohphqw ã fhv wudydx{/ xq duwlfoh gh Mhqqlqjv ^Mhq9;`/ gdwdqw gh 4<9;/ yd íwuh oh


srlqw gh gìsduw g*xqh vìulh gh wudydx{/ grqw oh suìvhqw1 Od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh/ hq
5G/ shxw íwuh sulvh hq frpswh gh idêrq h{dfwh/ juåfh ã o*dgglwlylwì hw od frppxwdwlylwì ghv
urwdwlrqv sodqhv1 Hq jìqìudo/ xqh olqìdulvdwlrq ghv ìtxdwlrqv hvw hhfwxìh/ fh txl olplwh
oh grpdlqh gh ydolglwì dx{ gìsodfhphqwv prgìuìv1 Fhwwh irupxodwlrq vh fdudfwìulvh sdu
vrq dssurfkh vhpl0lqyhuvh/ sdu rssrvlwlrq ã od pìwkrgh xvxhooh ghv gìsodfhphqwv1 Hq
hhw/ ohv irqfwlrqv gh iruph vrqw dssoltxìhv ã o*hruw qrupdo Q hw dx prphqw ìfklvvdqw
P oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1 Rq hq gìgxlw od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh o*ìoìphqw txl/ xqh irlv lq0
yhuvìh/ grqqh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluh/ txl hvw hqvxlwh dvvhpeoìh gdqv od pdwulfh
gh uljlglwì jìqìudoh/ gh idêrq fodvvltxh1
Phqhjrwwr hw Slqwr ^Phq:6` vrqw ohv suhplhuv ã xwlolvhu fhwwh whfkqltxh1 Lov glvfuìwlvhqw
o*ìoìphqw hq frxfkhv krul}rqwdohv +rq d ohv suìplfhv gh o*dssurfkh vhpl0joredoh,> od uìvlv0
wdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq hvw qìjoljìh1
Juhodw ^Juh:;d`/ ^Juh:;e` v*lqvsluh wuëv iruwhphqw gx surjudpph gh Phqhjrwwr hw Slqwr1
Lo lqwurgxlw/ srxu oh eìwrq frpsulpì/ od orl gh Vdujlq ^Vdu:4`/ dlqvl tx*xqh iruph ruljlqdoh
hw h!fdfh gh whqvlrq0vwlhqlqj/ hw ydolgh vrq surjudpph sdu gh qrpeuhx{ fdv whvwv1
Ihuudur0Pdld ^Ihu:<`/ ^Ihu;6` srxuvxlw oh wudydlo gh Juhodw dx FHEWS/ hq gìyhorssdqw od
415 Ìwdw gh od txhvwlrq 5<

sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv hw gh od suìfrqwudlqwh1 Fhwwh ghuqlëuh hvw lqwurgxlwh
sdu od pìwkrgh glwh lqwhuqh/ h{solflwìh sdu Idxfkduw ^Idx:5`1 O*lqfolqdlvrq ghv fåeohv sdu
udssruw ã od vhfwlrq q*hvw sdv sulvh hq frpswh1
O*dssurfkh vhpl0lqyhuvh vh uhwurxyh ìjdohphqw fkh} Fduro hw Pxufld ^Fdu;7`1

O*dssurfkh sdu ìoìphqwv qlv fodvvltxhv gh w|sh gìsodfhphqw vh srxuvxlw = Dogvwhgw
^Dog:7`/ ^Dog:8`/ hq 4<:8/ uhsuhqg ohv irqfwlrqv gh iruphv gh Eoddxzhqguddg hq ohv lqwì0
judqw gdqv xq fdguh gh ghvfulswlrq odjudqjlhqqh dfwxdolvìh dssurfkìh1 Fhv wudydx{ vrqw
hqvxlwh srxuvxlylv sdu Ndqj ^Ndq::`/ ^Ndq;3`1 Ohv gìyhorsshphqwv gh fh w|sh vh vrqw dlqvl
vxffìgì gdqv ohv dqqìhv ;3/ hw o*rq shxw flwhu Hvslrq ^Hvs;9d`/ ^Hvs;9e`/ txl lqwurgxlw xq
ìoìphqw gh srxwuh sodq ã < ghjuìv gh olehuwì1 Fhwwh dssurfkh v*dyëuh soxv frpsoëwh hw soxv
uìdolvwh ylv0ã0ylv ghv qrq0olqìdulwìv pdwìulhooh hw jìrpìwultxh1 Oh whqvlrq0vwlhqlqj hvw sulv
hq frpswh1 Oh surjudpph plv dx srlqw sdu Hvslrq hvw frqiurqwì ã xq judqg qrpeuh g*hv0
vdlv h{sìulphqwdx{ rx wkìrultxhv sxeolìv1 Hq rxwuh/ gdqv xqh ghx{lëph sduwlh/ od sulvh hq
frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv hvw suìvhqwìh hq gìwdlo1
Gdqv wrxv ohv wudydx{ flwìv suìfìghpphqw/ od gìirupdwlrq g*hruw wudqfkdqw q*hvw sdv
sulvh hq frpswh1

41515 Sureoëph vsdwldo

Oh suhplhu ìoìphqw gh srxwuh hq eìwrq dupì wulglphqvlrqqho d yudlvhpeodeohphqw ìwì


gìyhorssì sdu Fkdq ^Fkd;5`1 O*dqdo|vh suhqg hq frpswh oh vhfrqg ruguh/ dlqvl txh ohv
hhwv glìuìv1 O*lq xhqfh gh o*hruw wudqfkdqw hvw devhqwh/ doruv txh od wruvlrq hvw wrxw0
ã0idlw gìfrxsoìh1 Dx olhx gh gìfrxshu ohv vhfwlrqv hq frxfkhv/ hoohv vrqw gìfrxsìhv hq
euhv1 Od uljlglwì wruvlrqqhooh surylhqw g*xqh shqwh gdqv xq gldjudpph lgìdolvì wulolqìdluh
prphqw gh wruvlrq 0 urwdwlrq gh wruvlrq frqvwuxlw ã o*dlgh g*xqh wkìrulh gh wuhloolv srxu
gìwhuplqhu oh prphqw hw od urwdwlrq gh sodvwlfdwlrq vdqv whqlu frpswh gh o*hruw qrupdo1
Oh surjudpph gh Pdul ^Pdu;7` hvw oh surorqjhphqw gx wudydlo gh Fkdq1 Od pdwulfh
ghv frqwudlqwhv lqlwldohv hvw frpsoìwìh1 Od suìfrqwudlqwh hvw lqwurgxlwh vhorq od pìwkrgh
gh Ndqj ^Ndq::`1 Pdokhxuhxvhphqw/ od ydolgdwlrq gx surjudpph qh vh idlw txh vxu ghv
h{hpsohv wkìrultxhv1 Ohv gìyhorsshphqwv hq ìoìphqwv qlv fodvvltxhv yrqw íwuh qrpeuhx{1
Elhq txh qh uhohydqw sdv gx grpdlqh gx eìwrq dupì/ pdlv soxw÷w ghv vwuxfwxuhv pì0
wdooltxhv/ rq shxw flwhu oh wudydlo hhfwxì hq 4<;</ sdu gh Ylooh gh Jr|hw ^GhY;<`1 Idlvdqw
vxlwh dx{ wudydx{ gh Iuh| ^Iuh::`/ gh Ylooh gh Jr|hw ìwdeolw xq elodq ghv glìuhqwhv irupx0
odwlrqv hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw vh olyuh ã xqh frpsdudlvrq wuëv frpsoëwh gh glìuhqwv
ìoìphqwv qlv1 Lo lqwurgxlw xq ìoìphqw ql glw gh Pdujxhuuh prglì ã : ghjuìv gh olehuwì/
txl prgìolvh oh jdxfklvvhphqw ghv vhfwlrqv1 Fhw ìoìphqw hvw lqwìjuì ã xqh ghvfulswlrq
frurwdwlrqqhooh/ txl hvw gìyhorssìh hq gìwdlov/ hw txl suìvhqwh gh qrpeuhx{ dydqwdjhv1
O*ìoìphqw dlqvl sursrvì v*dyëuh wuëv shuirupdqw/ oh vhxo ìoìphqw vxssruwdqw od frpsdudl0
63 Fkdslwuh 4 Lqwurgxfwlrq

vrq ìwdqw fhoxl gh Mhqqlqjv/ pdokhxuhxvhphqw olplwì dx{ sureoëphv sodqv1 Od ydolgdwlrq
v*hhfwxh vxu xq judqg qrpeuh g*h{hpsohv/ dxvvl elhq wkìrultxhv tx*h{sìulphqwdx{1
Hq 4<<3/ Qdlw0Udedk ^Qdl<3` srxuvxlw oh wudydlo gh Juhodw ^Juh:;e`/ txl/ udsshorqv0oh/
hvw edvì vxu ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv lqwurgxlwhv sdu Mhqqlqjv ^Mhq9;`1 Oh surjudpph hvw
ìwhqgx dx{ sureoëphv wulglphqvlrqqhov1 Od sulvh hq frpswh gh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh
hvw frpsoëwh1 Ohv hhwv gxv ã o*hruw wudqfkdqw hw dx prphqw gh wruvlrq vrqw lqwurgxlwv/
pdlv hq idlvdqw o*k|srwkëvh g*xq frpsruwhphqw olqìdluh gx pdwìuldx vrxv vroolflwdwlrqv wdq0
jhqwhv1 Sdu frqwuh/ od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh q*hvw txh sduwlhoohphqw dssuìkhqgìh1 Hq
hhw/ ohv gìsodfhphqwv grlyhqw uhvwhu prgìuìv/ hw ohv urwdwlrqv shwlwhv1 Oh surjudpph hvw
ydolgì vxu gh qrpeuhx{ fdv h{sìulphqwdx{/ d|dqw qìdqprlqv ghv gìsodfhphqwv prgìuìv1
Ohv gìyhorsshphqwv ohv soxv uìfhqwv vxu oh eìwrq dupì frqfhuqhqw od irupxodwlrq gh
qrxyhoohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw v*dssx|dqw vxu od wkìrulh gh o*hqgrppdjhphqw1 Fhwwh
dssurfkh hvw glfwìh sdu oh fdofxo dx vìlvph/ srxu ohtxho oh fkdujhphqw hvw f|foltxh1 Oh
prgëoh g*hqgrppdjhphqw txl idlw uìiìuhqfh hq Iudqfh hvw fhoxl gìyhorssì sdu Oderu0
ghulh ^Ode<4`/ idlvdqw vxlwh dx{ wudydx{ gh Pd}duv ^Pd};7`1 Fh prgëoh hvw lvvx g*xqh
irupxodwlrq wkhuprg|qdpltxh ghv plolhx{ frqwlqxv1 Od orl gh frpsruwhphqw/ gdqv oh fdv
"
xqld{ldo/ v*h{sulph vhorq %@ rü " hvw o*ìqhujlh oleuh gh Jleev1 O*xwlolvdwlrq gh fh

prgëoh qìfhvvlwh o*lghqwlfdwlrq/ sdv wrxmrxuv dlvìh/ gh < sdudpëwuhv1 O*hqgrppdjhphqw
hq frpsuhvvlrq hvw glvwlqjxì gh fhoxl hq wudfwlrq1
Hq 4<<7/ Xop ^Xop<7` xwlolvh ìjdohphqw xq prgëoh g*hqgrppdjhphqw1 Lo dgrswh
xqh dssurfkh vhpl0joredoh = o*ìoìphqw srxwuh tx*lo xwlolvh hvw hq idlw glvfuìwlvì hq euhv
sdudooëohv ã od oljqh pr|hqqh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Fkdtxh euh glvsrvh g*xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw/
g*xq hqgrppdjhphqw hw g*xq klvwrultxh1 Fhw ìoìphqw hvw lqvìuì gdqv xqh ghvfulswlrq
frurwdwlrqqhooh dq gh suhqguh hq frpswh ohv hhwv gh od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh1

416 Frqwhqx gh o*ìwxgh

Od suìvhqwh ìwxgh v*hvw gìurxoìh dx Fhqwuh ghv Whfkqltxhv Rxyudjhv g*Duw +FWRD, gx
Vhuylfh g*Ìwxghv Whfkqltxhv ghv Urxwhv hw Dxwrurxwhv +VHWUD,1 O*remhfwli {ì ìwdlw g*lp0
sodqwhu gdqv xq surgxlw h{lvwdqw/ oh v|vwëph SFS +Srqwv Frqvwuxlwv sdu Skdvhv, ohv irupx0
odwlrqv qrq olqìdluhv ghv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh srxwuh1 Dx gìsduw/ SFS hvw xq surjudpph
gh fdofxo olqìdluh g*rxyudjhv g*duw/ glvsrvdqw gh wrxwhv ohv irqfwlrqqdolwìv qìfhvvdluhv ã od
vlpxodwlrq gh od frqvwuxfwlrq ghv rxyudjhv = fkdujhphqwv txhofrqtxhv/ skdvdjh gh frq0
vwuxfwlrq/ plvh hq suìfrqwudlqwh skdvìh/ sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv/ plvh hq whqvlrq
ghv kdxedqv111 O*hqvhpeoh gh fhv irqfwlrqqdolwìv ghydlw elhq hqwhqgx íwuh pdlqwhqx gdqv
oh fdguh g*xq fdofxo qrq olqìdluh1
Qrxv qrxv sursrvrqv g*| lqwurgxluh od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh hq judqgv gìsodfh0
416 Frqwhqx gh o*ìwxgh 64

phqwv hw hq judqghv urwdwlrqv ã sduwlu gh o*dqdo|vh qrq olqìdluh pdwìulhooh gh Qdlw0Udedk


^Qdl<3`1 Dx sdvvdjh/ fhwwh ghuqlëuh d ìwì dpìolruìh hq whuphv gh shuirupdqfhv1
à fhod/ qrxv vxshusrvhurqv ohv hhwv glìuìv/ ã vdyrlu oh xdjh hw oh uhwudlw gx eìwrq
dlqvl txh od uhod{dwlrq ghv dflhuv gh suìfrqwudlqwh/ gdqv oh fdguh ghv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw
uìjohphqwdluhv1
Hq rxwuh/ qrxv gìyhorsshurqv xqh sduwlh frqvdfuìh dx{ ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh
flylo = g*xqh sduw/ qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvhurqv dx{ duwlfxodwlrqv +dx vhqv gh SFS/ lo v*djlw
g*xqh frqqh{lrq hqwuh ghx{ qúxgv lqlwldohphqw frqirqgxv jìrpìwultxhphqw, hq judqgv
gìsodfhphqwv hw hq judqghv urwdwlrqv> g*dxwuh sduw/ qrxv wudlwhurqv oh fdv ghv ìoìphqwv
elduwlfxoìv/ hw elduwlfxoìv dyhf hhw gh fkdñqhwwh juåfh dx{txhov qrxv srxuurqv wudlwhu oh
sureoëph ghv srqwv vxvshqgxv1
à sduwlu gh od irupxodwlrq hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw judqghv urwdwlrqv/ qrxv h{0
klehurqv od pdwulfh ghv frqwudlqwhv lqlwldohv/ txl shuphw g*hhfwxhu ghv fdofxov g*lqvwdelolwì
olqìdluhv1
Qrxv yhuurqv txh o*dojrulwkph gh uìvroxwlrq plv hq sodfh shxw íwuh dydqwdjhxvhphqw
uìxwlolvì srxu hhfwxhu xq fdofxo hq g|qdpltxh wudqvlwrluh/ ã o*dlgh g*xq vfkìpd gh Qhz0
pdun1
Qrxv qrxv uhvwuhljqrqv yrorqwdluhphqw dx{ orlv gh frpsruwhphqw gh pdwìuldx ìwdeolhv
gdqv ohv uëjohphqwv iudqêdlv hw lqwhuqdwlrqdx{1 F*hvw srxutxrl qrxv qh qrxv lqwìuhvvrqv sdv
dx{ prgëohv g*hqgrppdjhphqw/ gh gìyhorsshphqw wurs uìfhqw1 Hq rxwuh/ ìwdqw grqqì oh
qrpeuh vrxyhqw lpsruwdqw gh sdudpëwuhv ã lghqwlhu/ hw oh qrpeuh surklelwli gh euhv tx*lo
idxgudlw/ sdu h{hpsoh/ phwwuh hq sodfh srxu prgìolvhu oh Srqw gh Ploodx +f*hvw xqh qdolwì
d!upìh gh SFS,/ lo qh qrxv d sdv sdux rssruwxq/ ã o*khxuh dfwxhooh/ gh ohv lpsodqwhu gdqv
oh surjudpph1
Od suìvhqwh ìwxgh frpsruwh dx wrwdo 45 fkdslwuhv1
Oh fkdslwuh 4 lqwurgxlw oh sureoëph jìqìudo/ hw sursrvh xq ìwdw gh od txhvwlrq1
Oh fkdslwuh 5 srvh xq fhuwdlq qrpeuh g*k|srwkëvhv frqfhuqdqw oh sureoëph txh o*rq vh
sursrvh gh uìvrxguh1 Qrxv suìvhqwrqv hq gìwdlov oh v|vwëph SFS/ dlqvl txh od idêrq grqw
| hvw lqwurgxlwh od suìfrqwudlqwh1
Oh fkdslwuh 6 suìvhqwh ohv glìuhqwv irupdolvphv frxudpphqw xwlolvìv gdqv oh fdguh
ghv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv1 Sxlv/ gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv/ qrxv gìyhorssrqv o*dssurfkh hq
frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv hq 5G/ sxlv/ gdqv xq ghx{lëph whpsv/ vrq h{whqvlrq hq 6G1
Oh fkdslwuh 7 gìyhorssh od sulvh hq frpswh gh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh1 Ã sduwlu
gh o*ìtxloleuh qrq olqìdluh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh gh od srxwuh/ sdu lqwìjudwlrq oh orqj gh
o*ìoìphqw/ qrxv iruprqv od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì wulglphqvlrqqhooh gh o*ìoìphqw1
Oh fkdslwuh 8 suìvhqwh g*xqh sduw o*dojrulwkph gh uìvroxwlrq gh o*ìtxloleuh ghv vhfwlrqv/
hw g*dxwuh sduw o*dojrulwkph shuphwwdqw gh wurxyhu o*ìtxloleuh joredo gh od vwuxfwxuh/ dyhf
65 Fkdslwuh 4 Lqwurgxfwlrq

wrxv ohv uìjodjhv txl hq dvvxuhqw od urexvwhvvh1


Oh fkdslwuh 9 prqwuh frpphqw ohv hhwv glìuìv/ ã vdyrlu oh xdjh hw oh uhwudlw gx eìwrq/
dlqvl txh od uhod{dwlrq ghv dflhuv gh suìfrqwudlqwh/ vrqw lqwìjuìv gdqv o*dojrulwkph g*ìtxlol0
euh lqvwdqwdqì1 Soxvlhxuv pìwkrghv fodvvltxhv g*lqwìjudwlrq gx xdjh | vrqw suìvhqwìhv/
pdlv xqh vhxoh d ìwì frgìh1
Oh fkdslwuh : hvw frqvdfuì dx{ ìoìphqwv txh o*rq wurxyh kdelwxhoohphqw gdqv ohv sur0
judpphv rulhqwìv rxyudjhv g*duw1 Gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv/ qrxv dqdo|vrqv oh frpsruwhphqw
ghv frqqh{lrqv fhqvìhv ghphxuhu srqfwxhoohv hq shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv/ fh txl q*hvw soxv oh
fdv hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv1 Qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvrqv hqvxlwh dx{ ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv/ dlqvl
tx*dx{ ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv shvdqwv vxmhwv ã o*hhw gh fkdñqhwwh1 Qrxv sursrvrqv xqh pì0
wkrgh srxu vlpxohu ohv skdvhv gh whqvlrq hw gh gìwhqvlrq gh fhv ìoìphqwv/ txl vxuylhqqhqw
sdu h{hpsoh gdqv oh fdv ghv vxvshqwhv ghv srqwv vxvshqgxv1
Oh fkdslwuh ; gìyhorssh oh fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì ã sduwlu gh od pdwulfh ghv frqwudlqwhv
lqlwldohv lvvxh gh qrwuh irupxodwlrq hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv1
Oh fkdslwuh < prqwuh o*h{whqvlrq srvvleoh gh qrwuh dojrulwkph gh uìvroxwlrq gh fkdujh0
phqw vwdwltxh dx fdv gh fkdujhphqw g|qdpltxh/ ã o*dlgh g*xq vfkìpd gh Qhzpdun1
Oh fkdslwuh 43 hvw frqvdfuì ã od ydolgdwlrq gx prgëoh1 Ohv uìvxowdwv rewhqxv sdu oh
surjudpph vrqw frqiurqwìv ã ghv uìvxowdwv h{sìulphqwdx{/ hw2rx srxu ohvtxhov rq glvsrvh
gh vroxwlrqv wkìrultxhv rx gh vlpxodwlrqv g*dxwuhv dxwhxuv1 Ohv h{hpsohv fkrlvlv vrqw ghv
srxwuhv frqwlqxhv/ ghv srwhdx{ lvrvwdwltxhv hw ghv sruwltxhv1 Ohv pdwìuldx{ xwlolvìv vrqw
oh eìwrq dupì/ oh eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw/ dlqvl txh oh pìwdo1
Od fkdslwuh 44 prqwuh od plvh hq úxyuh lqirupdwltxh gx prgëoh sursrvì/ hw o*xwlolvd0
wlrq gx surjudpph srxu xq surmhw uìho = od vlpxodwlrq gx uhpsodfhphqw gx v|vwëph gh
vxvshqvlrq gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh/ skdvh sdu skdvh1
Hqq/ oh fkdslwuh 45 wluh ohv frqfoxvlrqv jìqìudohv ghv uìvxowdwv rewhqxv1
Fkdslwuh 5

Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh

514 K|srwkëvhv jìqìudohv

51414 Jìqìudolwìv

O*remhfwli gh fh wudydlo hvw g*lqwìjuhu dx vhlq g*xq surjudpph h{lvwdqw +oh v|vwëph SFS, xq
fhuwdlq qrpeuh gh irqfwlrqqdolwìv shuphwwdqw gh phqhu ghv fdofxov glwv qrq olqìdluhv1
Ohv qrq0olqìdulwìv sulvhv hq frpswh frqfhuqhqw g*xqh sduw od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh hw
g*dxwuh sduw od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh1
Oh v|vwëph SFS +Srqwv Frqvwuxlwv sdu Skdvhv, hvw xq orjlflho jìqìudo gh fdofxo gh
vwuxfwxuhv sduwlfxolëuhphqw ghvwlqì ã o*ìwxgh hw ã od yìulfdwlrq uìjohphqwdluh ghv rxyudjhv
g*duw ^Sfs<9`1
Irqgì vxu od wkìrulh ghv srxwuhv/ lo wudlwh ohv vwuxfwxuhv wulglphqvlrqqhoohv txhofrqtxhv/
ìyhqwxhoohphqw suìfrqwudlqwhv1 Oh pdwìuldx frqvwlwxdqw fhv vwuxfwxuhv hvw vrlw oh eìwrq
vrlw o*dflhu1
Oh v|vwëph SFS vh fdudfwìulvh sdu =

 O*dftxlvlwlrq gluhfwh ghv grqqìhv jìrpìwultxhv gh frudjh/ gh suìfrqwudlqwh hw gh


ihuudloodjh sdvvli1

 Od srvvlelolwì gh vlpxohu od soxsduw ghv prghv gh frqvwuxfwlrq1

 Od gìqlwlrq gh fdv gh fkdujh txhofrqtxhv/ qrwdpphqw ohv fkdujhv urxwlëuhv gìqlhv


sdu oh uëjohphqw iudqêdlv hw sdu ohv Hxurfrghv1

Mxvtx*ã pdlqwhqdqw/ oh v|vwëph SFS xwlolvdlw xqh irupxodwlrq hq shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv


hq ìodvwlflwì olqìdluh1
67 Fkdslwuh 5 Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh

51415 Prgìolvdwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh


Od vwuxfwxuh ìwxglìh hvw gìfrpsrvìh fodvvltxhphqw hq ìoìphqwv qlv gh srxwuh 6G/ fkdtxh
qúxg srvvìgdqw 9 ghjuìv gh olehuwì = ohv 6 wudqvodwlrqv hw ohv 6 urwdwlrqv gdqv o*hvsdfh1
Ohv vwuxfwxuhv wudlwìhv sdu SFS shxyhqw íwuh frqvwlwxìhv g*xqh rx soxvlhxuv srxwuhv ã euh
pr|hqqh gurlwh rx frxueh/ dsshoìhv srxwuhv vsdwldohv/ hw g*ìoìphqwv sulvpdwltxhv gurlwv
uholdqw fhv srxwuhv rx frqvwlwxdqw xq uìvhdx dxwrqrph1
Fkdtxh srxwuh frxueh hvw hq idlw prgìolvìh frpph xq dvvhpeodjh gh wurqêrqv gh srxwuhv
gurlwhv/ od frxuexuh ìwdqw frqfhqwuìh dx{ srlqwv gh glvfuìwlvdwlrq1 Dlqvl/ hooh q*dssdudñw
sdv gdqv ohv ìtxdwlrqv frqvwlwxwlyhv1 Fhwwh k|srwkëvh irxuqlw xqh erqqh dssur{lpdwlrq
oruvtxh o*rxyhuwxuh dqjxodluh gh fkdtxh wurqêrq qh gìsdvvh sdv 8 ghjuìv hw txh ohv glphq0
vlrqv wudqvyhuvdohv gh od srxwuh vsdwldoh vrqw lqiìulhxuhv rx ìjdohv dx gl{lëph gx ud|rq gh
frxuexuh gh od euh pr|hqqh1

Ohv uhsëuhv gh wudydlo


Oh uhsëuh joredo hvw sdu sulqflsh xq uhsëuh {h gdqv ohtxho rq gìqlw jìrpìwultxh0
phqw od vwuxfwxuh1 F*hvw gdqv fh uhsëuh txh vhurqw srvlwlrqqìv ohv srxwuhv vsdwldohv hw ohv
ìoìphqwv sulvpdwltxhv gurlwv1

z
0

y
0

x
I0 J0 0

Iljxuh 514 = Uhsëuh orfdo olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw

Oh uhsëuh orfdo gh o*ìoìphqw hvw olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh
joredo +jxuh 514,1 O*ìoìphqw gh od vwuxfwxuh d srxu qúxg ruljlqh Lf / oh fhqwuh gh judylwì gh
od vhfwlrq ruljlqh/ hw srxu qúxg h{wuìplwì Mf / oh fhqwuh gh judylwì gh od vhfwlrq h{wuìplwì1
514 K|srwkëvhv jìqìudohv 68

Oh uhsëuh orfdo gh uìiìuhqfh olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw vhud qrwì {f |f }f1
O*ruljlqh gx v|vwëph g*d{hv hvw hq Lf hw o*d{h {f srlqwh yhuv Mf1 O*rulhqwdwlrq gx uhsëuh
dxwrxu gh {f gìfrxoh gh fhooh g*xq uhsëuh pr|hq/ txl hvw od pr|hqqh hqwuh oh uhsëuh
sulqflsdo g*lqhuwlh gh od vhfwlrq ruljlqh gh o*ìoìphqw +hq Lf , hw oh uhsëuh sulqflsdo g*lqhuwlh
gh od vhfwlrq h{wuìplwì gh o*ìoìphqw +hq Mf ,1

Ohv srxwuhv vsdwldohv


Ohxuv vhfwlrqv vrqw ã sdurlv plqfhv hw gh suro ihupì +fdlvvrq prqr rx pxowlfhooxodluh,
rx rxyhuw +vhfwlrqv qhuyxuìhv,1 Ohv fdudfwìulvwltxhv jìrpìwultxhv rx pìfdqltxhv gh fhv
vhfwlrqv shxyhqw ydulhu orqjlwxglqdohphqw1
Oh v|vwëph SFS glvfuìwlvh ohv srxwuhv vsdwldohv vhorq xq gìfrxsdjh/ suìdodeohphqw
gìql sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu/ hq ìoìphqwv sulvpdwltxhv gurlwv grqw ohv h{wuìplwìv frqvwlwxhqw
dxwdqw gh qúxgv gh mrqfwlrq ìyhqwxhov dyhf g*dxwuhv ìoìphqwv1
Vhxohv ohv srxwuhv vsdwldohv shxyhqw íwuh suìfrqwudlqwhv/ od jìrpìwulh gh od vhfwlrq ìwdqw
qìfhvvdluh ã od ghvfulswlrq gx ihuudloodjh dfwli hw sdvvli1
Oh fdofxo lqwhuyhqdqw dx qlyhdx ghv vhfwlrqv idlw dssho ã xq fhuwdlq qrpeuh g*k|0
srwkëvhv =

 Ohv vhfwlrqv sodqhv uhvwhqw sodqhv/ píph dsuëv gìirupdwlrq1

 Ohv vhfwlrqv vrqw vxssrvìhv wudqvyhuvdohphqw lqgìirupdeohv1

 Od wkìrulh ghv suroìv ã sdurlv plqfhv hvw xwlolvìh srxu oh fdofxo ghv frqwudlqwhv gh
flvdloohphqw/ pdlv ohv hhwv gxv dx{ elprphqwv vrqw qìjoljìv1 Fhwwh k|srwkëvh hvw
oìjlwlph gdqv oh fdv ghv surov ihupìv1

 Oh fhqwuh gh judylwì hw oh fhqwuh gh wruvlrq ghv vhfwlrqv +rx fhqwuh gh flvdloohphqw,


shxyhqw íwuh glìuhqwv1 Oh eudv gh ohylhu dlqvl lqgxlw hvw fruuhfwhphqw sulv hq frpswh
srxu oh fdofxo hq wruvlrq1

Ìoìphqwv sulvpdwltxhv gurlwv


Fhv ìoìphqwv/ grqw rq qh frqqdñw sdv od jìrpìwulh gh od vhfwlrq pdlv xqltxhphqw ohv
fdudfwìulvwltxhv vhfwrulhoohv/ vrqw glwv vwdqgdugv vl ohv wurlv urwdwlrqv dx{ ghx{ h{wuìplwìv
vrqw eortxìhv hw elduwlfxoìv vl hoohv vrqw oleuhv1 Oh fhqwuh gh wruvlrq gh fhv ìoìphqwv shxw
íwuh glvwlqfw gx fhqwuh gh judylwì1 Od jìrpìwulh gh od vhfwlrq q*ìwdqw sdv frqqxh/ oh
pdwìuldx frqvwlwxwli gh fhv ìoìphqwv qh srxuud sdv glvsrvhu g*xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw
qrq olqìdluh1 Fhshqgdqw/ frpph ohv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv qh wudydloohqw tx*hq hruw qrupdo/
ohxu pdwìuldx srxuud dyrlu xq frpsruwhphqw qrq olqìdluh1 O*hhw gþ ã od vwulfwlrq gh od
vhfwlrq vhud fhshqgdqw qìjoljì1
69 Fkdslwuh 5 Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh

Od prgìolvdwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh srxuud íwuh frpsoìwìh sdu ghv duwlfxodwlrqv hw ghv


dssxlv grqw oh frpsruwhphqw hvw vrlw uljlgh/ vrlw ìodvwltxh olqìdluh1 Fhuwdlqv ìoìphqwv
elduwlfxoìv srxuurqw íwuh gìfulwv frpph ghv fkdñqhwwhv dq gh prgìolvhu hqfruh soxv qh0
phqw ohv kdxedqv1 O*lqwurgxfwlrq g*duwlfxodwlrqv hqwuh ghx{ qúxgv shuphw ìyhqwxhoohphqw
gh oleìuhu od oldlvrq hqwuh ghx{ ìoìphqwv gh od vwuxfwxuh/ dxvvl elhq hq wudqvodwlrq tx*hq
urwdwlrq1

51416 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh

Glvfuìwlvdwlrq orqjlwxglqdoh

Iljxuh 515 = Glvfuìwlvdwlrq orqjlwxglqdoh

Dq gh suhqguh hq frpswh fruuhfwhphqw od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh/ o*xwlolvdwhxu gìqlw


od glvfuìwlvdwlrq orqjlwxglqdoh gx wurqêrq gh srxwuh hq lqgltxdqw oh qrpeuh gh vhfwlrqv
lqwhupìgldluhv ã jìqìuhu dxwrpdwltxhphqw +jxuh 515,1 Od jìrpìwulh hw oh ihuudloodjh ghv
514 K|srwkëvhv jìqìudohv 6:

vhfwlrqv lqwhupìgldluhv vrqw gìgxlwv sdu lqwhusrodwlrq gh od jìrpìwulh hw gx ihuudloodjh


ghv vhfwlrqv g*h{wuìplwì gh o*ìoìphqw1 Fhwwh ghuqlëuh q*hvw srvvleoh txh vl ohv vhfwlrqv
g*h{wuìplwì rqw od píph pruskrorjlh1 Gdqv oh fdv frqwudluh/ dxfxqh vhfwlrq lqwhupìgldluh
q*hvw jìqìuìh hw o*lqwìjudwlrq gh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw vh idlw ã
sduwlu ghv ghx{ vhfwlrqv h{wuíphv vhxohphqw1 O*lqwhusrodwlrq vh idlw dydqw wrxw fkdujhphqw/
gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo gh o*ìoìphqw1

Glvfuìwlvdwlrq ghv vhfwlrqv

z
0

Points de définition du contour

I0

y
Trapèze élémentaire 0

Iljxuh 516 = Gìfrpsrvlwlrq hq wudsë}hv gh od vhfwlrq

Oh wudlwhphqw gh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh lqwhuylhqw h{foxvlyhphqw dx qlyhdx gh od vhf0


wlrq1
Od jìrpìwulh gh od vhfwlrq hvw lqwurgxlwh sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu gdqv oh uhsëuh jìqìultxh gh
fhwwh ghuqlëuh1 Od vhfwlrq uìhooh hvw dssur{lpìh sdu xqh vhfwlrq ã frqwrxuv sro|jrqdx{/ txl
suìvhqwh xq rx soxvlhxuv ìylghphqwv1 Oh surjudpph fdofxoh dxwrpdwltxhphqw od srvlwlrq
gx fhqwuh gh judylwì hw ohv d{hv sulqflsdx{ g*lqhuwlh gh od vhfwlrq qrq gìirupìh/ srxu gìqlu
oh uhsëuh sulqflsdo g*lqhuwlh gh od vhfwlrq1 Fkdtxh vhfwlrq frqvwlwxwlyh g*xq ìoìphqw hvw
srvlwlrqqìh gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo gh o*ìoìphqw sdu wudqvodwlrq hw urwdwlrq1 Gdqv fh uhsëuh/
fkdtxh vhfwlrq hvw gìfrpsrvìh hq wudsë}hv grqw ohv f÷wìv sdudooëohv vrqw krul}rqwdx{ +jxuh
6; Fkdslwuh 5 Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh

516,1 Ohv whuphv gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq vrqw rewhqxv sdu lqwìjudwlrq vxu
wrxv ohv wudsë}hv frqvwlwxwliv gh od vhfwlrq ã o*dlgh g*xq pdloodjh g|qdpltxh txl vhud gìfulw
soxv wdug dx fkdslwuh 71

51417 Skdvdjh gh frqvwuxfwlrq 0 Fkdujhphqw

Oh v|vwëph SFS shuphw gh vlpxohu xq judqg qrpeuh g*rsìudwlrqv txl h{lvwhqw oruv gh od
uìdolvdwlrq g*xq rxyudjh/ ã vdyrlu =

 Od plvh hq sodfh hw oh uhpsodfhphqw dyhf rx vdqv yìulqdjh/ rx od vxssuhvvlrq ghv


dssxlv/ hq q*lpsruwh txho qúxg gx prgëoh1

 Oh gìsodfhphqw/ o*dfwlydwlrq hw od vxssuhvvlrq ghv ìoìphqwv gx prgëoh1

 Od plvh hq whqvlrq/ o*lqmhfwlrq hw od gìwhqwh ghv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh1

 O*dssolfdwlrq ghv fkdujhphqwv h{wìulhxuv/ l=h= =

 oh srlgv sursuh>

 ohv hruwv qrgdx{>

 ohv hruwv uìsduwlv vxu ohv ìoìphqwv>

 ohv glvwruvlrqv lpsrvìhv vxu ohv ìoìphqwv>

 ohv fkdujhphqwv wkhupltxhv/ dyhf qrwdpphqw oh judglhqw wkhupltxh>

 ohv gìirupdwlrqv g*dssxlv1

Oh skdvdjh gh frqvwuxfwlrq idlw grqf sduwlh lqwìjudqwh gx irqfwlrqqhphqw gx v|v0


wëph SFS hw frqvwlwxh xq gh vhv srlqwv iruwv/ qrwdpphqw sdu udssruw dx{ surjudpphv
jìqìudx{ g*ìoìphqwv qlv1 O*lpsodqwdwlrq ghv irqfwlrqqdolwìv gh fdofxo qrq olqìdluh qh
grlw sdv shuwxuehu od sklorvrsklh gx surjudpph lqlwldo/ hw hooh grlw v*dgdswhu ã o*dvshfw
wuëv rsìudwlrqqho gx surgxlw1 Od urexvwhvvh gh o*dojrulwkph gh uìvroxwlrq grlw dlqvl íwuh
sduidlwhphqw dvvxuìh1

515 Ìwxgh gh od suìfrqwudlqwh

51514 Jìqìudolwìv

Od suìfrqwudlqwh hvw gìqlh jìrpìwultxhphqw fåeoh sdu fåeoh/ srxwuh vsdwldoh sdu srxwuh
vsdwldoh1 Hooh hvw vsìfltxh ã xqh srxwuh vsdwldoh/ hw q*djlw txh vxu ohv vhfwlrqv gh fhwwh
ghuqlëuh1
515 Ìwxgh gh od suìfrqwudlqwh 6<

Lo hvw srvvleoh gh gìqlu xqh suìfrqwudlqwh h{wìulhxuh dx eìwrq = lo vx!w g*dhfwhu dx


fåeoh hq txhvwlrq xq gldpëwuh gh jdlqh hw xq frh!flhqw gh shuwhv sdu iurwwhphqwv wuëv
idleohv1

51515 Jìrpìwulh gh od suìfrqwudlqwh

O*xwlolvdwhxu gìqlw ghv srlqwv gh sdvvdjh ghv fåeohv gdqv ohv vhfwlrqv ghv srxwuhv vsd0
wldohv/ dyhf oh fdv ìfkìdqw/ ghv wdqjhqwhv lpsrvìhv1 Gx idlw gx fdudfwëuh wulglphqvlrqqho
gx sureoëph/ fkdtxh wurqêrq gh fåeoh fruuhvsrqgdqw ã xq ìoìphqw hvw lqwhusroì sdu ohv
ìtxdwlrqv sdudpìwultxhv vxlydqwhv =

[ +w, @ Y% . Y%2 =w . Y% =w2 . Y%e =w +514,

\ +w, @ Y+ . Y+2 =w . Y+ =w2 . Y+e =w +515,

] +w, @ Y5 . Y52 =w . Y5 =w2 . Y5e =w +516,

srxu w 5 ^d > e `1 Oh sdudpëwuh duelwudluh w hvw who txh o*rq sdufrxuw gh idêrq elmhfwlyh oh
fåeoh oruvtxh w sdufrxuw o*lqwhuydooh ^d > e `1 Ohv 45 sdudpëwuhv shuphwwhqw gh yìulhu ohv
frqglwlrqv lpsrvìhv dx{ srlqwv gh sdvvdjhv1

51516 Shuwhv lqvwdqwdqìhv gh suìfrqwudlqwh

Oruv gh od plvh hq whqvlrq ghv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh/ od whqvlrq lpsrvìh sdu ohv yìulqv
gdqv oh fåeoh yd vxelu ghv shuwhv lqvwdqwdqìhv txh o*rq shxw fodvvhu hq ghx{ fdwìjrulhv1
G*xqh sduw/ ohv shuwhv sdu iurwwhphqwv/ txl vrqw olìhv ã od jìrpìwulh gx fåeoh hw/ g*dxwuh
sduw/ ohv shuwhv gxhv dx uhfxo g*dqfudjh1

Shuwhv sdu iurwwhphqwv


à sduwlu ghv ìtxdwlrqv sdudpìwultxhv ghv fåeohv/ rq surfëgh ã xqh ìydoxdwlrq qh ghv
devflvvhv fxuyloljqhv hw ghv gìyldwlrqv dqjxodluhv vsdwldohv ã o*dlgh gh srlqwv gh wdexodwlrq
+jxuh 517,1 Ohv yhfwhxuv
$
Y w vrqw ghv yhfwhxuv wdqjhqwv qrupìv1 Od gìyldwlrq dqjxodluh
&
$ $
hqwuh Y w hw Y w hvw ìydoxìh sdu =
& &n

& @ dufvlq

 $ a $
Y w&

Y w  +517,
&n

Od gìyldwlrq dqjxodluh wrwdoh vxu oh wurqêrq P Pn hvw rewhqxh hq vrppdqw ohv & 1 Rq
xwlolvh doruv od orl gh Frroh| srxu oh fdofxo gh fhv shuwhv1 Soxvlhxuv fdv vrqw ã hqylvdjhu =

41 Fåeoh whqgx sdu o*ruljlqh =

f +v, @ Rf h3EskErn)r +518,


73 Fkdslwuh 5 Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh

Vt Vt
k+1 k+2
M
i+1
Vt
k
Vt
i+1

Vt
i

M i

Iljxuh 517 = Wdexodwlrq g*xq wurqêrq gh fåeoh

51 Fåeoh whqgx sdu o*h{wuìplwì =

u +v, @ Rf h3EskEun)unEskErn)r +519,

61 Fåeoh whqgx sdu ohv 5 h{wuìplwìv =

 +v, @ plq +f +v, > u +v,, +51:,

Dyhf =

 Rf = whqvlrq ã o*ruljlqh>
 
i = frh!flhqw gh iurwwhphqw hq frxueh gh o*dupdwxuh vxu od jdlqh udg3 >
 
* = frh!flhqw gh shuwh gh whqvlrq sdu xqlwì gh orqjxhxu p3 >
v = devflvvh fxuyloljqh gx srlqw rü o*rq fdofxoh od whqvlrq gdqv oh fåeoh>
 +v, = vrpph ghv ydohxuv devroxhv ghv gìyldwlrqv dqjxodluhv hqwuh o*ruljlqh hw oh
srlqw g*devflvvh fxuyloljqh v1

Shuwhv sdu uhfxo g*dqfudjh


Od shuwh gh whqvlrq/ txl shxw uìvxowhu gx jolvvhphqw gh o*dupdwxuh sdu udssruw ã vrq
dqfudjh/ gx wdvvhphqw rx gh od gìirupdwlrq gh o*dqfudjh/ hvw dsshoìh shuwh sdu uhfxo
g*dqfudjh ^Esho<4`1
Rq glvwlqjxh ohv píphv fdv tx*dxsdudydqw =

41 Oh fåeoh hvw whqgx sdu o*ruljlqh rx sdu o*h{wuìplwì = rq d doruv xq dqfudjh dfwli txl
hvw fhqvì íwuh vlwxì ã jdxfkh/ hw xq dqfudjh sdvvli txl hvw vlwxì ã gurlwh>
515 Ìwxgh gh od suìfrqwudlqwh 74

51 Oh fåeoh hvw whqgx sdu ohv ghx{ h{wuìplwìv1 O*ruguh gh uhoåfkhphqw ghv fåeohv hvw
doruv sulprugldo hw o*rq vxssrvhud txh o*dqfudjh gh jdxfkh hvw uhoåfkì oh suhplhu1
O*ruguh gh uhoåfkhphqw ghv fåeohv hvw gìql sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu1 Rq vh udpëqh dx
wudlwhphqw gx fdv suìfìghqw/ pdlv hq ghx{ irlv1

Oh gldjudpph gh whqvlrq lvvx gh od orl gh Frroh| hvw olqìdulvì sdu prufhdx{/ ã o*dlgh
gh srlqwv gh wdexodwlrq1 Rq glvsrvh dlqvl g*xqh oljqh eulvìh txl uhsuìvhqwh oh gldjudpph
gh od frqwudlqwh hq irqfwlrq gh o*devflvvh fxuyloljqh1 Srxu fkdtxh srlqw gh wdexodwlrq/ rq
wudqviruph oh gldjudpph gh od idêrq vxlydqwh +jxuh 518, =

σ (s)
Diagramme initial

Diagramme transformé

Iljxuh 518 = Hhw gx uhfxo g*dqfudjh jdxfkh

41 Wrxv ohv vhjphqwv gh shqwh qìjdwlyh vlwxìv ã jdxfkh gx srlqw gh wdexodwlrq vrqw
wudqvirupìv hq vhjphqwv ã shqwh rssrvìh1

51 Wrxv ohv vhjphqwv ã shqwh srvlwlyh vrqw wudqvodwìv yhuv oh edv1

O*dluh vlwxìh hqwuh oh gldjudpph lqlwldo hw oh gldjudpph dlqvl wudqvirupì hvw qrwìh D, 1
Rq fkhufkh oh suhplhu srlqw gx gldjudpph who txh =

D, A j=HR +51;,

rü j hvw oh uhfxo g*dqfudjh hw HR oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gh o*dflhu frqvwlwxdqw oh fåeoh gh


suìfrqwudlqwh1 Vl o*rq dwwhlqw o*dqfudjh sdvvli vdqv vdwlvidluh od frqglwlrq +51;,/ rq wudqvodwh
yhuv oh edv oh ghuqlhu gldjudpph rewhqx gh idêrq ã vdwlvidluh fhwwh frqglwlrq1
75 Fkdslwuh 5 Prgìolvdwlrq pìfdqltxh

Oh fdv gh o*dqfudjh gurlw hvw wudlwì dyhf oh píph dojrulwkph/ sdu uhqyhuvhphqw gx vhqv
ghv devflvvhv fxuyloljqhv1
Vl dx frxuv gh fhw dojrulwkph/ rq rewlhqw xqh whqvlrq qxooh gdqv oh fåeoh/ oh wudlwhphqw
v*duuíwh1
Oh gldjudpph gh whqvlrq dlqvl rewhqx hvw oh gldjudpph gh whqvlrq lqvwdqwdqìh gx fåeoh
gh suìfrqwudlqwh1 Od suìfrqwudlqwh dlqvl gìqlh hvw dssoltxìh vxu fkdfxqh ghv vhfwlrqv gh
od srxwuh vsdwldoh sdu od pìwkrgh lqwhuqh gìfulwh sdu Idxfkduw ^Idx:5`1 Od suìfrqwudlqwh
h{hufh vxu od vhfwlrq gx eìwrq xq hruw gh frpsuhvvlrq ìjdo hw rssrvì ã o*hruw gh wudfwlrq
gdqv oh fåeoh1 Fhw hruw hvw dssoltxì vxlydqw od wdqjhqwh ã od oljqh pr|hqqh gx fåeoh dx
srlqw rü lo wudyhuvh od vhfwlrq1
Xq frxolv gh flphqw shxw íwuh lqmhfwì gdqv od jdlqh gh suìfrqwudlqwh dq gh uhqguh oh
fåeoh vrolgdluh gh od vhfwlrq hq eìwrq1 Vl who hvw oh fdv/ oh fåeoh hvw glw olì ã od vhfwlrq
gh eìwrq hw wrxwhv ohv gìirupdwlrqv xowìulhxuhv ã o*lqmhfwlrq vhurqw dssoltxìhv dx fåeoh txl
uìdjlud frpph xq dflhu sdvvli1 Vlqrq/ oh fåeoh srxuud jolvvhu gdqv vd jdlqh hw od yduldwlrq
gh frqwudlqwh gdqv oh fåeoh gxh dx jolvvhphqw vhud dssoltxìh ã od vhfwlrq gh eìwrq1
Od vlpxowdqìlwì gh plvh hq whqvlrq gh soxvlhxuv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh hvw dlqvl dx0
wrpdwltxhphqw sulvh hq frpswh sdu oh surjudpph/ píph vl oh skdvdjh gh plvh hq suìfrq0
wudlqwh hvw frpsoh{h1
Ohv hhwv gxv ã od uhod{dwlrq ghv fåeohv vrqw sulv hq frpswh hw vhurqw gìwdlooìv gdqv oh
fkdslwuh 9 wudlwdqw ghv hhwv glìuìv1
Fkdslwuh 6

Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Dq g*ìwxglhu oh sureoëph gh od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh/ txhotxhv udsshov gh flqìpd0


wltxhv yrqw íwuh suìvhqwìv1 Dsuëv dyrlu udsshoì ohv glìuhqwhv ghvfulswlrqv odjudqjlhqqhv
gx prxyhphqw/ qrxv ìwdeolurqv od irupxodwlrq gx sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov gdqv ohv
glìuhqwhv ghvfulswlrqv ^Iuh::`/ ^Hvs;9d`/ ^GhY;<`1
Gdqv xq hvsdfh hxfolglhq/ rq ìwxglh oh prxyhphqw g*xq frusv frqvwlwxì g*xqh lqqlwì
gh srlqwv pdwìulhov1 Vrxv o*hhw gh vroolflwdwlrqv pìfdqltxhv/ fh frusv yd vh gìiruphu hw
vh gìsodfhu1 Qrxv doorqv vxlyuh oh wudmhw gh o*hqvhpeoh ghv srlqwv pdwìulhov frqvwlwxwliv
gx frusv1 O*hqvhpeoh ghv srvlwlrqv tx*rffxshqw fhv srlqwv ã fkdtxh lqvwdqw v*dsshooh xqh
frqjxudwlrq1

614 Od ghvfulswlrq odjudqjlhqqh


Rq glvwlqjxh 6 frqjxudwlrqv +jxuh 614, =

 od frqjxudwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Hooh fruuhvsrqg ã o*ìwdw dx uhsrv gx frusv/


f
txl qh v*hvw ql gìirupì/ ql gìsodfì1 Hooh vhud qrwìh 1 Ohv frrugrqqìhv g*xq srlqw
f
pdwìulho gdqv fhwwh frqjxudwlrq vhurqw qrwìhv { >


od frqjxudwlrq frxudqwh1 Hooh vhud qrwìh  1 Ohv frrugrqqìhv gx píph srlqw pdwìulho

gdqv fhwwh frqjxudwlrq vhurqw qrwìhv { >

 od frqjxudwlrq srvwìulhxuh ã od frqjxudwlrq frxudqwh/ lqfrqqxh d sulrul1 Hooh vhud


n{
qrwìh  1 Ohv frrugrqqìhv gx srlqw pdwìulho gdqv fhwwh frqjxudwlrq vhurqw qrwìhv
n{
{ 1
Rq gìqlw fodvvltxhphqw ohv gìsodfhphqwv gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =

x  @ {   {f +614,
n{
x @ n{{  {f +615,
77 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

0 τ τ+∆τ τ+∆τ
x 3 ,x 3 ,x 3 γ

τ
γ
0 τ+∆τ
Γ xi

τ
xi

0 0 τ τ+∆τ
τ τ+∆τ
xi x ,x ,x
0 2 2 2
x ,x ,x
1 1 1
Mouvement

Iljxuh 614 = Ohv 6 frqjxudwlrqv fodvvltxhv

hw o*lqfuìphqw gh gìsodfhphqw hqwuh  hw n{


 v*ìfulw =

x  x 
x @ n{
f
Vl o*rq suhqg srxu frqjxudwlrq gh uìiìuhqfh od frqjxudwlrq lqlwldoh / od ghvfulswlrq
hvw glwh odjudqjlhqqh wrwdoh +G1O1W1,1 Vl o*rq suhqg srxu frqjxudwlrq gh uìiìuhqfh od

frqjxudwlrq frxudqwh  / od ghvfulswlrq hvw glwh odjudqjlhqqh dfwxdolvìh +G1O1D1,1
n{
Hq G1O1W1/ ohv gìulyìhv sduwlhoohv gh { iruphqw ohv frpsrvdqwhv gx whqvhxu mdfrelhq =

n{ C n{{
M @ +616,
f C {f

Hq G1O1D1/ rq d =
C n{
{
n{
M @ +617,
C { 
Udsshorqv txh oh gìwhuplqdqw gx mdfrelhq M @ ghw +M , phvxuh oh udwlr gh yroxph =
n{
n{ g Y
Mf @ f
+618,
gY
n{
n{ g Y
M @ +619,
gY
614 Od ghvfulswlrq odjudqjlhqqh 78

G*rü =
] ] ]
n{ n{ f n{
n{ g Y @ f Mf g Y @ M g Y +61:,
T T T

Oh mdfrelhq v*h{sulph hq irqfwlrq ghv gìsodfhphqwv gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =


Hq G1O1W1 =
n{ C n{
x
M @  . +61;,
f C {f

Hq G1O1D1 =
n{ C n{
x
M @  . +61<,
C { 
61414 Phvxuh ghv gìirupdwlrqv
n{
Hq G1O1W1/ ohv gìirupdwlrqv gh  vrqw phvxuìhv dx pr|hq gh o*lqyduldqw4 =
   2
n{ 2 f n{ f f
go  go @ 5 H g{g{ +6143,
f

n{
H hvw oh whqvhxu gh Juhhq0Odjudqjh/ txl v*h{sulph hq irqfwlrq ghv gìsodfhphqwv =
f
# $
n{ 4 C n{
x C n{
x C n{
x& C n{
x&
H @ . . +6144,
f 5 C {f C {f C {f C {f

hw hq irqfwlrq gx mdfrelhq =
 
n{ 4 n{ n{
H @
5
M& M&
f
 +6145,
f f

n{
Hq G1O1D1/ ohv gìirupdwlrqv gh  vrqw phvxuìhv dx pr|hq gh o*lqyduldqw =
   2
n{ 2 n{
go  go @ 5 H g{g{ +6146,

n{
H hvw oh whqvhxu gh Juhhq0Odjudqjh/ txl v*h{sulph hq irqfwlrq ghv gìsodfhphqwv =

# $
n{ x C n{
4 C n{ x C n{
x& C n{
x&
H @ . . +6147,
5 C {  C {  C {  C { 
4
Od uëjoh gh vrppdwlrq g*Hlqvwhlq v*dssoltxh srxu ohv lqglfhv c c & '  c 2 c 
79 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

hw hq irqfwlrq gx mdfrelhq =
 
n{ 4 n{ n{
H @
5
M& M&

 +6148,

61415 Phvxuh ghv frqwudlqwhv


n{
Rq shxw phvxuhu ohv frqwudlqwhv gh  gh soxvlhxuv idêrqv1

Frqwudlqwhv gh Fdxfk|
Rq shxw xwlolvhu oh whqvhxu ghv frqwudlqwhv gh Fdxfk|/ dsshoìhv hqfruh frqwudlqwhv yudlhv1
Vxu xqh idfhwwh lqfolqìh gh vxuidfh gd grqw od qrupdoh h{wìulhxuh hvw qrwìh $
q / djlw oh
$
n{
yhfwhxu frqwudlqwh  who txh =
n{ n{
 @  q +6149,

Vl o*rq lqwurgxlw od qrwlrq gh irufh lqwìulhxuh/


$ g i / sdu od uhodwlrq =

$ $
n{
g i @  gd +614:,

Rq d doruv/ hq qrwdqw gd @ q gd =


gi @ n{
 gd @ n{ q gd @ n{
 gd +614;,

Frqwudlqwhv gh Slrod0Nlufkkr 5
Hq G1O1W1/ oh whqvhxu ghv frqwudlqwhv gh Slrod0Nlufkr 5 hvw uholì dx whqvhxu ghv frqwudlqwhv
gh Fdxfk| sdu =
n{ n{ C {f n{ C {f
V @ M &, n{ +614<,
f f C n{
{& C {,
fh txl shxw v*ìfuluh hqfruh =

n{ 4 n{ n{ n{
 @ n{ M& V&, M, +6153,
f f
Mf f

Hq G1O1D1/ rq d =
n{ n{ C {  n{ C { 
V @ M &, n{ +6154,
C n{
{& C {,
n{ 4 n{ n{ n{
 @ n{ M& V&, M, +6155,

M
614 Od ghvfulswlrq odjudqjlhqqh 7:

Oh sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov +S1W1Y1,

Oh sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov/ rx hqfruh ghv gìsodfhphqwv yluwxhov/ v*ìfulw =


]
n{ n{ n{
n{   n{
% g Y @ Z +6156,
T

rü  n{
% uhsuìvhqwh xqh shwlwh yduldwlrq yluwxhooh gx whqvhxu ghv gìirupdwlrqv lqqlwìvl0
pdohv = # $ # $
n{ 4 Cx Cx 4 Cx Cx
 % @  . n{ @ . n{ +6157,
5 C {
n{
C { 5 C {
n{
C {
x uhsuìvhqwh xqh shwlwh yduldwlrq duelwudluh/ pdlv flqìpdwltxhphqw dgplvvleoh/ gx fkdps
n{ n{
ghv gìsodfhphqwv1 Z hvw oh wudydlo yluwxho h{whuqh ghv irufhv gh yroxph i txl v*ds0
n{ n{ n{
soltxhqw vxu oh yroxph Y gh  / hw ghv irufhv gh vxuidfh ir txl v*dssoltxhqw vxu od
n{ n{
vxuidfh h{whuqh V gh  =
] n{ ] n{
n{  n{ n{
Z @ n{ i x g Y . n{ ir x g V +6158,
T 7

n{ n{ n{
Rq shxw gìqlu ghv lqwhqvlwìv gh irufhv yroxpltxhv + i hw i , hw vxuidfltxhv + ir hw
f f
K  K
n{ f
ir , udphqìhv ã  rx  uhvshfwlyhphqw/ hw whoohv txh =


] n{ ] n{
n{  n{ n{
Z @ n{ i x g Y . n{ ir x g V +6159,
T 7
] n{ ] n{

@ i x g Y . ir x g V +615:,
T 7
 
] n{ ] n{
@ i  x g f . f
ir x g V
f   Y f +615;,
T f 7 f
K K

Fh sulqflsh h{sulph o*ìjdolwì gx wudydlo ghv irufhv lqwhuqhv +phpeuh gh jdxfkh, hw ghv
irufhv h{whuqhv +phpeuh gh gurlwh,/ dlqvl txh o*ìtxloleuh ghv irufhv lqwhuqhv hw h{whuqhv1 Oh
S1W1Y1 v*h{sulph dyhf ghv frqwudlqwhv/ ghv gìirupdwlrqv/ ghv yroxphv hw ghv vxuidfhv vh
n{
udssruwdqw ã od frqjxudwlrq  / txl hvw lqfrqqxh d sulrul1 Rq grlw grqf vh udphqhu ã
f
ghv frqjxudwlrqv frqqxhv/ vrlw  hq G1O1W1/ vrlw  hq G1O1D1
Hq G1O1W1/ o*h{suhvvlrq +6156, ghylhqw =
]
n{ n{ f n{
f V  H g Y @ Z +615<,
T f f
7; Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Hq hhw/ rq d =
] ] # $
n{ n{ n{ 4 n{ n{ n{ 4 Cx Cx n{
n{   % g Y @ n{ n{ M& V&, M, 5 C n{
. g Y
T T M f f f { C n{
{
f
+6163,
Hq xwlolvdqw +61;,/ o*h{suhvvlrq ghylhqw =

] # $ # $ # $
4 C n{
x n{ C n{
x C n{
{ C {f6 Cx C {f6 Cx f
 . V&, , . . n{ f g Y
T
f
5 & C {f& f C {f, C {f, n{ f
C { C {6 C { C {6
+6164,
Frpph rq vdlw txh =
# $# $
C n{
x C {f6 C {f6 C n{
{
, . @ n{ @ ,6 +6165,
C {f, C n{
{
f
C { C {,
hw txh =
# $# $
C n{
x C {f6 C {f6 C n{
{
& . @ n{ @ &6 +6166,
C {f& C n{
{
f
C { C {&
rq d/ hq vlpsoldqw =

] %# $ # $ &
4 n{ C n{
x Cx C n{
x Cx f
V & .  .  .  g Y +6167,
T
f
5 f&, C {f&
,6
C {f6
,
C {f,
&6
C {f6
Wrxw fdofxo idlw/ rq rewlhqw =

] % &
x Cx C n{
4 n{ Cx& Cx, C n{ x Cx f
V&, . f . . gY +6168,
T
f
5 f f
C {, C {& f
C {& C {, f f
C {, C {& f

Dx vhqv gx fdofxo ghv yduldwlrqv/ rq d x @  n{


x / hw rq uhfrqqdñw o*h{suhvvlrq gx whqvhxu
gh Juhhq0Odjudqjh1 Rq rewlhqw hqq =
] ]
n{ n{ n{ n{ n{ f n{
n{   % g Y @ f V  H g Y @ Z +6169,
T T f f

Hq G1O1D1/ rq gìprqwuh gh od píph idêrq =


] ]
n{ n{ n{ n{ n{ n{
n{   % g Y @ V  H g Y @ Z +616:,
T T

Fhfl prqwuh txh oh whqvhxu ghv frqwudlqwhv gh Slrod0Nlufkkr 5/ V / hw oh whqvhxu ghv
gìirupdwlrqv gh Juhhq0Odjudqjh/ H / vrqw ìqhujìwltxhphqw frqmxjxìv1
615 Od ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh 7<

0 τ τ+∆τ
x ,x ,x
0 τ τ+∆τ 3 3 3
x 3 ,x 3 ,x3 0 τ
Γ γ

0 τ τ+∆τ
x ,x ,x
2 2 2
0
Γ

0 τ τ+∆τ
x ,x ,x
1 1 1

0 τ τ+∆τ
0 τ τ+∆τ x ,x ,x
2 2 2
x ,x ,x
1 1 1

Iljxuh 615 = Ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh

615 Od ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh

Gdqv fhwwh ghvfulswlrq ^GhY;<`/ od frqjxudwlrq frxudqwh hvw gìfulwh gdqv oh v|vwëph
g*d{hv lqlwldo dxtxho rq d idlw vxelu xqh wudqvodwlrq hw xqh urwdwlrq +jxuh 615,1 Ohv
f f n{
n{
frqjxudwlrqv /  hw  vh wudqviruphqw hq /  hw  uhvshfwlyhphqw1 Gdqv oh
f n{
qrxyhdx v|vwëph g*d{hv/ ohv frrugrqqìhv g*xq srlqw pdwìulho vhurqw qrwìhv { / { / hw { 1
Od wudqvodwlrq hw od urwdwlrq shxyhqw íwuh fkrlvlhv gh idêrq duelwudluh/ pdlv hq sudwltxh/
f f
hoohv vrqw gìwhuplqìhv gh whooh pdqlëuh txh od qrxyhooh srvlwlrq gh / txl hvw / vrlw oh soxv
f f

surfkh srvvleoh gh od frqjxudwlrq frxudqwh  1 Gdqv oh fdv g*xqh srxwuh/ o*d{h { hw 

vhurqw frqirqgxv dyhf od frugh gh  / f*hvw0ã0gluh oh vhjphqw uholdqw ohv qúxgv ruljlqh hw

h{wuìplwì gh  1 Od ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh hvw glwh wrwdoh +G1F1W1, vl od frqjxudwlrq
f
gh uìiìuhqfh hvw / hw dfwxdolvìh +G1F1D1, vl od frqjxudwlrq gh uìiìuhqfh hvw  1
f f
Sxlvtxh  hvw xq vlpsoh gìsodfhphqw uljlgh gh / rq d =

f
{ @{f +616;,

Rq qh glvwlqjxhud soxv fhv ghx{ w|shv gh frrugrqqìhv1


83 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

$f $f f f
Vl h hw h vrqw ohv yhfwhxuv xqlwdluhv dwwdfkìv dx{ d{hv { hw { / doruv rq d =
$f $f
h @ U& h& +616<,

f f
rü U& hvw od pdwulfh gh urwdwlrq txl wudqviruph  hq / ã od wudqvodwlrq suëv1 Rq gìqlw
doruv oh whqvhxu mdfrelhq gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =

n{ n{
C {
M @ +6173,
f C {f
Hw rq rewlhqw =
n{ n{
M @ U& M& +6174,
f f

61514 Phvxuh ghv gìirupdwlrqv


Hq gìqlvvdqw oh whqvhxu gh Juhhq0Odjudqjh gh od píph idêrq tx*hq G1O1W1/ rq d/ hq
G1F1W1 = 3 4
n{ n{ n{ n{ n{
4 CC C x C C x x& x& D
H @ . . +6175,
f 5 C {
f f
C { C { C {f
f

Hw = # $
n{ 4 n{ n{
H @
5
M& M&  +6176,
f f f

Hq uhpsodêdqw +6174, gdqv +6176,/ hw hq vlpsoldqw/ rq d =


n{ n{
H @ H +6177,
f f

61515 Phvxuh ghv frqwudlqwhv


Frqwudlqwhv gh Fdxfk|
n{
Rq gìqlw gh idêrq dqdorjxh oh whqvhxu ghv frqwudlqwhv gh Fdxfk|/ qrwì  hq ghvfulswlrq
frurwdwlrqqhooh/ hw rq prqwuh vdqv gl!fxowì txh =
n{
 @ U& n{
&,

U, +6178,

Frqwudlqwhv gh Slrod0Nlufkkr 5
Hq G1F1W1/ rq gìqlw oh whqvhxu gh frqwudlqwhv gh Slrod0Nlufkkr 5 =

n{ n{ C {f n{ C {f
V @ M f n{
&, n{
+6179,
f
C {& C {,
615 Od ghvfulswlrq frurwdwlrqqhooh 84

hw rq prqwuh txh =
n{ n{
V @ V +617:,
f f

Rq d ìjdohphqw =
n{ 4 n{ n{ n{
 @ n{ M& V&, M, +617;,
f f f
Mf
Ghv uìvxowdwv dqdorjxhv vh prqwuhqw hq G1F1D1

Oh sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov +S1W1Y1,

Oh sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov v*ìfulw wrxmrxuv vhorq +6156,1 Rq prqwuh txh =

n{
 n{
% @ U6 U?  %6? +617<,

dyhf =
3 4
n{ 4 C Cx Cx D
 % @ . +6183,
5 C n{
{
n{
C {
n{ n{
Rq vdlw ìjdohphqw txh gY @ gY gx idlw gh od qdwxuh gh prxyhphqw gh frusv uljlgh gh
od wudqvirupdwlrq1 Hq xwlolvdqw fhwwh ìjdolwì dlqvl txh +617<, hw +6178,/ rq d =

] ] n{
n{ n{ n{ n{
n{   n{
% g Y @ n{ U& &, U, U6 U?  %6? g Y
T T
] n{
n{ n{
@ n{ &,  %&, g Y +6184,
T

Oh whuph gh gurlwh gh +6156, ghylhqw =

] n{ n{ ]
n{  n{ r n{
Z @ n{ i x g Y . n{ i x g V
T 7
] n{ n{ ] n{ n{
@ n{ i x g Y . n{ ir x g V
 +6185,
T 7

Hq G1F1W1/ rq d =

] ] n{ n{ f
n{ n{ f n{
f V  H gY@ f V  H g Y @ Z +6186,
T f f T f f

Ghv uìvxowdwv dqdorjxhv vh prqwuhqw hq G1F1D1


85 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

616 Sulqflsh ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov olqìdulvì



Frqqdlvvdqw od ghuqlëuh frqjxudwlrq ìtxloleuìh  / rq yd olqìdulvhu oh sulqflsh ghv wudydx{
n{
yluwxhov dq g*rewhqlu o*ìwdw g*ìtxloleuh gh od qrxyhooh frqjxudwlrq  / vxssrvìh wuëv
n{
surfkh gh  1 Xqh ghv idêrqv gh surfìghu hvw g*ìfuluh oh S1W1Y1 srxu  hw srxu  hw gh
vrxvwudluh ohv ìtxdwlrqv g*ìtxloleuh1 Sdu vrxfl gh frqflvlrq/ qrxv qh olqìdulvhurqv oh S1W1Y1
tx*hq G1O1D1 Ghv uìvxowdwv dqdorjxhv vrqw rewhqxv hq G1F1D1

61614 Hq G1O1D1
Oh S1W1Y1 v*ìfulw srxu  gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =
] ] ]

   %  g Y @ i x g Y . ir x g V +6187,
T T 7
n{
Oh S1W1Y1 v*ìfulw srxu  =
]
n{ n{ n{
V  H g Y @ Z +6188,
T

Hq xwlolvdqw ohv qrwdwlrqv lqwurgxlwhv hq +6159,/ rq d =


] ] n{ ] n{
n{ n{
V  H gY@ i x g Y . ir x g V +6189,
T T 7
 

Hq vrxvwud|dqw phpeuh ã phpeuh +6189, hw +6187,/ hw hq srvdqw =


n{
v @ V    +618:,

n{
i @ i

 i +618;,

n{
ir @ ir

 ir +618<,

# $
n{ 4 Cx Cx Cx& Cx&
 H @ . .
5 C {  C {  C {  C { 
@  %  .   +6193,
# $
4 Cx Cx
 %  @ . +6194,
5 C {  C { 
4 Cx& Cx&
   @ +6195,
5 C {  C { 
Rq rewlhqw =
]   ] ]

v  %  .      .v    g Y@ 
i gY . ir g V +6196,
T T 7
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 86

Hq uhpdutxdqw txh v   


hvw xq whuph g*ruguh vxsìulhxu ã 5 hq x / rq d =
]   ] ]
 r
v  % .     g Y @ i g Y . i g V +6197,
T T 7
U
O*ìydoxdwlrq gx whuph v  % g Y frqgxlud ã od frqvwuxfwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh
T
U
uljlglwì glwh pdwìulhooh1 Oh whuph     g Y frqgxlw dx fdofxo gh od pdwulfh gh
T
uljlglwì jìrpìwultxh/ frqqxh ìjdohphqw vrxv oh qrp gh pdwulfh ghv frqwudlqwhv lqlwldohv1
Od uìvroxwlrq gh +6197, yd qrxv irxuqlu ghv gìsodfhphqwv txl surfxuhqw xqh frq0
2 n{
jxudwlrq  lqwhupìgldluh hqwuh  hw  1 Gx idlw gh od olqìdulvdwlrq gx S1W1Y1/ fhwwh
2 2 n{
frqjxudwlrq qrwìh  qh uhvshfwh sdv ohv ìtxdwlrqv g*ìtxloleuh1  srxuud dssurfkhu 
sdu xq fdofxo lwìudwli1 Ohv irufhv lqwhuqhv gh 2 vrqw ìydoxìhv sdu =
]
2
I?| @ 2
2  %2 g Y +6198,
T
Ohv irufhv h{whuqhv vrqw =
] 2
] 2
2 2
Ie%| @ 2
i x g Y . 2
ir x g V +6199,
T 7
Rq lqwurgxlw od qrwlrq gh irufh kruv ìtxloleuh/ rx hqfruh gh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh =

uhvlgx @ Ie%|  I?| +619:,


2 n{
Od frqjxudwlrq lqwhupìgldluh gh fdofxo  vhud mxjìh vx!vdpphqw surfkh gh  oruvtxh
oh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh vhud vx!vdpphqw idleoh1 Ohv qrwlrqv gh fulwëuhv gh frqyhujhqfh srxu
o*dojrulwkph gh uìvroxwlrq vrqw vrxv0mdfhqwhv1

617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv


Gdqv oh grpdlqh gh o*dqdo|vh qrq olqìdluh ghv rvvdwxuhv sodqhv hq eìwrq dupì/ o*dssurfkh
hq frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv d ìwì xwlolvìh sdu Phqhjrwwr hw Slqwr ^Phq:6` ^Phq:7`/ Juhodw
^Juh:;e`/ Ihuudur Pdld ^Ihu:<` ^Ihu;6`/ Fduro hw Pxufld ^Fdu;7`/ wrxv vh edvdqw vxu od
irupxodwlrq pdwìulhoohphqw olqìdluh ìodvwltxh gh Mhqqlqjv ^Mhq9;`1 Qdlw0Udedk ^Qdl<3` d
frqwlqxì fhwwh dssurfkh vxu ghv rvvdwxuhv wulglphqvlrqqhoohv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw/ hq
shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv1 Qrwuh wudydlo vh vlwxh gluhfwhphqw gdqv oh surorqjhphqw gh fhoxl gh
Qdlw0Udedk/ hq lqwurgxlvdqw ohv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw ohv judqghv urwdwlrqv1 Qrxv doorqv
suìvhqwhu fhwwh dssurfkh hq 5G gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv/ sxlv qrxv o*ìwhqgurqv ã o*hvsdfh
wulglphqvlrqqho1

61714 Ìoìphqw gh srxwuh sodq


Rq frqvlgëuh xq ìoìphqw gh srxwuh 5G gìfulw hq jxuh 6161
87 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Y y y e
0
x
θi J
θi
0
θj
θ 0 v j
I j

v u j
i x
u i 0
J0
I0 L0

Iljxuh 616 = Frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv sodqhv

Ìtxdwlrqv g*ìtxloleuh

Gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo [\ / rq srvlwlrqqh oh uhsëuh orfdo {f|f gh o*ìoìphqw olì ã od srvlwlrq
lqlwldoh gh fhoxl0fl1 Vrxv o*hhw gx fkdujhphqw/ oh qúxg Lf +uhvshfwlyhphqw Mf , gh o*ìoìphqw
v*hvw gìsodfì hq L +uhvshfwlyhphqw M ,1 Rq lqwurgxlw od qrwlrq gh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ qrwì {|
grqw oh suhplhu d{h uholh oh qúxg L dx qúxg M 1 Fh uhsëuh hvw o*xq ghv uhsëuhv frurwdwlrqqhov
srvvleohv1 Gdqv oh sodq/ o*d{h | vh gìgxlw gluhfwhphqw gh o*d{h {1 Ohv lqfrqqxhv qrgdohv
vrqw dx qrpeuh gh 9 = +x > y >  f , srxu oh qúxg ruljlqh/ hw +x > y > f , srxu oh qúxg
h{wuìplwì1 Qrwrqv dx sdvvdjh txh +x > y , +uhvshfwlyhphqw +x > y ,, vrqw ohv frpsrvdqwhv
$ $
gx yhfwhxu Lf L +uhvshfwlyhphqw Mf M , gdqv oh uhsëuh {f |f hw txh  f +uhvshfwlyhphqw  f ,
hvw od urwdwlrq gx qúxg L +uhvshfwlyhphqw M , gdqv oh píph uhsëuh1 Wrxwh frqjxudwlrq
hvw gìfulwh sdu ohv vhxohv lqfrqqxhv txl fuìhqw xqh gìirupdwlrq1 Fhv lqfrqqxhv vrqw ohv
frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv/ rx frrugrqqìhv qdwxuhoohv1 Hoohv vrqw dx qrpeuh gh 6 srxu xqh
srxwuh sodqh =

h = doorqjhphqw gh od frugh gh od srxwuh gìirupìh>


 >  = urwdwlrqv qrgdohv1

Qrwrqv txh  hw  vrqw ohv urwdwlrqv txl shuphwwhqw gh sdvvhu gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh dx
uhsëuh wdqjhqw ã od srxwuh gìirupìh hq L hw M uhvshfwlyhphqw1 Ohv uhodwlrqv hqwuh ohv frru0
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 88

3 4
x
E F
3 4 E y F
h E
E
F
F
E F E  f F
grqqìhv frqyhfwìhv V? @ E 
C  D
F hw ohv frrugrqqìhv odjudqjlhqqhv orfdohv V, @ E F
E
E x F
F
 E F
C y D
 f
vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =
t
h @ +Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2  Of +619;,
 
y  y
 @ f  dufwdq +619<,
Of . x  x
 
y  y
 @ f  dufwdq +61:3,
Of . x  x
Vl o*rq gìqlw od pdwulfh ^E` +6  9, sdu =
CV?
E @ +61:4,
CV,
Doruv rq d =

+Of . x  x ,
^E `c @ t +61:5,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
y  y
^E `c2 @ t +61:6,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
^E `c @ 3 +61:7,
+Of . x  x ,
^E `ce @ t +61:8,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,
y  y
^E `cD @ t +61:9,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
^E `cS @ 3 +61::,
y  y
^E `2c @  +61:;,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
Of . x  x
^E `2c2 @ +61:<,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
^E `2c @ 4 +61;3,
y  y
^E `2ce @ +61;4,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
Of . x  x
^E `2cD @  +61;5,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
^E `2cS @ 3 +61;6,
89 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

y  y
^E` c @  +61;7,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
Of . x  x
^E` c2 @ +61;8,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
^E` c @ 3 +61;9,
y  y
^E` ce @ +61;:,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
Of . x  x
^E` cD @  +61;;,
+Of . x  x ,2 . +y  y ,2
^E` cS @ 4 +61;<,

Rq d doruv o*ìtxdwlrq pdwulflhooh =

gV? @ ^E` =gV, +61<3,

Oh yhfwhxu V? d srxu sursulìwì lqwìuhvvdqwh g*íwuh lqgìshqgdqw ghv prghv3uljlghv4gh wudqv0

E
Q F
odwlrq hw gh urwdwlrq1 Ohv hruwv fruuhvsrqgdqw ã V? vrqw qrwìv I? @ C P F
E
D gdqv oh
P
3 4
I%f
E F
E
E
I+f F
F
E Pf F
E F
uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo/ ohv hruwv frqmxjxìv ã V, vrqw I, @ E F1
E
E I%f F
F
E F
C I+f D
Pf
Od uhodwlrq hqwuh I? hw I, hvw rewhqxh hq h{sulpdqw txh oh wudydlo yluwxho ghv hruwv I?
hvw lghqwltxh ã fhoxl ghv hruwv I, 1 Rq d grqf =
| V =I @ | V? =I? +61<4,
, ,
@ | V, =| ^E ` =I? +61<5,

Fhfl hvw yudl txhooh txh vrlw od yduldwlrq gh fkdps gh gìsodfhphqwv flqìpdwltxhphqw
dgplvvleoh  | V, 1 Rq hq gìgxlw txh =

I, @ | ^E ` =I? +61<6,

Fhwwh ìtxdwlrq hvw irqgdphqwdoh srxu h{sulphu oh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh gdqv oh uhsëuh
orfdo gh o*ìoìphqw1

Pdwulfh wdqjhqwh
O*h{suhvvlrq gh od pdwulfh wdqjhqwh yd íwuh rewhqxh hq glìuhqfldqw o*ìtxdwlrq +61<6,1 Lo
ylhqw =
gI, @ | ^E` =gI? . |g ^E ` =I? +61<7,
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 8:

Od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw ^N? ` gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh hvw gìqlh sdu =
I? @ ^N? ` =V? +61<8,

rü I? hvw xq dffurlvvhphqw g*hruwv gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh hw V? o*dffurlvvhphqw


gh gìsodfhphqwv fruuhvsrqgdqw1 Srxu xq dffurlvvhphqw gh gìsodfhphqwv lqqlwìvlpdo/ rq
d=
gI? @ ^N?| ` =gV? +61<9,

rü ^N?| ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì wdqjhqwh gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1


Sdu dloohxuv/ rq frqvwuxlw od pdwulfh ^G` whooh txh =

| g ^E ` =I @ ^G` =gV, +61<:,


?

Hq hhw/ frpph ^E` gìshqg gh V, / rq shxw ìfuluh =


| 
g ^E ` =I?  @ gE I? +61<;,
CE
@ I gV +61<<,
CV,& ? ,&
Hq srvdqw =
CE
G& @ I +61433,
CV,& ?
rq d =
| 
g ^E` =I?  @ G& gV,& +61434,

txl hvw od wudqvfulswlrq lqglflhooh gh +61<:,1 Ilqdohphqw/ +61<7, ghylhqw =

gI, @ | ^E ` = ^N ` = ^E ` =gV . ^G` =gV


?| , ,
| 
@ ^E` = ^N?| ` = ^E ` . ^G` =gV, +61435,

Hq srvdqw =
^N, ` @ | ^E ` = ^N?| ` = ^E ` . ^G` +61436,

rq gìqlw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv vrq uhsëuh orfdo1 Fhwwh pdwulfh ghyud
íwuh suì0 hw srvw0pxowlsolìh sdu od pdwulfh gh urwdwlrq txl shuphw gh sdvvhu gx uhsëuh
joredo dx uhsëuh orfdo hw vrq lqyhuvh1

61715 Frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv gdqv o*hvsdfh


H{whqvlrq ghv qrwdwlrqv dx{ sureoëphv hq 6G
Rq frqvlgëuh wrxmrxuv xq ìoìphqw gh od vwuxfwxuh gh qúxg ruljlqh Lf / hw gh qúxg h{wuìplwì
Mf/ hw {f |f }f oh uhsëuh orfdo gh uìiìuhqfh olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw +jxuh 617,1
O*ruljlqh gx v|vwëph g*d{hv hvw hq Lf hw o*d{h {f srlqwh yhuv Mf 1 Srxu srvlwlrqqhu |f }f
8; Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Iljxuh 617 = Uhsëuh orfdo olì ã od srvlwlrq lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw

dxwrxu gh o*d{h {f / rq vh edvh vxu xq uhsëuh pr|hq grqw o*rulhqwdwlrq gìfrxoh gh fhooh gh
od pr|hqqh ghv uhsëuhv sulqflsdx{ g*lqhuwlh ghv vhfwlrqv ruljlqh hw h{wuìplwì gh o*ìoìphqw1

Vrxv vroolflwdwlrqv/ o*ìoìphqw v*hvw gìsodfì hw gìirupì/ hw ohv qúxgv Lf hw Mf vh vrqw


uhvshfwlyhphqw gìsodfìv hq ghv srlqwv L hw M +jxuh 618,1

Vrlw x / y /
z +uhvshfwlyhphqw x / y / z ,/ ohv frpsrvdqwhv gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f
$ $
gx yhfwhxu gìsodfhphqw Lf L +uhvshfwlyhphqw Mf M ,1

Rq qrwh %f / +f hw  5f +uhvshfwlyhphqw %f / +f hw  5f , ohv urwdwlrqv gx qúxg L
+uhvshfwlyhphqw M , uhvshfwlyhphqw dxwrxu ghv d{hv {f/ |f hw }f 1

Rq qrwh ìjdohphqw sdu Iu +uhvshfwlyhphqw Vu , oh yhfwhxu uhsuìvhqwdqw ohv vroolflwdwlrqv


+uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv gìsodfhphqwv, dx{ h{wuìplwìv gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f =
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 8<

Iljxuh 618 = Jìrpìwulh gh o*ìoìphqw gìirupì

3 4 3 4
I%f x
E F E F
E
E I+f F
F
E
E y F
F
E F E F
E
E
I5f F
F
E
E
z F
F
E
E P%f F
F
E
E %f F
F
E F E F
E
E
P+f F
F
E
E
+f F
F
E P5f F E 5f F
Iu @ E
E
F
F hw Vu @ E
E
F
F1
E
E I%f F
F
E
E x F
F
E F E F
E I+f F E ym F
E F E F
E
E I5f F
F
E
E z F
F
E F E F
E
E
P%f F
F
E
E
%f F
F
E P+f F E +f F
C D C D
P5f 5f
93 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

3 4 3 4
I%f x
E F E F
E
E I+f F
F
E
E y F
F
E F E F
E I5f F E z F ;
E F E F
E
E P%f F
F
E
E %f F
F
A
A
? x @ x  x
E
Rq srvh = I @ E
E
P+f F
F hw
F
V @ E
E
E
+f F
F dyhf
F A
y @ y  y 1
A
E
E P5f F
F
E
E 5f F
F
= z @ z  z
E F E F
E
E
P%f F
F
E
E
%f F
F
E F E F
C P+f D C +f D
P5f 5f
Rq d grqf =
V @ ^Wf ` =Vu +61437,

dyhf 5 6
4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 :
9 :
9
9
9
3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 :
:
:
9
9 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
^Wf ` @ 9
9 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
: +61438,
9 :
9 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
9 :
9 :
9
9
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 :
:
9 :
7 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 8
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4
Od frqglwlrq g*ìtxloleuh gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f v*ìfulw =

Iu @ | ^Wf` =I +61439,

Wudydloohu dyhf ohv yhfwhxuv V hwI shuphw gh pdqlsxohu xq v|vwëph uìgxlw/ txl d ìolplqì
od wudqvodwlrq gh frusv uljlgh gdqv od wudqvirupdwlrq txl dvvrflh LM ã Lf Mf 1
Dsuëv gìirupdwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw/ ohv gluhfwlrqv sulqflsdohv ghv vhfwlrqv gurlwhv ydulhqw
g*xqh vhfwlrq ã xqh dxwuh1 Rq qrwh sdu h% / h+ / h5 +uhvshfwlyhphqw h% / h+ / h5 , oh uhsëuh
ruwkrqrupì gluhfw/ olì dx qúxg L +uhvshfwlyhphqw M ,1 O*d{h h% +uhvshfwlyhphqw h% , hvw
wdqjhqw hq L +uhvshfwlyhphqw M , ã od euh pr|hqqh gh o*ìoìphqw dsuëv gìirupdwlrq1 Ohv
d{hv h+ / h5 +uhvshfwlyhphqw h+ / h5 , uhsuìvhqwhqw ohv d{hv sulqflsdx{ g*lqhuwlh gh od vhfwlrq
ruljlqh +uhvshfwlyhphqw h{wuìplwì, gh o*ìoìphqw dsuëv gìirupdwlrq +jxuh 618,1
Gdqv o*dqdo|vh ghv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv ghv rvvdwxuhv vsdwldohv/ o*ìwdw gìirupì gx qúxg
$ $
L +uhvshfwlyhphqw M , hvw uhsuìvhqwì sdu oh yhfwhxu LfL +uhvshfwlyhphqw MfM , gh frpsrvdqwhv
x / y / z +uhvshfwlyhphqw x / y / z , grqqìhv gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo {f|f}f hw od pdwulfh gh
sdvvdjh ^Sf ` +uhvshfwlyhphqw ^Sf `, gx uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f dx uhsëuh irupì sdu ohv d{hv
h% / h+ / h5 +uhvshfwlyhphqw h% / h+ / h5 ,1 Fhv pdwulfhv gh sdvvdjhv vrqw gìqlhv sdu =
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 94

+[ ,E%f +f 5f  @ ^Sf ` = +[ ,Ee% e+ e5  +6143:,

+[ ,E%f +f5f  @ ^Sf ` = +[ ,Ee% e+ e5  +6143;,

^Sf ` hw ^Sf ` vrqw ghv pdwulfhv +6  6, ruwkrjrqdohv1 Frpph od irupxodwlrq v*hhfwxh gdqv
oh fdguh ghv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw ghv judqghv urwdwlrqv/ lo hvw qìfhvvdluh gh gìqlu dyhf
suìflvlrq fh txh o*rq hqwhqg sdu judqghv urwdwlrqv1

Gìqlwlrq ghv judqghv urwdwlrqv

Hq jìqìudo/ oruvtxh o*rq pëqh ghv fdofxov 6G hq shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv/ hw grqf hq shwlwhv
urwdwlrqv/ rq qh vh vrxflh jxëuh ghv frqyhqwlrqv fdu ohv urwdwlrqv vrqw shwlwhv/ dgglwlyhv
hw shupxwdeohv1 Od pdwulfh gh sdvvdjh ^Sf ` vhud dlqvl gìqlh sdu 6 urwdwlrqv = %f / +f
hw 5f txl vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv dqjohv gh urwdwlrq dxwrxu ghv d{hv {f / |f hw }f 1 Rq d
doruv/ hq shwlwhv urwdwlrqv =
5 6
9
4 5f +f :
^Sf ` @ 9
7  5f 4 %f :
8 +6143<,
+f %f 4
3 4
E
%f
F
Rq pdqlsxoh oh yhfwhxu urwdwlrq E +f F txl hvw pxowlsolì sdu od pdwulfh gh sdvvdjh ^Sf `
C D
5f
gx uhsëuh orfdo dx uhsëuh joredo1
Hq judqghv urwdwlrqv/ srxu gìqlu ^Sf `/ oh suhplhu uì h{h hvw gh gìqlu xq ruguh g*ds0
solfdwlrq ghv3urwdwlrqv1
4 Oh sureoëph vh srvh doruv gh vdyrlu txho vhqv d oh idlw g*dssoltxhu

E %f F
dx yhfwhxu C + F D xqh urwdwlrq whooh txh fhooh gìqlh sdu ^Sf `1 Hq hhw/ gx idlw gh
E
f
5f
o*ruguh g*dssolfdwlrq ghv urwdwlrqv/ rq d gìql 6 urwdwlrqv/ dyhf 6 dqjohv txh vrqw %f / +f
hw 5f / pdlv txh o*rq qh shxw sdv frqvlgìuhu frpph xq yhfwhxu/ hw txh o*rq qh shxw sdv
pdqlsxohu frpph rq oh idlvdlw hq shwlwhv urwdwlrqv1
Od ghx{lëph idêrq gh gìqlu xqh urwdwlrq hvw gh frqqdñwuh vrq d{h hw vrq dpsolwxgh1
Od vhxoh idêrq gh srxyrlu gìqlu od pdwulfh gh judqghv urwdwlrqv ^Sf ` ã sduwlu ghv 6 uìhov
%f / +f hw 5f wrxw hq dvvxudqw od srvvlelolwì gh pdqlsxohu fhv 6 uìhov frpph xq yhfwhxu
hvw od vxlydqwh ^Lsvl<9` = %f / +f
hw 5f vrqw ohv frpsrvdqwhv g*xq yhfwhxu gluhfwhxu gh
t
o*d{h gh od urwdwlrq/ hw o*dpsolwxgh gh od urwdwlrq hvw f @ 2%f . 2+f . 25f / f*hvw0ã0
95 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

3 4
E
%f F
gluh od qruph gx yhfwhxu E
C +f F1 Od urwdwlrq hvw frpswìh srvlwlyhphqw gdqv oh vhqv
D
5f
3 4
E
%f F
wuljrqrpìwultxh dxwrxu gx yhfwhxu E +f F = Fhwwh gìqlwlrq hvw ìjdohphqw dgrswìh gdqv
C D
5f
oh orjlflho S|orvwde ^S|o<:`/ txl fdofxoh ohv slohv hw s|o÷qhv dx dpehphqw vrxv vroolflwdwlrqv
qrupdohv +hruw qrupdo hw 5 prphqwv ìfklvvdqwv,1 Euhkphu ìwdlw frqiurqwì dx píph
sureoëph g*ruguh g*dssolfdwlrq ghv 5 urwdwlrqv fruuhvsrqgdqw dx{ 5 prphqwv ìfklvvdqwv1
à od vxlwh g*xqh uì h{lrq frppxqh/ f*hvw fhwwh gìqlwlrq vlpsoh hw dvwxflhxvh ghv urwdwlrqv
txl d ìwì xwlolvìh gdqv ohv ghx{ orjlflhov1 k l
Rq frqvwuxlw od pdwulfh dqwlv|pìwultxh f =
5 6
k l 9
3 5f +f :
f @ 9
7 5f 3 %f :
8 +61443,
+f %f 3
Rq prqwuh doruv txh = k l
wf
^Sf ` @ h  +61444,

Hq gìyhorssdqw +61444,/ rq d =
vlq f k l 4  frv f k l2
^Sf ` @ ^L ` . f . f +61445,
 f 2f
Oh gìyhorsshphqw olplwì gh ^Sf ` ã o*ruguh 4 hq f grqqh =
5 6
k l 9
4 5f +f :
^Sf ` @ ^L ` . f @ 9
7 5f 4 %f :
8 +61446,
+f %f 4
Rq uhwurxyh doruv od pdwulfh elhq frqqxh ghv shwlwhv urwdwlrqv1 Qxpìultxhphqw/ o*ìyd0
oxdwlrq gh +61445, srvh xq sureoëph oruvtxh f hvw idleoh/ doruv txh pdwkìpdwltxhphqw/
lo q*| d dxfxqh dpeljxòwì1 Rq d frqvwuxlw dlqvl 5 h{suhvvlrqv gh ^Sf ` hq irqfwlrq gh od
k l k l2
ydohxu gh  f 1 Vl f hvw idleoh/ doruv ^Sf ` @ ^L ` .  f . 2  f 1 Vlqrq/ ^Sf ` hvw ìydoxì
dyhf +61445,1
Rq frqvwuxlw ìjdohphqw =
vlq f k l 4  frv f k l2
^Sf ` @ ^L ` . f . f +61447,
f 2f
dyhf 5 6
k l 9
3 5f +f :
f @ 9
7 5f 3 %f :
8 +61448,
+f %f 3
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 96

hw
t
f @ 2%f . 2+f . 25f +61449,

G*rü hq Lf =

2%f
^Sf `c @ +4  frv f , . frv f +6144:,
2f
%f +f 
^Sf `c2 @ +4  frv f ,  5f vlq f +6144;,
 f
2  f
%f 5f 
^Sf `c @ +4  frv f , . +f vlq f +6144<,
 f
2  f
%f +f 
^Sf `2c @ +4  frv f , . 5f vlq f +61453,
 f
2  f
2+f
^Sf `2c2 @ +4  frv f , . frv f +61454,
2f
+f 5f 
^Sf `2c @ +4  frv f ,  %f vlq f +61455,
 f
2  f
%f 5f 
^Sf ` c @ +4  frv f ,  +f vlq f +61456,
 f
2  f
+f 5f %f
^Sf ` c2 @
2f
+4  frv   f , .
 f
vlq f +61457,

25f
^Sf ` c @ +4  frv f , . frv f +61458,
2f
Hw hq Mf =

2%f
^Sf `c @ +4  frv f , . frv f +61459,
2f
%f +f 
^Sf `c2 @ +4  frv f ,  5f vlq f +6145:,
 f
2 f
%f 5f 
^Sf `c @ +4  frv f , . +f vlq f +6145;,
 f
2 f
%f +f 
^Sf `2c @ +4  frv f , . 5f vlq f +6145<,
 f
2 f
2+f
^Sf `2c2 @ +4  frv f , . frv f +61463,
2f
+f 5f %f
^Sf `2c @
2f
+4  frv  f ,   f
vlq f +61464,
97 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

%f 5f 
^Sf ` c @ +4  frv f ,  +f vlq f +61465,
 f
2 f
   
^Sf ` c2 @ +f2 5f +4  frv f , . %f vlq f +61466,
 f  f
2
^Sf ` c @ 25f +4  frv f , . frv f +61467,
 f

Sdvvdjh gx uhsëuh orfdo dx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh


Srxu suhqguh hq frpswh/ gdqv od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw/ ohv hhwv ghv qrq0
olqìdulwìv gxhv dx frpsruwhphqw sk|vltxh ghv pdwìuldx{ frqvwlwxwliv hw gh ohxu dvvrfldwlrq
hw ohv hhwv gh vhfrqg ruguh gxv dx{ gìsodfhphqwv ghv qúxgv/ o*ìwdw gh gìirupdwlrq gh
o*ìoìphqw hvw hhfwxì gdqv oh uhsëuh {|} glw lqwulqvëtxh/ olì ã od srvlwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw/
hq qìjoljhdqw od gìirupdwlrq sursuh gh o*ìoìphqw vxssrvì gh idleoh orqjxhxu1 Ohv hhwv gh
od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh v*lqwurgxlvhqw gdqv oh sdvvdjh gx uhsëuh orfdo {f|f}f gìql
suìfìghpphqw dx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|}1
Oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|} hvw gìql frpph vxlw = o*ruljlqh ghv d{hv hvw dx qúxg L 1
O*d{h { srlqwdqw yhuv oh qúxg M / hvw sduidlwhphqw srvlwlrqqì sdu udssruw dx uhsëuh orfdo
{f|f}f/ ã o*dlgh ghv ghx{ dqjohv g*Hxohu  hw  txl gìshqghqw ghv gìsodfhphqwv uhodwliv gh
wudqvodwlrq ghv qúxgv L hw M +jxuh 619,1
O*rulhqwdwlrq gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh hvw rewhqxh hq frqvlgìudqw xqh urwdwlrq  dxwrxu
gh o*d{h { +jxuh 61:,1
Oh sdvvdjh gx uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f dx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|} hvw hhfwxì dx pr|hq gh
od pdwulfh ^Skq ` gìqlh dx vhqv g*Hxohu/ f*hvw0ã0gluh txh o*rq wrxuqh dxwrxu ghv qrxyhdx{
d{hv =
+[ ,E%f +f5f  @ ^Skq ` =+[ ,E%+5 +61468,

Rq glvsrvh grqf gh wurlv dqjohv gh urwdwlrqv hw gh wurlv pdwulfhv dvvrflìhv =


5 6
9
frv+,  vlq+, 3 :
^Sk` @ 9
7 vlq+, frv+, 3 :
8 +61469,
3 3 4
O*dqjoh  uhsuìvhqwh od urwdwlrq dxwrxu gh o*d{h }f / gdqv oh sodq shushqglfxodluh ã o*d{h
}f =
 
y
 @ dufwdq +6146:,
Of . x
rü Of uhsuìvhqwh od orqjxhxu lqlwldoh gh o*ìoìphqw dydqw gìirupdwlrq1 ^Sk ` hvw gìqlh sdu =
+[ ,E%f +f 5f  @ ^Sk` = +[ ,E%+ 5f  +6146;,
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 98

z0
z
1

β
y
1

I α y
0

x J
β
α

J0

x J1
0

x1

Iljxuh 619 = Srvlwlrq gh o*d{h { gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh sdu udssruw dx uhsëuh orfdo {f|f}f

Srxu od ghx{lëph urwdwlrq/ lo ylhqw =

5 6
9
frv+ , 3 vlq+ , :
^Sq ` @ 9
7 3 4 3 :
8 +6146<,
 vlq+, 3 frv+,
O*dqjoh  uhsuìvhqwh od urwdwlrq dxwrxu gh od gluhfwlrq | / gdqv oh sodq shushqglfxodluh ã
o*d{h | 1
# $
z
 @  dufwdq s +61473,
+Of . x,2 . y2
^Sq ` hvw gìqlh sdu =
+[ ,E%+ 5f @ ^Sq ` = +[ ,E%+5  +61474,
99 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

z
z 1

γ y

I γ
y
1

Iljxuh 61: = Srvlwlrq gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh sdu udssruw dx uhsëuh {| }

Hq srvdqw =

t
O @ +Of . x,2 . y2 . z2 +61475,
O .x
d @ f +61476,
O
y
e @ +61477,
O
z
f @ +61478,
O
rq uhpdutxh/ dsuëv vlpsolfdwlrq/ txh =

5 6
d I 3K I 3@S
9 @ 2 n K2 @2 nK2 :
^Sk ` ^Sq ` @ 9 e I @ I 3KS : +61479,
7 @ 2 n K2 s @2 nK2 8
f 3 d .e
2 2

^S ` uhsuìvhqwh od pdwulfh gh wudqvirupdwlrq txl suhqg hq frpswh od urwdwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw


dxwrxu gh o*d{h {/ hw hvw grqqìh sdu =
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 9:

5 6
4 3 3
9 :
^S ` @ 9
7 3 frv+ ,  vlq+, :
8 +6147:,
3 vlq+ , frv+ ,
rü  hvw od urwdwlrq gh frusv uljlgh dxwrxu gh o*d{h {1 Fhw dqjoh hvw gìql hq suhqdqw od
pr|hqqh ghv urwdwlrqv ghv qúxgv L hw M dxwrxu gh o*d{h {f gx uhsëuh orfdo =

%f . %f
@ +6147;,
5
^S ` hvw gìqlh sdu =
+[ ,E%+ 5 @ ^S ` = +[ ,E%+5
Od pdwulfh ^Skq ` shxw grqf v*ìfuluh =

^Skq ` @ ^Sk ` ^Sq ` ^S `


5 6
d  K ULtI@n2n@SK2t?   3K t?I@2nn@SK2ULt 
9 :
7 e   @ t?I@n2nKSKULt
3@ ULt
I  nKS t?  
@ 9 : +6147<,
s 2 @22nK2 s2 2 2 8
f d . e vlq  d . e frv 

Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv


Hq 6G/ ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv vrqw dx qrpeuh gh 91 Frpph suìfìghpphqw/ rq qrwhud
sdu V? oh yhfwhxu uhsuìvhqwdqw ohv gìsodfhphqwv gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|}1
3 4
h
E F
E
E
 + F
F
E  5 F
V? @ E
E
F
F +61483,
E
E % F
F
E F
C  + D
 5
rü h uhsuìvhqwh od yduldwlrq gh orqjxhxu gh o*ìoìphqw =

h @ O  Of +61484,

hw % od urwdwlrq uhodwlyh gh wruvlrq ghv qúxgv M hw L =

 % @  %   % +61485,

% / + / 5 +uhvshfwlyhphqw % / + / 5 , vrqw ohv urwdwlrqv gx qúxg L +uhvshfwlyhphqw
M ,/ dxwrxu ghv d{hv {/ | hw }1 Vrlw I? oh yhfwhxu uhsuìvhqwdqw ohv hruwv lqgìshqgdqwv
9; Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Iljxuh 61; = Surmhfwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh sodq {} gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|}

fruuhvsrqgdqw ã V? gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh =

3 4
Q
E F
E
E
P+ F
F
E P5 F
I? @ E
E
F
F +61486,
E
E P% F
F
E F
C P+ D
P5
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv 9<

Iljxuh 61< = Surmhfwlrq gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh sodq {| gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|}

I? hvw xq yhfwhxu grqw ohv frpsrvdqwhv vrqw h{wudlwhv gx yhfwhxu I% = oh yhfwhxu ghv 45
hruwv dx{ h{wuìplwìv gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Rq d =
3 4
Q
E F
E
E W+ F
F
E F
E
E
W5 F
F
E
E P% F
F
E F
E
E
P+ F
F
E P5 F
I% @ E
E
F
F +61487,
E
E Q F
F
E F
E W+ F
E F
E
E W5 F
F
E F
E
E
P% F
F
E P+ F
C D
P5
Od uhodwlrq hqwuh I? hw I% hvw gìgxlwh ghv 9 ìtxdwlrqv g*ìtxloleuh gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh
uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh =

I% @ | ^W ` =I? +61488,
:3 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

dyhf =
5 6
4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9 3
9
3  u 3 4 3 3 3 u 3

3 3 :
:
9 3 
3 3 3 4 3  u 3 3 3 3 :
^W ` @ 9
9 u :
: +61489,
9 3
9 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 :
:
9
7 3 3  u 3 3 3 3 3 u 3

4 3 :
8
3 u 3 3 3 3 3  u 3 3 3 4

  

Hqq/ rq qrwh sdu ^S ` +uhvshfwlyhphqw ^S `, od pdwulfh +6 6, ruwkrjrqdoh gh sdvvdjh

gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh dx uhsëuh h% > h+ > h5 +uhvshfwlyhphqw h% > h+ > h5 , olì dx qúxg L
+uhvshfwlyhphqw M ,1 Rq vxssrvh txh o*ìoìphqw hvw vx!vdpphqw shwlw srxu idluh o*k|srwkëvh
ghv shwlwhv urwdwlrqv gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1

+[ ,E%+5 @ ^S ` = +[ ,Ee% e+ e5  +6148:,

+[ ,E%+5 @ ^S ` = +[ ,Ee% e+ e5  +6148;,

Sdu dqdorjlh ã ^Sf ` hw ^Sf `/ hw hq olqìdulvdqw/ rq rewlhqw =


5 6
9
4 5 + :
^S ` @ 9
7  5 4 % :
8 +6148<,
+  % 4
5 6
9
4 5 + :
^S ` @ 9
7  5 4 % :
8 +61493,
+  % 4
Rq uhpdutxh txh ^S ` hw ^S ` qh vrqw sdv ghv pdwulfhv ruwkrjrqdohv/ gx idlw gh ohxu
olqìdulvdwlrq1

Pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh

Od uhodwlrq pdwulflhooh oldqw ohv dffurlvvhphqwv g*hruwv dx{ dffurlvvhphqwv ghv gìsodfh0
phqwv ghv qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw/ gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|}/ hvw od vxlydqwh =

7I? . D? @ ^N?` = 7 V? +61494,

rü oh yhfwhxu D? uhsuìvhqwh o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh/ hw od pdwulfh ^N? ` od pdwulfh gh


uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|}1 Od irupxodwlrq gh fhv 5 hqwlwìv vhud
gìwdlooìh gdqv oh fkdslwuh 7 frqvdfuì ã od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh1
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv :4

Pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo


Ohv k|srwkëvhv hw qrwdwlrqv qrxv frqgxlvhqw qdwxuhoohphqw ã ìfuluh ohv ghx{ uhodwlrqv oldqw
ohv pdwulfhv ^Sf `/ ^Sf `/ ^S `/ ^S `/ hw ^Skq `1

^Sf ` @ ^Skq ` = ^S ` +61495,

^Sf ` @ ^Skq ` = ^S ` +61496,

Fhfl hvw od wudgxfwlrq pdwulflhooh gx idlw txh oh prxyhphqw g*xqh sduwlfxoh hvw od frpsr0
vlwlrq g*xq prxyhphqw gh frusv uljlgh pdwìuldolvì sdu ^Skq ` hw g*xqh gìirupdwlrq sursuh
pdwìuldolvìh sdu ^S ` hq L hw ^S ` hq M1 Fh srlqw gh yxh uhmrlqw fhoxl gh od ghvfulswlrq
odjudqjlhqqh dfwxdolvìh dssurfkìh1 Qrxv yrxorqv h{wudluh gh fhv uhodwlrqv ohv frrugrqqìhv
frqyhfwìhv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh oh yhfwhxu V? 1 Rq shxw ìfuluh/ sxlvtxh ^Skq ` hvw ruwkrjrqdoh =

^S ` @ ^Skq `3 = ^Sf ` @ | ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` +61497,

^S ` @ ^Skq `3 = ^Sf ` @ | ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` +61498,

Fhv ghx{ uhodwlrqv pdwulflhoohv vrqw ìtxlydohqwhv ã 5  < ìtxdwlrqv vfdodluhv uholdqw % / + /
5 / % / + / 5 ã x/ y/ z/ %f / +f / 5f / %f / +f / 5f 1 Srxu oh qúxg L / sdu h{hpsoh/ qrxv
q*dyrqv hq idlw txh wurlv lqfrqqxhv = % / + hw 5 1 O*k|srwkëvh ghv shwlwhv urwdwlrqv gdqv
oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh {|} shuphw gh vlpsolhu/ hw píph gh uhqguh srvvleoh/ o*h{wudfwlrq
ghv frpsrvdqwhv gh V? 1 Oh fdofxo gh V? hvw phqì ã o*dlgh g*xq orjlflho gh fdofxo irupho/
Pdsoh Y1
Hwdqw grqqìh o*h{suhvvlrq gh ^S `/ rq yd surfìghu ã xqh lghqwlfdwlrq ghv frpsrvdqwhv
gh ^S `/ hq vh olplwdqw ã ^S `c2/ ^S `c / ^S `2c / ^S `2c / ^S ` c / ^S ` c21 Dsuëv gìyhorsshphqw/
fkdfxqh gh fhv frpsrvdqwhv q*d sdv oh píph frþw hq whuphv g*rsìudwlrqv dulwkpìwltxhv
rx g*ìydoxdwlrqv gh irqfwlrqv wuljrqrpìwultxhv =
^S `c2 = 56 dgglwlrqv 85 pxowlsolfdwlrqv 9 irqfwlrqv 5; dhfwdwlrqv
^S `2c = 87 dgglwlrqv 46: pxowlsolfdwlrqv 43 irqfwlrqv 84 dhfwdwlrqv
^S `c = 57 dgglwlrqv 83 pxowlsolfdwlrqv 9 irqfwlrqv 5: dhfwdwlrqv
^S ` c = 87 dgglwlrqv 473 pxowlsolfdwlrqv 43 irqfwlrqv 7; dhfwdwlrqv
^S `2c = 85 dgglwlrqv 453 pxowlsolfdwlrqv 43 irqfwlrqv 84 dhfwdwlrqv
^S ` c2 = 86 dgglwlrqv 46< pxowlsolfdwlrqv 43 irqfwlrqv 84 dhfwdwlrqv
^S `c2 / ^S `c /hw ^S `2c 1 Od
Rq fkrlvlud grqf ohv whuphv ohv prlqv frþwhx{/ ã vdyrlu
qrq0xqlflwì gh od vroxwlrq surylhqw wrxw vlpsohphqw gx idlw txh o*h{suhvvlrq gh ^S ` d ìwì
olqìdulvìh1 Oh fkrl{ gh fhv ìtxdwlrqv q*hvw sdv lqglìuhqw srxu od irupxodwlrq1 Hq hhw/
^S ` hw ^S ` qh vrqw sdv ghv pdwulfhv ruwkrjrqdohv1 Vl o*rq dydlw frqvhuyì od irupxodwlrq
h{dfwh srxu fhv ghx{ pdwulfhv/ q*lpsruwh txho fkrl{ gh wurlv ìtxdwlrqv sdupl ohv qhxi/
derxwludlw dx píph uìvxowdw1 Lfl/ oh fkrl{ gh fhv wurlv ìtxdwlrqv vh mxvwlh sdu oh idlw
:5 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

tx*hoohv hqjhqguhurqw ghv fdofxov soxv vlpsohv1 Rq d grqf =

 
 % @  | ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` 2c +61499,
| 
 + @ ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` c +6149:,
| 
 5 @  ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` c2 +6149;,
| 
 % @  ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` 2c +6149<,
| 
+ @ ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` c +614:3,
| 
5 @  ^Skq ` = ^Sf ` c2 +614:4,

Rq shxw uhpdutxhu tx*hq idlvdqw xq gìyhorsshphqw olplwì ã o*ruguh 4/ f*hvw0ã0gluh hq


olqìdulvdqw ohv ìtxdwlrqv uhwhqxhv/ rq rewlhqw =

 % @ %f   +614:5,

 + @ +f   +614:6,

 5 @ 5f   +614:7,

 % @ %f   +614:8,

+ @ +f   +614:9,

 5 @ 5f   +614::,

Fhfl frquph oh uìvxowdw vxlydqw = hq shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv hw shwlwhv urwdwlrqv/ ohv urwdwlrqv
shupxwhqw hw vrqw dgglwlyhv1

Od glìuhqfldwlrq ghv irqfwlrqv h/ + / 5 / % / + /  5 qrxv shuphw g*ìfuluh vrxv iruph
7
pdwulflhooh od uhodwlrq oldqw ohv dffurlvvhphqwv gh gìsodfhphqwv V? ghv qúxgv gdqv oh
uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh dx{ dffurlvvhphqwv gh gìsodfhphqwv 7V ghv qúxgv gdqv oh uhsëuh
orfdo1

7V? @ ^E` = 7 V +614:;,

rü ^E ` uhsuìvhqwh xqh pdwulfh +9  <, gh wudqvirupdwlrq jìrpìwultxh/ sduidlwhphqw dqd0


617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv :6

orjxh ã fhooh lqwurgxlwh hq 5G1


5 6
Ch Ch Ch
3 3 3 3 3 3
9
9 Cx Cy Cz :
:
9 :
9 :
9 C+ C+ C+ C+ C+ C+ :
9 3 3 3 :
9
9 Cx Cy Cz C%f C+f C5f :
:
9 :
9 :
9 :
9 C5 C5 C5 C5 C5 C5
9 3 3 3 : :
9
9
Cx Cy Cz C%f C+f C5f :
:
^E` @ 9
9
:
: +614:<,
9 C% C% C% C% C% C% C% C% C% :
9 :
9
9 Cx Cy Cz C%f C+f C5f C%f C+f C5f :
:
9 :
9 :
9 :
9 C+ C+ C+ C+ C+ C+ :
9
9 3 3 3 :
9 Cx Cy Cz C%f C+f C5f :
:
9 :
9 :
9 :
7 C5 C5 C5 C5 C5 C5 8
3 3 3
Cx Cy Cz C%f C+f C5f
Vhorq oh wkìruëph ghv wudydx{ yluwxhov/ oh wudydlo yluwxho gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh ghv
irufhv I? / dssoltxìhv dx{ qúxgv/ gþ ã xq gìsodfhphqw yluwxho V? hvw ìjdo dx wudydlo gdqv
oh uhsëuh orfdo ghv irufhv I dssoltxìhv dx{ qúxgv/ gþ ã xq gìsodfhphqw yluwxho V =

| I =V @ | I =V +614;3,


? ?

Ohv yduldwlrqv ghv gìsodfhphqwv V? hw V vrqw flqìpdwltxhphqw dgplvvleohv/ sdu frq0
vìtxhqw =
| I = ^E ` =V @ | I =V +614;4,
? 

Od yduldwlrq V hvw duelwudluh/ g*rü =

I @ | ^E` =I? +614;5,

Od uhodwlrq +614;5, hqwuh I hw I? hvw xqh uhodwlrq h{dfwh/ hw qrq sdv wdqjhqwh1 Hq
glìuhqfldqw/ rq rewlhqw =

I @ | ^E ` =I? . | ^E ` =I? +614;6,

G*rü =
I . D @ | ^E ` ^N? ` ^E ` =V . | ^E` =I? +614;7,

dyhf =
D @ | ^E` =D? +614;8,
:7 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Frqvlgìurqv oh whuph | ^E `1 Frpph hq 5G/ rq srvh =


CE
G& @ I +614;9,
CV& ?
g*rü =
| 
g ^E` =I?  @ G& gV& +614;:,

Rq shxw grqf ìfuluh =


| ^E ` =I @ ^G` =V +614;;,
?
Ilqdohphqw/ lo ylhqw =
 
I . D @ | ^E ` ^N? ` ^E ` . ^G` =V +614;<,

Hq qrwdqw =
 
^N ` @ | ^E ` ^N? ` ^E ` . ^G` +614<3,

rq rewlhqw od uhodwlrq vxlydqwh =

I . D @ ^N ` =V +614<4,

^N ` fruuhvsrqg ã xqh irupxodwlrq wdqjhqwh gx sureoëph = f*hvw xq rsìudwhxu wdqjhqw


txl vhud xwlolvì frpph rsìudwhxu gh frqyhujhqfh1
Od uhodwlrq oldqw ohv dffurlvvhphqwv g*hruwv dx{ dffurlvvhphqwv gh gìsodfhphqwv ghv
qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo v*ìfulw =

Iu . Du @ ^Nu ` =Vu +614<5,

rü ^Nu ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì v|pìwultxh +45  45, gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo =
^Nu ` @ | ^Wf ` ^N ` ^Wf ` +614<6,

hw =
Du @ | ^Wf` =D +614<7,

Od pdwulfh ^Wf ` hvw gìqlh sdu +61438,1


Od irupxodwlrq hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hvw hqwlëuhphqw frqwhqxh gdqv o*h{suhvvlrq ghv
pdwulfhv ^E ` hw ^G`1 Vl o*rq hhfwxh xq gìyhorsshphqw olplwì ã o*ruguh 4 pdwkìpdwltxh/
rq rewlhqw =
5 6
4   3 3 3 3 3 3
uf uf
9 w%f w5f w%f :
9
9  u2f  uf
uf 3
u2f 2 uf 4 2 3 3 3 :
:
9 w%f w+f :
9 
u2f  uf 3
u2f  uf   uf  w2%f 4 3 3 3 :
^E ` @ 9
9 w+f 3w+f
2
w5f w+f
:
:
9
9 3 uf 3 4 2  uf

2 4  w25f . uf  w2+f :
:
9 w%f w5f w%f :
9
7
 u2f  uf
uf 3
u2f 3 3 3  uf
2 4 2
:
8
w%f w+f w%f

u2f  uf 3
u2f  uf 3 3 3   uf
2  2 4
+614<8,
617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv :8

Oh gìyhorsshphqw pdwkìpdwltxh gh ^G` ã o*ruguh 4 hvw wurs yroxplqhx{ srxu íwuh


h{solflwì lfl1
Gdqv ^E`/ o*ruguh 4 pdwkìpdwltxh fruuhvsrqg dx vhfrqg ruguh pìfdqltxh1 Rq shxw
ìjdohphqw uhpdutxhu tx*hq jìqìudo/ rq hqwhqg sdu judqgv gìsodfhphqwv od sulvh hq
frpswh gx udffrxuflvvhphqw gh o*ìoìphqw oruv g*xqh urwdwlrq dxwrxu gh o*d{h | rx } 1

Xq h{hpsoh vlpsoh
Hwxglrqv o*h{hpsoh vlpsoh txl vxlw =

u
L0

I J0

Y F v

J
P
X

Iljxuh 6143 = Srxwuh frqvroh fkdujìh hq wíwh

Lfl/ x ? 3/ y ? 3/ S ? 3/ I ? 3/ Of A 31 O*h{suhvvlrq gh ^E ` qrxv pëqh ã ìfuluh/ gdqv


fh fdv sduwlfxolhu hq 5 glphqvlrqv =
y
I%f @ Q . +P . P5 , @ S +614<9,
O2f 5
y O x
I+f @ Q  f 2 +P5 . P5 , @ I +614<:,
Of Of
P5f @ P5 +614<;,

P5f @ P5 @ 3 +614<<,

G*rü =
y
Q @ S  P +61533,
O2f 5f
 
x
I Of  S y @  4 P5f +61534,
Of
:9 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Vl rq v*hq wlhqw dx{ whuphv g*ruguh 4/ lo ylhqw =

P5f @ F @ S y  I +Of . x, +61535,

Gdqv fhw h{hpsoh/ rq shxw gluh txh ^E` hqwuh gdqv oh fdguh ghv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv1
Oh frgh gh fdofxo yìulh o*ìtxloleuh ghv qúxgv dyhf o*h{suhvvlrq h{dfwh gh ^E `1 Rq hvw
doruv gdqv oh fdguh ghv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw ghv judqghv urwdwlrqv1

Pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gdqv oh uhsëuh {h olì ã od vwuxfwxuh

Od vwuxfwxuh ìwxglìh hvw uhsìuìh duelwudluhphqw gdqv xq uìiìuhqwlho joredo R[\ ] ru0
wkrqrupì gluhfw1 Srxu shuphwwuh o*dvvhpeodjh gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vwuxfwxuh/ lo
hvw qìfhvvdluh gh iruphu ohv pdwulfhv gh uljlglwì ghv ìoìphqwv gìqlvvdqw od vwuxfwxuh/ gdqv
oh uhsëuh R[\ ] 1
Rq qrwh sdu If oh yhfwhxu frqwhqdqw ohv hruwv dssoltxìv dx{ h{wuìplwìv g*xq ìoìphqw/
gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo R[\ ] 1

3 4
If
E F
E
E It F
F
E F
E
E
I~ F
F
E
E Pf F
F
E F
E
E
Pt F
F
E P~ F
If @ E
E
F
F +61536,
E
E If F
F
E F
E It F
E F
E
E I~ F
F
E F
E
E
Pf F
F
E Pt F
C D
P~

Gh od píph idêrq/ rq qrwh Vf oh yhfwhxu frqwhqdqw ohv gìsodfhphqwv dx{ h{wuìplwìv


617 Ohv frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv ::

gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh devrox R[\ ] 1


3 4
X
E F
E
E Y F
F
E F
E
E
Z F
F
E
E f F
F
E F
E
E
t F
F
E ~ F
Vf @ E
E
F
F +61537,
E
E X F
F
E F
E Y F
E F
E
E Z F
F
E F
E
E
f F
F
E t F
C D
~

Oh sdvvdjh gx uhsëuh devrox R[\ ] dx uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f hvw lqgìshqgdqw ghv hruwv
hw ghv gìsodfhphqwv vxelv sdu o*ìoìphqw/ pdlv lo qh gìshqg txh gh o*rulhqwdwlrq lqlwldoh gh
o*ìoìphqw1 Od urwdwlrq vsdwldoh gx uhsëuh devrox R[\ ] grqqdqw oh uhsëuh orfdo {f |f }f
g*xq ìoìphqw shxw íwuh gìfrpsrvìh hq wurlv urwdwlrqv f /  f hw  f dx vhqv g*Hxohu1 Od
   
pdwulfh gh sdvvdjh ^sf ` hvw od frpsrvìh gh 6 pdwulfhv ruwkrjrqdohv ^skf `/ sq f hw s f 1

  
^sf ` @ ^skf ` sqf sf +61538,

dyhf 5 6
9
frv +f ,  vlq +f, 3 :
^skf ` @ 9
7 vlq +f , frv +f, 3 :
8 +61539,
3 3 4
5 6
9
frv + f, 3 vlq + f , :
 
sqf @ 9
7 3 4 3 :
8 +6153:,
 vlq +f, 3 frv +f,
5 6
9
4 3 3 :
 
sf @ 9
7 3 frv + f,  vlq +f, :
8 +6153;,
3 vlq + f, frv + f,
Od uhodwlrq pdwulflhooh uholdqw ohv gìsodfhphqwv ghv qúxgv Vf gdqv oh uhsëuh devrox hw
ohv gìsodfhphqwv ghv qúxgv Vu gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo v*ìfulw =

Vf @ ^Sf ` =Vu +6153<,


:; Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

dyhf 5 6
^sf` 3
9 :
9 ^sf ` :
^Sf` @ 9
9
:
: +61543,
7 ^sf` 8
3 ^sf`
^Sf` hvw xqh pdwulfh ruwkrjrqdoh =
^Sf`3 @ | ^Sf ` +61544,

G*rü =
Vu @ | ^Sf ` =Vf +61545,

Hq fh txl frqfhuqh ohv hruwv/ rq rewlhqw =

If @ ^Sf ` =Iu +61546,

G*rü =
If . Df @ ^Sf ` ^Nu ` =Vu +61547,

dyhf
Df @ ^Sf ` =Du +61548,

Dlqvl/ od uhodwlrq pdwulflhooh uholdqw ohv dffurlvvhphqwv g*hruwv hw ohv dffurlvvhphqwv


gh gìsodfhphqwv dx{ h{wuìplwìv g*xq ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh devrox R[\ ] v*ìfulw =

If . Df @ ^Nf ` =Vf +61549,

dyhf
^Nf ` @ ^Sf` ^Nu ` | ^Sf` +6154:,
 
^Nf ` @ ^Sf` | ^Wf` | ^E ` ^N? ` ^E ` . ^G` ^Wf` | ^Sf` +6154;,

rü^Nf ` uhsuìvhqwh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì +45  45, g*xq ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh devrox
R[\ ] 1

Frqfoxvlrq
Od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw ^Nf ` gdqv oh uhsëuh devrox v*h{sulph hq irqfwlrq gh
od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw ^N? ` gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Ohv pd0
wulfhv ^Sf ` hw ^Wf ` vrqw ghv pdwulfhv frqvwdqwhv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh tx*hoohv qh gìshqghqw sdv
ghv gìsodfhphqwv gh o*ìoìphqw1 Ohv pdwulfhv ^E ` hw ^G` suhqqhqw hq frpswh ohv gìsodfh0
phqwv gh o*ìoìphqw1 Od pdwulfh ^N? ` wlhqw frpswh/ txdqw ã hooh/ ghv gìirupdwlrqv sursuhv
gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv vrq uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Frpph rq oh yhuud gdqv fh txl vxlw/ od qrq0
olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh qh v*h{sulph txh gdqv +61494,1 Od irupxodwlrq hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv
hw judqghv urwdwlrqv hvw hqwlëuhphqw frqwhqxh gdqv o*h{suhvvlrq ghv pdwulfhv ^E ` hw ^G`1
618 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh gìsodfhphqw :<

Gx srlqw gh yxh dojrulwkpltxh/ oh vfkìpd lwìudwli v*dssxlhud vxu ghx{ rsìudwhxuv = xq


rsìudwhxu gh frqyhujhqfh hw xq rsìudwhxu g*duuíw +txl fruuhvsrqg ã o*ìtxloleuh gh fkdfxq
ghv qúxgv gh od vwuxfwxuh,1
 
O*rsìudwhxu gh frqyhujhqfh vhud ^N ` @ | ^E` ^N? ` ^E` . ^G` hw oh whvw g*duuíw fruuhv0
srqgud ã o*ìtxloleuh ghv qúxgv irupxoì dyhf | ^E `1 ^N ` hvw xq rsìudwhxu wdqjhqw> vrq
ìydoxdwlrq shxw ìyhqwxhoohphqw vh idluh ã o*dlgh gh ^E ` hw ^G ` rx ^E2 ` hw ^G2 `/ txl fruuhv0
srqghqw uhvshfwlyhphqw dx{ gìyhorsshphqwv olplwìv g*ruguh 4 hw 5 gh ^E ` hw ^G`1
Sdu frqwuh/ o*ìtxloleuh ghv qúxgv grlw íwuh fdofxoì dyhf I @ | ^E ` =I? 1 Lfl/ ^E ` hvw
ìydoxì gh idêrq h{dfwh1 Rq yrlw lfl txh fh txl hvw lpsruwdqw q*hvw sdv whoohphqw g*ìydoxhu
dyhf suìflvlrq o*rsìudwhxu gh frqyhujhqfh txl yd jxlghu ohv lwìudwlrqv vxffhvvlyhv/ pdlv od
irupdwlrq fruuhfwh gx whuph gh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh gh od vwuxfwxuh1
Xqh dssurfkh hq frrugrqqìhv frqyhfwìhv vsdwldohv q*d mdpdlv ìwì hhfwxìh dxsdudydqw
ã qrwuh frqqdlvvdqfh1

618 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh gì0


sodfhphqw
O*dssurfkh ghv ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh gìsodfhphqw frqvlvwh ã uìvrxguh +6197, hq vxs0
srvdqw txh o*rq shxw h{sulphu oh fkdps yluwxho g*lqfuìphqwv gh gìsodfhphqwv x hq
irqfwlrq g*xq fhuwdlq qrpeuh gh ydohxuv glvfuëwhv gh fh fkdps fkrlvlhv frpph lqfrqqxhv1
Od vwuxfwxuh hvw dlqvl glvfuìwlvìh hq ìoìphqwv txl vrqw frqqhfwìv hqwuh hx{ sdu ghv qúxgv1
à sduwlu ghv lqfrqqxhv qrgdohv dlqvl fkrlvlhv/ rq yd lqwhusrohu oh fkdps gh gìsodfhphqwv ã
o*dlgh gh irqfwlrqv gh iruph1 Fhv irqfwlrqv vrqw hq jìqìudo ghv sro|q÷phv txh o*rq lghqwlh
hq h{sulpdqw ohv frqglwlrqv dx{ olplwhv flqìpdwltxhv1

61814 Xq h{hpsoh = od srxwuh 5G gh Ehuqrxool

y
θ1
V2 θ2
V1
U1 x
U2

a a

Iljxuh 6144 = Hoìphqw ql gh srxwuh Ehuqrxool


;3 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

Ohv k|srwkëvhv fodvvltxhv txl vrqw idlwhv vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =

 od srxwuh hvw xq frusv wudqvyhuvdohphqw uljlgh>

 oh vhfwlrq gurlwh uhvwh sodqh hw shushqglfxodluh ã od euh pr|hqqh>

 vd vhfwlrq hvw frqvwdqwh>

 dydqw gìirupdwlrq/ o*d{h ghv fhqwuhv gh judylwì hvw xqh gurlwh>

 ohv gìsodfhphqwv vrqw shwlwv = o*dqjoh gh urwdwlrq hvw dvvlploì ã od shqwh1

O*ìoìphqw ql suìvhqwì srvvëgh 5 qúxgv1 Ohv lqfrqqxhv qrgdohv/ dx qrpeuh gh 9/ vrqw
+X > Y >  , srxu oh qúxg 4 hw +X2> Y2> 2, srxu oh qúxg 51 Oh fkdps gh gìsodfhphqwv
dgrswì hvw oh vxlydqw =
k l
x +{> |, @ Xk +{, . X2 k2 +{,  | Y k +{, . ke +{, . Y2kD +{, . 2 kS +{,
   
+6154<,

y +{> |, @ Yk +{, .  ke +{, . Y2kD +{, . 2kS +{, +61553,

dyhf
4
k +{, @ +61554,
5
4.
k2 +{, @ +61555,
5
  6 . 5
k +{, @ +61556,
7
 d
ke +{, @   2   . 4 +61557,
7
kD +{, @
 . 6 . 5 +61558,
7
 d
kS +{, @  . 2    4 +61559,
7
{
 @ +6155:,
d
O
d @ +6155;,
5
Ohv gìirupdwlrqv txl uìvxowhqw gh fh fkdps gh gìsodfhphqwv vrqw =
Cx +{> |,
%%% +{> |, @
C{ %   &
2% +Y  Y , . S%3u 
4
@ +X2  X,  | u  2
 S%nu  u 2 
+6155<,
O . u2  2
 
4 Cx +{> |, Cy +{> |,
%%+ +{> |, @ . @3 +61563,
5 C| C{
 
4 Cy +{> |, Cx +{> |,
%+% +{> |, @ . @ %%+ +{> |, @ 3 +61564,
5 C{ C|
Cy +{> |,
%++ +{> |, @ @3 +61565,
C|
618 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh gìsodfhphqw ;4

Od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì pdwìulhooh txh o*rq rewlhqw/ vl o*rq vxssrvh oh pdwìuldx olqìdluh
ìodvwltxh/ hvw od vxlydqwh =
5 6
.
u 3 3  .
u 3 3
9 :
9
9
3 2.U
u
S.U
u2 3  2u.U S.U
u2
:
:
9
^N ` @ 9
9
3 S.U
u2
e.U
u 3  Su.U2 2.U
u
:
:
: +61566,
9
9  .
u 3 3 .
u 3 3 : :
9
7 3  2u.U  Su.U2 3 2.U
u S.U :
u 8
2

3 S.U
u2
2.U
u 3  S.U
u2
e.U
u
Rq uhwurxyh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì elhq frqqxh gh o*ìoìphqw gh srxwuh lqjìqlhxu1

61815 Ìoìphqw gh srxwuh fodvvltxh 6G


 
Hq 6G/ ohv lqfrqqxhv qrgdohv vrqw dx qrpeuh gh 45 = X > Y > Z > % > + > 5 srxu oh
 
qúxg 4 hw X2 > Y2 > Z2 > 2% > 2+ > 25 srxu oh qúxg 51 Gdqv oh fdguh ghv fdofxov phqìv gdqv
oh grpdlqh olqìdluh ìodvwltxh hq shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv/ wrxmrxuv hq qìjoljhdqw ohv hhwv gx
jdxfklvvhphqw/ od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì shxw ìjdohphqw íwuh fdofxoìh ^Gxu:<`1 Lo vx!w gh
grqqhu od prlwlì gx txdgudqw lqiìulhxu gurlw gh od pdwulfh/ ohv dxwuhv whuphv vh gìgxlvdqw
sdu uìflsurflwì hw ìtxloleuh +jxuh 6145,1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1
5 2
3
3 4
5
Equilibre
Equilibre

ité

6
roc
cip

2 7

8
9
ité
roc
cip

10

11
4 1 12

Iljxuh 6145 = Frqvwuxfwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì

Ohv whuphv qrq qxov gh od sduwlwlrq wuldqjxodluh 4 vrqw =

HD
^N `.c. @ +61567,
O
45HL5
^N `HcH @  +61568,
4 . !+ O
;5 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh

45HL+
^N `bcb @ +61569,
+4 . !5 , O
^N `fcH @ }S ^N `HcH +6156:,

^N `fcb @ |S ^N `bcb +6156;,


LJ
^N `fcf @ |S2 ^N `bcb . }S2 ^N `HcH . % +6156<,
O
9HL+
^N `cb @ +61573,
+4 . !5 , O2
^N `cf @ |S ^N `cb +61574,
+7 . !5 , HL+
^N `c @ +61575,
+4 . !5 , O
^N `2cH @ 
9HL5 +61576,
4 . !+ O2
^N `2cf @ }S ^N `2cH +61577,
 
7 . !+ HL5
^N `2c2 @   +61578,
4 . !+ O
O*ìtxloleuh gh o*ìoìphqw vh wudgxlw sdu =

^N `c @  ^N `.c +61579,

^N `2c @  ^N `Hc +6157:,

^N ` c @  ^N `bc +6157;,

^N `ec @  ^N `fc +6157<,

^N `Dc @  ^N `c . O ^N `bc +61583,

^N `Sc @  ^N `2c . O ^N `Hc +61584,

Ohv qrwdwlrqv xwlolvìhv lfl vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =


D = Dluh gh od vhfwlrq gurlwh
H = Prgxoh g*\rxqj
|S/ }S = Frrugrqqìhv gx fhqwuh gh wruvlrq
J = .
Prgxoh gh wruvlrq1 J @ 2En D
U 2 U 2
L+ / L5 = } gD / | gD
L% = Lqhuwlh gh wruvlrq
D+ / D5 = Vhfwlrqv uìgxlwhv g*hruw wudqfkdqw
O = Orqjxhxu gh od srxwuh
!+ / !5 = 2.U 5 / 2.U+
+ Cu2 5 Cu2
F*hvw fhw ìoìphqw txl hvw lpsodqwì gdqv od yhuvlrq olqìdluh gh SFS1
Rq wurxyh gdqv od olwwìudwxuh xq fhuwdlq qrpeuh g*ìoìphqwv qlv srvvìgdqw wrxwhv vruwhv
gh ghjuìv gh olehuwì1 Dlqvl/ rq shxw hqulfklu xq ìoìphqw hq dxjphqwdqw vrq qrpeuh gh
qúxgv1 Oruvtxh o*rq yhxw suhqguh hq frpswh oh jdxfklvvhphqw ìyhqwxho gh od vhfwlrq/ rq
619 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh vhpl0lqyhuvh ;6

dmrxwh dx{ 9 ghjuìv gh olehuwì fodvvltxhv xq ghjuì gh olehuwì vxssoìphqwdluh txl hvw o*dqjoh
gh jdxfklvvhphqw/ o*hruw dvvrflì ìwdqw oh elprphqw ^GhY;<`1
Ohv fkdpsv gh gìsodfhphqwv qh vrqw sdv ohv vhxov ã srxyrlu íwuh lqwhusroìv = rq shxw
doruv wudydloohu vxu ghv ghjuìv gh olehuwì txh vrqw od whpsìudwxuh/ xq fkdps ìohfwultxh/
pdjqìwltxh111/ od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw q*ìwdqw soxv yudlphqw xqh pdwulfh gh
uljlglwì dx vhqv gh od uìvlvwdqfh ghv pdwìuldx{1 F*hvw fh fdudfwëuh jìqìudo gh o*dssurfkh
gìsodfhphqw txl idlw od irufh ghv ìoìphqwv qlv gh qrv mrxuv1 Wrxw hvw prgìolvdeoh
srxuyx txh o*rq irxuqlvvh xqh irqfwlrq gh iruph dgìtxdwh srxu lqwhusrohu gdqv o*ìoìphqw
oh skìqrpëqh txh o*rq ìwxglh1

619 Prgìolvdwlrq sdu ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh srxwuh vhpl0


lqyhuvh
Fhwwh dssurfkh ^Juh:;e`/ ^Qdl<3` frqvlvwh qrq soxv ã srvwxohu od iruph gx fkdps gh
gìsodfhphqwv/ pdlv od iruph gx fkdps gh frqwudlqwhv jìqìudolvìhv +Q% > P+ > P5 ,1 Rq
v*ìfduwh gx frqfhsw txh o*rq vrxv0hqwhqg hq jìqìudo oruvtxh o*rq sduoh g*ìoìphqwv qlv1 Gdqv
oh sulqflsh/ frqqdlvvdqw ohv hruwv jìqìudx{ dx{ qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw/ rq yd ohv lqwhusrohu
oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1 Rq gìwhuplqhud od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì hw od gìirupdwlrq gh fkdfxqh
ghv vhfwlrqv g*lqwìjudwlrq oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1 Fkdtxh pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh vhfwlrq vhud
lqyhuvìh srxu grqqhu od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh od vhfwlrq1 Ohv pdwulfhv gh vrxsohvvh
vrqw lqwìjuìhv oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw srxu iruphu od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Fhfl
uhylhqw ã lqwìjuhu od frxuexuh oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1 Od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh o*ìoìphqw
hvw hqvxlwh lqyhuvìh/ srxu grqqhu od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw1 Elhq txh g*dssduhqfh
frpsoh{h/ fhwwh surfìgxuh hvw dvvh} vlpsoh ã phwwuh hq úxyuh/ hw suìvhqwh gh qrpeuhx{
dydqwdjhv/ qrwdpphqw srxu od sulvh hq frpswh gh o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh1 Od vxlwh
gx gìyhorsshphqw v*lqvfulw gluhfwhphqw gdqv fh fdguh1
;7 Fkdslwuh 6 Qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh
Fkdslwuh 7

Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

Frpph qrxv o*dyrqv yx gdqv oh fkdslwuh 6/ od sulvh hq frpswh gh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh


lqwhuylhqw dx qlyhdx gh od frqvwuxfwlrq gh od pdwulfh ^N? `/ od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw
gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Fhwwh pdwulfh yd íwuh frqvwuxlwh ã sduwlu ghv pdwulfhv gh uljlglwì
ghv vhfwlrqv frqvwlwxwlyhv gh o*ìoìphqw/ txh qrxv qrwhurqv ^Nr `1 Gdqv fh fkdslwuh/ qrxv
doorqv h{solflwhu oh prgh g*rewhqwlrq ghv pdwulfhv gh uljlglwì ghv vhfwlrqv/ dlqvl txh o*dfwlrq
gh od suìfrqwudlqwh vxu od vhfwlrq/ txh qrxv qrwhurqv Dr 1 Hqq/ qrxv lqwìjuhurqv oh orqj gh
o*ìoìphqw srxu rewhqlu ^N? ` hw D? txl vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì hw o*dfwlrq
gh od suìfrqwudlqwh vxu o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Qrxv doorqv grqf gìqlu gdqv
xq suhplhu whpsv ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw qrq olqìdluh srxu ohv pdwìuldx{1

714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw


Od vhfwlrq txh o*rq vh sursrvh g*ìwxglhu hvw vrlw krprjëqh/ vrlw frpsrvlwh1 Hooh hvw kr0
prjëqh v*lo v*djlw g*xq suroì pìwdooltxh sdu h{hpsoh/ rx frpsrvlwh v*lo v*djlw sdu h{hpsoh
g*xq fdlvvrq hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw1 Gdqv oh fdv gh od vhfwlrq frpsrvlwh/ oh pdwìuldx gh
od pdwulfh hvw oh eìwrq/ hw fhoxl ghv euhv hvw o*dflhu1 Hq fh txl frqfhuqh ohv dupdwxuhv
pìwdooltxhv/ rq glvwlqjxhud ohv dupdwxuhv sdvvlyhv hw ohv dflhuv gh suìfrqwudlqwh1 Qrxv
glvsrvrqv gh ghx{ idploohv gh orlv gh frpsruwhphqw = o*xqh srxu od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq/
hw hooh frpsuhqgud hvvhqwlhoohphqw ghv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw gh eìwrq/ hw o*dxwuh srxu ohv
euhv gh od vhfwlrq/ hw hooh frpsuhqgud h{foxvlyhphqw ghv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw g*dflhu1

71414 Pdwìuldx gh od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq

Orl ìodvwltxh olqìdluh


F*hvw od orl od soxv vlpsoh/ gìqlh vhxohphqw sdu od ydohxu Hf gx prgxoh g*\rxqj lqvwdq0
wdqì gx pdwìuldx1 Vrq gldjudpph hvw suìvhqwì hq jxuh 7141 Fhshqgdqw/ oh pdwìuldx shxw
;9 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

arctan(E ij )
0
0

ε
traction compression

Iljxuh 714 = Orl ìodvwltxh olqìdluh

íwuh ylhloolvvdqw/ f*hvw0ã0gluh txh od ydohxu gh Hf gìshqg gh o*åjh gx pdwìuldx ã o*lqvwdqw
gx fkdujhphqw1 Oh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx hvw oh píph hq wudfwlrq hw hq frpsuhvvlrq1

Orl ìodvwltxh olqìdluh iudjloh

Fhwwh orl hvw ìjdohphqw olqìdluh pdlv vrq gldjudpph hvw eruqì hq frpsuhvvlrq sdu od
gìirupdwlrq % hw hq wudfwlrq sdu od frqwudlqwh | 1 Vrq gldjudpph hvw uhsuìvhqwì hq jxuh
7151

Orl elolqìdluh

Fhwwh orl hvw ìjdohphqw olqìdluh/ pdlv sdu prufhdx{1 Hooh hvw fdudfwìulvìh sdu oh prgxoh
g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh Hf / od frqwudlqwh f / hw ohv frrugrqqìhv +% >  , gx srlqw xowlph1 Oh
frpsruwhphqw hvw fhqvì íwuh oh píph hq frpsuhvvlrq hw hq wudfwlrq1 Vrq gldjudpph hvw
suìvhqwì hq jxuh 7161
714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw ;:

arctan(E ij )
0
0

εu ε

traction compression
σ
t

Iljxuh 715 = Orl ìodvwltxh olqìdluh iudjloh


;; Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

σu

arctan(E ij )
0
0
ε0 εu ε

Iljxuh 716 = Orl elolqìdluh


714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw ;<

Orl gx ESHO<4

σ
b

fc
j
fc
u

arctan(E ij)
0
0
ε ε ε
b0 bu b
traction compression

Iljxuh 717 = Orl ESHO<4

Fhwwh orl hvw lvvxh gx uëjohphqw iudqêdlv ESHO<4 ^Esho<4`1 Vrq gldjudpph hvw suìvhqwì
hq jxuh 7171 Hooh prgìolvh oh frpsruwhphqw hq frpsuhvvlrq gx eìwrq1 F*hvw srxutxrl ohv
qrwdwlrqv gh gìirupdwlrqv hw gh frqwudlqwhv vhurqw lqglfìhv dyhf e1 Hooh hvw edvìh vxu od
irupxoh vxlydqwh/ gxh ã Vdujlq ^Vdu:4`/ txl v*ìfulw/ hq uhsuhqdqw ohv qrwdwlrqv gx ESHO<4 =
    
n 0K . n  0K 2
4
0Kf 0Kf
K @ iS    2 +714,
4 . +n  5, 00KKf . n 00KKf

rü iS hvw od uìvlvwdqfh ã od frpsuhvvlrq gx eìwrq åjì gh m mrxuv/ grqqìh hq PSd sdu =
;

? ec.SnfcH  iS2H vl m 5; mrxuv hw iS2H
A
A 9
73 PSd 9

iS @ A cefnfcbD iS2H vl m 5; mrxuv hw iS2H A 73 PSd9 +715,
A
= iS2H vl m A 5; mrxuv
%Kf hvw od gìirupdwlrq dx slf gh frqwudlqwh =
t
%Kf @ 3> 95=433 iS +716,
<3 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

n hvw xq frh!flhqw grqqì sdu =


Hf %Kf
n@ +717,
iS
Hf hvw oh prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh =
t
Hf @ 44333 iS +718,

n 
hvw xq frh!flhqw shuphwwdqw g*dmxvwhu o*dooxuh gx gìexw gh od eudqfkh ghvfhqgdqwh gx
gldjudpph uìho =
;
A
A
?
n4 srxu iS 9 63 PSd
n @A

3
 DD3s 
srxu iS A 88 PSd +719,
A
= +n  4, 2D S srxu 63 PSd ? iS ? 88 PSd
Oh eìwrq whqgx hvw frpsoëwhphqw qìjoljì1
Sxlvtx*lo v*djlw g*xqh orl uìjohphqwdluh/ rq qrwh o*h{lvwhqfh gh ghx{ frh!flhqwv gh
.
vìfxulwì = iS hvw uhpsodfì sdu fcHD iS / hw Hf sdu  f 1 Oh frh!flhqw gh vìfxulwì  K ydxw
K K
4> 68 vl o*rq pëqh xq fdofxo vwuxfwxudo/ hw 4> 8 gdqv oh fdv g*xq fdofxo gh vhfwlrq1

Orl DIUHP<9
O*h{whqvlrq ghv uëjohphqwv gh fdofxo EDHO hw ESHO<4 dx{ eìwrqv grqw od uìvlvwdqfh
dwwhlqw ;3 PSd hvw uhjurxsìh vrxv oh qrp gh orl DIUHP<9 ^Ofsf<9`1 Oh frpsruwhphqw
gx eìwrq vrxv fkdujh gh frxuwh gxuìh hvw vhqvleohphqw oh píph txh srxu od orl ESHO<41
Ohv sdudpëwuhv vrqw lghqwltxhv/ vdxi n 
=

n i  63
n @ . S

+71:,
4> 98 iS  69
Orl HXURFRGHV5
Od orl ghv Hxurfrghv ^Hxu<5` v*dssxlh ìjdohphqw vxu xqh orl gh w|sh Vdujlq1 Hq uhsuhqdqw
ohv qrwdwlrqv ghv Hxurfrghv/ rq d =
   2
n 00SS 0S
0S
S @ iS   +71;,
4 . +n  5, 00SS
rü =
S hvw od frqwudlqwh gdqv oh eìwrq/ txl gìshqg gh od gìirupdwlrq %S gx eìwrq>
iS hvw od uìvlvwdqfh ã od frpsuhvvlrq gx eìwrq>
%S hvw od gìirupdwlrq vrxv od frqwudlqwh pd{lpdoh iS =
%S @ 3> 3355 +71<,
714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw <4

n hvw xq frh!flhqw grqqì sdu =


4> 4HS6 %S
n@ +7143,
iS
HS6 hvw oh prgxoh vìfdqw ã 5; mrxuv1
Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu/ oh frh!flhqw n 
gh od orl ghv Hxurfrghv hvw qxo1

Orl jìqìudoh gh Vdujlq hw sulvh hq frpswh gx eìwrq whqgx

σ
b
Branche descendante
fc
j linéaire
fc
u

arctan(E ij)
0
0
ε ε ε
b0 bu b

traction compression

Iljxuh 718 = Orl gh Vdujlq jìqìudoh

Fhwwh orl hvw od píph txh +714,/ vdxi hq fh txl frqfhuqh ohv sdudpëwuhv iS / %Kf / n/ n 

txl qh vrqw sdv gìqlv dxwrpdwltxhphqw1 F*hvw srxutxrl hooh uhyíw xq fdudfwëuh jìqìudo1
Vrq gldjudpph hvw suìvhqwì hq jxuh 7181 Frpph ohv dxwuhv orlv vh edvdqw vxu oh prgëoh
sursrvì sdu Vdujlq/ od sduwlh ghvfhqgdqwh gh od frxueh shxw íwuh dssur{lpìh sdu xqh
 
eudqfkh ghvfhqgdqwh olqìdluh uholdqw ohv srlqwv %Kf > iS hw +%K > iS ,1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ srxu
n @ 5 hw n @ 3/ rq uhwurxyh od orl elhq frqqxh sduderoh0uhfwdqjoh gx EDHO<4 ^Edho<4` hw


gx ESHO<41
Od sulvh hq frpswh gx eìwrq whqgx xwlolvh oh prgëoh gìyhorssì sdu Juhodw ^Juh:;e`1
Fh prgëoh hvw fhqvì prgìolvhu od uìvlvwdqfh gx eìwrq hqwuh ghx{ vvxuhv/ soxv frqqxh
vrxv oh qrp gh whqvlrq0vwlhqlqj1 Od sulvh hq frpswh gh fh skìqrpëqh q*hvw sdv
qhxwuh srxu oh fdofxo ghv ëfkhv/ hw srxu od uhglvwulexwlrq ghv hruwv gdqv ohv vwuxfwxuhv
k|shuvwdwltxhv vxmhwwhv dx{ hhwv gh od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh1 Oh prgëoh gh Juhodw
<5 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

vlpxoh oh frpsruwhphqw pr|hq gx eìwrq hqwuh ghx{ vvxuhv1

σ
ft

ft
j

arctan(E ij)
0 0

ε ε ε
t a ft
traction

Iljxuh 719 = Gldjudpph frqwudlqwh0gìirupdwlrq gh od euh od soxv whqgxh

Fhwwh pìwkrgh frqvlvwh ã uhsìuhu od euh od soxv whqgxh gh od vhfwlrq/ f*hvw0ã0gluh fhooh
grqw od gìirupdwlrq hq wudfwlrq hvw od soxv lpsruwdqwh hq ydohxu devroxh1 Rq qrwhud %s|
fhwwh gìirupdwlrq1 Hqvxlwh/ rq fdofxoh od frqwudlqwh s| gh od euh od soxv whqgxh gh od
idêrq vxlydqwh =
;
A
A
?
Hf %s| srxu 3 ? %s| ? %|
i| +E00@@3300s|| ,2
2
s| @ A srxu %| ? %s| ? %@ +7144,
A
=
3 srxu %s| A %@
rü Hf hvw oh prgxoh g*\rxqj wdqjhqw ã o*ruljlqh>
i| hvw od uìvlvwdqfh ã od wudfwlrq gx eìwrq>
s
%| hvw od gìirupdwlrq gh wudfwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqw ã i| = %| @ .|f >
%@ hvw od olplwh g*ìodvwlflwì gh o*dflhu oh soxv whqgx1
Oh gldjudpph gh s| hvw suìvhqwì hq jxuh 7191 Rq dhfwh dx eìwrq whqgx xq gld0
judpph gh frqwudlqwhv fwli wuldqjxodluh ã sduwlu gh od euh qhxwuh1 Gdqv od }rqh whqgxh/
od frqwudlqwh  v*h{sulph hq irqfwlrq gh od gìirupdwlrq % vhorq =
s|
@ % +7145,
%s|
714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw <6

σ
s

σr
σe
σl

arctan(E s)
0
2‰ εs εs
r

Iljxuh 71: = Orl dflhu EDHO;6

Orl dflhu EDHO;6

Fhwwh orl shuphw gh prgìolvhu oh frpsruwhphqw g*xq dflhu1 Hooh hvw lvvxh gh o*dqflhq
uëjohphqw iudqêdlv gh eìwrq dupì EDHO;6 fdu o*dfwxho/ oh EDHO<4/ d vlpsolì ohv orlv
gh frpsruwhphqw ghv dflhuv hq ohv vxssrvdqw ìodvwrsodvwltxhv sduidlwhv1 Vrq gldjudpph
hvw suìvhqwì hq jxuh 71:1 Od orl EDHO;6 d ìwì gìyhorssìh lqlwldohphqw srxu ohv dflhuv
ghv dupdwxuhv sdvvlyhv1 Hooh hvw xwlolvìh lfl srxu oh pdwìuldx frqvwlwxwli gh od vhfwlrq1 Oh
gldjudpph hvw v|pìwultxh sdu udssruw dx srlqw R/ hw vh gìfrpsrvh hq xqh sduwlh olqìdluh
hw xqh sduwlh qrq olqìdluh =

r @ Hr %r srxu 3 ? r ? , @ 3> :e


 D +7146,
%r @ .jrr . 3> ;56 jjre  3> : srxu , ? r ? o

rü Hrf hvw oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gh o*dflhu ã o*ruljlqh


e od olplwh ìodvwltxh frqyhqwlrqqhooh ã 3/5(/
, hvw od frqwudlqwh rü v*duuíwh oh gldjudpph olqìdluh/
o hvw od frqwudlqwh gh uxswxuh1
<7 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

Rq qrwh dx sdvvdjh txh srxu , ?  r ? o / od orl gh frpsruwhphqw hvw grqqìh ã


o*hqyhuv1 Qrxv lqyhuvrqv od uhodwlrq +7146, sdu xq vfkìpd gh Qhzwrq lwìudwli1

71415 Pdwìuldx ghv euhv gh od vhfwlrq


Ohv euhv gh od vhfwlrq vrqw hq idlw ohv dupdwxuhv vrlw sdvvlyhv/ vrlw dfwlyhv1 Oh pdwìuldx
frqvwlwxwli gh fhv dupdwxuhv hvw o*dflhu1 Rq vxssrvhud gdqv fh sdudjudskh txh oh frp0
sruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx hvw oh píph hq wudfwlrq tx*hq frpsuhvvlrq1
Sdu dloohxuv/ rq uhwurxyh ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw olqìdluh ìodvwltxh hw olqìdluh ìodvwltxh
iudjloh/ txl qh vxvflwhqw dxfxq frpphqwdluh vxssoìphqwdluh sdu udssruw ã fh txl d ìwì glw
suìfìghpphqw1

Orl ìodvwrsodvwltxh sduidlwh

σ
s

fe

fe
__
γ
s

f
- __e arctan(E s)
-10‰ Es 0
fe
__ 10‰ ε
s
Es

-f e

Iljxuh 71; = Orl ìodvwrsodvwltxh sduidlwh

Fhwwh orl hvw uhfrppdqgìh sdu oh EDHO<4 hw oh ESHO<4 srxu ohv dupdwxuhv sdvvlyhv1 Vrq
gldjudpph hvw grqqì hq jxuh 71;/ dyhf ohv qrwdwlrqv gx ESHO<41 F*hvw xq fdv sduwlfxolhu
gh od orl elolqìdluh/ dyhf xq sdolhu sodvwltxh sodw1 Oh uëjohphqw uhfrppdqgh g*hhfwxhu vxu
fhwwh orl xqh d!qlwì gh udssruw  sdudooëohphqw ã od wdqjhqwh ã o*ruljlqh/ frpph lqgltxì
r
hq jxuh 71;1 Oh frh!flhqw  r ydxw 4/481
714 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw <8

Orl dflhu ESHO<4

σ
p

σr
σe
σl

Courbe après affinité arctan(E )


0 p

1‰ 20‰ εp

Iljxuh 71< = Orl dflhu ESHO<4

Fhwwh orl hvw uhfrppdqgìh srxu ohv ov wuìoìv hw ohv wrurqv gh suìfrqwudlqwh1 Vrq gld0
judpph hvw grqqì hq jxuh 71<1 Hq uhsuhqdqw ohv qrwdwlrqv gx ESHO<4/ rq d =

R @ HR %R srxu 3 ? R ? , @ 3> <e


 D +7147,
%R @ .jRR . 433 jjRe  3> < srxu  , ? R ? o
rü R hvw od frqwudlqwh gdqv o*dflhu gh suìfrqwudlqwh/
%R hvw od gìirupdwlrq gdqv o*dflhu gh suìfrqwudlqwh/
HR hvw oh prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh/
e hvw od olplwh ìodvwltxh frqyhqwlrqqhooh ã 3/4(/
, hvw od frqwudlqwh rü v*duuíwh oh gldjudpph olqìdluh/
o hvw od frqwudlqwh gh uxswxuh1
Frpph srxu od orl ìodvwrsodvwltxh sduidlwh/ oh uëjohphqw uhfrppdqgh g*hhfwxhu vxu
fhwwh orl xqh d!qlwì gh udssruw  sdudooëohphqw ã od wdqjhqwh ã o*ruljlqh1 Frpph srxu
r
od orl dflhu EDHO;6/ od uhodwlrq frqwudlqwh0gìirupdwlrq hvw uìvroxh sdu xq vfkìpd lwìudwli
<9 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

gh Qhzwrq1 Oruvtxh o*d!qlwì gh udssruw  sdudooëohphqw ã od wdqjhqwh ã o*ruljlqh hvw


r
dssoltxìh/ rq rewlhqw xqh qrxyhooh uhodwlrq hqwuh  R hw %R txl vrqw uhvshfwlyhphqw ohv
 

frqwudlqwhv hw ohv gìirupdwlrqv gx gldjudpph prglì sdu o*d!qlwì1 Rq prqwuh txh =

R @ HR%R
 
srxu 3 ? R ? , @ jr,
 

 D
+7148,
 3> <
 
jR jR  r
%R @


.R . 433 je srxu , ? R ? o @ j or
  

71416 Frqfoxvlrq

Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw gìqlhv lfl vrqw xwlolvìhv srxu ohv fkdujhphqwv lqvwdqwdqìv1 Srxu
ohv hhwv glìuìv/ rq vh uìiìuhud dx fkdslwuh 91 Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw lqvwdqwdqìhv vrqw
qrq olqìdluhv ìodvwltxhv/ l=h= ohv fkhplqv gh fkdujhphqw hw gh gìfkdujhphqw vrqw lghqwltxhv1
Fh w|sh gh orl d ìwì lpsrvì sdu ghv frqvlgìudwlrqv uìjohphqwdluhv1 Oh idlw txh ohv orlv
gh frpsruwhphqw vrlhqw sduidlwhphqw uìyhuvleohv q*hvw sdv suìmxglfldeoh gdqv oh fdv gh
fkdujhphqwv prqrwrqhv1 Oh sureoëph vh srvh srxu ohv fkdujhphqwv f|foltxhv/ oruv gh
fdofxov vlvpltxhv sdu h{hpsoh1 Gdqv fh fdv/ gx idlw txh od orl gh frpsruwhphqw qh glvvlsh
sdv g*ìqhujlh/ lo idxgud ìydoxhu dxwuhphqw o*dpruwlvvhphqw1

715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh

71514 K|srwkëvhv hw qrwdwlrqv

Od vhfwlrq ìwxglìh dssduwlhqw ã o*ìoìphqw grqw rq yhxw fdofxohu od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1


Oh uhsëuh gh gìqlwlrq gh od vhfwlrq d vrq ruljlqh vxu od euh pr|hqqh gh o*ìoìphqw =
vrq ruljlqh hvw grqf oh fhqwuh gh judylwì J gh od vhfwlrq1 O*d{h J{ hvw wdqjhqw ã od euh
pr|hqqh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Gdqv od phvxuh rü o*rq vxssrvh txh ohv gìsodfhphqwv gdqv oh uhsëuh
lqwulqvëtxh uhvwhqw prgìuìv/ o*d{h J{ hvw qrupdo ã od vhfwlrq gurlwh1 Ohv d{hv J| hw J}
gìfrxohqw gluhfwhphqw gh fhx{ gx uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Rq qrwhud F oh fhqwuh gh wruvlrq gh
od vhfwlrq1 Gdqv oh uhsëuh J|} / ohv frrugrqqìhv gh F vhurqw qrwìhv |S hw }S 1
Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv txl v*h{hufhqw vxu od vhfwlrq vrqw gìqlhv frpph ohv dfwlrqv gh od
sduwlh gurlwh gh od srxwuh vxu od sduwlh jdxfkh1 Gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ ohv hruwv I%
hw I? uhvshfwhqw ìylghpphqw ohv frqyhqwlrqv wuljrqrpìwultxhv1 Pdlv hq fh txl frqfhuqh
o*ìwxgh gh od vhfwlrq/ qrxv doorqv dgrswhu ohv frqyhqwlrqv lqgltxìhv vxu od jxuh 71431 Fhv
frqyhqwlrqv yrqw qrxv shuphwwuh g*rewhqlu xqh ìfulwxuh soxv djuìdeoh ghv gìirupdwlrqv/
dyhf od uëjoh vxlydqwh/ sursuh dx fdofxo hq eìwrq dupì = xq udffrxuflvvhphqw gh o*ìoì0
phqw fruuhvsrqg ã xqh gìirupdwlrq % srvlwlyh1 Dlqvl xqh frpsuhvvlrq fruuhvsrqg ã xqh
frqwudlqwh  srvlwlyh1
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh <:

M
z

M
y
y

Tz
Ty M
x
G
N x
C

Iljxuh 7143 = Frqyhqwlrq gh vljqh srxu od vhfwlrq

71515 Ohv gìirupdwlrqv qrupdohv


Frpph qrxv o*dyrqv lqgltxì gdqv ohv k|srwkëvhv jìqìudohv/ ohv hhwv gxv dx jdxfklvvhphqw
vhurqw qìjoljìv1 Fhfl hvw oìjlwlph vl oh suro gh od vhfwlrq hvw ihupì/ rx vl ohv frqglwlrqv dx{
olplwhv odlvvhqw oleuh oh jdxfklvvhphqw1 Qrxv idlvrqv ìjdohphqw o*k|srwkëvh txh ohv vhfwlrqv
sodqhv oh uhvwhqw1 Rq shxw doruv ìfuluh =

% +|> }, @ %% . }!+ . |!5 +7149,

rü % +|> }, hvw od gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh hq xq srlqw gh frrugrqqìhv +|> } , gh od vhfwlrq/ hw


%% hvw od gìirupdwlrq dx fhqwuh gh judylwì gh od vhfwlrq1 O*hruw dvvrflì hvw o*hruw qru0
pdo Q 1 Ohv dqjohv !+ hw !5 uhsuìvhqwhqw ohv urwdwlrqv gh od vhfwlrq dxwrxu ghv d{hv J|
hw J} uhvshfwlyhphqw1 Ohv hruwv dvvrflìv vrqw ohv prphqwv ìfklvvdqwv P+ hw P5 1 Od
qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh qh vhud sulvh hq frpswh txh sdu od uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv vroolflwdwlrqv
 
qrupdohv +Q> P+ > P5 , hw ohv gìirupdwlrqv qrupdohv dvvrflìhv %% > !+ > !5 1 Ohv gìirupd0
wlrqv qrupdohv vhurqw gìvljqìhv sdu oh yhfwhxu
3 4
E
%% F
%? @ E
C !+ F
D +714:,
!5
<; Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

71516 Ohv gìirupdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv

Sdu dloohxuv/ qrxv vxssrvhurqv txh od uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv ã od vhfwlrq
txh vrqw ohv hruwv wudqfkdqwv W+ / W5 hw oh prphqw gh wruvlrq P% F g*xqh sduw/ hw ohv
hq
gìirupdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv g*hruwv wudqfkdqwv  + /  5 hw o*dqjoh gh wruvlrq % g*dxwuh sduw/
hvw olqìdluh1 Oh prphqw gh wruvlrq P% vh gìgxlw gx prphqw gh wruvlrq P% hq J gh od
idêrq vxlydqwh =
P% @ P% . }S W+  |S W5 +714;,

Ohv gìirupdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv vhurqw gìvljqìhv sdu oh yhfwhxu


3 4
E
+ F
%| @ E
C 5 F
D +714<,
%

71517 Ohv gìirupdwlrqv ghv dupdwxuhv

Ohv dupdwxuhv ìwdqw lqfolqìhv sdu udssruw ã od vhfwlrq/ ohxu gìirupdwlrq qh vhud sdv od
píph txh fhooh gh od vhfwlrq1 Rq qrwh  o*dqjoh txh idlw od oljqh pr|hqqh gh o*dupdwxuh
dyhf o*d{h J{ +jxuh 7144,/ hw  o*dqjoh hqwuh od surmhfwlrq gh o*dupdwxuh gdqv oh sodq gh
od vhfwlrq hw o*d{h J| 1 Gdqv oh uhsëuh J|} / rq qrwhud +|s > }s , ohv frrugrqqìhv gx srlqw gh
sdvvdjh gh o*dupdwxuh1 Doruv/ hq vxssrvdqw o*dupdwxuh sduidlwhphqw dgkìuhqwh dx eìwrq/
srxu xq dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrqv gh od vhfwlrq =
3 4
E
%% F
%? @ E
C !+ F
D +7153,
!5
3 4
 +
E F
%| @ E
C  5 F
D +7154,
%
Rq prqwuh txh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq gdqv o*dupdwxuh %s hvw grqqì sdu =
 
%s @ frv2  4 > }s > |s =%?
 
. vlq  frv  frv > vlq > +|s  |S , vlq   +}s  }S, frv  =%|+7155,

71518 Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv lqwhuqhv

Ohv ìoìphqwv frqvwlwxwliv gh od vhfwlrq/ txh vrqw od pdwulfh hw ohv euhv/ yrqw hqjhqguhu
ghv vroolflwdwlrqv txh o*rq yd vìsduhu hq ghx{ fdwìjrulhv = ohv vroolflwdwlrqv qrupdohv hw ohv
vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv1 Rq qrwhud =
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh <<

I6? ohv vroolflwdwlrqv qrupdohv gxhv ã od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq +gx eìwrq hq jìqìudo,>
I6| ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv gxhv ã od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq>
Is? ohv vroolflwdwlrqv qrupdohv gxhv dx{ euhv gh od vhfwlrq +ohv dupdwxuhv pìwdooltxhv/
dfwlyhv rx sdvvlyhv,>
Is| ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv gxhv dx{ euhv gh od vhfwlrq1

Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv qrupdohv gxhv ã od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq


Gdqv oh uhsëuh J{|}/ rq shxw ìfuluh =
3 4
E
Q6 F
I6? @ E
C P6+ F
D +7156,
P65
rü Q6 hvw o*hruw qrupdo/ P6+ hw P65 ohv prphqwv ìfklvvdqwv/ wrxv wurlv gxv ã od pdwulfh
gh od vhfwlrq1 Rq d doruv =
3 4
]
E
4 F
I6? @ 6 +|> } , E } F gV6 +7157,
C D
76
|
rü V6 hvw o*dluh gh od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq/ hw 6 +|> }, od frqwudlqwh hq xq srlqw frxudqw
gh od vhfwlrq gh frrugrqqìhv +|> } ,1
Gdqv oh fdv g*xqh vhfwlrq hq eìwrq/ V6 uhsuìvhqwh od vhfwlrq qhwwh gh eìwrq/ l=h= od
vhfwlrq euxwh lvvxh gx ghvvlq gh frudjh uìgxlwh gh od vxuidfh tx*rffxshqw ohv dupdwxuhv
sdvvlyhv rx ohv jdlqhv gh suìfrqwudlqwh1 Fhwwh gìgxfwlrq wlhqw frpswh gh o*dqjoh  h{lvwdqw
hqwuh o*d{h gh o*dupdwxuh hw o*d{h J{1 Vl ds gìvljqh od vhfwlrq gurlwh gh o*dupdwxuh sdvvlyh
rx gh od jdlqh gh suìfrqwudlqwh/ doruv o*dluh gh od surmhfwlrq gh ds vxu oh sodq J|} hvw =
ds
+7158,
frv 
O*dluh gìgxlwh gh od vhfwlrq euxwh/ txl fruuhvsrqg ã o*hpsodfhphqw gh o*dupdwxuh sdvvlyh
rx gh od jdlqh gh suìfrqwudlqwh/ hvw grqf wrxmrxuv vxsìulhxuh rx ìjdoh ã od vhfwlrq gurlwh
gh o*dupdwxuh sdvvlyh rx gh od jdlqh gh suìfrqwudlqwh1
Vl o*rq qrwh H6 +|> } , oh prgxoh ìodvwltxh orqjlwxglqdo frugh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh oh prgxoh
uholdqw o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh ã o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq/ g*xq srlqw gh fr0
rugrqqìhv +|> }, gh od vhfwlrq/ doruv rq d =
6 +|> }, @ H6 +|> }, % +|> }, +7159,

rü 6 +|> } , hvw o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh qrupdoh dx srlqw frqvlgìuì/ hw % +|> },


o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh1 Hq uhpsodêdqw % +|> } , sdu vd ydohxu grqqìh hq
+7149,/ rq d =  
6 +|> } , @ H6 +|> }, 4 } | %? +715:,
433 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

z y

Section de l'armature projetée


dans le plan de la section
α
G
x

Section droite
de l'armature

Iljxuh 7144 = Dupdwxuh lqfolqìh sdu udssruw ã od vhfwlrq gurlwh

O*dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrq v*ìfulw =


3 4
]
E
4 F
I6? @ 6 +|> }, E
C } F gV6
D +715;,
76
|
hw o*rq rewlhqw =
3 4
]   4
E F
I6? @ H6 +|> } , 4 } | %? E } F gV6
C D
76
|
5 6
]
9
4 } | :
@ H6 +|> } , 9
7 } }
2 |} : gV6 =%?
8 +715<,
76
| |} |2
Vl o*rq qrwh ^N6? ` od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì frugh uholdqw o*dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrq qru0
pdoh gh od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq ã od yduldwlrq gh gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh gh od vhfwlrq/ rq
d= 5 6
]
9
4 } | :
^N6? ` @ H6 +|> }, 7 } }2 |}
9 : gV6
8 +7163,
76
| |} |2
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh 434

hw
I6? @ ^N6? ` =%? +7164,

Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv gxhv ã od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq


Gdqv oh uhsëuh J{|}/ rq ìfulw ìjdohphqw =
3 4
E
W6+ F
I6| @ E
C W65 F
D +7165,
P6%
rü W6+ hw W65 vrqw ohv hruwv wudqfkdqwv/ hw P6% oh prphqw gh wruvlrq dxwrxu gh F/
wrxv wurlv gxv ã od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq1 Vl o*rq qrwh ^N6| ` od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì uholdqw
ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv gh od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq dx{ gìirupdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv gh od
vhfwlrq/ hw hq vxssrvdqw txh fhwwh uhodwlrq hvw olqìdluh/ rq d =

I6| @ ^N6| ` =%| +7166,

dyhf = 5 6
9
JD+ 3 3 :
^N6| ` @ 9
7 3 JD5 3 :
8 +7167,
3 3 JL%
rü . /
J hvw oh prgxoh gh flvdloohphqw gh Frxorpe = J @ 2En D
D+ hw D5 vrqw ohv vhfwlrqv uìgxlwhv g*hruw wudqfkdqw/
L% hvw o*lqhuwlh gh wruvlrq gh od vhfwlrq1
Frpph od uhodwlrq +7166, hvw olqìdluh/ rq d lppìgldwhphqw =

I6| @ ^N6| ` =%| +7168,

Rq shxw doruv ìfuluh =


# $ % & # $
I6? N6? 3 %?
@ = +7169,
I6| 3 N6| %|

Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv qrupdohv gxhv dx{ euhv gh od vhfwlrq


Ohv euhv vrqw vxssrvìhv sduidlwhphqw dgkìuhqwhv ã od vhfwlrq1 Vl who q*hvw sdv oh fdv/ hoohv
qh sduwlflshqw sdv ã od uìvlvwdqfh gh od vhfwlrq hw q*hqwuhqw sdv gdqv oh fdguh gh fh txl yd
vxlyuh1 Gdqv oh uhsëuh J{|}/ rq shxw ìfuluh =
3 4
E
Qs F
Is? @ E
C Ps+ F
D +716:,
Ps5
435 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

rü Qs hvw o*hruw qrupdo/ Ps+ hw Ps5 ohv prphqwv ìfklvvdqwv wrxv wurlv gxv dx{ dupdwxuhv
pìwdooltxhv wudyhuvdqw od vhfwlrq1 Vl o*rq qrwh s od frqwudlqwh qrupdoh gh o*dupdwxuh
g*ruguh l dgkìuhqwh hw wudyhuvdqw od vhfwlrq/ lo ylhqw =
3 4
?s
[
4
E F
Is? @  s = E
C }s F = frv  =vs
D  +716;,
' |s
rü qs hvw oh qrpeuh g*dupdwxuhv dgkìuhqwhv hw wudyhuvdqw od vhfwlrq/
+|s > }s , vrqw ohv frrugrqqìhv gx srlqw gh sdvvdjh gh o*dupdwxuh g*ruguh l gdqv oh uhsëuh
J|}/
 hvw o*dqjoh h{lvwdqw hqwuh o*dupdwxuh g*ruguh l hw o*d{h J{/
vs hvw od vhfwlrq gurlwh gh o*dupdwxuh g*ruguh l1
Vl o*rq qrwh Hs oh prgxoh ìodvwltxh orqjlwxglqdo frugh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh oh prgxoh uholdqw
o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh ã o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq/ gh o*dupdwxuh g*ruguh l/
doruv =
s @ Hs =%s +716<,

rü s hvw o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh qrupdoh gh o*dupdwxuh g*ruguh l/ hw %s o*df0


furlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh gdqv fhwwh píph dupdwxuh1 Rq shxw doruv ìfuluh =
3 4
[? s E
4 F
Is? @ C }s D = frv  =vs
s = E F +7173,
' |s
3 4
[?s
E
4 F
@ C }s D = frv  =vs =%s
Hs = E F +7174,
' |s
Hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq +7155,/ lo ylhqw =

Is? @ ^Ns? ` =%? . ^Ns?| ` =%| +7175,

dyhf = 5 6
?s
[ 9
4 }s |s :
^Ns? ` @ Hs = frv  =vs = 7 }s }s |s }s
9 2 :
8 +7176,
' |s |s }s |s2
hw
3 4
?s 4
[ E F  
^Ns?| ` @ Hs = vlq  = frv2  =vs = E
C }s F=
D frv   vlq   +|s  |S , vlq    +}s  }S , frv  
' |s
+7177,
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh 436

rü/ srxu pìprluh/   hvw o*dqjoh h{lvwdqw hqwuh od surmhfwlrq gh o*dupdwxuh g*ruguh l gdqv
od sodq J|} / hw o*d{h J| 1 Hq gìyhorssdqw/ rq rewlhqw =
5 6
[?s
9
frv   vlq   +|s  |S, vlq    +}s  }S , frv   :
7 }s frv   }s vlq   }s ++|s  |S , vlq    +}s  }S , frv   ,
^Ns?| ` @ Hs = vlq  = frv  =vs = 9
2 :
8
' |s frv   |s vlq   |s ++|s  |S, vlq    +}s  }S, frv   ,
+7178,

Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv gxhv dx{ euhv gh od vhfwlrq


Gdqv oh uhsëuh J{|}/ rq d = 3 4
Ws+ F E
Is| @ E
Ws5 F D C +7179,
Ps%
rü Ws+ hw Ws5 vrqw ohv hruwv wudqfkdqwv/ hw Ps% oh prphqw gh wruvlrq dxwrxu gh F / wrxv
wurlv gxv dx{ dupdwxuhv pìwdooltxhv dgkìuhqwhv hw wudyhuvdqw od vhfwlrq1 Hq uhsuhqdqw ohv
qrwdwlrqv gx sdudjudskh suìfìghqw/ rq rewlhqw =
3 4
[?s frv  
E F
Is| @ s = EC vlq   F = vlq  =vs
D  +717:,
' 
+|s |S , vlq   +}s   }S, frv 
Rq hq gìgxlw/ gh od píph idêrq txh suìfìghpphqw/ txh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrqv
wdqjhqwhv gþ dx{ euhv gh od vhfwlrq v*h{sulph vhorq =
3 4
[?s
E
frv   F
Is| @ s = EC vlq  
F = vlq  =vs
D 
'  
+|s |S, vlq   +}s }S, frv   
3 4
[? s
E
frv   F
@ Hs = vlq  =vs = E
C vlq  
F =%s
D  +717;,
'  
+|s |S , vlq   +}s }S , frv   
Hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq +7155,/ rq d =

Is| @ ^Ns|? ` =%? . ^Ns| ` =%| +717<,

dyhf =
3 4
?s frv  
[ E F  
^Ns|? ` @ Hs = frv2  vlq  =vs = E
C vlq   F=
D 4 }s |s
' +|s  |S , vlq    +}s  }S , frv  
+7183,
437 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

Rq uhpdutxh txh =
^Ns|? ` @ | ^Ns?| ` +7184,

Vl o*rq srvh = 3 4
E
frv   F
Ys| @ E
C vlq   F
D +7185,
+|s  |S, vlq    +}s  }S, frv  
od pdwulfh ^Ns| ` v*rewlhqw doruv gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =
?s
[
^Ns| ` @ Hs = vlq2  = frv  =vs =Ys| =| Ys| +7186,
'
Rq shxw doruv ìfuluh =
# $ % & # $
Is? N Ns?| %?
@ | s? = +7187,
Is| Ns?| Ns| %|

71519 Ohv vroolflwdwlrqv h{whuqhv


Od vhfwlrq hvw vrxplvh ã ghv vroolflwdwlrqv h{wìulhxuhv txh vrqw o*hruw qrupdo Q / ohv hruwv
wudqfkdqwv W+ hw W5 / oh prphqw gh wruvlrq P% / hw ohv prphqwv P5 1 ìfklvvdqwv P+ hw
Uhjurxsrqv ohv vroolflwdwlrqv h{wìulhxuhv qrupdohv ã od vhfwlrq gurlwh gdqv oh yhfwhxu Ir? /
hw ohv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv ã od vhfwlrq gurlwh gdqv oh yhfwhxu Ir| 1 Lo ylhqw =
3 4
E
Q F
Ir? @ E
C P+ F
D +7188,
P5
hw 3 4
E
W+ F
Ir| @ E
C W5 F
D +7189,
P%
Sdu dloohxuv/ od vhfwlrq vxelw o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh txh o*rq shxw gìfrpsrvhu hq xqh
sduwlh/ qrwìh Dr? / qrupdoh ã od vhfwlrq/ hw xqh sduwlh wdqjhqwh ã od vhfwlrq/ qrwìh Dr| 1 Hq
vh uìiìudqw dx{ uhodwlrqv +7173, hw +717:,/ hw hq uhvshfwdqw ohv frqyhqwlrqv gh vljqh txh o*rq
v*hvw {ìhv/ rq d = 3 4
?sR
[ E
4 F
Dr? @  sRf = E
C }sR
F = frv R =vs
D  R +718:,
' |sR
hw
3 4
?sR frv  R
[ E F
Dr| @  sRf = E
C  
vlq R 
F = vlq R =vs
D  R +718;,
' |sR  |S vlq  R  }sR  }S frv  R
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh 438

rü qsR hvw oh qrpeuh gh fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh whqgxv dx frxuv gh o*rsìudwlrq frxudqwh


hw wudyhuvdqw od vhfwlrq/
sRf hvw od whqvlrq frxudqwh gdqv oh fåeoh g*ruguh l/ frpswh whqx ghv shuwhv lqvwdqwdqìhv1
Ohv judqghxuv vrqw lqglfìhv sdu s dq gh prqwuhu txh vhxov ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh
whqgxv vrqw frqvlgìuìv1

7151: Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq


O*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq h{sulph vlpsohphqw oh idlw txh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrqv
h{whuqhv hw o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh vrqw ìtxloleuìv sdu o*dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrqv
lqwhuqhv/ g*rü =
# $ # $ # $ # $
Ir? Dr? I6? Is?
. @ . +718<,
Ir| Dr| I6| Is|
Fhfl shxw hqfruh vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph =
# $ # $ # $
Ir? Dr? %?
. @ ^Nr ` = +7193,
Ir| Dr| %|
rü ^Nr ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq/ grqw od irupxodwlrq hvw grqqìh sdu =
% &
^N6? ` . ^Ns? ` ^Ns?| `
^Nr ` @ | ^N `
+7194,
s?| ^N6| ` . ^Ns| `
Od pdwulfh ^Nr ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì frugh uholdqw o*dffurlvvhphqw g*hruwv h{whuqhv
ã o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrqv1 Od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh lqwhuylhqw gdqv oh fdofxo gh
od pdwulfh ^Nr `/ txl gìshqg gh o*ìwdw gh gìirupdwlrq gh od vhfwlrq/ f*hvw0ã0gluh gh %? 1 Od
uìvroxwlrq gh o*ìtxdwlrq +7193, hvw irufìphqw lwìudwlyh1

7151; Irupdwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq


Oh fdofxo gh ^Nr ` xwlolvh od uhodwlrq +7194,1 Ohv ìoìphqwv irupdqw ^Nr ` q*rqw sdv wrxv oh
píph frþw hq whpsv gh fdofxo1
Dlqvl/ oh frþw gh od irupdwlrq gh ^N6| `/ xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq +7167,/ hvw wuëv idleoh fdu
lo uhtxlhuw vhxohphqw 6 pxowlsolfdwlrqv1
Oh frþw gx fdofxo gh ^Ns? `/ ^Ns?| ` hw ^Ns| ` g*dsuëv ohv uhodwlrqv +7176,/ +7178, hw +7186,/
hvw soxv ìohyì fdu lo qìfhvvlwh soxv g*rsìudwlrqv/ pdlv lo uhvwh prghvwh fdu od vrpph dssd0
udlvvdqw gdqv fhv uhodwlrqv hvw glvfuëwh1
Ilqdohphqw/ oh whuph oh soxv frþwhx{ hvw ^N6? `/ fdu/ hq vh uìiìudqw ã +7163,/ rq frq0
vwdwh txh o*ìydoxdwlrq g*xqh lqwìjudoh vxuidfltxh hvw qìfhvvdluh1 Frpph qrxv o*dyrqv lq0
gltxì gdqv ohv k|srwkëvhv jìqìudohv/ fkdtxh vhfwlrq hvw xq frxwrxu sro|jrqdo/ gìfrxsì hq
439 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

wudsë}hv gdqv oh uhsëuh Lf |f }f 1 Frpph qrxv idlvrqv o*k|srwkëvh txh oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh
vh gìgxlw gx uhsëuh orfdo sdu xq prxyhphqw gh frusv uljlgh/ hw frpph qrxv vxssrvrqv txh
gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ ohv gìsodfhphqwv hw ohv gìirupdwlrqv uhvwhqw prgìuìv/ o*lqwìjud0
wlrq vxuidfltxh gdqv oh uhsëuh J|} v*dssoltxh ã od jìrpìwulh lvvxh gx gìfrxsdjh wudsì}rògdo
gdqv oh uhsëuh Lf |f }f 1

Points de définition du contour

Trapèze élémentaire

Iljxuh 7145 = Vhfwlrq gurlwh

Gdqv od uhodwlrq +7163,/ o*lqwìjudoh vxu od vxuidfh V6 hvw fdofxoìh frpph ìwdqw od vrpph
ghv lqwìjudohv vxu fkdfxq ghv wudsë}hv gx gìfrxsdjh1 Srxu lqwìjuhu vxu xq wudsë}h/ qrxv
dyrqv dgrswì xq vfkìpd g*lqwìjudwlrq gh w|sh Vlpsvrq1 Dq g*rewhqlu ghv ìydoxdwlrqv
fruuhfwhv ghv whuphv gh ^N6? `/ qrxv dyrqv frqvwdwì ghv whpsv gh fdofxo wuëv lpsruwdqwv1 Hq
hhw/ oruvtxh o*rq xwlolvh ghv orlv qìjoljhdqw oh eìwrq whqgx/ od ydohxu gx prgxoh ìodvwltxh
orqjlwxglqdo frugh H6 hvw glvfrqwlqxh =
+
Hf oruvtxh % +|> } , whqg yhuv 3n
H6 @ +7195,
3 oruvtxh % +|> } , whqg yhuv 33

rü % +|> } , hvw od gìirupdwlrq orqjlwxglqdoh hq xq srlqw frxudqw gh od vhfwlrq/ rewhqxh dyhf


+7149,1 Od suìflvlrq rewhqxh srxu o*ìydoxdwlrq ghv whuphv gh ^N6? ` gìshqg gluhfwhphqw
gx qrpeuh gh srlqwv g*lqwìjudwlrq vxu oh wudsë}h = soxv rq d gh srlqwv g*lqwìjudwlrq/ prlqv
od }rqh rü H6 hvw glvfrqwlqx hvw lpsruwdqwh/ hw soxv o*huuhxu frpplvh hvw idleoh1
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh 43:

Srxu uìvrxguh fh sureoëph/ qrxv dyrqv plv dx srlqw xq pdloodjh dgdswdwli txl hhfwxh/
ã sduwlu gx gìfrxsdjh wudsì}rògdo lqlwldo +jxuh 7145,/ xq dxwuh gìfrxsdjh txl vìsduh
od vhfwlrq hq ghx{ }rqhv = xqh }rqh rü % +|> }, A %S hw xqh }rqh rü % +|> }, ? %S / hq
gìvljqdqw sdu %S od ydohxu fulwltxh gh od gìirupdwlrq srxu odtxhooh oh prgxoh g*\rxqj
ydulh euxvtxhphqw +jxuh 7146,1 Od ydohxu gh %S gìshqg gh od orl gx frpsruwhphqw gx
pdwìuldx hw ydxw 3 srxu wrxwhv ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx eìwrq/ txl qìjoljhqw
oh eìwrq whqgx1 Gx idlw gh o*k|srwkëvh ghv gìirupdwlrqv sodqhv/ o*ìtxdwlrq % +|> } , @ %S hvw
uhsuìvhqwìh sdu xqh gurlwh gdqv oh uhsëuh J|} 1

Points supplémentaires
du contour

y
ε = εc
Trapèzes élémentaires
supplémentaires

Iljxuh 7146 = Pdloodjh dgdswdwli

Oh pdloodjh dlqvl dgrswì ydulh hq irqfwlrq gh %? / grqw od ydohxu prglh fhooh gh % +|> } ,1
Od srvlwlrq gh od gurlwh % +|> }, @ %S gìshqg gh od ydohxu frxudqwh gh %? 1 Gh fh idlw/ ohv
srlqwv g*lqwìjudwlrq qh vrqw sdv ohv píphv g*xqh lwìudwlrq ã o*dxwuh1 Rq qh shxw grqf
sdv frqqdñwuh o*klvwrultxh ghv frqwudlqwhv gh fkdfxq ghv srlqwv g*lqwìjudwlrq hw fhfl qrxv
hpsífkh gh srxyrlu xwlolvhu ghv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw k|vwìuìwltxhv/ rx ghv prgëohv ã
hqgrppdjhphqw +Oderughulh ^Ode<4`,1 Hq frqwuhsduwlh/ ohv whpsv gh fdofxo dlqvl txh od
suìflvlrq rewhqxh srxu o*ìydoxdwlrq gh ^N6? ` vrqw wuëv vdwlvidlvdqwv1
43; Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

7151< Uìvroxwlrq lwìudwlyh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq


Ohv ìoìphqwv qlv fodvvltxhv/ gh w|sh gìsodfhphqw/ rqw xq dydqwdjh sdu udssruw dx{
ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh vhpl0lqyhuvh txh qrxv xwlolvrqv1 Hq hhw/ frqqdlvvdqw oh fkdps
gh gìirupdwlrqv/ lov hq gìgxlvhqw gluhfwhphqw oh fkdps ghv frqwudlqwhv hw shxyhqw dlqvl hq
gìgxluh ohv hruwv lqwhuqhv gh o*ìoìphqw1 Gdqv qrwuh fdv/ qrxv frqqdlvvrqv od uìsduwlwlrq
ghv hruwv oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw/ hw qrxv yrxorqv hq gìgxluh ohv gìirupdwlrqv fruuhvsrq0
gdqwhv/ hq xwlolvdqw od uhodwlrq +7193,1 Frpph o*rsìudwhxu gh sdvvdjh hqwuh ohv hruwv hw
ohv gìirupdwlrqv/ ^Nr `/ gìshqg ghv gìirupdwlrqv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh gh o*lqfrqqxh/ qrxv vrpphv
reoljìv g*xwlolvhu xq vfkìpd lwìudwli gh uìvroxwlrq1 Qrxv xwlolvhurqv od pìwkrgh gh vxe0
vwlwxwlrq/ txl frqvlvwh ã ìydoxhu ^Nr ` ã fkdtxh lwìudwlrq hq irqfwlrq gh %? / hw ã uìvrxguh
+7193,1
Qrxv doorqv frqvlgìuhu xqh vhfwlrq hq ìtxloleuh hw qrxv qrwhurqv =
%r oh yhfwhxu gìirupdwlrq gh od vhfwlrq =
# $
%?
%r @ +7196,
%|
Ir oh yhfwhxu ghv vroolflwdwlrqv h{whuqhv =
# $
Ir?
Ir @ +7197,
Ir|
Fhwwh vhfwlrq yd vxelu xq dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrqv h{whuqhv =
# $
Ir?
Ir @ +7198,
Ir|
dlqvl txh o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh frqfrplwdqwh dx fkdujhphqw frqvlgìuì =
# $
Dr?
Dr @ +7199,
Dr|
Qrxv fkhufkrqv ã fdofxohu o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq gh od vhfwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqw =
# $
%?
%r @ +719:,
%|
Hq lqyhuvdqw +7193,/ rq rewlhqw =

%r @ ^Vr` = +Ir . Dr , +719;,

rü ^Vr ` hvw od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh od vhfwlrq/ gìqlh sdu =


^Vr ` @ ^Nr `3 +719<,
715 Ìwxgh g*xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh 43<

F
s

Fs + ∆ F s

F
s

0
εs ε s+ ∆εs εs

Iljxuh 7147 = Uìvroxwlrq lwìudwlyh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq

Qrxv frqvwuxlvrqv xqh vxlwh gh yhfwhxuv gìirupdwlrqv gh od vhfwlrq %r gìqlh sdu =

%rf @ +3, +71:3,

%rn @ ^Vr ` = +Ir . Dr, +71:4,

rü ^Vr ` hvw od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh od vhfwlrq frugh hqwuh ohv ìwdwv gh gìirupdwlrq %r hw
%r . %r 1 Rq frqvlgëuh txh od vxlwh gh yhfwhxuv gìirupdwlrq gh od vhfwlrq %r d frqyhujì
oruvtxh =  
%r
 n 
%r 2
 ? wrovhf +71:5,
%r . %r 
n 2
rü wrovhf hvw od wroìudqfh gh frqyhujhqfh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq/ grqw od ydohxu hvw
{ìh sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu1 Sdu gìidxw/ qrxv dyrqv =

wrovhf @ 433e +71:6,

715143 Ohv olplwhv

Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu vxu od jxuh +7147,/ oruvtxh o*rq slorwh hq irufh/ fh txl hvw qrwuh
fdv/ rq qh shxw sdv iudqfklu oh slf gx gldjudpph hruw0gìirupdwlrq1 Hq hhw/ srxu xq
hruw grqqì/ rq shxw wurxyhu soxvlhxuv gìirupdwlrqv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv1 Qrwuh pìwkrgh gh
uìvroxwlrq irxuqlw od suhplëuh gìirupdwlrq vroxwlrq1 Srxu iudqfklu oh slf/ lo hvw qìfhvvdluh
443 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

gh slorwhu hq gìirupdwlrq/ hw grqf hq gìsodfhphqw1 Fhfl hvw grqf xqh olplwh srxu qrwuh
ìoìphqw ql gh w|sh vhpl0lqyhuvh1 Qrxv qrxv hq dffrpprgrqv ìwdqw grqqì oh fkdps
g*dssolfdwlrq gx surjudpph/ txl hvw fhqvì fdofxohu o*ìwdw gh vwuxfwxuhv gh Jìqlh flylo/
vxssrvìhv uhvwhu gdqv oh grpdlqh ìodvwltxh/ ìyhqwxhoohphqw qrq olqìdluh/ pdlv hq dxfxq
fdv gdqv oh grpdlqh srvw0slf1
Sdu dloohxuv/ od uxswxuh hvw gìwhfwìh gëv txh od pdwulfh ^Nr ` q*hvw soxv gìqlh srvlwlyh1
Srxu whvwhu fhfl/ fhuwdlqv dxwhxuv d!uphqw tx*lo vx!w gh yìulhu oh vljqh gx gìwhuplqdqw
gh ^Nr`/ txl fruuhvsrqg dx surgxlw ghv ydohxuv sursuhv gh ^Nr `1 Gdqv od soxsduw ghv
fdv/ fhod shxw vx!uh1 Pdlv qrxv dyrqv uhqfrqwuì xq fdv rü ghx{ ydohxuv sursuhv gh ^Nr `
vrqw ghyhqxhv qìjdwlyhv dx frxuv gh od píph lwìudwlrq1 Od vhfwlrq ìwdlw grqf uxlqìh/
pdlv oh whvw edvì vxu oh vljqh gx gìwhuplqdqw q*dydlw ulhq gìwhfwì1 Qrxv hhfwxrqv grqf
v|vwìpdwltxhphqw xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh gh ^Nr ` ã fkdtxh lwìudwlrq/ hw qrxv whvwrqv oh vljqh
gh od soxv shwlwh ghv ydohxuv sursuhv srxu gìwhfwhu od uxlqh ìyhqwxhooh gh od vhfwlrq1
Od pìwkrgh gh vxevwlwxwlrq shxw v*dyìuhu ohqwh gdqv fhuwdlqv fdv1 F*hvw srxutxrl qrxv
dyrqv lpsodqwì xq dffìoìudwhxu gh frqyhujhqfh gdqv o*dojrulwkph lwìudwli1 Ã sduwlu g*xqh
txlq}dlqh g*lwìudwlrqv/ dx olhx g*hhfwxhu vlpsohphqw od vxevwlwxwlrq/ qrxv hqfohqfkrqv od
pìwkrgh glwh gh od idxvvh srvlwlrq/ txl frqvlvwh ã frqvwuxluh %rn gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =

 
%r i +%r ,  %r i %r 
%rn @
3 3
  +71:7,
i +%r ,  i %r 
3

rü i hvw od irqfwlrq yhfwrulhooh txh o*rq yhxw dqqxohu =

i +%r , @ %r  ^Nr +%r . %r ,`3 = +Ir . Dr , +71:8,

%rn uhsuìvhqwh od m ëph frpsrvdqwh gx yhfwhxu %rn / m yduldqw gh 4 ã 91


Vl oh qrpeuh g*lwìudwlrqv ghylhqw wurs lpsruwdqw vdqv txh o*rq dlw sx frqvwdwhu od
frqyhujhqfh ql od uxswxuh gh od vhfwlrq/ qrxv frqfoxrqv ã xq ìwdw glw gh glyhujhqfh gh od
vhfwlrq/ txl lqwhuurpsw qìdqprlqv oh surfhvvxv lwìudwli1

716 Lqwìjudwlrq oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw

71614 Uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv vroolflwdwlrqv ghv vhfwlrqv hw ohv hruwv ìoìphq0
wdluhv

Gdqv fh sdudjudskh/ qrxv doorqv ìwdeolu od uhodwlrq h{lvwdqw hqwuh Ir / ohv vroolflwdwlrqv gdqv
xqh vhfwlrq gurlwh hw I? / ohv hruwv dx{ qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1
716 Lqwìjudwlrq oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw 444

Qrxv dyrqv yx txh od vhfwlrq vxelw ohv hruwv h{whuqhv vxlydqwv =


3 4
Q
E F
#
E
$ E
P+ F
F
Ir? E P5 F
Ir @ @E
E
F
F +71:9,
Ir| E
E W+ F
F
E F
C W5 D
P%
Fhv hruwv vrqw dssoltxìv vxu od vhfwlrq g*devflvvh uhodwlyh { vxu o*d{h J{ gx uhsëuh lqwulq0
vëtxh1 Rq shxw grqf ìfuluh =
3 4
Q +{,
E F
#
E
$ E
P+ +{, F
F
Ir? +{, E P5 +{, F
Ir +{, @ @E
E
F
F +71::,
Ir| +{, E
E W+ +{, F
F
E F
C W5 +{, D
P% +{,
Od irupxodwlrq hq ìoìphqwv qlv gh w|sh vhpl0lqyhuvh qìfhvvlwh od gìqlwlrq gh od
irqfwlrq gh iruph srxu ohv hruwv1 Qrxv fkrlvlvvrqv ohv irqfwlrqv gh iruph ohv soxv vlpsohv
txl vrlhqw/ f*hvw0ã0gluh txh qrxv doorqv vxssrvhu od glvwulexwlrq g*hruw qrupdo frqvwdqwh oh
orqj gh o*ìoìphqw/ hw txh ohv prphqwv ìfklvvdqwv ydulhqw olqìdluhphqw oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1
Ohv hruwv wudqfkdqwv hw oh prphqw gh wruvlrq vrqw fhqvìv uhvwhu frqvwdqwv gdqv o*ìoìphqw1
Qrxv vxssrvrqv hq rxwuh txh gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ ohv hhwv gx vhfrqg ruguh vrqw
qìjoljìv1
Dlqvl/ od uhodwlrq h{lvwdqw hqwuh Ir +{, hw I? / oh yhfwhxu ghv hruwv uìgxlw gdqv oh uhsëuh
lqwulqvëtxh hvw od vxlydqwh/ ìwdqw grqqìhv ohv frqyhqwlrqv gh vljqh gh od jxuh +7143, =
Srxu ohv vroolflwdwlrqv qrupdohv =

Q +{, @ Q  +71:;,


{ {
P+ +{, @ 4  P+  P+ +71:<,
O O J J
 
{ {
P5 +{, @  4
OJ
P5 . P5
OJ
+71;3,

Srxu ohv hruwv wudqfkdqwv =

W+ +{, @ W+ @ P5 .O P5 +71;4,

W5 +{, @ W5 @  P+ .O P+ +71;5,


445 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

Srxu oh prphqw gh wruvlrq =


P% +{, @ P% +71;6,

Vdfkdqw txh =
P% +{, @ P% +{,  |S=W5 +{, . }S=W+ +{, +71;7,

lo ylhqw =

P% +{, @ P%  |S=W5 +{, . }S=W+ +{, +71;8,

@ P% . |OS P+ . |OS P+ . }OS P5 . }OS P5 +71;9,

Wrxw fhfl vh phw pdwulflhoohphqw vrxv od iruph =

Ir +{, @ ^O +{,`  I? +71;:,

rü O +{, hvw xqh pdwulfh grqw od irupxodwlrq hvw grqqìh sdu =


5 6
4 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9
9
3 4  u%f 3 3  u%f 3 :
:
9
^O +{,` @ 9
9
3 3 4 . u%f 3 3 % :
uf : +71;;,
9 3 3  3 3  ::
9 u u :
9
7 3  u 3 3  u 3 :8
3 +S
u
5S
u 4 +S
u
5S
u
Hq qìjoljhdqw od yduldwlrq gh orqjxhxu gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ rq shxw
ìfuluh =
Ir +{, @ ^O +{,` =I? +71;<,

Fhfl uhylhqw ã gluh =


^O +{,` @ ^3` +71<3,

71615 Uhodwlrq hqwuh ohv gìsodfhphqwv ìoìphqwdluhv hw ohv gìirupdwlrqv


ghv vhfwlrqv
Gdqv fh sdudjudskh/ qrxv doorqv ìwdeolu od uhodwlrq h{lvwdqw hqwuh V? / ohv gìsodfhphqwv ghv
qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh hw %r / ohv gìirupdwlrqv ghv vhfwlrqv gh fhw
ìoìphqw1 Srxu fhod/ qrxv doorqv frqvlgìuhu I? / xqh yduldwlrq vwdwltxhphqw dgplvvleoh ghv
hruwv dx{ qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw/ gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1 Oh wudydlo yluwxho dlqvl lqgxlw
hvw =
z? @ |I? =V? +71<4,

Od yduldwlrq vwdwltxhphqw dgplvvleoh I? lqgxlw xqh yduldwlrq Ir ghv vroolflwdwlrqv gdqv
ohv vhfwlrqv gh o*ìoìphqw1 Oh wudydlo yluwxho ghv vhfwlrqv v*ìfulw =
] uf
zr @ | I +{, =% +{, g{ +71<5,
r r
f
716 Lqwìjudwlrq oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw 446

G*dsuëv oh wkìruëph gx wudydlo yluwxho frpsoìphqwdluh/ rq d =

z? @ zr +71<6,

Hq frqvlgìudqw +71;<,/ rq rewlhqw =

Ir +{, @ ^O +{,` =I? +71<7,

G*rü = ] uf
| I =V @ | I =| ^O +{,` =% +{, g{ +71<8,
? ? ? r
f
Frpph I? qh gìshqg sdv gh {/ lo ylhqw =
] uf
| I =V @ | I? = | ^O +{,` =% +{, g{ +71<9,
? ? r
f

Od yduldwlrq I? ìwdqw duelwudluh/ rq hq gìgxlw doruv =


] uf
V? @ | ^O +{,` =% +{, g{ +71<:,
r
f

Wrxmrxuv hq qìjoljhdqw od yduldwlrq gh orqjxhxu gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ rq


shxw ìfuluh =
] uf
V? @ | ^O +{,` =% +{, g{ +71<;,
r
f

71616 Irupdwlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluh dg? o gdqv oh uhsëuh


lqwulqvëtxh
Hq uhpsodêdqw +719;, gdqv +71<;,/ lo ylhqw =
] uf
V? @ | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 = +I +{, . D +{,, g{ +71<<,
r r r
f

Hq whqdqw frpswh gh +71;<,/ rq rewlhqw =


] uf
V? @ | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 +^O +{,` =I . D +{,, g{ +71433,
r ? r
f
] uf ] uf
@ | 3

^O +{,` = ^Nr ` = ^O +{,` I? g{ . | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 =D +{, g{
r r
f f

Frpph I? qh gìshqg sdv gh {/ rq shxw ìfuluh =


] uf ] uf
V? @ | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 = ^O +{,` g{=I . | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 =D +{, g{ +71434,
r ? r r
f f

Od pdwulfh gh vrxsohvvh gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ qrwìh ^V? `/ dssdudñw qd0
wxuhoohphqw hq srvdqw =
] uf
^V? ` @ | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 = ^O +{,` g{ +71435,
r
f
447 Fkdslwuh 7 Qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh

Rq gìqlw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh =

^N? ` @ ^V? `3 +71436,

Hqq/ o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh v*ìfulw =


] uf
D? @ ^N? ` = | ^O +{,` = ^N `3 =D +{, g{ +71437,
r r
f
U uf |
Oh whuph f ^O +{,` = ^Nr `3 =Dr +{, g{ fruuhvsrqg ã o*lqwìjudwlrq ghv gìirupdwlrqv lq0
gxlwhv sdu od suìfrqwudlqwh/ oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw1 Dlqvl/ hq lqyhuvdqw od uhodwlrq +71434,/ rq
rewlhqw =
I? . D? @ ^N? ` =V? +71438,

Od pdwulfh ^N?` dlqvl rewhqxh hvw od pdwulfh frugh uholdqw o*dffurlvvhphqw g*hruwv
ã o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìsodfhphqwv dx{ qúxgv gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv vrq uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1
O*rsìudwhxu ^N? ` suhqg hq frpswh ã oxl wrxw vhxo od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh1 Frpph qrxv
o*dyrqv yx gdqv oh fkdslwuh frqvdfuì ã od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh/ od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì
gh o*ìoìphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo vh phw vrxv od iruph =
 
^Nf ` @ ^Sf` | ^Wf` | ^E ` ^N? ` ^E ` . ^G` ^Wf` | ^Sf` +71439,

rü ^Sf` hw ^Wf` vrqw ghv pdwulfhv frqvwdqwhv1 Od irupxodwlrq jìrpìwultxh/ txl dssdudñw
ã wudyhuv ohv pdwulfhv ^E ` hw ^G`/ hvw xqh irupxodwlrq wdqjhqwh1 O*rsìudwhxu txh qrxv
xwlolvrqv hvw k|eulgh = lo hvw frugh hq qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh hw wdqjhqw hq qrq0olqìdulwì
jìrpìwultxh1
Fkdslwuh 8

Dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq

Qrxv doorqv suìvhqwhu qrwuh dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq1 Qrxv doorqv g*derug gìyhors0
shu oh surfhvvxv plv hq úxyuh srxu wurxyhu o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq/ sxlv qrxv gìfulurqv
o*dojrulwkph shuphwwdqw gh yìulhu o*ìtxloleuh jìqìudo gh od vwuxfwxuh1

814 Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq


O*dojrulwkph shuphwwdqw od uhfkhufkh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq hvw gìfulw vxu od jxuh
+814,1 Ã sduwlu g*xq ìwdw ìtxloleuì gh od vhfwlrq/ qrxv dssoltxrqv o*lqfuìphqw g*hruwv
h{wìulhxuv Ir/ dyhf ìyhqwxhoohphqw o*dfwlrq gh od suìfrqwudlqwh Dr 1 Hq suhqdqw xq df0
furlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrqv %r qxo srxu frpphqfhu/ qrxv fdofxorqv od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì
gh od vhfwlrq ^Nr `1 Qrxv hhfwxrqv doruv xqh dqdo|vh vshfwudoh gh ^Nr ` dq g*hq gìwhuplqhu
od soxv shwlwh ghv ydohxuv sursuhv/ txh qrxv qrwhurqv 6? 1 Vl 6? 9 3/ doruv qrxv frq0
foxrqv ã od uxlqh gh od vhfwlrq hw oh surfhvvxv lwìudwli hvw lppìgldwhphqw vwrssì1 Vlqrq/
rq uìvrxw o*ìtxdwlrq g*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq =

Ir . Dr @ ^Nr` =%r +814,

mxvtx*ã frqyhujhqfh gh %r1 V*lo q*| d sdv frqyhujhqfh/ %r hvw prglì oh fdv ìfkìdqw ã
o*dlgh gh od pìwkrgh gh od idxvvh srvlwlrq/ sxlv qrxv uììydoxrqv ^Nr ` srxu uhfrpphqfhu
oh f|foh/ mxvtx*ã frqyhujhqfh1 Vl dx erxw g*xq qrpeuh g*lwìudwlrqv {ì ã o*dydqfh/ rq qh
frqvwdwh sdv gh frqyhujhqfh/ qrxv frqfoxrqv doruv ã xq ìwdw gh glyhujhqfh gh od vhfwlrq/
txl lqwhuurpsw oh surfhvvxv1

815 Ìtxloleuh jìqìudo gh od vwuxfwxuh


O*dojrulwkph shuphwwdqw od uhfkhufkh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vwuxfwxuh hvw gìfulw vxu od jxuh
+815,1 Od vwuxfwxuh ìwxglìh hvw srvlwlrqqìh gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo R[\ ] 1 Hooh hvw fhqvìh
449 Fkdslwuh 8 Dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq

Etat équilibré:
Fs, εs

∆Fs

Αs

∆εs = 0

Formation de la matrice de
rigidité de la section Ks

Analyse spectrale de Ks

Méthode de la
λmin < 0 Test sur λmin
fausse position

λmin > 0

Résolution du système
Rupture de la section
∆Fs + Αs = Ks. ∆εs

Test sur la
Non Divergence
convergence de ∆εs

Oui

Code retour 2 Code retour 0 Code retour 1

Fin

Iljxuh 814 = Rujdqljudpph gh o*dojrulwkph gh uhfkhufkh g*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq


815 Ìtxloleuh jìqìudo gh od vwuxfwxuh 44:

íwuh gdqv xq ìwdw ìtxloleuì vrxv xq fkdujhphqw S gìql gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo/ dyhf oh gì0
sodfhphqw fruuhvsrqgdqw V} hw ohv hruwv lqwhuqhv I} gdqv oh píph uhsëuh1 Od gìirupdwlrq
gh fkdfxqh ghv vhfwlrqv hvw ìjdohphqw frqqxh1
Od vwuxfwxuh yd vxelu xq dffurlvvhphqw gh fkdujh S / frxsoì ìyhqwxhoohphqw ã xqh plvh
hq suìfrqwudlqwh qrwìh D} / hw qrxv ghyrqv wurxyhu o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìsodfhphqwv V}
fruuhvsrqgdqw1 Srxu fhod/ qrxv doorqv frqvwuxluh xqh vxlwh gh vroxwlrqv V} gh od idêrq
vxlydqwh = V}n hvw vroxwlrq gh o*ìtxdwlrq

S . D} @ ^N} ` =V}n +815,

rü ^N} ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vwuxfwxuh/ rewhqxh dsuëv dvvhpeodjh ghv pdwulfhv
gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluhv ^Nf `/ ã o*ìwdsh l1 Od vxlwh hvw lqlwldolvìh dyhf =

V}f @ +3, +816,

à fkdtxh lwìudwlrq/ fkdtxh pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluh ^Nf ` hvw uhfdofxoìh gdqv oh
uhsëuh joredo/ sxlv hvw dvvhpeoìh gdqv ^N} `1 Od uhodwlrq +815, hvw lqyhuvìh1 Rq gìfoduh txh
od vxlwh d frqyhujì oruvtxh =
 
V}  V}  ? wroghs
n
+817,
nV} . V} n
rü wroghs hvw od wroìudqfh gh frqyhujhqfh hq gìsodfhphqw gh od vwuxfwxuh1 wroghs hvw {ì
sdu gìidxw ã =
wroghs @ 433D +818,

Vl oh qrpeuh g*lwìudwlrqv ghylhqw wurs lpsruwdqw/ od vwuxfwxuh hvw gìfoduìh glyhujhqwh1 Dx


frxuv gh od irupdwlrq ghv pdwulfhv ^Nf `/ xqh uxswxuh rx xqh glyhujhqfh g*xqh vhfwlrq
shxw íwuh revhuyìh1 Fhfl duuíwh lppìgldwhphqw oh surfhvvxv gh fdofxo1 O*lqyhuvlrq gh +815,
v*hhfwxh dx pr|hq g*xqh uìvroxwlrq gh Fkrohvn|/ fh txl d o*dydqwdjh gh frqwu÷ohu oh vljqh
ghv ydohxuv sursuhv gh ^N} `1 Vl o*xqh ghv ydohxuv sursuhv gh ^N} ` hvw qìjdwlyh/ od uìvroxwlrq
gh Fkrohvn| hvw lpsrvvleoh/ hw oh surfhvvxv v*duuíwh/ hq gìwhfwdqw oh qúxg hw oh ghjuì gh
olehuwì frqfhuqì1 Oh vwrfndjh vh idlw fodvvltxhphqw vrxv od oljqh gh flho/ srxu ohv pdwulfhv
uìhoohv v|pìwultxhv1 Sdu dloohxuv/ ohv qúxgv rqw vxel xqh uhqxpìurwdwlrq lqwhuqh dq gh
plqlplvhu od wdlooh gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ^N} ` +yrlu dqqh{h E,1
Xqh irlv txh od vwuxfwxuh d frqyhujì hq gìsodfhphqw/ qrxv iruprqv ohv hruwv lqwhuqhv ã od
vwuxfwxuh fruuhvsrqgdqw dx qrxyho ìwdw gh gìsodfhphqw ã o*dlgh gh od uhodwlrq +614;5,/ txl
v*ìfulw lfl =
I . I @ | ^E +V . V ,` = +I? . I? , +819,

Sdu +61439, hw +61546,/ qrxv iruprqv ohv hruwv lqwhuqhv If gh fkdfxq ghv ìoìphqwv gh
od vwuxfwxuh/ hw ohxu dffurlvvhphqw fruuhvsrqgdqw If gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo1 Gh sdu od
44; Fkdslwuh 8 Dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq

Etat équilibré:
P, F g, S g, ε

résidu = ∆ P

∆ P = ∆ P/2 ∆ Sg = 0

Boucle sur les éléments


actifs de la structure

∆ P trop faible ∆ Fn

Boucle sur les sections


de l'élément

Divergence ou Recherche d'équilibre


rupture des sections

K n, A n
K l, A l
K X, A X

Assemblage de K g
Formation de A g

Résolution du système
résidu + A g = K g. ∆ S g

Test sur la
Divergence Non
convergence de ∆ S g

Oui

Cumul S g, F g, F l, F n , ε

résidu = (P+ ∆ P) - F g

Test sur la norme du


Divergence résidu important
résidu d'équilibre

résidu faible

Fin

Iljxuh 815 = Rujdqljudpph gh o*dojrulwkph gh uhfkhufkh g*ìtxloleuh gh od vwuxfwxuh


815 Ìtxloleuh jìqìudo gh od vwuxfwxuh 44<

frqqh{lrq ghv ìoìphqwv hqwuh hx{/ qrxv fdofxorqv ohv hruwv lqwhuqhv I} gh od vwuxfwxuh
duulydqw ã fkdtxh qúxg/ hw ohxu dffurlvvhphqw I} 1 Rq surfëgh ã xqh uììydoxdwlrq gx
uìvlgx sdu glìuhqfh hqwuh oh fkdujhphqw h{whuqh hw ohv hruwv lqwhuqhv gh od vwuxfwxuh gdqv
oh uhsëuh joredo =
uhvlgx @ S . S  +I} . I} , +81:,

Fh qrxyhdx uìvlgx hvw uìlqmhfwì frpph qrxyhdx fkdujhphqw hw oh f|foh uhsuhqg1 Oruvtxh
od qruph gx uìvlgx hvw idleoh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh =

nuhvlgxn 9 wrouhv= nS . S n +81;,

rü wrouhv hvw od wroìudqfh hq uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh/ oh surfhvvxv v*duuíwh1 Sdu gìidxw/ qrxv
sursrvrqv =
wrouhv @ 433D +81<,

Vl ã xq prphqw grqqì/ qrxv revhuyrqv xqh uxswxuh g*xqh ghv vhfwlrqv/ rx xqh glyhujhqfh
dx qlyhdx ghv vhfwlrqv/ ghv gìsodfhphqwv gh od vwuxfwxuh rx gh vrq uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh/
oh fkdujhphqw h{whuqh hvw glylvì sdu 51 Vl o*dojrulwkph q*duulyh sdv ã frqyhujhu píph
dsuëv dyrlu glylvì sdu 5 oh fkdujhphqw lqlwldo qgly irlv/ oh surfhvvxv v*duuíwh1 qgly hvw xq
sdudpëwuh/ txl ydxw 43 sdu gìidxw1 Oh surjudpph gìfrxsh dlqvl oh fkdujhphqw h{whuqh hq
xq fkdujhphqw soxv idleoh/ txl/ v*lo | d frqyhujhqfh/ hvw uìdssoltxì1 Sdu fh surfhvvxv/ rq
gìwhuplqh od fkdujh fulwltxh gh od vwuxfwxuh/ frpph xqh iudfwlrq gx fkdujhphqw lqlwldo1
Fhw dojrulwkph shuphw dlqvl g*dyrlu xqh judqgh delolwì gdqv od uìvroxwlrq gx fkdujh0
phqw/ hw ìylwh ã o*xwlolvdwhxu gh uhfkhufkhu pdqxhoohphqw oh sdv gh fkdujh/ dlqvl txh od
fkdujh fulwltxh1
453 Fkdslwuh 8 Dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq
Fkdslwuh 9

Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

Oh surjudpph SFS d ìwì frqêx lqlwldohphqw srxu ìwxglhu ohv vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suì0
frqwudlqw1 Oh eìwrq hvw xq pdwìuldx grqw ohv fdudfwìulvwltxhv ìyroxhqw dyhf oh whpsv1 Lo
hvw vxmhw dx uhwudlw dlqvl tx*dx xdjh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh ã xqh yduldwlrq gh gìirupdwlrq ã frq0
wudlqwh frqvwdqwh1 Hq rxwuh/ ohv dupdwxuhv gh suìfrqwudlqwh ìwdqw iruwhphqw whqgxhv/ rq
revhuyh xq skìqrpëqh gh uhod{dwlrq gh o*dflhu/ f*hvw0ã0gluh xqh yduldwlrq gh frqwudlqwh ã
gìirupdwlrq frqvwdqwh1 O*hqvhpeoh gh fhv skìqrpëqhv suryrtxh ohv hhwv glìuìv g*xq
fkdujhphqw1 O*remhfwli gh fh fkdslwuh q*hvw sdv gh uhirupxohu oh sureoëph gx xdjh +xqh
wkëvh qh vx!udlw sdv,/ pdlv gh idluh oh srlqw vxu ohv glìuhqwhv pìwkrghv g*lqwìjudwlrq
whpsruhooh gx xdjh dq g*hq fkrlvlu xqh hw gh od frghu1 Hq rxwuh/ qrxv qrxv olplwhurqv
dx{ suhvfulswlrqv uìjohphqwdluhv hq fh txl frqfhuqh ohv orlv gh uhwudlw/ gh xdjh hw gh
uhod{dwlrq1

914 Ioxdjh dyhf orl gh frpsruwhphqw olqìdluh

91414 Od irqfwlrq gh xdjh/ od irqfwlrq gh uhod{dwlrq

Fodvvltxhphqw ^Hvs;9d`/ od gìirupdwlrq gx eìwrq gh gìfrpsrvh hq 6 ìoìphqwv =

% @ % . %s, . %o +914,

dyhf =

 % = gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh/
 %s, = gìirupdwlrq gh xdjh vrxv frqwudlqwh frqvwdqwh/

 %o = gìirupdwlrq gh uhwudlw1
455 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

Fhv gìirupdwlrqv/ hq fh txl qrxv frqfhuqh/ fruuhvsrqghqw ã od gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh gh


od vhfwlrq1 F*hvw srxutxrl/ vdxi lqglfdwlrq frqwudluh/ gdqv oh gìyhorsshphqw txl vxlw/ qrxv
vxssrvrqv txh o*rq idlw uìiìuhqfh ã od gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh orqjlwxglqdoh gh od vhfwlrq1
Wrxv ohv prgëohv hpslultxhv rx qrupdolvìv gh xdjh vrqw olqìdluhv1 Fhfl lpsoltxh
tx*dxvvl elhq od gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh % txh od gìirupdwlrq gh xdjh %s, vrqw sursru0
wlrqqhoohv ã od frqwudlqwh dssoltxìh1 Fhfl qrxv shuphw g*ìfuluh =
   
% +w, @ % w . %s, w> w . %o +w, +915,
   
% +w, @  w M w> w . %o +w, +916,
 
M w> w 
hvw dsshoìh irqfwlrq gh xdjh gx pdwìuldx1 Hooh uhsuìvhqwh od gìirupdwlrq vsì0
fltxh +sdu xqlwì gh frqwudlqwh, wrwdoh dx whpsv w/ gìirupdwlrq gh uhwudlw gìgxlwh1 w hvw 

 
o*åjh gh fkdujhphqw frqvlgìuì frpph xqh yduldeoh1 Od irqfwlrq gh xdjh M w> w hvw


fodvvltxhphqw vìsduìh hq vhv frpsrvdqwhv lqvwdqwdqìh hw glìuìh1


  4  
M w> w @ . F w> w +917,
H +w , 

4
Oh whuph uhsuìvhqwh od sduwlh lqvwdqwdqìh gh od gìirupdwlrq1 Qrxv dyrqv g*dloohxuv
H +w ,


od uhodwlrq =   4
H w @ +918,
M +w > w ,
 

 
F w> w 
v*dsshooh oh
xdjh vsìfltxh hw uhsuìvhqwh vwulfwhphqw od sduwlh gh gìirupdwlrq
 
glìuìh> sdu gìqlwlrq F w > w @ 31 Oh xdjh vsìfltxh shxw dyrlu ghx{ gìqlwlrqv =
 

 
 ! w> w 


F w> w @

+919,
H +w , 

rx =  
 !2H w> w 


F w> w @

+91:,
H2H
Lo | d dlqvl ghx{ gìqlwlrqv gx frh!flhqw gh xdjh vxlydqw txh o*rq frqvlgëuh fhoxl0fl
frpph =

41 Oh udssruw gh od gìirupdwlrq gh xdjh/ srxu wrxw åjh w/ dsuëv dssolfdwlrq gh od


fkdujh hq w / ã od gìirupdwlrq ìodvwltxh ã o*åjh gh 5; mrxuv +dssurfkh FHE rx ESHO


sdu h{hpsoh,
  % +w,  %o +w,
!2H w> w

@
% +5;,
4 +91;,
 
  4 !2H w> w 

M w> w @ .

+91<,
H +w , 
H2H
914 Ioxdjh dyhf orl gh frpsruwhphqw olqìdluh 456

51 Oh udssruw gh od gìirupdwlrq gh xdjh/ srxu wrxw åjh w/ dsuëv dssolfdwlrq gh od


fkdujh hq w / ã od gìirupdwlrq ìodvwltxh dx prphqw gh od plvh hq fkdujh +dssurfkh


DFL sdu h{hpsoh,


  % +w,  %o +w,
! w> w

@
% +w ,
4 
+9143,
  4   
M w> w @ 4 . ! w> w
 
+9144,
H +w , 

Txrl tx*lo hq vrlw/ od gìqlwlrq gx xdjh vsìfltxh ìwdqw/ hooh/ xqlyrtxh/ rq d o*ìtxl0
ydohqfh =  
 H w   


! w> w @ !2H w> w


 
+9145,
H2H
Srxu lqirupdwlrq/ od irqfwlrq gh xdjh gx ESHO hvw od vxlydqwh =
   
  4 Ns, w
i w w

M w> w @ . +9146,
H +w ,
H2H
 
Od irqfwlrq gh uhod{dwlrq U w> w 
wudgxlw pdwkìpdwltxhphqw gdqv oh whpsv o*ìyroxwlrq
vsìfltxh +f*hvw0ã0gluh srxu xqh gìirupdwlrq xqlwdluh, gh od frqwudlqwh d{ldoh =
k     l  
 +w, @ % w  %o w U w> w 
+9147,

91415 Od iruph lqwìjudoh = oh sulqflsh gh vxshusrvlwlrq

Oh sulqflsh gh vxshusrvlwlrq/ gþ ã Erow}pdqq/ hvw ã od edvh gh wrxv ohv dojrulwkphv olqìdluhv


gh fdofxo ghv gìirupdwlrqv2frqwudlqwhv uìvxowdqw g*klvwrultxhv gh frqwudlqwhv2gìirupdwlrqv
yduldeohv1 Lo vh udpëqh/ pdwkìpdwltxhphqw/ ã xqh vrppdwlrq lqwìjudoh1
Srxu oh xdjh =
] |    
% +w,  %o +w, @ M w> w g w

+9148,
f

Srxu od uhod{dwlrq = ] |  k     l
 +w, @ U w> w

g% w  g%o w +9149,
f

91416 Od iruph glìuhqwlhooh


Od uhodwlrq h{lvwdqw hqwuh od frqwudlqwh hw od gìirupdwlrq g*xq pdwìuldx shxw vh phwwuh vrxv
od iruph g*xqh ìtxdwlrq glìuhqwlhooh olqìdluh1 Frpph oh frpsruwhphqw ylvfr0ìodvwltxh vh
gìfrpsrvh hq xqh sduwlh ìodvwltxh hw xqh sduwlh ylvtxhxvh/ ohv ghx{ prgëohv gh edvh xwlolvìv
vrqw oh prgëoh gh Krrnh/ prgìolvì sdu xq uhvvruw/ hw oh prgëoh gh Qhzwrq/ prgìolvì sdu
xq dpruwlvvhxu1
457 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

O*ìtxdwlrq frqvwlwxwlyh gx prgëoh gh Krrnh hvw grqf =

 @ H% +914:,

rü H hvw oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gx pdwìuldx1


Oh prgëoh gh Qhzwrq hvw fdudfwìulvì sdu =

 @ %b +914;,

Hq hhfwxdqw ghv frpelqdlvrqv/ hq vìulh rx hq sdudooëoh/ gh fhv prgëohv/ rq derxwlw ã ghv


ìtxdwlrqv glìuhqwlhoohv gh od iruph =
 
[ C  [ C %
d @ e +914<,
 'f
Cw 'f Cw
rü d hw e vrqw irqfwlrqv ghv fdudfwìulvwltxhv ukìrorjltxhv gx pdwìuldx1 Rq shxw lqwìjuhu
fhwwh ìtxdwlrq glìuhqwlhooh dqdo|wltxhphqw/ hw o*rq rewlhqw =
  o  
[
U w> w @ D> h3k> |3| +9153,
>'f
  o  
[ 3q > |3|
M w> w @ E> h +9154,
>'f
rü D> hw E> vrqw ghv frqvwdqwhv g*lqwìjudwlrq/ hw > hw > vrqw ghv frqvwdqwhv srvlwlyhv
grqw ohv lqyhuvhv vrqw dsshoìv uhvshfwlyhphqw whpsv gh uhod{dwlrq hw whpsv gh uhwdug1
Srxu srxyrlu xwlolvhu fhwwh irupxodwlrq/ lo yd idoorlu surfìghu ã xq wudydlo g*lghqwlfdwlrq
ghv frh!flhqwv D> / E>/ > hw >1 O*dydqwdjh gh fhwwh pìwkrgh hvw gh qh sdv dyrlu
ã vwrfnhu wrxw o*klvwrultxh gh frqwudlqwh srxu uìvrxguh oh sureoëph/ pdlv gh frqqdñwuh
vhxohphqw u yduldeohv lqwhuqhv sduidlwhphqw gìqlhv1 Lo qh idxw sdv fhshqgdqw vrxv0hvwlphu
u1 O*lqfrqyìqlhqw uìvlgh gdqv o*lghqwlfdwlrq irufìphqw h{sìulphqwdoh ghv sdudpëwuhv1

91417 Od pìwkrgh gx whpsv ìtxlydohqw


Srxu dssoltxhu od pìwkrgh gx whpsv ìtxlydohqw/ rq vxssrvh vlpsohphqw o*h{lvwhqfh g*xq
prgëoh lqfuìphqwdo1 Fh prgëoh frqvlvwh ã gluh txh od ylwhvvh gh xdjh g*xq ìoìphqw gh
yroxph qh gìshqg txh gh od frqwudlqwh  dfwxhooh/ gh od gìirupdwlrq dfwxhooh gh xdjh %s,
hw gh o*åjh w gx pdwìuldx =
%b s, @ i +> %s, > w, +9155,

Fhwwh pìwkrgh shuphw gh qh soxv vwrfnhu o*klvwrultxh gh frqwudlqwh rx gh gìirupdwlrq fdu


wrxw gìshqg gh yduldeohv g*ìwdw1 Oh sulqflsh gh vxshusrvlwlrq hw od pìwkrgh gx whpsv
ìtxlydohqw ìwdqw wuëv glìuhqwv dx qlyhdx gh ohxu ìtxdwlrq frqvwlwxwlyh/ lo hvw fodlu txh
fhv ghx{ pìwkrghv vrqw lqfrpsdwleohv1 Qrxv dyrqv gìflgì gh surjudpphu oh sulqflsh gh
vxshusrvlwlrq/ xqlyhuvhoohphqw uhfrqqx1
915 Ioxdjh dyhf orl gh frpsruwhphqw qrq olqìdluh 458

91418 Oh sureoëph vwuxfwxudo

Od irqfwlrq gh xdjh hvw grqqìh +vrlw sdu xq uëjohphqw/ vrlw sdu ghv phvxuhv h{sìulphq0
wdohv, hw o*rq glvsrvh gh o*klvwrultxh gh gìirupdwlrq rx gh frqwudlqwh1 Rq yhxw fdofxohu od
frqwudlqwh dfwxhooh uìvxowdqw gh fhw klvwrultxh1 Oh sureoëph ghylhqw frpsoh{h fdu o*ìtxd0
wlrq frqvwlwxwlyh ] |    
% +w,  %o +w, @ M w> w g w

+9156,
f
ghylhqw xqhìtxdwlrq
 lqwìjudoh sxlvtxh o*lqfrqqxh jxuh vrxv oh vljqh lqwìjudoh1 Vl o*rq
uhpsodfh M w> w sdu vd ydohxu/ rq rewlhqw =


 
] |  g w 

% +w,  %o +w, @ 4 . ! w> w

+9157,
f H +w ,

Frpph ohv prgëohv


  olqìdluhv gh xdjh vxssrvhqw od sursruwlrqqdolwì hqwuh od gìirupdwlrq
lqvwdqwdqìh % w hw od frqwudlqwh dssoltxìh  w / rq d =
 

 
g w 
 
@ g% w

+9158,
H +w ,

G*rü = ] |    
% +w,  %o +w, @ 4 . ! w> w g% w

+9159,
f
Dlqvl/ dyhf ohv prgëohv olqìdluhv gh xdjh hw xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw lqvwdqwdqì olqìdluh/
oh xdjh hvw olqìdluh dxvvl elhq hq frqwudlqwh tx*hq gìirupdwlrq1

915 Ioxdjh dyhf orl gh frpsruwhphqw qrq olqìdluh


Xq sureoëph vh srvh oruvtxh o*rq yhxw wudydloohu dyhf xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx
qrq olqìdluh1 Oh prgxoh g*\rxqj H  soxv gh w vhxohphqw/ pdlv dxvvl gh od
qh gìshqg


gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh gx eìwrq = H w > % 1 Lo idxw hq rxwuh fkrlvlu hqwuh xq xdjh




olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh +fdv gx FHE sdu h{hpsoh, rx xq xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq +fdv
gx ESHO <4 sdu h{hpsoh,1
Srxu hq vdyrlu soxv/ lo hvw lqwìuhvvdqw gh frqvxowhu ohv uëjohphqwv qrq sdv dx fkdslwuh gx
xdjh/ pdlv dx{ duwlfohv frqvdfuìv ã od sulvh hq frpswh gx xdjh srxu oh dpehphqw ghv
srwhdx{1 Oh EDHO <4 lqgltxh +duwlfoh D1717/65, g*rsìuhu vxu oh gldjudpph gh od orl gh
frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq xqh d!qlwì sdudooëoh ã o*d{h ghv gìirupdwlrqv/ gh udssruw =
[
4.  ! i +w  m , +915:,

h{suhvvlrq gdqv odtxhooh =


459 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

  hvw oh udssruw gx prphqw gh suhplhu ruguh gþ ã o*dfwlrq dssoltxìh dx whpsv m dx


prphqw gx suhplhu ruguh/

 ! hvw od ydohxu gh ! srxu xqh fkdujh dssoltxìh dx whpsv m /


 i +w, hvw od orl g*ìyroxwlrq gx xdjh grqqìh gdqv ohv uëjohv ESHO +duwlfoh 514/85,/
 w hvw o*lqvwdqw frqvlgìuì1
Fhfl prqwuh elhq txh o*rq yd vrpphu ohv gìirupdwlrqv srxu xqh frqwudlqwh grqqìh = oh
xdjh hvw grqf olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq1 Oh ESHO hw oh EDHO vrqw frkìuhqwv dyhf xq who
prgëoh gh xdjh1
Oh FHE txdqw ã oxl hvw ehdxfrxs prlqv surol{h ã sursrv gh od sulvh hq frpswh gx
xdjh gdqv oh dpehphqw ghv srwhdx{1 Lo glw ^Fhe<3` +duwlfoh 919161617, txh wkh hhfwv
ri fuhhs pd| eh wdnhq lqwr dffrxqw dssur{lpdwho| e| grxeolqj erwk ydoxhv ri jhrphwulfdo
lpshuihfwlrqv / fh txl uhylhqw ã idluh xqh d!qlwì gh udssruw 5 sdudooëohphqw ã o*d{h ghv
gìirupdwlrqv/ frpph oh EDHO <4/ fh txl/ vdqv íwuh glw/ vxssrvh txh oh xdjh hvw olqìdluh hq
gìirupdwlrq1 Fhfl hvw hq frpsoëwh frqwudglfwlrq dyhf o*duwlfoh 514191716 wudlwdqw gx xdjh
vhxo/ txl gìfoduh oh xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh1
Uhpdutxrqv txh oh prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq yd gdqv oh vhqv gh od
vìfxulwì fdu lo vxuhvwlph od gìirupdwlrq gh xdjh sdu udssruw ã xq prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh
hq frqwudlqwh1

916 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq whpsruhooh


Srxu ìydoxhu o*ìtxdwlrq lqwìjudoh +9157,/ rq yd vxssrvhu txh o*rq d xqh glvfuìwlvdwlrq hq
whpsv gx sureoëph1 Qrxv doorqv fkhufkhu ã ìydoxhu o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh 7? vh
surgxlvdqw vxu oh sdv gh whpsv 7w? @ w?  w?31 Lo h{lvwh soxvlhxuv pdqlëuhv g*lqwìjuhu od
irqfwlrq gh xdjh1

91614 Suhplëuh pìwkrgh = od uëjoh gx uhfwdqjoh


Prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh
7 / txl fruuhvsrqg
Qrxv doorqv idluh o*k|srwkëvh vxlydqwh = o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh
ã o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh 7% / vxu oh sdv gh whpsv 7w @ w  w 3 /
hvw dssoltxì ã o*lqvwdqw w = fhfl hvw sduwlfxolëuhphqw dgdswì gdqv oh fdguh g*xq skdvdjh
gh frqvwuxfwlrq1 G*rü =

?
[
% +w? ,  %o +w? , @ M +w? > w , 7 
 '
916 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq whpsruhooh 45:

?
[ 3
@ M +w? > w? , 7 ? . M +w? > w , 7  +915;,
 '

Sdu dloohxuv/ rq shxw ìfuluh =

?
[ 3
% +w?3,  %o +w?3 , @ M +w?3> w , 7  +915<,
 '

Sdu vrxvwudfwlrq/ rq rewlhqw =

?
[ 3
7% +w?,  7%o +w?, @ M +w?> w?, 7 ? . ^M +w? > w ,  M +w?3> w ,` 7  +9163,
 '

Fhfl shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph vxlydqwh =

7% +w?,  7%o +w?, @ 7H? . 7%s, +w?, +9164,


?
rx hqfruh
7? @ H? +7% +w?,  7%o +w?,  7%s, +w?,, +9165,

dyhf =

7% +w?, @ % +w?,  % +w?3, +9166,

7%o +w?, @ %o +w?,  %o +w?3, +9167,


4
H? @ @ H +w? , +9168,
M +w? > w? ,
?
[ 3
7%s, +w?, @ ^M +w? > w ,  M +w?3> w ,` 7  +9169,
 '

Prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq


Qrxv doorqv idluh o*k|srwkëvh vxlydqwh = o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh7% /
txl fruuhvsrqg ã o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh 7 / vxu oh sdv gh whpsv 7w @ w  w 3 /
hvw dssoltxì ã o*lqvwdqw w 1 G*rü =

?
[
% +w? ,  %o +w? , @ +4 . ! +w? > w ,, 7 %
 '
?3
[
@ 7%? . +4 . ! +w? > w ,, 7 %
 '

@
7? . ?[3
+4 . ! +w? > w ,, 7 % +916:,
H +w , ?  '
45; Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

Sdu dloohxuv/ rq shxw ìfuluh =


?
[ 3
% +w?3 ,  %o +w?3 , @ +4 . ! +w? > w ,, 7 % +916;,
 '

Sdu vrxvwudfwlrq/ rq rewlhqw =

7% +w?,  7%o +w?, @ H7+w ?, . ^! +w?> w ,  ! +w?3> w ,` 7 %


?
[ 3
+916<,
?  '

Fhfl shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od iruph vxlydqwh =

7? @ H? +7% +w?,  7%o +w?,  7%s, +w?,, +9173,

dyhf =

7% +w?, @ % +w?,  % +w?3, +9174,

7%o +w?, @ %o +w?,  %o +w?3, +9175,

H? @ H +w? , +9176,


?
[ 3
7%s, +w?, @ ^! +w? > w ,  ! +w?3> w ,` 7 % +9177,
 '

91615 Ghx{lëph pìwkrgh = od uëjoh gx wudsë}h


Prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh
Qrxv doorqv idluh o*k|srwkëvh vxlydqwh = o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh 7 vxu oh sdv gh
whpsv 7w @ w  w3 hvw dssoltxì srxu prlwlì ã o*lqvwdqw w3 hw srxu prlwlì ã o*lqvwdqw
w 1 O*huuhxu gh fhwwh pìwkrgh hvw gx vhfrqg ruguh1 G*rü =

% +w? ,  %o +w? , @
?
[
^M +w? > w , . M +w? > w 3,`
7
 '
5
@ ^M +w? > w? , . M +w? > w?3 ,`
7?
5
.
?
[ 3
^M +w? > w , . M +w? > w3 ,`
7 +9178,
 '
5
Sdu dloohxuv/ rq shxw ìfuluh =

% +w?3 ,  %o +w?3, @
?
[3
^M +w?3 > w , . M +w?3> w3,`
7 +9179,
 '
5
Sdu vrxvwudfwlrq/ rq rewlhqw gh od píph idêrq txh suìfìghpphqw =

7? @ H? +7% +w?,  7%o +w?,  7%s, +w?,, +917:,


916 Glvfuìwlvdwlrq whpsruhooh 45<

dyhf =

7% +w?, @ % +w?,  % +w?3, +917;,

7%o +w?, @ %o +w?,  %o +w?3, +917<,


5
H? @ +9183,
M +w? > w? , . M +w? > w?3,
7%s, +w?, @
?
[ 3
^M +w? > w , . M +w? > w3,  M +w?3 > w ,  M +w?3> w3,`
7 +9184,
 '
5

Prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq


Qrxv doorqv idluh o*k|srwkëvh vxlydqwh = o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh 7% /
vxu oh sdv gh whpsv 7w @ w  w3 hvw dssoltxì srxu prlwlì ã o*lqvwdqw w3 hw srxu prlwlì
ã o*lqvwdqw w 1 G*rü =

% +w? ,  %o +w?, @
?
[
^5 . ! +w? > w , . ! +w? > w 3,`
7%
 '
5
 
! +w? > w?3,
@ 4.
5
7 %?
.
?
[ 3
^5 . ! +w? > w , . ! +w? > w3,`
7% +9185,
 '
5
Ru/ frpph rq vxssrvh txh 7%? hvw dssoltxì srxu prlwlì hq w?3 hw srxu prlwlì hq w?/
o*dffurlvvhphqw gh frqwudlqwh 7 ? hvw who txh =

7 @ 7%? . 7%?
?
5M +w? > w? , 5M +w? > w?3 ,
+9186,

grqf =
7%? @ 5MM+w+?w>?w>?w3 ,
?3 ,
7 ? +9187,
4.
M +w? > w? ,
Sdu dloohxuv/ rq shxw ìfuluh =

% +w?3 ,  %o +w?3, @
?
[ 3
^5 . ! +w?3> w , . ! +w?3> w 3,`
7% +9188,
 '
5
Sdu vrxvwudfwlrq/ rq rewlhqw gh od píph idêrq txh suìfìghpphqw =

7? @ H? +7% +w?,  7%o +w?,  7%s, +w?,, +9189,

dyhf =

7% +w?, @ % +w?,  % +w?3, +918:,


463 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

7%o +w?, @ %o +w?,  %o +w?3, +918;,


H +w?3 , . H +w? , +4 . ! +w? > w?3,,
H? @ +918<,
+5 . ! +w? > w?3 ,, +4 . ! +w? > w?3,,
7%s, +w?, @
?
[ 3
^! +w? > w , . ! +w? > w3 ,  ! +w?3 > w ,  ! +w?3 > w3,`
7% +9193,
 '
5

917 Dqdo|vh

91714 Fdv gx xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh

 ghod gìirupdwlrq glìuìh gh xdjh %s, +w? ,/ qrq sdv


Od gl!fxowì uìvlgh gdqv o*ìydoxdwlrq 7
ã fdxvh gh od irqfwlrq gh xdjh M w> w txl hvw xqh grqqìh gx sureoëph/ pdlv ã fdxvh gx


whuph 7 1 Hq hhw/ od orl gh frpsruwhphqw lqvwdqwdqì gx pdwìuldx ìwdqw qrq olqìdluh/
lo idxw glvfuìwlvhu hq euhv od vhfwlrq/ vwrfnhu o*klvwrultxh gh frqwudlqwh gh fkdtxh euh
g*lqwìjudwlrq gh fkdtxh vhfwlrq gh fkdtxh ìoìphqw/ srxu wrxv ohv lqvwdqwv frqvlgìuìv1 Hq
rxwuh/ od suìflvlrq gh o*lqwìjudwlrq ghv irufhv glìuìhv txh oh xdjh yd jìqìuhu hvw olìh ã od
qhvvh gx pdloodjh gh od vhfwlrq hq euhv1
Pdlv o*k|srwkëvh gx xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh srvh xq sureoëph dvvh} lpsruwdqw olì
ã od sodqìlwì vxssrvìh gh od gìirupdwlrq wrwdoh gh od vhfwlrq1 Hq hhw/ o*dffurlvvhphqw gh
gìirupdwlrq wrwdoh 7% hvw fhqvì íwuh sodq1 O*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq gh uhwudlw hvw
ìjdohphqw sodq fdu vhxoh vd frpsrvdqwh vhorq J{ hvw qrq qxooh1 Gh idlw/ oh yhfwhxu 7% 
7%o +w?, @ 7%? . 7%s, +w?, hvw sodq1 Oruvtxh o*rq revhuyh ohv ìtxdwlrqv +9169, hw +9184,/
rq yrlw txh oh yhfwhxu 7%s, +w? , hvw rewhqx ã sduwlu g*xqh frpelqdlvrq olqìdluh ghv yhfwhxuv
7 / txl vrqw hx{0píphv gìgxlwv ã o*dlgh g*xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw ìyhqwxhoohphqw qrq
olqìdluh1 Dlqvl/ ulhq qh jdudqwlw od sodqìlwì gx yhfwhxu 7%s, +w? ,1 Pdlv frpph 7%? .
7%s, +w?, hvw sodq/ fhfl vxssrvh txh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh 7%? q*hvw
sdv sodq/ fh txl sdudñw gl!flohphqw frqfhydeoh1 Qrxv dyrqv oã xqh frqwudglfwlrq gl!floh
ã ohyhu/ ã prlqv g*dgrswhu o*k|srwkëvh gx sdudjudskh vxlydqw1

91715 Fdv gx xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq

Rq shxw lfl udlvrqqhu hq dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh 7%1 O*dydqwdjh txh


surfxuh oh xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq hvw od sodqìlwì gh od gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh hw
gh od gìirupdwlrq gh xdjh1 Hq yrlfl od suhxyh sdu uìfxuuhqfh =
Suhplhu sdv =
Rq v*hvw grqqì frpph k|srwkëvh oh idlw txh od gìirupdwlrq wrwdoh gh od vhfwlrq 7% hvw
sodqh1 Dx suhplhu fkdujhphqw gh od vhfwlrq/ od gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh hvw od gìirupdwlrq
wrwdoh/ hooh hvw grqf sodqh1
Sdv q=
917 Dqdo|vh 464

Vxssrvrqv txh srxu  m  q  4 ohv gìirupdwlrqv lqvwdqwdqìhv 7% vrlhqw sodqhv1


4
Frpph 7%s, +w? , hvw xqh frpelqdlvrq olqìdluh ghv +q  4, 7% / 7%s, +w? , hvw sodq1 O*df0
furlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq gh uhwudlw 7%o +w? , hvw irufìphqw sodq fdu lo hvw frqvwdqw gdqv
od vhfwlrq1 Frpph 7% hvw sodq sdu k|srwkëvh/ hw frpph 7%? @ 7% 7%o +w? , 7%s, +w? ,/
doruv 7%? hvw sodq1
Rq d prqwuì txh wrxwhv ohv gìirupdwlrqv/ dxvvl elhq lqvwdqwdqìhv txh glìuìhv/ vrqw sodqhv1
Dlqvl/ dx olhx gh vwrfnhu o*klvwrultxh gh frqwudlqwh gh fkdtxh euh gh fkdtxh vhfwlrq/ lo
hvw qìfhvvdluh gh qh vwrfnhu txh 9 ydohxuv/ txl fruuhvsrqghqw dx{ 9 frpsrvdqwhv gh + 7%,/
oh yhfwhxu gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh1 Rq ìfulw wrxw qdwxuhoohphqw od uhodwlrq

+7%, @ +7% , . +7%_s , +9194,

rü =
+7%, hvw oh yhfwhxu gìirupdwlrq wrwdoh gh od vhfwlrq/
+7% , hvw oh yhfwhxu gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh gx eìwrq/
+7%_s , hvw oh yhfwhxu gìirupdwlrq glìuìh gx eìwrq1
Oh fdofxo sursuhphqw glw gh +7%_s , vh idlw gh od pdqlëuh vxlydqwh =

 
7%_s @ +7%o , . +7%s, , +9195,

7%o uhsuìvhqwh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq sodqh gh uhwudlw> vhxoh vd suhplëuh frp0


srvdqwh hvw qrq qxooh1

Dssolfdwlrq gx ESHO <4


Oh ESHO <4 srvh =

?
[ 3
7%s, +w?, @ Ns, +w , i +w?  w , +7%2H +w ,, +9196,
 '

7%2H +w , hvw oh yhfwhxu gh yduldwlrq frqyhqwlrqqhooh gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh/ txl hvw
gìqlh frpph od yduldwlrq gh gìirupdwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqw ã od yduldwlrq gh frqwudlqwh 7 /
dssoltxìh ã sduwlu gh o*ìwdw gh frqwudlqwh dqwìulhxu =

 3
[
3 @ 7& +9197,
&'

hq dgrswdqw frqyhqwlrqqhoohphqw od orl gh gìirupdwlrq gx eìwrq åjì gh 5; mrxuv1 Hq hhw/


od yduldwlrq frqyhqwlrqqhooh gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh 7%S gìqlh sdu oh uëjohphqw/ hvw
sodqh srxu ohv píphv udlvrqv txh suìfìghpphqw1 Rq shxw grqf od udphqhu ã xq yhfwhxu
7%2H +w , gh glphqvlrq 91
465 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

Ns, +w , hvw oh frh!flhqw gh xdjh/ ã o*åjh w =

Ns, +w , @ nr ^ne . nS n +w ,` +9198,

rü ohv frh!flhqwv nr / ne / nS hw n +w , vrqw gìqlv gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =


 oh frh!flhqw nr gìshqg gx srxufhqwdjh ghv dupdwxuhv dgkìuhqwhv orqjlwxglqdohv r

hw ydxw n2f 4 >
r

 oh frh!flhqw ne uhsuìvhqwh od olplwh lqiìulhxuh gx frh!flhqw gh xdjh gx eìwrq qrq


dupì oruvtx*lo hvw fkdujì wuëv ylhx{/ hw ydxw 3/73>

 oh frh!flhqw nS gìshqg gh  / o*k|jurpìwulh dpeldqwh h{sulpìh hq srxufhqwdjh g*kx0


plglwì uhodwlyh/ hw gx ud|rq pr|hq gh od slëfh u6 h{sulpì hq fp =
453   5 433  
nS @ . +9199,
63 6 53 . u6
 oh frh!flhqw n +w , gìshqg gx gxuflvvhphqw gx eìwrq ã o*åjh gh plvh hq fkdujh/ hw
ydxw =
433
n +w , @ +919:,
433 . w
rü w hvw o*åjh gx eìwrq/ h{sulpì hq mrxuv>

 od irqfwlrq i +w?  w , uhsuìvhqwh od orl g*ìyroxwlrq gx xdjh/ hw ydxw =


sw  w
i +w?  w , @ s
w?  w . 8su6
? 
+919;,

Hq wrxwh uljxhxu/ vhorq oh uëjohphqw/ srxu fdofxohu h{dfwhphqw oh yhfwhxu yduldwlrq


frqyhqwlrqqhooh gh gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh 7%2H +w ,/ lo idxgudlw surfìghu gh od idêrq
vxlydqwh = oruv gh od uhfkhufkh lwìudwlyh gx yhfwhxu 7% +w , txl ìtxloleuh o*dffurlvvhphqw
gh vroolflwdwlrq vxu od vhfwlrq ã o*lqvwdqw w / rq pëqh hq sdudooëoh od uhfkhufkh gx yhfwhxu
7%2H +w ,/ fdofxoì dyhf od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx ã 5; mrxuv/ hw ìtxloleudqw oh
píph dffurlvvhphqw gh vroolflwdwlrq1
Hq sudwltxh/ dx olhx gh phqhu fhwwh grxeoh uìvroxwlrq/ lo qrxv sdudñw mxglflhx{ gh idluh
o*dssur{lpdwlrq vxlydqwh/ txl frqvlvwh ã idluh xq udssruw ghv wdqjhqwhv ã o*ruljlqh ghv orlv
gh gìirupdwlrq gx eìwrq ã w mrxuv hw ã 5; mrxuv =

7%2H +w , @ HH+w , +7% +w ,, +919<,


2H
rü 7% +w , hvw oh yhfwhxu dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq qrupdoh lqvwdqwdqìh gx eìwrq
ã o*lqvwdqw w 1 Oh fdofxo hvw uljrxuhx{ vl od orl gh frpsruwhphqw hvw olqìdluh/ píph vl oh
pdwìuldx hvw ylhloolvvdqw1 Gh soxv/ oh ESHO <4 lqgltxh txh srxu w  5; mrxuv/ H +w , @ H2H /
o*dssur{lpdwlrq q*hvw grqf hhfwlyh txh gh 3 ã 5; mrxuv1 Xq fdofxo udslgh d qìdqprlqv
frqupì txh fhwwh dssur{lpdwlrq lqgxlw xqh huuhxu idleoh sdu udssruw dx fdofxo uìjohphq0
wdluh1
917 Dqdo|vh 466

91716 Uhod{dwlrq ghv dflhuv gh suìfrqwudlqwh

Od uhod{dwlrq hvw oh skìqrpëqh sk|vltxh gxdo gx xdjh1 Ohv dupdwxuhv gh suìfrqwudlqwh


yrqw vxelu xqh shuwh gh frqwudlqwhv ã gìirupdwlrq frqvwdqwh1 Vhorq oh ESHO<4/ od shuwh
sdu uhod{dwlrq dx whpsv w v*h{sulph hq wrxw srlqw gh o*dupdwxuh sdu od irupxoh vxlydqwh =
  E3>
w e f>3.cD
4 +w, @ nfff h &2 R6| +91:3,
4333
gdqv odtxhooh =

 w hvw h{sulpì hq khxuhv>


 fff hvw od ydohxu jdudqwlh gh od uhod{dwlrq lvrwkhuph ã 4333 khxuhv hq srxufhqwdjh
gh od whqvlrq lqlwldoh>

  @ jsR6|
Ro}
rü R6| hvw ìjdoh ã od whqvlrq lqlwldoh gh o*dupdwxuh gdqv oh fdv gh od srvw0
whqvlrq/ hw ã od whqvlrq ã o*ruljlqh glplqxìh ghv shuwhv ã od plvh hq whqvlrq gdqv oh
fdv gh od suì0whqvlrq>

 n @ 9  433 fff 9 5> 8


3 vl
;  43 vl fff A 5> 8
n2 @ 4> 4 vl fff 9 5> 8
 4> 8 vl fff A ;
4> 58 vl 5> 8 ? fff ? ;

91717 Frqfoxvlrq

Vl o*rq xwlolvh xq prgëoh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh/ lo q*| d sdv g*dxwuh vroxwlrq txh gh pdloohu od
vhfwlrq hq euhv hw gh vwrfnhu o*klvwrultxh gh frqwudlqwh gh fkdtxh euh1 Fhfl qrxv frqgxlw
ã pdqlsxohu ghv gìirupdwlrqv lqvwdqwdqìhv hw gh xdjh qrq sodqhv1 Lo dssdudñw txh oh
prgëoh gh xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq hvw soxv dydqwdjhx{/ hw sduidlwhphqw frpsdwleoh
dyhf oh pdloodjh g|qdpltxh gh od vhfwlrq txh qrxv xwlolvrqv1 Qrxv o*dyrqv grqf fkrlvl/ hw fh
g*dxwdqw soxv tx*lo hvw suìfrqlvì sdu oh uëjohphqw iudqêdlv1 Fhshqgdqw/ oh xdjh v*hhfwxh
vrxv fkdujhv shupdqhqwhv/ fh txl lpsoltxh txh ohv frqwudlqwhv qh grlyhqw sdv íwuh wurs
lpsruwdqwhv hw vrqw wuëv shx qrq olqìdluhv1 Dlqvl/ od glìuhqfh ghv uìvxowdwv hqwuh xq fdofxo
idlvdqw o*k|srwkëvh gx xdjh olqìdluh hq frqwudlqwh hw xq fdofxo idlvdqw o*k|srwkëvh gx
xdjh olqìdluh hq gìirupdwlrq grlw íwuh idleoh1
Qrxv dyrqv fkrlvl g*xwlolvhu od uëjoh gx uhfwdqjoh fdu gdqv fh fdv/ H? @ H +w? ,/ fh txl
vh wudgxlud sdu oh idlw txh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vwuxfwxuh vhud gìqlh dyhf oh prgxoh
g*ìodvwlflwì xvxho hw tx*lo qh vhud sdv qìfhvvdluh gh od uììydoxhu1
467 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

Qrxv qrxv vrpphv frqwhqwìv gh fdofxohu od yduldwlrq frqyhqwlrqqhooh gh gìirupdwlrq


H +w ,
lqvwdqwdqìh hq xwlolvdqw o*dssur{lpdwlrq gx udssruw ghv prgxohv g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh 1
H2H

918 Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq vrxv gìirupdwlrqv glìuìhv


91814 Ohv dupdwxuhv

Gdqv oh uhsëuh g*ìwxgh gh od vhfwlrq/ o*ìtxloleuh ghv dupdwxuhv sdvvlyhv hvw oh píph txh
suìfìghpphqw hw lo hvw grqqì sdu +716<, hw +7187,1
Srxu ohv dupdwxuhv dfwlyhv/ od uhodwlrq hqwuh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq hw gh frq0
wudlqwh q*hvw soxv grqqìh sdu +716<, pdlv hooh ghylhqw =

7sR @ HsR 7 %sR  4 +91:4,

rü HsR hvw oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gh o*dflhu gh o*dupdwxuh dfwlyh g*ruguh l hw 4 od shuwh
sdu uhod{dwlrq gh o*dflhu1 O*ìtxloleuh ghv euhv gh od vhfwlrq v*rewlhqw gh od píph idêrq
txh gdqv +7187, =
# $ % & # $ # $
Is?
@
^Ns? ` ^Ns?| `
=
%?
 7I4? +91:5,
Is| | ^N ` ^N `
s?| s| %| 7I4|
dyhf 3 4
?sR
[ E
4 F
7I4? @ 4 = E
C }sR
F = frv R =vs
D  R +91:6,
' |sR
3 4
?sR frv  R
[ E F
7I4| @ 4 = E
C  
vlq R 
F = vlq R =vs
D  R +91:7,
' |sR  |S vlq  R  }sR  }S frv  R
Oh yhfwhxu # $
+7I4 , @
7I4? +91:8,
7I4|
uhsuìvhqwh od irufh ìtxlydohqwh ã od shuwh gh suìfrqwudlqwh djlvvdqw vxu od vhfwlrq1

91815 Oh eìwrq

Hq uhsuhqdqw ohv qrwdwlrqv xwlolvìhv srxu o*ìwxgh gh o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq/ hw hq whqdqw


frpswh gh fh txh o*rq d glw ã sursrv gx xdjh/ rq d prqwuì txh o*rq srxydlw ìfuluh/ srxu
oh eìwrq frqvwlwxdqw od pdwulfh gh od vhfwlrq/ o*ìjdolwì vxlydqwh =

76 @ H  +7%  7%o  7%s, , +91:9,


918 Ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq vrxv gìirupdwlrqv glìuìhv 468

Gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv/ qrxv doorqv wudydloohu vxu ohv dfwlrqv qrupdohv dx{txhoohv hvw
vrxplvh od vhfwlrq1 Gdqv oh wulëguh J{|}/ gx idlw gh o*k|srwkëvh ghv gìirupdwlrqv sodqhv/
qrxv srxyrqv ìfuluh =  
7% +|> }, @ 4 } |  +7%?, +91::,

dyhf 3 4
E
7%% F
+7%? , @ C 7!+
E F
D +91:;,
7!5
Wrxmrxuv hq lqwìjudqw vxu od vhfwlrq/ o*ìtxloleuh gh od vhfwlrq gh eìwrq v*ìfulw =
3 4
]
E
4 F
7
I6? @ 7
C } D gV6
6 +|> }, E F
76
|
5 6
] 4 } |
9 :
@ H6 +|> } , 7 } }2 |}
 9 : gV6 =%?
8
76
| |} |2
3 4
]
E
4 F
 H6 +|> }, E
C } F+
D 7%o? . 7%s,? , gV6 +91:<,
76
|
rü 7%o? hw 7%s,? vrqw ohv dffurlvvhphqwv gh gìirupdwlrqv qrupdohv gh uhwudlw hw gh xdjh
uhvshfwlyhphqw1 Sxlvtxh H6 +|> } , @ H6 +|> },/ rq uhfrqqdñw od pdwulfh ^N6? `/ hw =

3 4
]
E
4 F
7I6? @ ^N6? ` =%?  H6 +|> }, E
C } F
D 7 %_s? gV6 +91;3,
76
|
Vdfkdqw txh 7%_s @ 7%o? . 7%s,? hvw sodq dlqvl txh 7%?/ rq shxw doruv ìfuluh =
 
7%_s +|> }, @ 4 } |  7%_s? +91;4,

hw 3 4
%%_s
E F
7%_s? @ E
C !+_s F
D +91;5,
!5_s
Doruv =
3 4 5 3 4 6
]
E
4 F 9
]
E
4 F  :
H6 +|> } , E

C } F
D 7 %_s gV6 @ 9
7 H6 +|> }, E
C } F=
D 4 } | :=
8 7 %_s?
76 PK
| |

@ ^N6? ` = 7 %_s? +91;6,


469 Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv

Ilqdohphqw/ rq rewlhqw =

7I6? @ ^N6? ` = 7 %?  ^N6? ` = 7 %_s? +91;7,

Vl o*rq vxssrvh txh oh pdwìuldx xh gh od píph idêrq vhorq ohv frpsrvdqwhv wdqjhqwhv
ã od vhfwlrq txh vhorq ohv frpsrvdqwhv qrupdohv ã od vhfwlrq/ rq shxw ìfuluh =

7I6| @ ^N6| ` = 7 %|  ^N6| ` = 7 %_s| +91;8,

rü 7%_s| hvw o*dffurlvvhphqw gh gìirupdwlrq wdqjhqwh glìuìh/ frqvwuxlw gh od píph


pdqlëuh txh 7%_s? =
7%_s| @ 7%o| . 7%s,| +91;9,

Lo hvw fodlu txh = 3 4


E
3 F
7%o| @ E
C 3 F
D +91;:,
3
Fhfl vh phw vrxv od iruph vxlydqwh =
# $ % & # $ # $
I6?7 ^N6? ` 3
@  7%?  ^N6? ` = 7 %_s? +91;;,
7I6| 3 ^N6| ` 7%| ^N6| ` = 7 %_s|

91816 Ìtxloleuh joredo gh od vhfwlrq

O*ìtxloleuh joredo gh od vhfwlrq v*ìfulw grqf/ hq vxssrvdqw txh shqgdqw od skdvh gh xdjh/
lo q*| d dxfxqh plvh hq suìfrqwudlqwh =

# $ # $ # $ # $
Ir?
@ ^Nr ` =
%?
 7I4?  ^N6? ` = 7 %?_s +91;<,
Ir| %| 7I4| ^N6| ` = 7 %|_s
Fhfl shxw hqfruh v*ìfuluh =
# $ # $ # $ # $
Ir?
.
7I4? . ^N6? ` = 7 %?_s @ ^Nr` =
%?
+91<3,
Ir| 7I4| ^N6| ` = 7 %|_s %|
Rq frqvwdwh doruv txh# o*ìtxdwlrq
$ g*ìtxloleuh
# hvw gx píph
$ w|sh txh +7193,1 Od glìuhqfh

surylhqw ghv whuphv


I4? 7 hw
^N6? ` = %?_s 7
1
# $
I 4|7 ^N6| ` = %|_s 7
Oh yhfwhxu
7
I4?
fruuhvsrqg dx{ vroolflwdwlrqv lqgxlwhv sdu od shuwh gh suìfrqwudlqwh
7
I4|
gxh ã od uhod{dwlrq1 Fhv vroolflwdwlrqv vrqw irupìhv ã sduwlu ghv dupdwxuhv gh suìfrqwudlqwh
vhxohv/ hw vrqw dssoltxìhv ã o*hqvhpeoh gh od vhfwlrq1
919 Frqfoxvlrq 46:

# $
^N6? ` = 7 %?_s
Oh yhfwhxu fruuhvsrqg dx{ vroolflwdwlrqv lqgxlwhv sdu od gìirupdwlrq
^N6| ` = 7 %|_s
gh xdjh fdu vhxo oh eìwrq xh/ pdlv o*hqvhpeoh gh# od vhfwlrq
$ vxelw
# fhv vroolflwdwlrqv1
$
G*xq srlqw gh yxh lqirupdwltxh/ ohv yhfwhxuv
I4? 7 hw
^N6? ` = %?_s7 vrqw
# $
I 4| 7 7
^N6| ` = %|_s
Dr?
dmrxwìv hw vwrfnìv gdqv oh píph yhfwhxu txh / fdu lov rqw oh píph u÷oh g*xq srlqw
Dr|
gh yxh dojrulwkpltxh1
Rq d grqf xqh sulvh hq frpswh qdwxuhooh gh o*lqwhudfwlrq hqwuh oh xdjh gx eìwrq hw od
uhod{dwlrq ghv dflhuv gh suìfrqwudlqwh/ fdu o*dojrulwkph yd gìwhuplqhu o*dffurlvvhphqw gh
gìirupdwlrq wrwdoh gh od vhfwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqw dx{ hhwv glìuìv1
Od judqgh glìuhqfh sdu udssruw dx fkdslwuh 7 uìvlgh gdqv oh fdofxo gx prgxoh ìodvwltxh
orqjlwxglqdo frugh H6 +|> },1 Fhoxl0fl hvw fdofxoì ã sduwlu gh od gìirupdwlrq lqvwdqwdqìh/
hw qrq sdv ã sduwlu gh od gìirupdwlrq wrwdoh =

76 @ H6 7 % +91<4,

919 Frqfoxvlrq
Od plvh hq úxyuh ghv hhwv glìuìv dx vhlq gh o*dojrulwkph gh uìvroxwlrq qrxv d frqgxlw ã
suhqguh ghv rswlrqv vlpsohv/ pdlv xqlyhuvhoohphqw uhfrqqxhv1 Oh xdjh gx eìwrq dlqvl txh
od uhod{dwlrq ghv dflhuv/ txl vrqw ghx{ skìqrpëqhv dqwdjrqlvwhv srxu oh frpsruwhphqw gh
od vwuxfwxuh/ vrqw uljrxuhxvhphqw sulv hq frpswh gëv oruv txh od glvfuìwlvdwlrq whpsruhooh
plvh hq úxyuh hvw vx!vdqwh1 Fhwwh glvfuìwlvdwlrq hvw idlwh gh idêrq dxwrpdwltxh sdu oh sur0
judpph1 O*dojrulwkph dlqvl gìfulw hvw sduidlwhphqw frpsdwleoh dyhf o*hqvhpeoh ghv orlv gh
xdjh sursrvìhv sdu oh surjudpph olqìdluh/ hw qrwdpphqw ghv ìyroxwlrqv ghv orlv gh xdjh
sursrvìhv sdu o*DIUHP hq 4<<9 ^Ofsf<9`/ frqfhuqdqw ohv eìwrqv kdxwhv shuirupdqfhv1
46; Fkdslwuh 9 Sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv
Fkdslwuh :

Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

:14 Ohv duwlfxodwlrqv

:1414 Shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv = k|srwkëvhv hw qrwdwlrqv

Hq shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv/ oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh hw oh uhsëuh orfdo gh o*ìoìphqw vrqw frqirq0


gxv1 Vrlhqw D hw E ghx{ srlqwv jìrpìwultxhphqw frqirqgxv hw uholìv pìfdqltxhphqw sdu
xqh duwlfxodwlrq1 Rq qrwh Iu oh wruvhxu ghv irufhv v*dssoltxdqw dx srlqw E hw Vu ohv
gìsodfhphqwv +dx vhqv odujh, gh E gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo/ rx lqwulqvëtxh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Rq d
grqf =
3 4
I%
E F
E
E
I+ F
F
E I5 F
Iu @ E
E
F
F +:14,
E
E P% F
F
E F
C P+ D
P5
hw
3 4
x%
E F
E
E
x+ F
F
E x5 F
Vu @ E
E
F
F +:15,
E
E % F
F
E F
C + D
5
Hq vxssrvdqw qxo oh gìsodfhphqw gx qúxg E/ o*duwlfxodwlrq hvw xq ìoìphqw fwli/ gh
orqjxhxu qxooh/ hw grqw oh frpsruwhphqw/ gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo/ rx lqwulqvëtxh gh o*du0
wlfxodwlrq/ hvw gìfulw sdu =
Iu @ ^N ` =Vu +:16,
473 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

dyhf = 5 6
 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9 3  3 3 3 3 :
9 :
9 3 3  3 3 3 :
^N ` @ 9
9
:
: +:17,
9 3 3 3  3 3 :
9 :
9
7 3 3 3 3  3 :
8
3 3 3 3 3 
Od pdwulfh joredoh +45  45, gh o*duwlfxodwlrq hvw fdofxoìh gh idêrq fodvvltxh ã sduwlu gh
^N `/ hq vxssrvdqw od orqjxhxu gh o*duwlfxodwlrq qxooh +frpsoìwlrq sdu v|pìwulh hw ìtxlol0
euh,1 Rq rewlhqw = # $ % & # $
Iu ^N ` ^N ` Vu
@ = +:18,
Iu ^N ` ^N ` Vu
Sxlv fhwwh pdwulfh hvw wrxuqìh sdu o*rsìudwhxu ^Sf ` dq g*h{sulphu oh frpsruwhphqw gh
o*duwlfxodwlrq gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo1 Ilqdohphqw/ od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*duwlfxodwlrq
gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo R[\ ] v*ìfulw =
% & % &
^Nf ` ^Nf ` ^N ` ^N ` |
@ ^Sf` = = ^Sf ` +:19,
^Nf ` ^Nf ` ^N ` ^N `

:1415 Judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw judqghv urwdwlrqv


Soxvlhxuv skìqrpëqhv dssdudlvvhqw doruv =

 Hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv/ od orqjxhxu gh o*duwlfxodwlrq q*hvw sdv qxooh = xq h{fhq0


wuhphqw hvw fuìì hw ydxw Vu  Vu gdqv oh uhsëuh orfdo1

 Hq judqghv urwdwlrqv/ ohv qúxgv D hw E qrq vhxohphqw vh gìsodfhqw/ pdlv wrxuqhqw1


O*duwlfxodwlrq hvw dlqvl dhfwìh sdu ohv urwdwlrqv gh D hw E = hooh wrxuqh hooh0píph
g*xqh urwdwlrq vlwxìh hqwuh fhoohv gh D hw E lqfoxvhv1

Srxu uìvrxguh fh ghuqlhu sureoëph/ qrxv dyrqv frqyhqx gh gluh txh o*duwlfxodwlrq vlwxìh
hqwuh ohv qúxgv D hw E / txl rqw wrxuqì uhvshfwlyhphqw/ gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo/ gh f /
t / ~ / hw gh f / t / ~ / d wrxuqì gh nf .+4  n, f / nt .+4  n, t /
n~ . +4  n, ~ / rü n hvw xq uìho frpsulv hqwuh 3 hw 4/ {ì sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu1 Rq qrwh
^UX& ` o*rsìudwhxu pdwulflho dvvrflì ã od urwdwlrq gh o*duwlfxodwlrq1
Hq fh txl frqfhuqh oh suhplhu sureoëph/ qrxv doorqv ghyrlu ìwxglhu o*ìtxloleuh gh o*du0
wlfxodwlrq hq frqvlgìudqw oh eudv gh ohylhu dlqvl lqgxlw1
Frqfuëwhphqw/ oh fdofxo gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*duwlfxodwlrq gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo
vh pëqh gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =

41 Vrlw ^N ` od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*duwlfxodwlrq gdqv vrq uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh1


:14 Ohv duwlfxodwlrqv 474

51 Dssoltxrqv o*rsìudwhxu gh urwdwlrq ^UX& ` fruuhvsrqgdqw ã od urwdwlrq lqwhupìgldluh


ghv urwdwlrqv ghv qúxgv D hw E 1 Dx vhqv ghv pdwulfhv gh sdvvdjh g*xq uhsëuh ã xq
dxwuh/ qrxv srxyrqv ìfuluh =

[E%f+f 5f  @ ^UX& ` =[E%+5 +:1:,

O*h{suhvvlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ghylhqw =

^UX& ` = ^N ` =| ^UX& ` +:1;,

61 Rq dssoltxh hqq o*rsìudwhxu gh urwdwlrq ^Sf ` shuphwwdqw gh sdvvhu gx uhsëuh joredo


dx uhsëuh orfdo/ gìql sdu =

[Eft ~  @ ^Sf` =[E%f+f 5f  +:1<,

G*rü od qrxyhooh h{suhvvlrq gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*duwlfxodwlrq =

^Sf` = ^UX& ` = ^N ` =| ^UX& ` =| ^Sf` +:143,

à fh vwdgh/ wrxwhv ohv urwdwlrqv gh o*duwlfxodwlrq rqw ìwì sulvhv hq frpswh = rq d grqf
xqh pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*duwlfxodwlrq h{sulpìh gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo/ pdlv txl qh wlhqw
sdv frpswh gh o*doorqjhphqw ìyhqwxho gh o*duwlfxodwlrq1 Vxssrvrqv txh o*duwlfxodwlrq DE

l lqwurgxlw oh srlqw E frqirqgx jìrpìwultxhphqw dyhf



qh vrlw soxv gh orqjxhxukqxooh1 Rq
D/ pdlv who txh If @ Nf =Vf = DE  hvw hq idlw o*duwlfxodwlrq fodvvltxh hq shwlwv
gìsodfhphqwv1 Rq lqwurgxlw od pdwulfh gh wudqvodwlrq txl h{sulph o*ìtxloleuh gh o*ìoìphqw
fwli EE=


 
If @ W   If 
+:144,
 
Srxu h{sulphu dqdo|wltxhphqw W / qrxv vrpphv reoljìv gh vìsduhu ohv frpsrvdqwhv


irufhv hw prphqwv ghv wruvhxuv If hw If 1 O*ìtxloleuh v*ìfulw/ gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo =
 

# $ 3 4
Ifs   If
C


@ W  s D +:145,
If6 If 
6
;
A
$
Ifs .
$
If @ $
3
?
$ . EE
$ $


$
= If6 . If
A
s
a If @ $
3 
+:146,
6  
s
G*rü = ;
A
$ $
Ifs @ If
?
$ $


$ $
= If6 @ If
A
s
. E E a If 
+:147,
6  
s
475 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

Ru/
3 4 3 4
$ E
X  X 
F E
Of F
EE@E Y  Y F@E Ot F


C 
D C D +:148,
Z  Z  O~
G*rü = 5 6
4 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9
9
3 4 3 3 3 3 :
:
  9
W @ 9
9
3 3 4 3 3 3 :
:
: +:149,
9
9 3 O~ Ot 4 3 3 :
:
9
7 O~ 3 Of 3 4 3 :
8
Ot Of 3 3 3 4
Rq prqwuh txh =
 
Vf @ | W =Vf

 +:14:,

G*rü =

    k l      
If @ W =If @ W = Nf =Vf @ W = N  =| W =Vf



 
    +:14;,

Rq hq gìgxlw od irupxodwlrq frpsoëwh gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh o*duwlfxodwlrq gdqv


oh uhsëuh joredo =

   
^Nf ` @ W = ^Sf ` = ^UX& ` = ^N ` =| ^UX& ` =| ^Sf ` =| W
  +:14<,

Fhwwh pdwulfh hvw hqvxlwh frpsoìwìh sdu v|pìwulh hw


3 ìtxloleuh/ hq 4
frqvlgìudqw txh o*ìoìphqw

E
X X F 
q*hvw soxv srqfwxho/ pdlv sruwì sdu oh yhfwhxu C Y Y F
E
D/ fhfl dq g*rewhqlu od 
Z  Z
pdwulfh gh uljlglwì 45  45 txl vhud lqwìjuìh gdqv od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì joredoh gh od
vwuxfwxuh1 Ohv hruwv dx{ qúxgv D hw E vrqw fdofxoìv vhorq =
# $ % & # $
If ^Nf ` ^Nf ` Vf
@ = +:153,
If ^Nf ` ^Nf ` Vf
Lov vrqw hqvxlwh uìlqmhfwìv gdqv oh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh1

:15 Ohv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv

:1514 Udsshov wkìrultxhv

Xq ìoìphqw elduwlfxoì/ sdu gìqlwlrq/ qh wudydlooh tx*hq hruw qrupdo1 Od pdwulfh gh


:15 Ohv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv 476

J Nj

Ni

Iljxuh :14 = Hoìphqw elduwlfxoì

uljlglwì ^Nr ` g*xqh gh vhv vhfwlrqv vh phw grqf vrxv od iruph vxlydqwh =
5 6
 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9
9
3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
^Nr ` @ 9
9
:
: +:154,
9
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
9 :
7 3 3 3 3 3 3 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
Lo yd vdqv gluh txh fhwwh pdwulfh hvw vlqjxolëuh = 3 hvw ydohxu sursuh gh pxowlsolflwì 81
Hq rxwuh/ elhq txh o*ìoìphqw elduwlfxoì vrlw gìql sdu vhv fdudfwìulvwltxhv gh vhfwlrq +qr0
wdpphqw vd vhfwlrq gurlwh D% , hw qrq sdv sdu od jìrpìwulh gh vd vhfwlrq/ rq shxw dvvrflhu
ã vrq pdwìuldx xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw ìodvwltxh qrq olqìdluh1 Rq d grqf =
5 6
H=D% 3 3 3 3 3
9 :
9
9
3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
^Nr ` @ 9
9
:
: +:155,
9
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
9 :
7 3 3 3 3 3 3 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
rü D% gìvljqh od vhfwlrq g*hruw qrupdo/ hw H oh prgxoh g*\rxqj frugh hqwuh ohv ghx{
ìwdwv gh vroolflwdwlrq frqvlgìuìv1
477 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

Gdqv oh uhsëuh lqwulqvëtxh/ rq d =


5 6
.% 3 3 3 3 3
uf
9 :
9
9
3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
^N? ` @ 9
9
:
: +:156,
9
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
:
9 :
7 3 3 3 3 3 3 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
rü Of gìvljqh od orqjxhxu ã ylgh gh o*ìoìphqw1 Hq lqwìjudqw oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw/ rq rewlhqw =

] uf
^V? ` @ | ^O +{,` = ^V +{,` = ^O +{,` +:157,
r
f
5 6
.% 3 3 3 3 3
uf
9 :
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
9 :
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
^N? ` @ ^V? `3 @ 9 9
:
: +:158,
9 3 3 3 3 3 3 :
9 :
9 :
7 3 3 3 3 3 3 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
Od pdwulfh ^N? ` qh shxw sdv ghphxuhu dlqvl vlqjxolëuh/ fdu dx frxuv gh od uìvroxwlrq
gh Fkrohvn| gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì jìqìudoh gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo/ ghv slyrwv qxov yrqw
dssdudñwuh1
Rq uhsëuh ohv qúxgv uholìv h{foxvlyhphqw ã ghv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv1 Fhv qúxgv yrlhqw
ohxuv 6 urwdwlrqv dxwrxu ghv 6 d{hv eortxìhv fdu hoohv q*rqw sdv gh vljqlfdwlrq sk|vltxh1
Hq hhw/ o*h{lvwhqfh g*xqh g*hoohv vljqlhudlw od suìvhqfh dx vhlq gh o*ìoìphqw elduwlfxoì gh
prphqw gh h{lrq rx gh wruvlrq/ fh txl hvw h{fox1
Rq shuwxueh sdu dloohxuv ohv whuphv gh od gldjrqdoh fruuhvsrqgdqw dx{ hruwv wudq0
fkdqwv1 Fhv whuphv/ dx olhx g*íwuh qxov/ v*h{sulphqw gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =

sqgeld= ^N? `c +:159,

rü sqgeld hvw xq uìho frpsulv hqwuh 3 hw 41 Soxv sqgeld hvw lpsruwdqw/ soxv o*ìoìphqw hvw
vwdeoh srxu ohv gìsodfhphqwv/ pdlv od frqyhujhqfh gh od vwuxfwxuh yhuv vd srvlwlrq g*ìtxlol0
euh hvw ohqwh1 Soxv sqgeld hvw idleoh/ soxv o*ìoìphqw hvw lqvwdeoh ylv0ã0ylv ghv gìsodfhphqwv/
pdlv soxv od frqyhujhqfh gh od vwuxfwxuh yhuv vd srvlwlrq g*ìtxloleuh hvw udslgh/ vl hooh q*hvw
sdv wurs ylrohqwh1 Od ydohxu gh 433e qrxv vhpeoh xq erq frpsurplv hqwuh od ylwhvvh gh
frqyhujhqfh gx fdofxo hw vd vwdelolwì1 Fh sdudpëwuh hvw sdu dloohxuv dmxvwdeoh sdu o*xwlolvd0
whxu1 Sdu frqwuh/ od irupdwlrq ghv hruwv dx{ h{wuìplwìv gh o*ìoìphqw elduwlfxoì vh idlw gh
idêrq sxuh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh txh o*hruw dx{ h{wuìplwìv gh o*ìoìphqw elduwlfxoì hvw sruwì sdu od
:15 Ohv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv 478

frugh gh o*ìoìphqw/ hw f*hvw fhw hruw txl hvw xwlolvì srxu iruphu oh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh ghv
qúxgv1

:1515 Xq h{hpsoh vlpsoh

2
1 I 3
II

Iljxuh :15 = H{hpsoh gh wuhloolv

Oh wuhloolv suìvhqwì hq jxuh :15 suìvhqwh fodluhphqw xq frxsodjh hqwuh oh fdofxo hq ìoìphqw
elduwlfxoì hw oh fdofxo hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv1 Hq hhw/ o*hruw qrupdo hqwuh ohv eduuhv L
hw LL q*hvw prelolvì srxu ìtxloleuhu od irufh I txh vl oh gìsodfhphqw gx qúxg 5 hvw sulv
hq frpswh +jxuh :16,1 Hq rxwuh/ fh sureoëph d o*ìoìjdqfh g*dyrlu xqh vroxwlrq idflohphqw
dffhvvleoh qxpìultxhphqw1
Sdu v|pìwulh/ o*hruw qrupdo hvw oh píph gdqv ohv ghx{ eduuhv/ g*rü/ hq surmhwdqw vxu
od yhuwlfdoh =
5=Q= vlq  @ I +:15:,

Ru/
Q @ H=D%% +:15;,

dyhf
Of
O O  Of frv   Of 4
%@ @
Of Of
@
Of
@
frv 
4 +:15<,

G*rü =  
4
Q @ H=D% =
frv 
4 +:163,
479 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

2
1 L L 3
α
L N N L

Iljxuh :16 = Surmhfwlrq ghv irufhv

Ilqdohphqw/  hvw vroxwlrq gh o*ìtxdwlrq =


I
wdq = +4  frv , @ +:164,
5H=D%
O*dssolfdwlrq qxpìultxh/ srxu I @ 43 w/ H @ 5=43. w2p2 / D% @ 3/4 p2 grqqh =
 @ 3/34:3<<675:; udg +:165,

y @ wdq =Of @ 3/34:43433<86 p +:166,

Ohv uìvxowdwv rewhqxv sdu oh surjudpph vrqw =

 @ 3/34:3<<8 udg +:167,

y @ wdq =Of @ 3/34:4343 p +:168,

fh txl qrxv vhpeoh h{fhoohqw1

:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh


:1614 Gìqlwlrq
O*ìoìphqw gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh idlw sduwlh ghv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv/ pdlv lo grlw íwuh frqvlgìuì
ã sduw fdu vrq ìtxdwlrq frqvwlwxwlyh idlw dssdudñwuh vrq srlgv sursuh olqìltxh s/ doruv txh
wrxv ohv dxwuhv ìoìphqwv vrqw frqvlgìuìv frpph qrq shvdqwv/ ohxu srlgv ìyhqwxho ìwdqw xqh
irufh qrgdoh1
O*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh uholh ohv srlqwv D hw E1 Lo hvw frqwhqx gdqv oh sodq gìql sdu oh yhfwhxu
$
DE hw od gluhfwlrq gx srlgv sursuh olqìltxh s1 Hq jìqìudo/ oh sodq gh o*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh
hvw yhuwlfdo/ pdlv rq shxw wuëv elhq frqfhyrlu/ vrxv o*hhw gx yhqw sdu h{hpsoh/ txh od
:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 47:

gluhfwlrq gh od irufh olqìltxh qh vrlw sdv yhuwlfdoh1 Gdqv oh sodq qrwì R{| dlqvl gìql/ hq
vxssrvdqw txh oh srlgv olqìltxh s hvw sruwì vhorq R|/ oh vfkìpd fodvvltxh g*xq ìoìphqw
fkdñqhwwh vh suìvhqwh vrxv od iruph lqgltxìh hq jxuh :171

T
M

y
A

O x

Iljxuh :17 = Hoìphqw gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh

:1615 Suhplëuh irupxodwlrq gh o*ìtxdwlrq gh od fkdñqhwwh


Ìwdeolvvhphqw gh o*ìtxdwlrq gh od fkdñqhwwh
Frqvlgìurqv xq srlqw P vlwxì vxu o*ìoìphqw1 Rq qrwh { hw | vhv frrugrqqìhv hw v vrq dev0
flvvh fxuyloljqh1 Od whqvlrq gh o*ìoìphqw hq fh srlqw hvw qrwìh W 1 Frqvlgìurqv pdlqwhqdqw
P xq srlqw yrlvlq gh P / gh frrugrqqìhv { . g{/ | . g| hw g*devflvvh fxuyloljqh v . gv1


Od whqvlrq hq P hvw W . gW 1 Vl W% hw W+ gìvljqhqw ohv surmhfwlrqv vxu R{ hw R| gh W /




doruv rq d =
 
W% P  W% +P , @ 3

+:169,
 
W+ P  W+ +P , @ s=gv

+:16:,

Rx hqfruh =

W% . gW%  W% @ gW% @ 3 +:16;,

W+ . gW+  W+ @ gW+ @ s=gv +:16<,


47; Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

Rq hq gìgxlw doruv txh W% +P , hvw frqvwdqw hw ydxw Wf/ ydohxu srvlwlyh1 Sdu dloohxuv/ od
whqvlrq W +P , ìwdqw sruwìh sdu od wdqjhqwh ã od frxueh/ rq d =
g| g|
W+ @ W% @ Wf +:173,
g{ g{
Hq rxwuh/ rq vdlw txh =
v
 
g| 2
gv @ 4 . g{ +:174,
g{
G*rü =
v
 
g| 2
gW+ @ s 4 . g{ +:175,
g{
G*rü =
v
 2
gW+ g|
@s 4. +:176,
g{ g{
Rq rewlhqw hqq =
v
 2
gW+ g| 2 g|
@ Wf 2 @ s 4 . +:177,
g{ g{ g{
Rx hqfruh =
| 
s
s @ +:178,
4 . | 2 Wf 

Od vroxwlrq gh fhwwh ìtxdwlrq glìuhqwlhooh hvw gh od iruph vxlydqwh =


 
W s
| +{, . |f @ f frvk +{ . {f, +:179,
s Wf
Od whqvlrq W gdqv od fkdñqhwwh hvw gh od iruph =
v    
s s
W +{, @ W . W vlqk
2 2 2
+{ . {f , @ Wf frvk +{ . {f , +:17:,
f f
Wf Wf

O*devflvvh fxuyloljqh v yìulh o*ìtxdwlrq =


v
 2  
gv g| s
@ 4. @ frvk +{ . {f, +:17;,
g{ g{ Wf
G*rü =
 
W s
v +{, . vf @ f vlqk +{ . {f , +:17<,
s Wf
:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 47<

Fkdñqhwwh sdvvdqw sdu ghx{ srlqwv


O*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh uholh ohv srlqwv D hw E gh frrugrqqìhv uhvshfwlyhv +{ > | , hw +{ > | ,1
Qrxv dyrqv grqf =
 
Wf s
| . |f @ frvk +{ . { , +:183,
s Wf  f
 
Wf s
| . |f @ frvk +{ . { , +:184,
s Wf  f
Sdu vrxvwudfwlrq/ rq rewlhqw =
      
W s { . { s {  {
|  | @ 5 f vlqk . {f vlqk +:185,
s Wf 5 Wf 5
Hq srvdqw =
s |  | 

Y@ +:186,
5Wf vlqk R  % 3% 
Af 2
rq d =
Wf { .{
{f @ duj vlqk +Y ,    +:187,
s  
5 
Wf s Wf {  {
|f @
s
frvk
Wf s
duj vlqk +Y , .
5
 | +:188,

Orqjxhxu gìyhorssìh hw doorqjhphqw


Od orqjxhxu gìyhorssìh O gh od fkdñqhwwh vh fdofxoh vlpsohphqw vhorq =
O @ v +{ ,  v +{ ,
    
W s s
@ f vlqk +{ . {f,  vlqk +{ . {f, +:189,
s Wf Wf
O*doorqjhphqw O hvw rewhqx sdu lqwìjudwlrq gh od gìirupdwlrq oh orqj gh o*ìoìphqw =
]  ]   
W +v, W +{, s
O @ gv @ frvk +{ . {f, g{
 H=D%  H=D% Wf
] %  
Wf s
@ frvk2 +{ . {f, g{
H=D% % Wf
   %
Wf Wf 5s
@ vlqk +{ . {f , . { +:18:,
5H=D% 5s Wf %
Od orqjxhxu ã ylgh O gh o*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh hvw =

O @ O  O +:18;,

Uìvroxwlrq gx sureoëph gh od fkdñqhwwh


Xq ìoìphqw gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh shxw íwuh fkdujì gh 8 idêrqv glìuhqwhv =
483 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

Whqvlrq krul}rqwdoh {ìh Vl od whqvlrq krul}rqwdoh Wf hvw {ìh/ doruv od vroxwlrq gx


sureoëph hvw lppìgldwh1 Rq fdofxoh Y / {f hw |f gluhfwhphqw1

Whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh {ìh hq D rx hq E Od whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh W+ vh fdofxoh vhorq =


 
g| s
W+ +{, @ Wf @ Wf vlqk +{ . {f, +:18<,
g{ Wf
Vl od whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh hvw {ìh hq D ã od ydohxu W+ / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =
 
s
i +Wf , @ Wf vlqk +{ . { ,
Wf  f
 W+ @ 3 +:193,

Vl od whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh hvw {ìh hq E ã od ydohxu W+ / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =


 
s
i +Wf , @ Wf vlqk +{ . { ,
Wf  f
 W+ @ 3 +:194,

Whqvlrq wdqjhqwh {ìh hq D rx hq E Vl od whqvlrq wdqjhqwh hvw {ìh hq D ã od ydohxu


W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =
 
s
i +Wf , @ Wf frvk +{ . { ,
Wf  f
 W @ 3 +:195,

Vl od whqvlrq wdqjhqwh hvw {ìh hq E ã od ydohxu W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =


 
s
i +Wf, @ Wf frvk +{ . { ,
Wf  f
 W @ 3 +:196,

Whqvlrq frugh {ìh hq D rx hq E Hq qrwdqw k od sruwìh krul}rqwdoh gh od fkdñqhwwh


hw y vd kdxwhxu/ hw g od orqjxhxu gh vd frugh/ rq d =

k @ {  { A 3 +:197,

y @ |  | +:198,
s
g @ k2 . y2 +:199,

Vl od whqvlrq frugh hvw {ìh hq D ã od ydohxu W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =


 
k y s
i +Wf, @ Wf . Wf vlqk
g g
+{ . { ,
Wf  f
 W @ 3 +:19:,

Vl od whqvlrq frugh hvw {ìh hq E ã od ydohxu W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =


 
k y s
i +Wf, @ Wf . Wf vlqk
g g
+{ . { ,
Wf  f
 W @ 3 +:19;,
:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 484

Orqjxhxu ã ylgh {ìh Vl od orqjxhxu ã ylgh hvw {ìh ã xqh ydohxu Of / o*ìtxdwlrq ã
uìvrxguh hvw =
i +Wf , @ O  Of  O @ 3 +:19<,

Rx hqfruh =
    
Wf s s
i +Wf, @ vlqk +{ . { ,  vlqk +{ . { ,  Of
s Wf  f Wf  f
3   4
Af vlqk 2R +{ . { , . {
Wf C 2R  
 5H=D Af
f
 D
%  2R vlqk Af +{ . {f,  {
A f 2 R

@ 3 +:1:3,

O*ìtxdwlrq i +Wf , @ 3/ lvvxh gh +:193,/ +:194,/ +:195,/ +:196,/ +:19:,/ +:19;, rx +:1:3,
vhorq oh prgh gh fkdujhphqw/ hvw uìvroxh gh idêrq lwìudwlyh ã o*dlgh g*xq vfkìpd gh Qhzwrq/
dq gh wurxyhu od whqvlrq krul}rqwdoh Wf txl vdwlvidlw ã od frqglwlrq i +Wf, @ 31
Vl xq ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh qh vxelw sdv gh fkdujhphqw/ pdlv vl od vwuxfwxuh vxelw xq
fkdujhphqw/ od uìsrqvh gh o*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh ã fhwwh vroolflwdwlrq v*hhfwxh hq pdlqwhqdqw
frqvwdqwh vd orqjxhxu ã ylgh1
à fkdtxh frqyhujhqfh hq gìsodfhphqwv/ ohv srvlwlrqv ghv srlqwv D hw E vrqw lqwurgxlwhv
gdqv o*dojrulwkph gh od fkdñqhwwh1 Fh ghuqlhu grqqh hq uhwrxu ohv irufhv dx{ qúxgv D hw
E/ fh txl shuphw g*ìydoxhu oh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh hq irufh/ o*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh wudydloodqw
gluhfwhphqw gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo gh od vwuxfwxuh1 Hq fh txl frqfhuqh oh prgxoh g*ìodvwlf0
lwì dssduhqw gh o*ìoìphqw/ qrxv xwlolvrqv od irupxodwlrq dssurfkìh fodvvltxh dvvlplodqw od
fkdñqhwwh ã xqh sduderoh1 Fhv ydohxuv/ frqqxhv vrxv oh qrp gh irupxoh gh Huqvw/ vrqw ohv
vxlydqwhv =
H
H|@?}e?| @ .% R2 2 EA nA 
+:1:4,
4. 2eA2A2

H H
Hre‚S@?| @ .% R2 2
rx .% R2 2
+:1:5,
4. 2A 4. 2A

Fhfl hvw olflwh gdqv od phvxuh rü fh prgxoh q*lqwhuylhqw txh srxu frqvwuxluh o*rsìudwhxu
gh frqyhujhqfh/ hw qrq sdv srxu irupxohu oh uìvlgx g*ìtxloleuh/ fh ghuqlhu ìwdqw fdofxoì gh
idêrq h{dfwh1

:1616 Xqh dxwuh irupxodwlrq gx sureoëph


Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu/ od irupxodwlrq gx sureoëph suìfìghqw q*hvw soxv ydodeoh
oruvtxh Wf ghylhqw idleoh/ f*hvw0ã0gluh oruvtx*lo whqg yhuv 31 Fhfl hvw oh fdv qrwdpphqw
oruvtxh o*ìoìphqw ghylhqw yhuwlfdo/ frpph ohv vxvshqwhv gh srqw vxvshqgx sdu h{hpsoh1 Oh
sdudpëwuh fkrlvl/ ã vdyrlu Wf / qh slorwh soxv fruuhfwhphqw oh sureoëph1 Lo idxw uhirupxohu
oh sureoëph/ qrq sdv hq irqfwlrq gh {/ pdlv gh v/ o*devflvvh fxuyloljqh1
485 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

Ìwdeolvvhphqw ghv ìtxdwlrqv gh od fkdñqhwwh


Rq uhsduw gx sulqflsh txh od whqvlrq W +P , hvw sruwìh sdu od wdqjhqwh ã od frxueh/ g*rü =
g{
W% +v, @ W +v, @ Wf +:1:6,
gv
g|
W+ +v, @ W +v, +:1:7,
gv
rü { hw | vrqw ghv irqfwlrqv gh v1 Rq rewlhqw doruv =

gW+ +v, gW +v, g| g2 |


s@ @ . W +v, 2 +:1:8,
gv gv gv gv
Fhfl v*ìfulw hqfruh =
W +v, { +v, @ Wf

+:1:9,


W +v, | +v, . W +v, | +v, @ s


 
+:1::,

Fh vrqw ohv ìtxdwlrqv glìuhqwlhoohv txh grlyhqw yìulhu ohv irqfwlrqv W +v,/ { +v, hw | +v,1
Ohv vroxwlrqv vrqw gh od iruph =
 
W s
{ +v, . {f @ f duj vlqk +v . vf , +:1:;,
s Wf
v
 2
Wf
| +v, . |f @ . +v . vf ,2 +:1:<,
s
t
W +v, @ Wf2 . s2 +v . vf ,2 +:1;3,

Frqwudluhphqw ã od suhplëuh irupxodwlrq/ vl Wf whqg yhuv 3/ oh sureoëph d hqfruh xqh


vroxwlrq fdu ohv ìtxdwlrqv ghylhqqhqw =

{ +v, @ { @ { +:1;4,

| +v, . |f @ mv . vfm +:1;5,

W +v, @ s mv . vfm +:1;6,

Fkdñqhwwh sdvvdqw sdu ghx{ srlqwv


Ohv frqglwlrqv gh sdvvdjh hq D hw E v*ìfulyhqw =
Hq D=
 
W s
{ . {f @ f duj vlqk +v , +:1;7,
s Wf f
v
 2
Wf
| . |f @ . v2f +:1;8,
s
:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 486

Hq E=
 
Wf s
{ . {f @ duj vlqk +v . O, +:1;9,
s Wf f
v
 2
Wf
| . |f @ . +vf . O,2 +:1;:,
s
rü O hvw od orqjxhxu gìyhorssìh gh od fkdñqhwwh1 Sdu vrxvwudfwlrq/ rq rewlhqw =
    
Wf s s
{  { @ k @ duj vlqk +v . O,  duj vlqk +v , +:1;;,
s Wf f Wf f
v v
 2  2
Wf Wf
|  | @ y@ . +vf . O,2  . v2f +:1;<,
s s
Ohv lqfrqqxhv gx sureoëph vrqw grqf Wf / od whqvlrq krul}rqwdoh/ vf o*devflvvh fxuyloljqh gh
D/ hw O od orqjxhxu gìyhorssìh gh od fkdñqhwwh1

Doorqjhphqw gh od fkdñqhwwh
Gh od píph idêrq/ rq d =

] u
W +v,
O @ gv
f H=D%
] ut
4
@ Wf2 . s2 +v . vf,2gv
H=D% f
5 t 6u
4 7 +v . vf, Wf2 . s2 +v . vf,2.
@ 8 +:1<3,
5H=D% Af2 R
R duj vlqk A +v . vf , f f

Uìvroxwlrq gx sureoëph gh od fkdñqhwwh


Oh sureoëph qh vh uìvxph soxv ã xqh ìtxdwlrq hw xqh lqfrqqxh Wf frpph suìfìghpphqw/
pdlv ã 6 ìtxdwlrqv ã 6 lqfrqqxhv txh vrqw Wf / vf hw O1 Ohv 5 suhplëuhv ìtxdwlrqv vrqw
+:1;;, hw +:1;<, =
    
Wf s s
i +Wf > vf> O, @ duj vlqk +v . O,  duj vlqk +v ,  k @ 3+:1<4,
s Wf f Wf f
v v
 2  2
Wf Wf
i2 +Wf > vf> O, @ . +vf . O,2  . v2f  y @ 3 +:1<5,
s s
Od wurlvlëph ìtxdwlrq hvw grqqìh sdu oh prgh gh fkdujhphqw1

Whqvlrq krul}rqwdoh {ìh Vl od whqvlrq krul}rqwdoh Wf hvw {ìh/ doruv oh v|vwëph q*d
soxv txh 5 ìtxdwlrqv hw 5 lqfrqqxhv = vf hw O/ txh o*rq wurxyh hq uìvroydqw +:1;;, hw +:1;<,1
487 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

Whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh {ìh hq D rx hq E Od whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh W+ vh fdofxoh vhorq =

W+ +v, @ s +v . vf, +:1<6,

Vl od whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh hvw {ìh hq D ã od ydohxu W+ / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =

i +Wf> vf > O, @ s=vf  W+ @ 3 +:1<7,

Vl od whqvlrq yhuwlfdoh hvw {ìh hq E ã od ydohxu W+ / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =

i +Wf> vf > O, @ s= +vf . O,  W+ @ 3 +:1<8,

Whqvlrq wdqjhqwh {ìh hq D rx hq E


Vl od whqvlrq wdqjhqwh hvw {ìh hq D ã od ydohxu W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =
t
i +Wf > vf> O, @ Wf2 . s2 +vf,2  W @ 3 +:1<9,

Vl od whqvlrq wdqjhqwh hvw {ìh hq E ã od ydohxu W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =


t
i +Wf > vf> O, @ Wf2 . s2 +vf . O,2  W @ 3 +:1<:,

Whqvlrq frugh {ìh hq D rx hq E Vl od whqvlrq frugh hvw {ìh hq D ã od ydohxu W /


o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =

k y
i +Wf > vf> O, @ Wf . s=vf  W @ 3 +:1<;,
g g
Vl od whqvlrq frugh hvw {ìh hq E ã od ydohxu W / o*ìtxdwlrq ã uìvrxguh hvw =
k y
i +Wf> vf > O, @ Wf . s= +vf . O,  W @ 3 +:1<<,
g g
Orqjxhxu ã ylgh {ìh Vl od orqjxhxu ã ylgh hvw {ìh ã xqh ydohxu Of / o*ìtxdwlrq ã
uìvrxguh hvw =
i +Wf> vf> O, @ O  Of  O @ 3 +:1433,

Fhfl v*ìfulw hqfruh =

i +Wf > vf> O, @ O  Of


5 t 6u
4 +v . vf , W . s +v . vf, .
2 2 2
 5H=D 7
Af2
f 
R
8
% R duj vlqk Af +v . vf , f
@ 3 +:1434,
:16 Ohv ìoìphqwv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh 488

Rq uìvrxw ohv ìtxdwlrqv

i +Wf> vf > O, @ 3 +:1435,

i +Wf> vf > O, @ 3 +:1436,

i2 +Wf> vf > O, @ 3 +:1437,

hq irqfwlrq gh Wf / vf / hw O/ vdfkdqw txh +:1435, hvw lvvxh gh +:1<7,/ +:1<8,/ +:1<9,/ +:1<:,/
+:1<;,/ +:1<<, rx +:1434, vhorq oh prgh gh fkdujhphqw1 Qrxv xwlolvrqv xq vfkìpd gh w|sh
Qhzwrq/ f*hvw0ã0gluh txh qrxv frqvwuxlvrqv od pdwulfh mdfrelhqqh gx sureoëph =
5 6
Ys EAf crf cu Ys EAf crf cu Ys EAf crf cu
9 Ys EYA f Yrf Yu
Ys EAf crf cu :
^M ` @ 9  Af crf cu Ys EAf crf cu : +:1438,
7 YAf Yrf Yu 8
Ys2 EAf crf cu Ys2 EAf crf cu Ys2 EAf crf cu
YAf Yrf Yu
3 4
E F
Wf
hw rq rewlhqw ã fkdtxh sdv o*lqfuìphqw ã dssoltxhu dx yhfwhxu E
C vf
F srxu v*dssurfkhu
D
O
gh od vroxwlrq = 3 4 3 4
E
Wf F E
i +Wf> vf> O, F
E vf F @ ^M ` E i +Wf > vf > O, F

+:1439,
C D C D
O i2 +Wf> vf> O,
3 4
E
Wf F
Oruvtxh o*rq d gìwhuplqì oh yhfwhxu E
C vf F vroxwlrq gx sureoëph/ ohv hruwv dx{
D
O
h{wuìplwìv gh o*ìoìphqw vh gìgxlvhqw gluhfwhphqw1

Fdofxo gx prgxoh dssduhqw


Qrxv srxyrqv ìjdohphqw fdofxohu oh prgxoh dssduhqw gh o*ìoìphqw fkdñqhwwh/ uholdqw o*df0
furlvvhphqw lqqlwìvlpdo gh irufh dx plolhx gh o*ìoìphqw oh orqj gh od frugh gþ ã xq
doorqjhphqw lqqlwìvlpdo gh od frugh g1 Od irufh oh orqj gh od frugh dx plolhx gh o*ìoìphqw
v*h{sulph sdu =  
k y O
W @ Wf . s= vf . +:143:,
g g 5
Hq dssoltxdqw xqh yduldwlrq lqqlwìvlpdoh g gh od orqjxhxu gh od frugh gdqv od gluhfwlrq
gìqlh sdu fhwwh ghuqlëuh/ rq d =

k
k @ g +:143;,
g
y
y @ g +:143<,
g
489 Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo

G*rü =
 
k . k y . y O . O
W . W @ +W . Wf , . s= vf . vf .
g . g f g . g 5
 
k y O . O
@ +Wf . Wf , . s= vf . vf . +:1443,
g g 5
G*rü =  
k y O
W @ Wf . s= vf . +:1444,
g g 5
O*doorqjhphqw lqqlwìvlpdo vh idlw dxwrxu gh od vroxwlrq +Wf > vf > O, yìuldqw =

i +Wf> vf> O, @ 3 +:1445,

i +Wf> vf> O, @ 3 +:1446,

i2 +Wf> vf> O, @ 3 +:1447,

rü o*ìtxdwlrq i +Wf > vf> O, @ 3 hvw fhqvìh pdlqwhqlu od orqjxhxu ã ylgh frqvwdqwh/ f*hvw0ã0
gluh gh od iruph gh +:1434,1 Hq hhfwxdqw xq gìyhorsshphqw olplwì gh i / i hw i2 dxwrxu
gh +Wf > vf > O,/ rq d =

Ys EAf crf cu


i +Wf > vf> O, @ YAf Wf . Ys EAYrf crff cu vf . Ys EAYu
f crf cu
O +:1448,
Ys EAf crf cu
i +Wf > vf> O, @ YAf Wf . YsEAYrfcrf fcu vf . Ys EAYu f crf cu
O +:1449,
Ys2 EAf crf cu
i2 +Wf > vf> O, @ YAf Wf . Ys2EAYrfcrf fcu vf . Ys2 EAYu f crf cu
O +:144:,

Rq uhpdutxh doruv txh i +Wf > vf > O, fruuhvsrqg ã o*doorqjhphqw krul}rqwdo k hw i2 +Wf > vf > O,
ã o*doorqjhphqw yhuwlfdo y1 O*dffurlvvhphqw i +Wf > vf> O, grlw íwuh qxo dq gh pdlqwhqlu
od orqjxhxu ã ylgh frqvwdqwh1 Rq rewlhqw qdohphqw oh v|vwëph =
3 4 3 4
E
Wf F E
3 F
^M ` = E
C vf F@E
D C k F
D +:144;,
O y
Rq lqyhuvh oh v|vwëph dlqvl rewhqx/ hw hq qrwdqw =
3 4
E
t t2 t F
^M `3 @ E
C t2 t22 t2 F
D +:144<,
t  t 2 t
Rq d =

Wf @ t2 =k . t =y +:1453,

vf @ t22 =k . t2 =y +:1454,

O @ t 2 =k . t =y +:1455,


:17 Ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh qrq olìv 48:

G*rü =
 
k y t =k . t =y
W @ +t2 =k . t =y, . s= t22=k . t2 =y . 2
g g 5
      
k t 2 y k t  y
@ t2 . s t22 . k . t . s t2 . y
g 5 g g 5 g
     
k t 2  y k k t  y y
@ t2 . s t22 . g . t . s t2 . g +:1456,
g 5 g g g 5 g g
Rq rewlhqw hqq =

W g
H@RR@oe?| @
g #D% $
    
4 t2 _ . s t22 . ^2 2 _ k.
@      +:1457,
D% t _ . s t2 . ^2 _ y
Fhv gìyhorsshphqwv vxu od fkdñqhwwh q*rqw/ ã qrwuh frqqdlvvdqfh/ mdpdlv ìwì hhfwxìv1
Od ghx{lëph irupxodwlrq gx sureoëph gh od fkdñqhwwh hvw sduwlfxolëuhphqw lqgltxìh
srxu oh fdofxo ghv hruwv dx{ h{wuìplwìv ghv vxvshqwhv1 Od suhplëuh hvw uìvhuyìh dx{
ìoìphqwv fkdñqhwwhv txl qh vrqw sdv surfkhv gh od yhuwlfdoh1 Oh sdvvdjh g*xqh irupxodwlrq
ã o*dxwuh hvw sduidlwhphqw frqwlqx1

:17 Ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh qrq olìv


Fodvvltxhphqw/ gdqv xqh vhfwlrq frpsrvlwh/ oruvtxh ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh vrqw olìv
dx eìwrq/ o*dflhu ghv fåeohv hvw vrolgdluh gh od vhfwlrq = lo qh jolvvh sdv sdu udssruw dx
eìwrq1 Rq shxw grqf gluh txh ohv fåeohv frqwulexhqw ã od uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq hw lo vrqw
lqwìjuìv gluhfwhphqw gdqv od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq1 Fhfl suìvhqwh o*dydqwdjh gh
qh sdv dyrlu ã jìuhu ohv vxuwhqvlrqv ghv fåeohv sxlvtx*hoohv vrqw dxwrpdwltxhphqw sulvhv hq
frpswh sdu od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq frpsrvlwh1
Vl ohv fåeohv qh vrqw sdv olìv dx eìwrq/ lov shxyhqw jolvvhu sdu udssruw ã od vhfwlrq1 Rq
qh shxw grqf soxv frqvlgìuhu txh ohv fåeohv frqwulexhqw ã od uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq1 Oh eìwrq
vhxo uìvlvwh hw ohv yduldwlrqv gh whqvlrq ghv fåeohv qrq olìv grlyhqw íwuh uìshufxwìhv frpph
ghv hruwv h{wìulhxuv ã od vhfwlrq1 Od whqvlrq g*xq fåeoh/ vxu xq wurqêrq qrq lqmhfwì/ hvw
doruv vxssrvìh frqvwdqwh oh orqj gx fåeoh hw hvw fdofxoìh dyhf od pr|hqqh ghv gìirupdwlrqv
ghv vhfwlrqv oh orqj gx fåeoh/ hq sdufrxudqw oh wurqêrq qrq lqmhfwì1
à fkdtxh ìwdsh gx surfhvvxv lwìudwli gh uìvroxwlrq/ od gìirupdwlrq ghv fåeohv qrq olìv
dx eìwrq hvw plvh ã mrxu ã sduwlu gh od gìirupdwlrq frxudqwh ghv vhfwlrqv1
Od plvh hq úxyuh lqirupdwltxh idlw o*remhw gh o*dqqh{h D1
48; Fkdslwuh : Ìoìphqwv vsìfltxhv dx Jìqlh flylo
Fkdslwuh ;

Fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì

;14 Lqwurgxfwlrq
Gdqv fh fkdslwuh/ qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvhurqv hvvhqwlhoohphqw dx fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì olqìdluh1 Oh
fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì frqvlvwh/ srxu xqh vwuxfwxuh grqqìh vrxplvh ã xqh fkdujh S / ã wurxyhu
oh idfwhxu gh fkdujh fulwltxh txh o*rq qrwhud / who txh vrxv od fkdujh S / od vwuxfwxuh
ghylhqw lqvwdeoh1 Hq jìqìudo/ vhxohv ohv ydohxuv srvlwlyhv gh  vrqw lqwìuhvvdqwhv1
Oh fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì olqìdluh shuphw gh uìvrxguh fh sureoëph hq oh olqìdulvdqw ã o*r0
uljlqh gdqv oh gldjudpph hruw0gìsodfhphqw1  hvw doruv vroxwlrq gx sureoëph dx{ ydohxuv
sursuhv vxlydqw =
^Nf` ={ @  ^Nj ` ={ +;14,

rü ^Nf` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì pdwìulhooh gh od vwuxfwxuh vxssrvdqw oh pdwìuldx olqìdluh/


hw ^Nj ` od pdwulfh ghv frqwudlqwhv lqlwldohv gìqlh sdu +6197,1 Hq fh txl qrxv frqfhuqh/
od pdwulfh ^Nj ` hvw fdofxoìh ã sduwlu gh od pdwulfh ^G` gìqlh sdu +614;9, hq vxssrvdqw
oh gìsodfhphqw qxo1 Dlqvl/ ^Nj ` hvw sursruwlrqqhooh dx{ hruwv lqwhuqhv gh od vwuxfwxuh
frqvlgìuìh1
Oh fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì qrq olqìdluh qh shxw vh idluh gh idêrq uljrxuhxvh tx*hq dffurlvvdqw
od fkdujh S1 Oh fdofxo glyhujh oruvtxh od fkdujh fulwltxh hvw dwwhlqwh1
Fhshqgdqw/ rq shxw hqylvdjhu xq fdofxo txl olqìdulvh oh sureoëph hqwuh 5 ìwdwv gh fkdujh
grqqìv/ dx olhx gh oh olqìdulvhu ã o*ruljlqh frpph f*hvw vrxyhqw oh fdv1
Oh sureoëph dx{ ydohxuv sursuhv gh od iruph

^D` ={ @  ^E ` ={ +;15,

vh uhwurxyh ìjdohphqw gdqv o*dqdo|vh g|qdpltxh ghv vwuxfwxuhv1 Hq hhw/ ohv prghv gh
yleudwlrq gh od vwuxfwxuh vrqw ohv yhfwhxuv sursuhv { dvvrflìv dx{ ydohxuv sursuhv  gx
sureoëph vxlydqw =
^N ` ={ @  ^P ` ={ +;16,
493 Fkdslwuh ; Fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì

rü ^P ` hvw od pdwulfh ghv pdvvhv gh od vwuxfwxuh/ hw ^N ` vd pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1

;15 Uìvroxwlrq gx sureoëph

Hq dqdo|vh g|qdpltxh ghv vwuxfwxuhv/ ohv pdwulfhv ^N ` hw ^P ` suìvhqwhqw o*dydqwdjh qrq


qìjoljhdeoh g*íwuh gìqlhv srvlwlyhv1 Fhfl shuphw g*xwlolvhu fhuwdlqhv pìwkrghv frpph od
pìwkrghv ghv vrxv0hvsdfhv rx od pìwkrgh gh Mdfrel srxu h{wudluh ohv ydohxuv sursuhv hw
ohv yhfwhxuv sursuhv gx sureoëph1
Gdqv oh fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì/ od pdwulfh^Nf` hvw fhuwhv gìqlh srvlwlyh/ pdlv fh q*hvw
sdv oh fdv gh od pdwulfh ghv frqwudlqwhv lqlwldohv ^Nj `1 Srxu uìvrxguh fh sureoëph/ lo h{lvwh
soxvlhxuv whfkqltxhv =

;1514 Oh vkliw olqìdluh

Fhwwh whfkqltxh frqvlvwh ã hhfwxhu xq gìfdodjh vxu  hq srvdqw =

 @ f .  +;17,

Oh sureoëph v*ìfulw doruv =

^^Nf ` . f ^Nj `` ={ @  ^Nj ` ={ +;18,

Sdu xq fkrl{ mxglflhx{ gh f / od uhfkhufkh ghv ydohxuv gh  dqqxodqw ghw +^Nf ` .  ^Nj `,
hvw soxv dlvìh/ pdlv v*dyëuh qìdqprlqv gìolfdwh1

;1515 Oh vkliw qrq olqìdluh

Lfl/ rq srvh =

@ +;19,
4  
Oh sureoëph v*ìfulw doruv =

^Nf` ={ @  ^^Nj `   ^Nf`` ={ +;1:,

Vl o*rq qrwh 3 od suhplëuh ydohxu sursuh qìjdwlyh gx sureoëph/ hw gh idêrq jìqìudoh 3
od lëph ydohxu sursuh qìjdwlyh hq sduwdqw gh 3/ rq frqvwdwh doruv txh vl A 
ƒb3 ƒ doruv
 A 3 hw o*rq d 3 A  1 Hq rxwuh/ dx{ ydohxuv sursuhv  srvlwlyhv/ f*hvw0ã0gluh fhoohv txl
qrxv lqwìuhvvhqw/ fruuhvsrqghqw ghv ydohxuv  whoohv txh 3 9  9 k 1
Fhwwh whfkqltxh v*dyëuh ehdxfrxs soxv vwdeoh hq sudwltxh1
;15 Uìvroxwlrq gx sureoëph 494

;1516 Xqh dxwuh dssurfkh

Srxu uìvrxguh oh sureoëph dx{ ydohxuv sursuhv

^^Nf ` .  ^Nj `` ={ @ 3 +;1;,

dyhf { 9@ 3/ wrxw hq h{wud|dqw ghv ydohxuv sursuhv  srvlwlyhv/ qrxv qrxv vrpphv edvìv vxu
oh idlw vxlydqw = od pdwulfh ^^Nf ` .  ^Nj `` hvw vlqjxolëuh/ grqf vrq gìwhuplqdqw hvw qxo/ rx
hqfruh xqh gh vhv ydohxuv sursuhv/ txl ìwdlw srvlwlyh/ ghylhqw qxooh1 Qrxv fdofxorqv/ srxu
xqh ydohxu grqqìh gh  od pdwulfh

^N ` @ ^Nf` .  ^Nj ` +;1<,

Fhwwh pdwulfh hvw uìhooh v|pìwultxh = hooh hvw grqf gldjrqdolvdeoh hw shxw vh phwwuh vrxv od
iruph
^N ` @ ^O` ^G` | ^O` +;143,

rü ^O` hvw xqh pdwulfh wuldqjxodluh lqiìulhxuh +Orzhu, hw ^G` xqh pdwulfh gldjrqdoh/ frp0
srvìh ghv ydohxuv sursuhv gh ^N `1 Qrxv hhfwxrqv od idfwrulvdwlrq gh ^N `/ hw qrxv frps0
wrqv oh qrpeuh gh ydohxuv sursuhv qìjdwlyhv frqwhqxhv gdqv ^G`1 Dlqvl/ sdu xqh vlpsoh
glfkrwrplh/ qrxv frqqdlvvrqv ohv ydohxuv gh  txl fkdqjhqw oh qrpeuh gh ydohxuv sursuhv
qìjdwlyhv/ fh txl uhylhqw ã gìwhfwhu ohv ydohxuv gh  txl dqqxohqw oh gìwhuplqdqw gh ^N `1 Hq
sduwdqw gh 3/ rq shxw dlqvl h{wudluh ohv ydohxuv dssurfkìhv  /111/R ghv s ydohxuv sursuhv
srvlwlyhv txl uìsrqghqw dx sureoëph srvì1
Fhshqgdqw/ fhwwh whfkqltxh qh shuphw sdv gh fdofxohu ohv yhfwhxuv sursuhv dvvrflìv ã
 /111/R 1 Srxu h{wudluh oh yhfwhxu sursuh {  / qrxv xwlolvrqv
dvvrflì ã od ydohxu sursuh
od pìwkrgh gh od sxlvvdqfh lqyhuvh/ hq hhfwxdqw xq gìfdodjh +vkliw, gh  sdu udssruw ã
o*ruljlqh gh o*d{h ghv ydohxuv sursuhv1 Rq srvh doruv

 @  . W +;144,

Rq qrwh dx sdvvdjh txh W hvw shwlw hq ydohxu devroxh1 Rq rewlhqw doruv =

^^^Nf ` .  ^Nj `` . W ^Nj `` { @ 3 +;145,

Qrxv srvrqv =
^Nf ` .  ^Nj ` @ ^N ` +;146,

Rq frqvwuxlw doruv od vxlwh gh yhfwhxuv qrupìv

^N `3 ^N ` =t
t&n @   3 j &  +;147,
^N ` ^Nj ` =t& 
495 Fkdslwuh ; Fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì

dyhf tf txhofrqtxh srxuyx txh ntfn @ 41 Hq sudwltxh/ od qruph xwlolvìh hvw od qruph
lqqlh1 Qrwrqv dx sdvvdjh txh oh fdofxo gh ^N `3 q*hvw sdv qìfhvvdluh = lo vx!w hq idlw
g*lqyhuvhu oh v|vwëph1 Rq vdlw txh

nt& n 4
olp
nt&nn @ m m @ mWm
W
+;148,
&<n"

4
t @ olp t&
hvw xq yhfwhxu sursuh dvvrflì ã od ydohxu sursuh W @ txl hvw od soxv
&<n" W
judqgh hq prgxoh1 Rq fdofxoh doruv

{ @ ^N `3 ^Nj ` =t +;149,

oh yhfwhxu sursuh dvvrflì ã od ydohxu sursuh  1


Ohv prghv gh dpehphqw txh o*rq h{wudlw dlqvl vrqw qrupìv dx vhqv gh od qruph lqqlh1
Lov shxyhqw íwuh uìlqmhfwìv frpph gìirupìh lqlwldoh gh od vwuxfwxuh srxu xq fkdujhphqw
sdv ã sdv/ dq g*dprufhu o*lqvwdelolwì/ qrq vdqv dyrlu ìwì uìgxlwv hq dpsolwxgh1

;16 Frqfoxvlrq
Od whfkqltxh txh qrxv sursrvrqv d soxvlhxuv dydqwdjhv = hooh shuphw g*h{wudluh ohv ydohxuv
sursuhv hq sdufrxudqw o*d{h ghv ydohxuv sursuhv gh idêrq frqwlqxh ã sduwlu gh 3/ vdqv hq
vdxwhu1 Hq od frxsodqw ã od pìwkrgh gh od sxlvvdqfh lqyhuvh gìfdoìh/ rq rewlhqw ohv yhfwhxuv
sursuhv dvvrflìv1 Ã dxfxq prphqw qrxv qh idlvrqv g*k|srwkëvh vxu od gìqlh0srvlwlylwì ghv
pdwulfhv pdqlsxoìhv1 Qrxv xwlolvrqv vlpsohphqw oh idlw tx*hoohv vrqw uìhoohv hw v|pìwultxhv/
hw grqf gldjrqdolvdeohv1 Od frqwuh0sduwlh vh sdlh hq whpsv gh fdofxo/ fdu oh qrpeuh gh
idfwrulvdwlrqv hvw lpsruwdqw/ pdlv ohv whpsv gh fdofxo vrqw wrxmrxuv uhvwìv dffhswdeohv/
píph vxu ghv vwuxfwxuhv lpsruwdqwhv1
Fkdslwuh <

Fdofxo g|qdpltxh

<14 Lqwurgxfwlrq

Oh fdofxo g|qdpltxh ghv vwuxfwxuhv hvw oh surorqjhphqw orjltxh gx fdofxo qrq olqìdluh
vwdwltxh1 Oh fdofxo g|qdpltxh shuphw g*dssuìkhqghu fruuhfwhphqw ohv hhwv gx yhqw hw
ghv vìlvphv vxu ohv vwuxfwxuhv1 Od plvh hq úxyuh g*xq who w|sh gh fdofxo hvw sduidlwhphqw
oìjlwlph gdqv od phvxuh rü ohv vwuxfwxuhv txh o*rq ìwxglh ìwdqw gh soxv hq soxv ìodqfìhv/
hoohv ghylhqqhqw gh idlw gh soxv hq soxv vhqvleohv dx{ hhwv gx yhqw hw ghv vìlvphv1 Hq
rxwuh/ oh fdofxo ghv vwuxfwxuhv hq }rqh vlvpltxh vhpeoh íwuh xqh suìrffxsdwlrq iruwh gh od
sduw ghv dfwhxuv gx Jìqlh flylo1
Gdqv xq suhplhu whpsv/ qrxv suìvhqwhurqv vxfflqfwhphqw oh fdofxo g|qdpltxh olqìdluh/
sxlv qrxv qrxv lqwìuhvvhurqv dx fdofxo g|qdpltxh whpsruho/ txl frqvlvwh ã lqwìjuhu sdv gh
whpsv sdu sdv gh whpsv/ oh prxyhphqw gh od vwuxfwxuh1

<15 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh olqìdluh

Xqh vwuxfwxuh grqw oh frpsruwhphqw hvw ìodvwltxh olqìdluh/ prgìolvìh ã o*dlgh gh eduuhv hw
frpsruwdqw xqh pdvvh dvvrflìh ã fkdfxq ghv qúxgv/ hvw hq idlw xq rvfloodwhxu pxowlsoh/
f*hvw0ã0gluh xq hqvhpeoh gh pdvvhv uholìhv hqwuh hoohv hw ã xqh edvh {h sdu ghv uhvvruwv hw
ghv dpruwlvvhxuv1

<1514 Ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw

Gdqv oh uhsëuh joredo/ od vwuxfwxuh hvw fkdujìh dx{ qúxgv sdu oh yhfwhxu S +w,/ txl gìvrupdlv
hvw xqh fkdujh gìshqgdqw gx whpsv1 Srxu xq gìsodfhphqw grqqì V} ghv qúxgv/ ohv pdvvhv
dvvrflìhv ã fkdfxq ghv qúxgv vxelvvhqw ohv hruwv vxlydqwv =
497 Fkdslwuh < Fdofxo g|qdpltxh

 ohv irufhv ìodvwltxhv gh udssho Io / txl fruuhvsrqghqw ã o*rssrvì ghv irufhv lqwhuqhv
gh od vwuxfwxuh I} / txl shxyhqw v*ìfuluh gdqv oh fdv olqìdluh =
Io @ I} @  ^N ` =V} +<14,

rü ^N ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vwuxfwxuh1


 ohv irufhv g*dpruwlvvhphqw I@/ txl vrqw rssrvìhv hw sursruwlrqqhoohv ã od ylwhvvh ghv
pdvvhv =
I@ @  ^F ` =Vb} +<15,

rü Vb} hvw od gìulyìh sdu udssruw dx whpsv w gh V} =

gV
Vb} @ } +<16,
gw
Vb} hvw hq idlw oh yhfwhxu ylwhvvh ghv qúxgv1

 ohv irufhv h{wìulhxuhv S +w,1

Oh sulqflsh irqgdphqwdo gh od g|qdpltxh fodvvltxh v*ìfulw doruv =

Io . I@ . S +w, @ ^P ` =V‚} +<17,

rü ^P ` hvw od pdwulfh ghv pdvvhv gh od vwuxfwxuhv hw V‚} od gìulyìh vhfrqgh gh V} sdu udssruw
dx whpsv w =
gV 2
V‚} @ 2} +<18,
gw
V‚} hvw hq idlw oh yhfwhxu dffìoìudwlrq ghv qúxgv1 Gh idêrq soxv fodvvltxh/ fhwwh ìtxdwlrq
vh phw vrxv od iruph vxlydqwh =

^P ` =V‚} . ^F ` =Vb} . ^N ` =V} @ S +w, +<19,

<1515 Rvfloodwlrqv oleuhv


Od suhplëuh ìwdsh gx fdofxo g|qdpltxh olqìdluh frqvlvwh ã gìwhuplqhu ohv prghv sursuhv
gh od vwuxfwxuh dlqvl txh ohv iuìtxhqfhv sursuhv1 Srxu fhod/ rq ìolplqh gh o*ìtxdwlrq +<19,
ohv irufhv g*dpruwlvvhphqw dlqvl txh o*h{flwdwlrq h{wìulhxuh S +w,/ hw o*rq rewlhqw o*ìtxdwlrq
uìjlvvdqw ohv rvfloodwlrqv oleuhv gh od vwuxfwxuh =

^P ` =V‚} . ^N ` =V} @ 3 +<1:,

Xqh vroxwlrq sduwlfxolëuh gh +<1:, hvw grqqìh sdu =

V} @ dG vlq +$w . *, +<1;,


<15 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh olqìdluh 498

rü d/ $ hw * vrqw ghv frqvwdqwhv/ hw G xq yhfwhxu frqvwdqw grqw ohv frrugrqqìhv uhsuìvhq0


whqw ohv gìsodfhphqwv ghv qúxgv1 Oh yhfwhxu dffìoìudwlrq vh phw vrxv od iruph vxlydqwh =

V‚} @ $2 dG vlq +$w . *, +<1<,

O*ìtxdwlrq +<1:, v*ìfulw doruv =


 
^N `  $2 ^P ` =G d vlq +$w . *, @ 3 +<143,

Srxu txh fhwwh uhodwlrq vrlw yìulìh ã wrxw lqvwdqw w/ lo idxw txh =
 
^N `  $2 ^P ` =G @ 3 +<144,

Rq uhwurxyh oh sureoëph dx ydohxuv sursuhv/ gìmã uhqfrqwuì oruv gx fdofxo g*lqvwdelolwì1


Frpph ^N ` hw ^P ` vrqw gìqlhv srvlwlyhv/ rq shxw xwlolvhu ghv pìwkrghv fodvvltxhv dvvh}
sxlvvdqwhv frpph od pìwkrgh g*lwìudwlrq ghv vrxv0hvsdfhv1 Od uìvroxwlrq gx sureoëph
shuphw g*rewhqlu ohv q ydohxuv ghv sxovdwlrqv$/ $2 /111/ $ /111/ $? / dlqvl txh ohv prghv
sursuhv qrupdolvìv gh od vwuxfwxuh G / G2 /111/ G /111/ G? 1
Gdqv oh fdv jìqìudo/ od vroxwlrq hvw rewhqxh hq vxshusrvdqw ohv prxyhphqwv vhorq ohv
q prghv gh yleudwlrq = ?
[
V} +w, @ d G vlq +$ w . * , +<145,
'
Ohv frh!flhqwv d hw * vrqw gìwhuplqìv sdu ohv frqglwlrqv dx{ olplwhv1

<1516 Vxshusrvlwlrq prgdoh

Gdqv oh fdguh g*xqh ìwxgh vlvpltxh ã o*dlgh g*xq vshfwuh gh uìsrqvh/ srxu fkdtxh prgh/
rq gìwhuplqh ohv svhxgr0dffìoìudwlrqv ã dssoltxhu dx{ pdvvhv/ hw grqf ohv irufhv vwdwltxhv
ìtxlydohqwhv1 Vrxv o*dfwlrq gh fhv irufhv vwdwltxhv ìtxlydohqwhv/ od vwuxfwxuh vxelw ghv
gìsodfhphqwv hw gìyhorssh ghv hruwv lqwhuqhv1 Dsuëv dyrlu vìohfwlrqqì ohv Q prghv hq0
jhqgudqw ghv hruwv qrwdeohv gdqv od vwuxfwxuh/ rq surfëgh doruv ã xqh vxshusrvlwlrq ghv
uìsrqvhv prgdohv gh od vwuxfwxuh1 Srxu vlpsolhu o*ìqrqfì/ rq vxssrvhud txh od yìulfdwlrq
txh o*rq pëqh hvw hhfwxìh g*dsuëv od ydohxu g*xq vhxo sdudpëwuh1
Dsshorqv s od ydohxu pd{lpdoh txh suhqg xq sdudpëwuh s srxu oh prgh gh yleudwlrq
l1 Oruvtxh ohv prghv gh yleudwlrqv vrqw lqgìshqgdqwv/ od ydohxu pd{lpdoh s gx sdudpëwuh
s hvw grqqìh sdu od pr|hqqh txdgudwltxh =
y
x
x[
s @ w s2 +<146,
'

Dlqvl/ rq suhqg hq frpswh od qrq frqfrplwdqfh ghv uìsrqvhv prgdohv pd{lpdohv1


499 Fkdslwuh < Fdofxo g|qdpltxh

Sdu frqwuh/ vl sdu h{hpsoh ohv prghv 4 hw 5 rqw ghv iuìtxhqfhv yrlvlqhv ã prlqv gh 43(
suëv/ rq qh shxw sdv frqvlgìuhu tx*lov vrqw lqgìshqgdqwv/ hw o*rq d =
y
x 
x [
m m m m
s @ w+ s . s2 ,2 . s2 +<147,
'

Hq idlw/ rq uhjurxsh ohv 5 prghv surfkhv hq xq vhxo1


Oh fdofxo g|qdpltxh olqìdluh shuphw dlqvl g*hhfwxhu od soxsduw ghv yìulfdwlrqv uìjoh0
phqwdluhv hq yljxhxu/ txh fh vrlw gdqv oh grpdlqh gx yhqw rx gx vìlvph1

<16 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh qrq olqìdluh


Gdqv oh fdguh gx fdofxo qrq olqìdluh ghv vwuxfwxuhv/ o*ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw hvw vhqvleoh0
phqw od píph txh gdqv oh fdguh olqìdluh/ vdxi txh o*rq shug od olqìdulwì gdqv od uhodwlrq
hruwv0gìsodfhphqwv1

<1614 Ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw


à o*lqvwdqw w/ o*ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw v*ìfulw =

^P ` =V‚} . ^F ` =Vb} . I} +w, @ S +w, +<148,

Oh yhfwhxu ghv hruwv lqwhuqhv I} +w, gìshqg gx whpsv sdu oh eldlv gx gìsodfhphqw V} +w,
gh od píph idêrq tx*hq vwdwltxh1 Srxu uìvrxguh +<148,/ rq shxw xwlolvhu ghv pìwkrghv g*lq0
wìjudwlrq gluhfwh ghv v|vwëphv gx vhfrqg ruguh1 Rq shxw flwhu od pìwkrgh ghv glìuhqfhv
qlhv fhqwudohv +pìwkrgh h{solflwh,/ od pìwkrgh gh Krxerow +lpsolflwh,/ od pìwkrgh gh Qhz0
pdun +lpsolflwh,/ dlqvl txh fhooh gh Zlovrq +lpsolflwh, ^Gkd;7`1 Qrwrqv dx sdvvdjh txh od
pìwkrgh gh Qhzpdun hvw xq fdv sduwlfxolhu gh fhooh gh Zlovrq1 Qrxv dyrqv gìyhorssì od
pìwkrgh g*lqwìjudwlrq gh Qhzpdun fdu hooh suìvhqwdlw gh qrpeuhx{ dydqwdjhv/ dxvvl elhq
gx srlqw gh yxh wkìrultxh txh gx srlqw gh yxh gh od plvh hq úxyuh1

<1615 Od pìwkrgh gh Qhzpdun = dssurfkh lqfuìphqwdoh


Rq yd srxyrlu frqvwuxluh od vroxwlrq gx sureoëph ã o*lqvwdqw w . w ã sduwlu ghv yhfwhxuv
V} +w,/ Vb} +w, hw V‚} +w, frqqxv ã o*lqvwdqw w1 Fhwwh pìwkrgh uhsrvh vxu ohv gìyhorsshphqwv
olplwìv vxlydqwv =
 
Vb} +w . w, @ Vb} +w, . w +4  d, V‚} +w, . dV‚} +w . w, +<149,

w 2 
V} +w . w, @ V} +w, . wVb} +w, . +4  e, V‚} +w, . eV‚} +w . w, +<14:,
5
<16 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh qrq olqìdluh 49:

4
Oruvtxh d@e@ / fhv dssur{lpdwlrqv frqvlvwhqw ã vxssrvhu o*dffìoìudwlrq frqvwdqwh
5
4 4
gdqv o*lqwhuydooh ^w> w . w` hw ìjdoh ã vd ydohxu pr|hqqh1 Oruvtxh d @ hw e @ / fhv
5 6
dssur{lpdwlrqv frqvlvwhqw ã vxssrvhu xqh dffìoìudwlrq yduldqw olqìdluhphqw vxu o*lqwhuydooh
^w> w . w`1
Hq srvdqw =

V} +w, @ V} +w . w,  V} +w, +<14;,

Vb} +w, @ Vb} +w . w,  Vb} +w, +<14<,

V‚} +w, @ V‚} +w . w,  V‚} +w, +<153,

ohv ìtxdwlrqv +<149, hw +<14:, v*ìfulyhqw =

Vb} +w, @ wV‚} +w, . dwV‚} +w, +<154,


w2 ‚ w2 ‚
V} +w, @ wVb} +w, . V} +w, . eV} +w, +<155,
5 5
Hq lqyhuvdqw fhv ghx{ uhodwlrqv/ rq rewlhqw =
 
2ew ‚ w2 ‚
V} +w, @ V} +w,  wVb} +w,  V +w, +<156,
5 5 }
ew2 b ed ‚
V} +w, @ w V} +w,  dw2 Vb} +w, . dwV} +w, +<157,
5 5
à o*lqvwdqw w/ o*ìtxdwlrq gx prxyhphqw gh od vwuxfwxuh hvw =

^P ` =V‚} +w, . ^F ` =Vb} +w, . I} +w, @ S +w, +<158,

à o*lqvwdqw w . w/ hooh v*ìfulw =


^P ` =V‚} +w . w, . ^F ` =Vb} +w . w, . I} +w . w, @ S +w . w, +<159,

Hq qrwdqw S +w, o*dffurlvvhphqw gh fkdujh h{wìulhxuh dssoltxìh ã od vwuxfwxuh gdqv o*lq0


whuydooh ^w> w . w` =
S +w, @ S +w . w,  S +w, +<15:,

hw hq idlvdqw od glìuhqfh hqwuh ohv ìtxdwlrqv +<159, hw +<158,/ rq rewlhqw =

^P ` =V‚} +w, . ^F ` =Vb} +w, . I} +w . w,  I} +w, @ S +w, +<15;,

Dq gh frqvwuxluh xq rsìudwhxu gh frqyhujhqfh/ rq olqìdulvh o*h{suhvvlrq I} +w . w, 


I} +w, hq od uhpsodêdqw sdu ^N} ` =V} +w,/ rü ^N} ` hvw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì wdqjhqwh gh od
vwuxfwxuh/ hw o*rq rewlhqw =

^P ` =V‚} +w, . ^F ` =Vb} +w, . ^N} ` =V} +w, @ S +w, +<15<,


49; Fkdslwuh < Fdofxo g|qdpltxh

Rq uhwurxyh oh píph vfkìpd gh uìvroxwlrq txh gdqv oh fkdslwuh 81 Rq frqvwuxlw xqh vxlwh
gh vroxwlrqv V} +w, gh od idêrq vxlydqwh = V}n +w, hvw vroxwlrq gh
^P ` =V‚} +w, . ^F ` =Vb} +w, . ^N} ` =V}n +w, @ S +w, +<163,

Oruvtxh od vxlwh V} +w, d frqyhujì/ rq fdofxoh oh uìvlgx gh od idêrq vxlydqwh =


uhvlgx @ S +w . w,  ^P ` =V‚} +w . w,  ^F ` =Vb} +w . w,  I} +w . w, +<164,

hw o*rq uìsëwh oh f|foh mxvtx*ã fh txh oh uìvlgx vrlw idleoh hq qruph1

<1616 Plvh hq úxyuh


Ohv ìtxdwlrqv +<163, hw +<164, qh vrqw sdv h{sorlwdeohv gluhfwhphqw1 Hq lqmhfwdqw +<157, hw
+<156, gdqv +<163,/ rq rewlhqw =
 
ew
2 ew2
^P ` . dw ^F ` . ^N} ` V} +w, @ S +w,
5 5
 
w ‚2
. ^P ` = wVb} +w, . V +w, +<165,
5 }
 
de ‚
. ^F ` = w V} +w, . dw2Vb} +w,
5
Dlqvl/ o*rsìudwhxu wdqjhqw qh vhud sdv ^N} ` frpph hq vwdwltxh pdlv ^N} ` gìql sdu =

ew2
^N} ` @ ^P ` . dw ^F ` . ^N} ` +<166,
5
Oh uìvlgx q*hvw sdv lqlwldolvì sdu S pdlv sdu =
   
ew2 b w2 ‚ de ‚ 2 b
S +w,.^P ` = wV} +w, . V +w, .^F ` = w V} +w, . dw V} +w, +<167,
5 5 } 5
Hq xwlolvdqw ìjdohphqw +<157, hw +<156, gdqv +<164,/ lo ylhqw =
ew2 ew2
uhvlgx @ +S +w . w,  I} +w . w,,
5 5
 ^^P ` . dw ^F `` =V} +w, 
w2 ‚
. ^P ` = wV} +w, . +4  e,
b V +w,
5 }
 
w2 b de ‚
. ^F ` = +5d  e, V} +w, . w V} +w, +<168,
5 5
Hq fh txl frqfhuqh ohv frqglwlrqv lqlwldohv/ qrxv vxssrvrqv gh idêrq lpsolflwh txh od vwuxf0
wxuh hvw dx gìexw hq ìtxloleuh vrxv xq fkdujhphqw vwdwltxh qrwì Sr|@|^e / dyhf oh gìsodfh0
phqw V}r|@|^e fruuhvsrqgdqw1 Hooh hvw hqvxlwh h{flwìh sdu xq fkdujhphqw h{wìulhxu dxwrxu
gh fhwwh srvlwlrq g*ìtxloleuh vwdwltxh1 Qrxv dyrqv grqf =

V} +3, @ V}r|@|^e +<169,

Vb} +3, @ 3 +<16:,


<17 Frqfoxvlrq 49<

Dlqvl/ hq xwlolvdqw +<148,/ rq fdofxoh o*dffìoìudwlrq lqlwldoh V‚} +3,/ txl hvw gìgxlwh gh od
uìvroxwlrq gh =
^P ` =V‚} +3, @ S +3,  Sr|@|^e +<16;,

<17 Frqfoxvlrq
Ohv uhfrppdqgdwlrqv gh Qhzpdun srxu oh fkrl{ ghv sdudpëwuhv gh od pìwkrgh vrqw ohv
vxlydqwv =

4
d @ srxu ìolplqhu o*dpruwlvvhphqw dojrulwkpltxh +<16<,
5 
4 4
e 5 >
6 5
+<173,
 
w 4 4
W
5 >
9 8
+<174,

rü W hvw od sìulrgh gx prgh gìgxlw gx fdofxo hq rvfloodwlrqv oleuhv txl srvvëgh od sxovdwlrq
sursuh od soxv ìohyìh1
Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu/ rq uhwurxyh h{dfwhphqw od píph orjltxh hw oh píph
vfkìpd gh uìvroxwlrq txh vrxv fkdujhphqw vwdwltxh1 F*hvw grqf oh píph dojrulwkph gh
uìvroxwlrq txl hvw hpsor|ì1 Hq sudwltxh/ fhod vljqlh txh oh frgh gh fdofxo fruuhvsrqgdqw ã
xqh uìvroxwlrq vwdwltxh d vxelw ghv wudqvirupdwlrqv vrpph wrxwh plqhxuhv dq gh srxyrlu
phqhu xq fdofxo g|qdpltxh dyhf lqwìjudwlrq whpsruhooh sdv ã sdv1 Od sulvh hq frpswh ghv
qrq0olqìdulwìv pdwìulhooh hw jìrpìwultxh hvw dlqvl wrwdoh1
Od vhxoh lqfrqqxh hq fh txl qrxv frqfhuqh hvw o*ìydoxdwlrq gh o*dpruwlvvhphqw1 Qrxv
sursrvrqv grqf ã o*xwlolvdwhxu gh gìqlu od pdwulfh g*dpruwlvvhphqw ^F ` ã o*dlgh gh ghx{
frh!flhqwv  hw 2 whov txh =

^F ` @  ^P ` . 2 ^N} ` +<175,
4:3 Fkdslwuh < Fdofxo g|qdpltxh
Fkdslwuh 43

H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv
qxpìultxhv

4314 Lqwurgxfwlrq
Gdqv fh fkdslwuh/ qrxv doorqv suìvhqwhu xq fhuwdlq qrpeuh g*h{hpsohv txl rqw idlw o*re0
mhw g*ìwxghv h{sìulphqwdohv hw2rx wkìrultxhv1 Qrxv frqiurqwrqv oh uìvxowdw gh qrv fdofxov
hhfwxìv ã sduwlu gh fh txl suìfëgh/ dx{ uìvxowdwv h{sìulphqwdx{1 Qrxv wudlwhurqv gli0
iìuhqwv w|shv gh vwuxfwxuhv1 Qrxv frpphqfhurqv sdu ìwxglhu ghv vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì/
sxlv qrxv ìwxglhurqv ghv vwuxfwxuhv frpsrvìhv gh eìwrq dupì hw suìfrqwudlqw/ dlqvl txh
ghv vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv1 Qrxv phwwurqv hq úxyuh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh frxsoìh
ìyhqwxhoohphqw dyhf od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh/ hw ìyhqwxhoohphqw od ylvfr0ìodvwlflwì1

4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì


431514 Srxwuh frqwlqxh

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh suhplhu h{hpsoh hvw wluì g*xqh vìulh gh whvwv hhfwxìv sdu Pdwwrfn ^Pdw8<` vxu ghv
srxwuhv frqwlqxhv k|shuvwdwltxhv hq eìwrq dupì1 Hooh d idlw o*remhw g*ìwxghv qxpìultxhv sdu
Juhodw ^Juh:;e` hw Qdlw0Udedk ^Qdl<3`1 Od srxwuh txh o*rq vh sursrvh g*ìwxglhu frpsruwh
ghx{ wudyìhv ìjdohv gh 45 slhgv/ vrlw 4/;5< p1 Xqh fkdujh srqfwxhooh qrwìh S hvw dssoltxìh
dx plolhx gh od suhplëuh wudyìh/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 4314/ mxvtx*ã od uxlqh frpsoëwh1
Od vhfwlrq wudqvyhuvdoh gh od srxwuh hvw uhfwdqjxodluh/ hw idlw < srxfhv sdu 7 srxfhv/
vrlw 55/;9 fp sdu 43/49 fp1 Od srxwuh ìwxglìh fruuhvsrqg ã od srxwuh qxpìur 6 gh od
suhplëuh vìulh/ hw suìvhqwh od sduwlfxodulwì gh srvvìghu hq E hw hq F oh píph srxufhqwdjh
g*dupdwxuhv sdvvlyhv whqgxhv = 43 dupdwxuhv gh 3/58 srxfh gh gldpëwuh/ vrlw 6/49: fp2
4:5 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

B C
P

22,86cm

A C D
B

1,829m 1,829m 10,16cm

Iljxuh 4314 = Srxwuh gh Pdwwrfn

g*dflhu/ fh txl fruuhvsrqg ã 4/69( gh od vhfwlrq wrwdoh1 Fh sureoëph qh idlw lqwhuyhqlu txh
od qrq0olqìdulwì gx frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Od uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq gx eìwrq phvxuìh vxu ghv ìsurxyhwwhv fxeltxhv hvw gh
5</7 PSd1 Gdqv od prgìolvdwlrq sursrvìh/ od uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq sulvh hq frpswh
hvw gh 3/;8 irlv od uìvlvwdqfh phvxuìh vxu ghv fxehv1 Oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gx eìwrq ã o*r0
uljlqh hvw ìydoxì ã 58 JSd1 Od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq hvw xqh orl gh w|sh Vdujlq
dyhf sulvh hq frpswh gx eìwrq whqgx +whqvlrq0vwlhqlqj, vhorq od pìwkrgh gh Juhodw1 Ohv
frrugrqqìhv gx slf gh frpsuhvvlrq vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =

%Kf @ 3/3357 +4314,

iS @ 3/;8  5</7 @ 57/<< PSd +4315,

Od uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq hvw sulvh ã 43( gh vd uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq fruuljìh1


Hq fh txl frqfhuqh o*dflhu/ oh prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh hvw Hr @ 533 JSd/ od olplwh
ìodvwltxh hvw ie @ 733 PSd/ hw od olplwh gh uxswxuh hvw ìydoxìh ã 868 PSd1 Od orl gh
frpsruwhphqw xwlolvìh hvw xqh orl elolqìdluh dyhf udhuplvvhphqw1

Uìvxowdwv
Ohv srxwuhv vrqw frqêxhv srxu xqh fkdujh gh vhuylfh qrwìh Sr ìjdoh ã 56 nQ1 Od fkdujh gh
uxswxuh phvxuìh h{sìulphqwdohphqw v*ìoëyh ã :7/54 nQ1 Oh wdeohdx 4314 grqqh od ydohxu ghv
prphqwv vrxv od fkdujh gh vhuylfh Sr vhorq xq fdofxo olqìdluh/ vhorq oh fdofxo qrq olqìdluh
sursrvì/ hw vhorq o*h{sìulhqfh1
4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4:6

Fdofxo olqìdluh Fdof1 qrq olq1 H{sìulhqfh Fdof1qol2H{s1


Prphqw hq E ;/85 nQ1p ;/4; nQ1p ;/5< nQ1p 3/<<
Prphqw hq F 6/<< nQ1p 7/9; nQ1p 7/:6 nQ1p 3/<<

Wdeohdx 4314 = Prphqwv hq vhuylfh gdqv ohv vhfwlrqv E hw F

Vrxv fkdujh gh vhuylfh/ rq frqvwdwh od erqqh fruuìodwlrq hqwuh oh fdofxo qrq olqìdluh hw
o*h{sìulhqfh1 O*ìfduw hqwuh oh fdofxo olqìdluh hw o*h{sìulhqfh hvw gìmã vhqvleoh/ vxuwrxw hq fh
txl frqfhuqh oh prphqw ìfklvvdqw hq F txl hvw vrxv0hvwlpì gh 49(1
O*ìyroxwlrq ghv prphqwv hq E hw hq F hvw uhsuìvhqwìh vxu od jxuh 43151 Rq | d
uhsuìvhqwì ohv uìvxowdwv h{sìulphqwdx{ dlqvl txh fhx{ lvvxv gh qrwuh fdofxo1

30
Mb Expérience
Mb calculé
25
Mc Expérience
Mc calculé
20

Moments (kN.m) 15

10 Ps

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Charge P (kN)

Iljxuh 4315 = Ìyroxwlrq ghv prphqwv hq E hw F hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh

Rq frqvwdwh xq erq dffrug hqwuh oh fdofxo hw o*h{sìulhqfh/ hw o*ìydoxdwlrq gh od fkdujh


gh uxlqh fdofxoìh hvw gh :6/5; nQ srxu xqh fkdujh gh uxlqh uìhooh gh :7/54 nQ/ vrlw xq ìfduw
gh 4( vhxohphqw/ gdqv oh vhqv gh od vìfxulwì1
Oh wdeohdx 4315 grqqh ohv ydohxuv ghv prphqwv hq E hw hq F ã od uxswxuh1
Oh fdofxo vxuhvwlph oh prphqw hq wudyìh gh 7( hw vrxv0hvwlph oh prphqw vxu dssxl
gh 44(1 Vxu od jxuh 4315/ oh fkdqjhphqw gh shqwh vxu ohv gldjudpphv ghv prphqwv dx{
4:7 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

Fdofxo olqìdluh Fdof1 qrq olq1 H{sìulhqfh Fdof1qol2H{s1


Prphqw hq E 5:/7< nQ1p 57/55 nQ1p 56/5; nQ1p 4/37
Prphqw hq F 45/;: nQ1p 4;/93 nQ1p 53/<4 nQ1p 3/;<

Wdeohdx 4315 = Prphqwv xowlphv gdqv ohv vhfwlrqv E hw F

dohqwrxuv gh od fkdujh S @ 93 nQ v*h{soltxh sdu oh irqfwlrqqhphqw hq urwxoh sodvwltxh gh


od vhfwlrq E 1 Hqwuh S @ 93 nQ hw S @ :7/54 nQ/ lo v*rsëuh xqh uhglvwulexwlrq ghv prphqwv
sdu urwxoh sodvwltxh hq E / txh oh surjudpph wudgxlw uhodwlyhphqw elhq juåfh ã o*xwlolvdwlrq
gh o*duwlfh gh Fduqhlur/ txl frqvlvwh ã prglhu orfdohphqw od urwdwlrq gh od vhfwlrq/ hq
dmrxwdqw dx whuph gìgxlw gh o*lqwìjudwlrq ghv frxuexuhv xq whuph orfdo sursruwlrqqho ã od
frxuexuh gdqv od vhfwlrq od soxv vroolflwìh/ frqvhuydqw dlqvl oh sulqflsh gh fdofxo ã sduwlu ghv
orlv frqwudlqwhv0gìirupdwlrqv1 Oh fdofxo olqìdluh hvw sdu dloohxuv wuëv ìorljqì gh od uìdolwì =
lo vxuhvwlph gh 4;( oh prphqw hq E hw vrxv0hvwlph gh 6;( oh prphqw hq F 1

431515 Iodpehphqw g*xq srwhdx


Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh dpehphqw gx srwhdx txh qrxv doorqv ìwxglhu hvw wluì g*xqh vìulh lpsruwdqwh g*h{0
sìulhqfhv uìdolvìhv sdu Irxuì ^Irx:;`1 Hooh d idlw o*remhw g*ìwxghv qxpìultxhv sdu Xop
^Xop<7`1 Oh sureoëph txh qrxv ìwxglrqv hvw xq dpehphqw lqvwdqwdqì/ f*hvw0ã0gluh txh
oh fkdujhphqw hvw gh frxuwh gxuìh +53 plqxwhv hqylurq,/ gh vruwh txh oh uhwudlw hw oh xdjh
gx eìwrq q*lqwhuylhqqhqw sdv1 Oh srwhdx frqvlgìuì hvw oh srwhdx LL041
Oh srwhdx h{sìulphqwdo hvw gh vhfwlrq uhfwdqjxodluh/ hw gh kdxwhxu 7/83 p1 Lo hvw
elduwlfxoì ã vhv h{wuìplwìv/ hw hvw fkdujì dyhf xqh irufh d{ldoh h{fhqwuìh gh 4/8 fp1 Oh
sureoëph vh udpëqh ã ìwxglhu xq srwhdx gh 5/58 p gh kdxwhxu/ hqfdvwuì ã vd edvh hw
fkdujì gh od píph idêrq/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 43161 Fhw h{hpsoh phw hq úxyuh od
qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh g*xqh sduw/ hw vxuwrxw od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh g*dxwuh sduw1
Od vhfwlrq uhfwdqjxodluh gx srwhdx d xqh edvh gh 53 fp srxu xqh kdxwhxu gh 48 fp1
Hooh hvw dupìh sdu 7 dupdwxuhv hq dflhu gh 45 pp gh gldpëwuh1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh srwhdx hvw glvfuìwlvì hq 43 ìoìphqwv1 Oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gx eìwrq ã o*ruljlqh hvw ìydoxì
ã 67 JSd1 Od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq hvw xqh orl gh w|sh Vdujlq/ dyhf n @ 5/ hw
vdqv sulvh hq frpswh gx eìwrq whqgx1 Ohv frrugrqqìhv gx slf gh frpsuhvvlrq vrqw ohv
vxlydqwhv =

%Kf @ 3/3356 +4316,

iS @ 6</3 PSd +4317,


4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4:8

P
e=1,5cm

15mm
20mm

200mm 4HA12
2,25m

150mm

150mm

Iljxuh 4316 = Srwhdx gh Irxuì = jìrpìwulh hw fkdujhphqw

Od uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq hvw qìjoljìh1 Fhfl hvw oìjlwlph gx idlw gx idleoh qrpeuh
g*dupdwxuhv sdvvlyhv gdqv od vhfwlrq = oh whqvlrq0vwlhqlqj hvw qìjoljhdeoh1 O*dflhu d xq
prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh gh 533 JSd/ vd olplwh ìodvwltxh ìwdqw ìydoxìh ã 7:7 PSd1 Rq
vxssrvh od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gh o*dflhu ìodvwr0sodvwltxh sduidlwh1

Uìvxowdwv

Od frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh hvw wudfìh vxu od jxuh 4317/ rü o*rq d uhsuìvhqwì ìjdohphqw od
frxueh prgìolvdqw od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh vhxoh1 Vxu fh gldjudpph/ rq d sruwì od
frxueh uhsuìvhqwdqw oh frpsruwhphqw gh od vwuxfwxuh gdqv o*k|srwkëvh g*xq frpsruwhphqw
olqìdluh ghv pdwìuldx{1 Od iruph frxueìh hvw gxh dx{ vhxov hhwv gx vhfrqg ruguh/ hw oh
idleoh ìfduw hqwuh fhwwh frxueh hw od frxueh h{sìulphqwdoh prqwuh ohxu lpsruwdqfh gdqv
fh w|sh g*h{sìulhqfh1 Vl o*rq frxsoh oh fdofxo qrq olqìdluh jìrpìwultxh dyhf xq frpsruwh0
phqw qrq olqìdluh ghv pdwìuldx{/ rq frqvwdwh txh od frxueh fdofxoìh hvw wuëv surfkh gh
o*h{sìulhqfh1
Oh wdeohdx 4316 prqwuh txh od fkdujh xowlph hvw vxuhvwlpìh gh 6(1 Qrwrqv txh od
4:9 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

800
NL géométrique
700 Expérience
Calcul
600 Ulm

500

Charge P (kN) 400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Flèche (mm)

Iljxuh 4317 = Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh

Fdof1 qrq olq1 H{sìulhqfh Fdof1qol2H{s1


Fkdujh xowlph 79:/33 nQ 786 nQ 4/36
Ioëfkh xowlph 59/6 pp 59/5 pp 4/337

Wdeohdx 4316 = Fkdujh hw ëfkh xowlphv

uxswxuh hvw revhuyìh qrq sdv ã fdxvh gh od uxswxuh gh od vhfwlrq g*hqfdvwuhphqw +g*dloohxuv/
ohv dflhuv vrqw hqfruh gdqv ohxu gldjudpph olqìdluh,/ pdlv sdufh txh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì
gh od vwuxfwxuh d xqh ydohxu sursuh qìjdwlyh = od vwuxfwxuh hvw lqvwdeoh jìrpìwultxhphqw/
hooh dpeh1 Od ydohxu gh od ëfkh xowlph hvw wuëv surfkh gh od ydohxu h{sìulphqwdoh1

431516 Gìyhuvhphqw gh srwhdx{ hq L

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Qrxv doorqv ìwxglhu oh gìyhuvhphqw gh wurlv srwhdx{ hq L/ grqw ohv uìvxowdwv h{sìulphqwdx{
vrqw lvvxv g*xqh vìulh gh 47 hvvdlv hhfwxìv sdu Ehod}rxjkl ^Eho:5`1 Ohv srwhdx{ vrqw
gìqrppìv GZ4 ã GZ471 Ohv wurlv srwhdx{ ìwxglìv vrqw GZ</ GZ44 hw GZ461 Od
vhfwlrq ghv srwhdx{ hvw lghqwltxh/ hw hvw uhsuìvhqwìh hq jxuh 43181 Ohv srwhdx{ vrqw
4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4::

Srwhdx GZ< Srwhdx GZ44 Srwhdx GZ46


h| 7 pp ; pp 45 pp
h} 0:8 pp 0:8 pp 0:8 pp

Wdeohdx 4317 = H{fhqwuhphqw gx fkdujhphqw

duwlfxoìv ã ohxuv h{wuìplwìv/ od orqjxhxu hqwuh duwlfxodwlrq ìwdqw gh 7/93 p1

COUPE A A

A A 5cm

4,60m 5cm
15cm y
G
pente 1/10

5cm

17cm

31cm

Iljxuh 4318 = Srwhdx{ GZ 0 Frudjh

Oh ihuudloodjh sdvvli hvw frqvwlwxì gh 6 olwv g*dupdwxuhv gh gldpëwuhv !; hw !43 glvsrvìv


orqjlwxglqdohphqw/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 43191
Oh fkdujhphqw hvw frqvwlwxì g*xqh irufh d{ldoh/ txl hvw h{fhqwuìh sdu udssruw dx fhqwuh
gh judylwì gh od vhfwlrq1 Ohv frpsrvdqwhv gx srlqw g*dssolfdwlrq gh od irufh gdqv oh uhsëuh
gh od vhfwlrq vrqw suìvhqwìhv gdqv oh wdeohdx 43171

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh eìwrq frqvwlwxwli ghv srwhdx{ d idlw o*remhw gh whvwv vxu ìsurxyhwwhv f|olqgultxhv dq
g*hq gìwhuplqhu ohv fdudfwìulvwltxhv/ txl vrqw uìvxpìhv gdqv oh wdeohdx 43181 Srxu pìprluh/
4:; Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

COUPE A A

2 barres φ 8

4 barres φ 10 Etriers φ 5 t=15

Iljxuh 4319 = Srwhdx{ GZ 0 Ihuudloodjh sdvvli

iS hvw od uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq gx eìwrq/ i| hvw vd uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq hw HKf vrq
prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh1 Oh frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq hvw prgìolvì sdu od orl gh Vdujlq
dyhf n @ 51 Dlqvl/ od gìirupdwlrq gx slf %Kf fruuhvsrqgdqw ã iS vh gìgxlw sdu =

iS
%Kf @ 5 +4318,
HKf
Ohv fdudfwìulvwltxhv ghv dflhuv sdvvliv vrqw grqqìhv srxu fkdtxh srwhdx gdqv oh wdeohdx
43191
e hvw od olplwh g*ìodvwlflwì frqyhqwlrqqhooh gh o*dflhu hw o od frqwudlqwh gh uxswxuh1
Oh frpsruwhphqw ghv dflhuv hvw prgìolvì sdu od orl gx EDHO;6/ dyhf xqh frqwudlqwh ,

Srwhdx GZ< Srwhdx GZ44 Srwhdx GZ46


iS 69/7 PSd 65/; PSd 65/5 PSd
i| 5/9; PSd 5/;3 PSd 5/<9 PSd
HKf 67/3 JSd 65/3 JSd 5</6 JSd

Wdeohdx 4318 = Fdudfwìulvwltxhv pìfdqltxhv gx eìwrq


4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4:<

e +PSd, o +PSd,
Olw ã Olw Olw ã Olw ã Olw Olw ã
jdxfkh gh fhqwudo gurlwh gh jdxfkh gh fhqwudo gurlwh gh
o*d{h } o*d{h } o*d{h } o*d{h }
Srwhdx GZ< 76;/5 7<8 777/8 934/5 :54/9 99:/8
Srwhdx GZ44 7;4/8 834 773/: :9:/3 :3:/: 9;7
Srwhdx GZ46 798/3 7<: 5<6/3 :45/4 :4</8 756

Wdeohdx 4319 = Fdudfwìulvwltxhv pìfdqltxhv ghv dflhuv

fruuhvsrqgdqw ã od q gx gldjudpph olqìdluh grqqìh sdu =

, @ 3> :e +4319,

Oh prgxoh g*\rxqj gh o*dflhu hvw hvwlpì ã 533 JSd1

Uìvxowdwv
Ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw grqqìv gdqv ohv jxuhv 431:/ 431; hw 431< vrxv od iruph gh frxuehv
uhsuìvhqwdqw o*ìyroxwlrq ghv ëfkhv hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh1 Od ëfkh i+ hvw qìjdwlyh fdu
od frpsrvdqwh gh o*h{fhqwuhphqw vhorq o*d{h J| hvw srvlwlyh1 Lqyhuvhphqw/ od ëfkh i5 hvw
srvlwlyh fdu od frpsrvdqwh gh o*h{fhqwuhphqw vhorq o*d{h J} hvw qìjdwlyh1 Rq frqvwdwh
xqh erqqh fruuìodwlrq hqwuh ohv frxuehv h{sìulphqwdohv hw ohv frxuehv fdofxoìhv/ hq gìslw
gx idlw txh srxu oh fdofxo/ qrxv vxssrvrqv olqìdluh oh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx ylv0ã0
ylv ghv vroolflwdwlrqv wdqjhqwhv1 O*lqhuwlh gh wruvlrq/ qrwdpphqw/ grlw uhvwhu vx!vdpphqw
lpsruwdqwh dx frxuv gh fhv h{sìulhqfhv srxu txh oh idlw gh od vxssrvhu frqvwdqwh hq gìslw
gh od vvxudwlrq gh od vhfwlrq/ qh gìjudgh sdv od txdolwì gx fdofxo1 Rq frqvwdwh ìjdohphqw
txh od ëfkh wudqvyhuvdoh i+ dxjphqwh prlqv ylwh txh od ëfkh i5 dx gìexw gx fkdujhphqw1
Fhfl hvw sduidlwhphqw qrupdo/ fdu od vwuxfwxuh hvw txdvlphqw ìodvwltxh/ hw vhxoh od ydohxu gh
o*h{fhqwuhphqw mrxh1 Gëv txh o*rq dwwhlqw ghv fkdujhphqwv soxv iruwv/ ohv hhwv gx vhfrqg
ruguh hqwuhqw hq mhx hw od ëfkh i+ ghylhqw píph qhwwhphqw soxv lpsruwdqwh txh od ëfkh
yhuwlfdoh i5 ã o*ìwdw xowlph1
Gdqv oh wdeohdx 431:/ qrxv dyrqv uhsruwì od ydohxu ghv fkdujhv xowlphv srxu fkdtxh
hvvdl1Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu/ ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw vdwlvidlvdqwv/ pdlv vrqw ìwudqjhphqw
prlqv erqv srxu oh srwhdx GZ44/ dyhf xq ìfduw gh <( sdu udssruw ã od uìdolwì1 Qrxv
shqvrqv txh od ydohxu gx prgxoh g*\rxqj sulvh hq frpswh/ ã vdyrlu 65/3 PSd hvw xq shx
idleoh/ frpph oh frquph o*dooxuh gh od frxueh gh od ëfkh i5 txl qh srvvëgh sdv od erqqh
shqwh ã o*ruljlqh/ doruv txh fhwwh shqwh hvw wrxmrxuv wuëv gëoh ã o*h{sìulhqfh srxu ohv dxwuhv
srwhdx{1
4;3 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

350

300

250

200
Charge P (kN)
150

fy Expérience
100
fy Calcul
fz Expérience
50
fz Calcul

0
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 431: = Srwhdx GZ< 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu

Fdof1 qrq olq1 H{sìulhqfh Fdof1qol2H{s1


Srwhdx GZ< 646/: nQ 656 nQ 3/<:
Srwhdx GZ44 5:6/5 nQ 633 nQ 3/<4
Srwhdx GZ46 57:/5 nQ 56; nQ 4/37

Wdeohdx 431: = Fkdujhv xowlphv ghv srwhdx{ GZ


4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4;4

300

250

200

Charge P (kN) 150

100
fy Expérience
fy Calcul
50 fz Expérience
fz Calcul

0
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 431; = Srwhdx GZ44 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu


4;5 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

300

250

200

Charge P (kN) 150

100 fy Expérience
fy Calcul
50 fz Expérience
fz Calcul

0
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 431< = Srwhdx GZ46 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu


4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4;6

431517 Sruwltxh uhfwdqjxodluh elduwlfxoì

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph

Oh sruwltxh txh qrxv qrxv sursrvrqv g*ìwxglhu idlw sduwlh g*xq surjudpph g*h{sìulphqwd0
wlrqv phqì sdu Fudqvwrq ^Fud98`1 O*ìwxgh frqfhuqdlw kxlw sruwltxhv gh píphv glphqvlrqv/
duwlfxoìv hq slhg1

P/2 P/2

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
A B

H 4 17
460mm
3 18

2 As 19
76,2mm

1930mm
YAs
76,2mm

Ai YA i

1 101,6mm 20

2640mm

Iljxuh 43143 = Sruwltxh S: gh Fudqvwrq

Oh sruwltxh ìwxglì hvw oh sruwltxh S: gh od vìulh gh kxlw/ hw vhv glphqvlrqv vrqw uhsruwìhv
vxu od jxuh 431431 Lo hvw lqwìuhvvdqw gdqv od phvxuh rü lo d idlw o*remhw g*dx prlqv 7 ìwxghv
qxpìultxhv/ sdu Od}dur ^Od}:6`/ Juhodw ^Juh:;e`/ Hvslrq ^Hvs;9d` hw Qdlw0Udedk ^Qdl<3`1
Fh sruwltxh hvw fkdujì hq wíwh gh frorqqh sdu xqh irufh K txl q*hvw sdv lqgìshqgdqwh
gh od irufh S dssoltxìh hq 5 srlqwv vxu od srxwuh fhqwudoh1 Hq hhw/ vrq lqwhqvlwì hvw
4;7 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

Ìoìphqwv Dr \r +pp, D \ +pp,


4/ 53 5 !</8 95 5 !</8 95
5/ 9/ 48/ 4< 7 !</8 95 5 !</8 95
6/ 7/ 8/ 49/ 4:/ 4; 9 !</8 95 5 !</8 95
:/ 47 7 !</8 95 7 !</8 95
;/ 46 5 !</8 95 7 !</8 95
</ 43/ 44/ 45 5 !</8 95 9 !</8 95
Wdeohdx 431; = Fdudfwìulvwltxhv gx ihuudloodjh orqjlwxglqdo

vhqvleohphqw grqqìh sdu =


S
K@ +431:,
43
Sdu dloohxuv/ elhq txh qrxv frqqdlvvlrqv oh ihuudloodjh dx frlq E hw dx srlqw g*dssolfdwlrq
S
gh od fkdujh / od glvsrvlwlrq orqjlwxglqdoh ghv dflhuv q*hvw sdv suìflvìh srxu oh sruwltxh
5
hq hqwlhu1 Qrxv dyrqv uhwhqx fhooh gh Juhodw/ tx*rqw uhwhqxh ã ohxu wrxu Hvslrq hw Qdlw0
Udedk/ hw txl frqvlvwh ã gìfrxshu oh sruwltxh hq 53 ìoìphqwv/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh
43143/ oh ihuudloodjh ìwdqw grqqì gdqv oh wdeohdx 431;1 Oh gldpëwuh !</8 fruuhvsrqg hq idlw
6
ã ghv dupdwxuhv gh srxfh1
;
Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh eìwrq frqvwlwxwli gx sruwltxh d xqh uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq/ ìydoxìh ã sduwlu g*hvvdlv
vxu ìsurxyhwwhv fxeltxhv/ gh 73 PSd hqylurq1 Qrxv dyrqv dgrswì od ydohxu uhwhqxh sdu
Hvslrq/ ã vdyrlu xqh uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq gh 66/5 PSd1 Od gìirupdwlrq fruuhvsrqgdqw
ã fh slf gh frqwudlqwh hvw ìydoxìh ã 3/3351 Frpph rq xwlolvh xqh orl gh Vdujlq dyhf n @ 5/
od ydohxu gx prgxoh g*\rxqj gx eìwrq ã o*ruljlqh hvw gh 66533 PSd1 Od uìvlvwdqfh hq
wudfwlrq hvw sulvh ìjdoh ã 5/7< PSd1
Txdqw dx{ dflhuv/ lov vrqw prgìolvìv ã o*dlgh g*xqh orl ìodvwr0sodvwltxh sduidlwh/ ohxu
prgxoh g*\rxqj hvw sulv ìjdo ã 533333 PSd/ hw od frqwudlqwh gh sdolhu sodvwltxh ã 5:; PSd1

Uìvxowdwv
Ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw uhsruwìv vxu od jxuh 431441 Rq d uhsuìvhqwì o*ìyroxwlrq gh od ëfkh
yhuwlfdoh gh od vhfwlrq pìgldqh   
 dlqvl txh fhooh gh od ëfkh krul}rqwdoh gx frlq E   1
Rq frqvwdwh xqh erqqh fruuìodwlrq hqwuh o*h{sìulhqfh hw qrwuh prgìolvdwlrq1 Qrv uìvxo0
wdwv vrqw wuëv surfkhv gh fhx{ gh Juhodw hw Qdlw0Udedk/ f*hvw srxutxrl qrxv qh ohv dyrqv
sdv uhsruwìv1 Qrxv vrpphv ìjdohphqw surfkhv g*Hvslrq hq fh txl frqfhuqh   hw gdqv

xqh prlqguh phvxuh srxu   1 Frpph oh uhpdutxh Qdlw0Udedk/ lo vhpeohudlw tx*Hvslrq
dlw qìjoljì od uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq gh od srxwuh uholdqw ohv ghx{ frorqqhv1
4315 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì 4;8

50

45

40

35

30

Charge P (kN) 25
B
δh Expérience
20 B
δ h Calcul
15 B
δ h Espion
A
10 δ v Expérience
A
δ v Calcul
5 A
δ v Espion
0
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 43144 = Sruwltxh S: gh Fudqvwrq 0 Ìyroxwlrq ghv ëfkhv hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh

431518 Fdguh ihupì


Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Qrxv ìwxglrqv xq fdguh ihupì txl d ìwì whvwì ã Dxvwlq gdqv oh Wh{dv +XVD, sdu Ihujxvvrq
hw Euhhq ^Ihu99`1 Oh fdguh hq txhvwlrq hvw uìiìuhqfì O6/ hw uhsuìvhqwh xqh edlh g*rvvdwxuh
gh eåwlphqw grqw od sduwlh frorqqh hvw ehdxfrxs soxv udlgh txh od sduwlh srxwuh1 Frq0
wudluhphqw ã o*ìwxgh gx sruwltxh elduwlfxoì hq slhg/ od sulvh hq frpswh gh od qrq0olqìdulwì
jìrpìwultxh hvw sulprugldoh gdqv fh fdv1 Fh sruwltxh d idlw o*remhw g*ìwxghv qxpìultxhv gh
od sduw gh Jxqqlq ^Jxq::`/ Hvslrq ^Hvs;9d` hw Qdlw0Udedk ^Qdl<3`1 Oh fkdujhphqw dlqvl
txh ohv glphqvlrqv gx fdguh vrqw uhsuìvhqwìv vxu od jxuh 431451
Od irufh yhuwlfdoh S hvw uholìh ã od irufh krul}rqwdoh K sdu =

S
K@ +431;,
433
Oh ihuudloodjh sdvvli ghv frorqqhv hvw v|pìwultxh hw hvw frpsrvì gh 5 dupdwxuhv gh gldpëwuh
6
srxfh/ vrlw </8 pp/ hq sduwlh vxsìulhxuh/ hw gh od píph txdqwlwì g*dflhu hq sduwlh
;
lqiìulhxuh1 Hq fh txl frqfhuqh ohv srxwuhv/ hoohv vrqw ìjdohphqw ihuudlooìhv v|pìwultxhphqw/
4
dyhf 7 dupdwxuhv gh srxfh gh gldpëwuh/ vrlw 45/: pp/ hq sduwlh vxsìulhxuh/ hw gh od
5
4;9 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

P+H P-H

2H
Colonne

34mm
101,6mm
34mm

2133,6mm
Poutre

81mm 18,3mm
18,3mm

152,4mm

2133,6mm

Iljxuh 43145 = Fdguh O6 gh Ihujxvvrq hw Euhhq

píph txdqwlwì g*dflhu hq sduwlh lqiìulhxuh1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph

Srxu od prgìolvdwlrq qxpìultxh/ qrxv xwlolvrqv oh píph gìfrxsdjh tx*Hvslrq hw Qdlw0


Udedk/ ã vdyrlu 49 ìoìphqwv gh orqjxhxu lghqwltxh1 Oh eìwrq gx fdguh d xqh uìvlvwdqfh hq
frpsuhvvlrq gh 55/8 PSd/ vrq prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh hvw gh 55/8 JSd1 Od gìirupdwlrq
fruuhvsrqgdqw dx slf gh frpsuhvvlrq hvw gh 3/5(1 Od uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq hvw
qìjoljìh1 Od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq hvw prgìolvìh sdu xqh orl sduderoh0uhfwdqjoh
rewhqxh ã sduwlu g*xqh orl gh Vdujlq dyhf n @ 5 hw n @ 31


O*dflhu sdvvli ghv srxwuhv d xq prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh gh 539 JSd1 Vd orl gh frp0
sruwhphqw hvw vxssrvìh ìodvwr0sodvwltxh sduidlwh/ od frqwudlqwh sodvwltxh ìwdqw gh 743 PSd1
O*dflhu sdvvli ghv frorqqhv d oh píph prgxoh g*\rxqj/ pdlv od frqwudlqwh gx sdolhu sodv0
wltxh hvw sulvh ìjdoh ã 733 PSd1
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4;:

Uìvxowdwv
Ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw sruwìv vxu od jxuh 431461 Rq d uhsuìvhqwì od ëfkh krul}rqwdoh gx srlqw
kdxw ghv frorqqhv/ hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh S dssoltxìh1 Ohv uìvxowdwv gh Qdlw0Udedk hw
g*Hvslrq vrqw wuëv surfkhv/ f*hvw srxutxrl qrxv q*dyrqv uhsruwì tx*xqh frxueh1 Od fkdujh
olplwh h{sìulphqwdoh hvw gh 473/9 nQ1 Qrxv wurxyrqv xqh fkdujh olplwh gh 476/8 nQ/ vrlw
xqh vxuhvwlpdwlrq gh 5(1

160

140

120

100

Charge P (kN) 80

60 Expérience
Calcul
40
Espion

20 Gunnin

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 43146 = Fdguh O6 gh Ihujxvvrq 0 Frxueh fkdujh 0 ëfkh

Qrxv frqvwdwrqv xqh erqqh fruuìodwlrq hqwuh qrwuh prgìolvdwlrq qxpìultxh hw o*h{sìul0
hqfh/ hq uhpdutxdqw tx*Hvslrq rewlhqw od uxswxuh soxv w÷w1 Qrwrqv dx sdvvdjh txh od uxlqh
hvw rewhqxh sdu xqh lqvwdelolwì ghv srwhdx{1

4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw


431614 Frorqqh suìfrqwudlqwh
Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
O*ìwxgh frqfhuqh xqh frorqqh lvrvwdwltxh suìfrqwudlqwh/ wluìh g*xqh vìulh g*hvvdlv hhf0
wxìv sdu Durql ^Dur9;`1 Od frorqqh hq txhvwlrq hvw uìiìuhqfìh G2 73e6 hw o*rq glvsrvh gh
4;; Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

o*ìyroxwlrq gh od ëfkh hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh1 Fhwwh frorqqh d idlw o*remhw g*xqh ìwxgh
qxpìultxh gh od sduw gh Qdlw0Udedk ^Qdl<3`1

e
P
e=38,5mm

φ 5mm

P
76,2mm

Excentricité
2052,3mm

initiale 6,35mm
12,7mm

13,0mm

51,3mm
P

Iljxuh 43147 = Frorqqh suìfrqwudlqwh G2 73e6

Od vhfwlrq gh od frorqqh hvw uhfwdqjxodluh/ gh 5/35 srxfhv sdu 6 srxfhv vrlw 84/6 :9/5 pp1 
Od kdxwhxu gh od frorqqh hvw gh ;3/; srxfhv vrlw 5385/6 pp1 Od frorqqh hvw suìfrqwudlqwh
sdu 7 ov dgkìuhqwv gh gldpëwuh 3/4<; srxfh vrlw 8/3 pp/ txl vrqw suì0whqgxv/ hw txl vrqw
uhsuìvhqwìv vxu od jxuh 431471 Ã o*åjh gh 47 mrxuv/ oh eìwrq hvw plv hq suìfrqwudlqwh hq
uhoåfkdqw ohv dqfudjhv ghv ov/ hw o*hvvdl d olhx ã o*åjh gh 5; mrxuv1 Lo gxuh 6 khxuhv hqylurq1

Rq h{hufh xqh irufh S h{fhqwuìh gh 4/848 srxfhv/ vrlw 6;/8 pp/ dx{ h{wuìplwìv du0
wlfxoìhv gh od srxwuh1 Hq rxwuh/ xq gìidxw jìrpìwultxh lqwhqwlrqqho gh 3/58 srxfh vrlw
9/68 pp grlw íwuh sulv hq frpswh srxu phqhu fruuhfwhphqw o*ìwxgh1 O*dflhu gh suìfrq0
wudlqwh hvw whqgx xqlirupìphqw ã 7;6 PSd1
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4;<

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph

Od frorqqh hvw glvfuìwlvìh hq 43 ìoìphqwv gh orqjxhxu ìjdoh1 Oh prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh


gx eìwrq hvw ìydoxì ã 67;33 PSd1 Od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq hvw gh w|sh Vdujlq
dyhf sulvh hq frpswh gx eìwrq whqgx1 Ohv frrugrqqìhv gx slf gh frpsuhvvlrq vrqw ohv
vxlydqwhv =

%Kf @ 3/33559 +431<,

iS @ 6</63 PSd +43143,

Od uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq hvw sulvh ìjdoh ã 43( gh vd uìvlvwdqfh hq frpsuhvvlrq1


O*dflhu txdqw ã oxl suìvhqwh xq prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh gh 539 JSd1 Vd olplwh
g*ìodvwlflwì frqyhqwlrqqhooh e hvw ìjdoh ã 4843 PSd1 Vd orl gh frpsruwhphqw hvw prgìolvìh
sdu od orl sursrvìh sdu oh ESHO<41 Oh frpsruwhphqw gh o*dflhu q*hvw soxv olqìdluh dx ghoã
gh 3/<e 1

Uìvxowdwv

16

14

12

10

Charge P (kN) 8

6
Expérience
4 Calcul
Nait Rabah
2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

Flèche (mm)

Iljxuh 43148 = Frorqqh suìfrqwudlqwh g*Durql 0 Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu


4<3 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

Od frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh ã pl0kdxwhxu hvw uhsuìvhqwìh vxu od jxuh 431481 Od fkdujh ol0
plwh h{sìulphqwdoh hvw gh 46/; nQ1 Gh qrwuh f÷wì/ qrxv dyrqv fdofxoì xqh fkdujh olplwh
gh 46/89 nQ/ vrlw xq ìfduw gh 4/:( gdqv oh vhqv gh od vìfxulwì1 Od frqfrugdqfh hqwuh
o*h{sìulhqfh hw qrwuh fdofxo hvw wuëv erqqh1

431615 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh ã 5 wudyìhv

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph

0,70m

0,40m

Câble 38 φ 7
0,520m 0,70m

0,375m
0,132m

13,3m

Iljxuh 43149 = Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh FHEWS

Od srxwuh txh qrxv ìwxglrqv d ìwì whvwìh dx FHEWS ã Vdlqw0Uìp|0oëv0Fkhyuhxvh/ hqwuh


4<:9 hw 4<;8 ^Irx;;`1 Hooh frpsruwh ghx{ wudyìhv ìjdohv gh 46/3 p fkdfxqh1 Od orqjxhxu
wrwdoh gh od srxwuh hvw gh 59/93 p/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 431491 Vd vhfwlrq hvw
uhfwdqjxodluh/ gh 73 fp sdu :3 fp1 Od srxwuh hvw suìfrqwudlqwh sdu xq fåeoh ã ov erxwrqqìv
6;!: EEU0E gh wudfì sduderoltxh1
Od srxwuh d ìwì frxoìh vxu flqwuh1 Ã o*åjh gh 5 mrxuv/ hooh d ìwì gìfruìh/ sxlv gìflqwuìh/
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4<4

suìfrqwudlqwh hw plvh hq fkdujh ã o*åjh gh 6 mrxuv/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 4314:1
à 4;5 mrxuv/ ohv ghx{ dssxlv g*h{wuìplwì rqw ìwì vrxohyìv gh 63 pp dq gh gìfkdujhu
sduwlhoohphqw od vhfwlrq vlwxìh dx gurlw gh o*dssxl fhqwudo/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh
4314;1 Od srxwuh d ìwì frqvhuyìh gdqv xq orfdo ã whpsìudwxuh hw k|jurpìwulh frqvwdqwhv
shqgdqw soxv gh qhxi dqv/ gh 4<:9 ã 4<;81

Q=13 x 13,7kN

13,0m

Iljxuh 4314: = Ghvfulswlrq gx fkdujhphqw

30mm

13,0m

Iljxuh 4314; = Gìqlyhoodwlrq g*dssxlv

Fhwwh srxwuh d idlw o*remhw gh soxvlhxuv vlpxodwlrqv qxpìultxhv/ gdqv oh fdguh g*xq
jurxsh gh wudydlo DIUHP Prgìolvdwlrq qxpìultxh gx xdjh/ dqlpì sdu Sdxo Dfnhu
4<5 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

gx OFSF/ hw uìxqlvvdqw ghv uhsuìvhqwdqwv ghv hqwuhsulvhv hw exuhdx{ g*ìwxghv +M1 gh od


Irxfkduglëuh gh HHJ/ U1 Dgholqh gh Erx|jxhv,/ gh o*Dgplqlvwudwlrq ghv Urxwhv +M1 Jxdo
hw S1 Sh|udf gx VHWUD, hw ghv oderudwrluhv ghv Srqwv hw Fkdxvvìhv +U1 H|pdug hw I1 Xop
gx OFSF,1 Mh uhphuflh lfl shuvrqqhoohphqw Prqvlhxu U1 Dgholqh txl p*d idlw o*dpdelolwì
gh ph wudqvphwwuh ohv uìvxowdwv gx jurxsh/ txl vrqw sxeolìv gdqv ^Ofsf<;`1 Ohv orjlflhov
xwlolvìv vrqw vflqgìv hq ghx{ idploohv = ohv orjlflhov xwlolvdqw od pìwkrgh gh vxshusrvlwlrq
+Srqw2Duf/ HHJ/ SFS, hw fhx{ xwlolvdqw od pìwkrgh gx whpsv ìtxlydohqw +ILHI/ VW4,1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh surjudpph h{sìulphqwdo hvw gìwdlooì gdqv ^Irx;;`1 Ohv sdudpëwuhv frqfhuqdqw od
jìrpìwulh/ oh fkdujhphqw dlqvl txh od suìfrqwudlqwh rqw ìwì ìydoxìv vdqv sureoëph1 Sdu
frqwuh/ oh jurxsh d uhwhqx od orl g*ìyroxwlrq gx prgxoh g*\rxqj hw od orl gh xdjh sursrvìhv
sdu E1 Irxuì1 Od orl gh uhwudlw hvw fhooh gx ESHO1

Orl gh prgxoh gx eìwrq


43S w
H +w, @ +43144,
4; . 63w
rü H +w, hvw oh prgxoh gx eìwrq h{sulpì hq PSd ã od gdwh w h{sulpìh hq mrxuv1

Orl gh uhwudlw
o +u +wf ,  u +w,,
%o +w, @ %" +43145,

dyhf =

o @ 753> 3 43
%" 3S
+43146,

hw =
w
u +w, @ +43147,
w . 47> 47u6
Orl gh xdjh

%s, +w  wf> wf , @ N +w , i +w  wf, +43148,
H2H s, f
dyhf =
Ns, +wf, @ nr ne . nS n +wf, +43149,
433
n +wf, @ +4314:,
433 . wf
D
r @ r @ 3/4:( +4314;,
E
4
nr @ @ 3/<9: +4314<,
4 . 53r
ne @ 3/7 +43153,
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4<6

453   5 433  
nS @ . @ 6/3< +43154,
63 6 53  u6
sw  
i +w   , @ s
w   . 6su6
+43155,

Uìvxowdwv
Oh surjudpph h{sìulphqwdo grqqh dffëv ã wurlv judqghxuv txl rqw ìwì ìwxglìhv sdu oh
jurxsh =

 od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl fhqwudo +jxuhv 4314< hw 43153,/

 od gìirupdwlrq gh od euh vxsìulhxuh gdqv od vhfwlrq I vlwxìh ã 4/6< p gh o*dssxl


fhqwudo +jxuhv 43154 hw 43155,/

 od irufh gh suìfrqwudlqwh ã pl0wudyìh +jxuhv 43156 hw 43157,1

320,00

315,00

310,00

Réaction d'appui
305,00
(kN)
Expérience

300,00 PCP
Pont/Arc
EEG
295,00
ST1
FIEF
290,00
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Temps (jours)

Iljxuh 4314< = Ìyroxwlrq gh od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl fhqwudo hqwuh 6 hw 4;5 mrxuv

Ohv uìvxowdwv txh qrxv dyrqv rewhqxv vxvflwhqw soxvlhxuv frpphqwdluhv1 G*xqh sduw/
od sulvh hq frpswh ghv hhwv glìuìv gdqv oh qr|dx gh fdofxo qrq olqìdluh gh SFS hvw
sduidlwhphqw ydolgìh dx yx ghv uìvxowdwv1 Rq frqvwdwh xq ìfduw sduirlv lpsruwdqw hqwuh
4<7 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

310,00

305,00

300,00

295,00

Réaction d'appui
290,00
(kN)
Expérience
285,00
PCP
Pont/Arc
280,00
EEG
275,00 ST1
FIEF
270,00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Temps (jours)

Iljxuh 43153 = Ìyroxwlrq gh od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl fhqwudo hqwuh 4;5 hw 9333 mrxuv

o*h{sìulhqfh hw ohv fdofxov1 Fhw ìfduw v*h{soltxh sdu od gl!fxowì ã phwwuh dx srlqw xqh orl
gh xdjh fruuhfwh/ hw qrq sdu od glìuhqfh ghv dojrulwkphv xwlolvìv gdqv ohv glìuhqwv sur0
judpphv1 Sdu dloohxuv/ hw f*ìwdlw oã xqh ghv vxusulvhv gx jurxsh gh wudydlo/ rq frqvwdwh txh
od pìwkrgh gx whpsv ìtxlydohqw txl hvw fhqvìh plhx{ uhqguh frpswh g*xq gìfkdujhphqw/
q*dssruwh dxfxqh suìflvlrq vxssoìphqwdluh sdu udssruw ã od pìwkrgh gh vxshusrvlwlrq1
Fhfl qrxv frqiruwh gdqv oh fkrl{ txh qrxv dyrqv idlw/ hw fh g*dxwdqw soxv txh od pìwkr0
gh gh vxshusrvlwlrq hvw uhfrqqxh gdqv ohv uëjohphqwv lqwhuqdwlrqdx{/ ohv Hxurfrghv hq
sduwlfxolhu1

431616 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh lvrvwdwltxh

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Od srxwuh txh qrxv doorqv ìwxglhu q*d sdv idlw o*remhw g*h{sìulphqwdwlrq1 Lo v*djlw hq idlw
g*xq frqfrxuv gh orjlflhov rujdqlvì sdu Ì1 Frqwl hw U1 Wdug|/ grqw ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw sxeolìv
gdqv ^Frq<6d` hw ^Frq<6e`1 Od srxwuh hvw suìvhqwìh vxu od jxuh 431581
Qrxv dyrqv vxssrvì txh od srxwuh ìwdlw frxoìh hq sodfh/ hw qrxv dyrqv phqì ghx{
ìwxghv1 O*xqh vxssrvdlw od suìfrqwudlqwh lqwìulhxuh dx eìwrq/ oh fåeoh gh suìfrqwudlqwh
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4<8

0
Expérience
-100
PCP
-200 Pont/Arc
-300 ST1
FIEF
-400
Déformation totale
-6 -500
(10 )
-600

-700

-800

-900

-1000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Temps (jours)

Iljxuh 43154 = Ìyroxwlrq gh od gìirupdwlrq gh od euh vxsìulhxuh gh od vhfwlrq I hqwuh 6


hw 4;5 mrxuv
4<9 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

-1000
Expérience

-1100 PCP
Pont/Arc
ST1
-1200
FIEF

Déformation totale
-6 -1300
(10 )

-1400

-1500

-1600
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Temps (jours)

Iljxuh 43155 = Ìyroxwlrq gh od gìirupdwlrq gh od euh vxsìulhxuh gh od vhfwlrq I hqwuh 4;5


hw 9333 mrxuv
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4<:

1,95

PCP
1,9
PONT/ARC
ST1
1,85 EEG

Force de
précontrainte 1,8
(MN)

1,75

1,7

1,65
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Temps (jours)

Iljxuh 43156 = Ìyroxwlrq gh od irufh gh suìfrqwudlqwh ã pl0wudyìh hqwuh 6 hw 4;5 mrxuv


4<; Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

1,75
PCP
PONT/ARC
1,7
EEG
ST1

1,65
Force de
précontrainte
(MN)
1,6

1,55

1,5
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Temps (jours)

Iljxuh 43157 = Ìyroxwlrq gh od irufh gh suìfrqwudlqwh ã pl0wudyìh hqwuh 4;5 hw 9333 mrxuv
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 4<<

0,62 m
2m

0,2 m

10 m 10 m 10 m

30 m

0,2 m

2m

2m 0,6 m

10 m

Iljxuh 43158 = Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh lvrvwdwltxh

vxelvvdqw doruv ohv píphv gìirupdwlrqv txh od vhfwlrq hq eìwrq1 O*dxwuh vxssrvdlw od
suìfrqwudlqwh h{wìulhxuh dx eìwrq/ oh fåeoh srxydqw doruv jolvvhu sdu udssruw ã od vhfwlrq
gh eìwrq tx*lo wudyhuvh1
Od srxwuh hvw suìfrqwudlqwh sdu xqh sdluh gh fåeohv/ d|dqw fkdfxq xqh vhfwlrq gh
8333 pp2 hw xqh whqvlrq xqliruph gh 9333 nQ dsuëv shuwhv1 Rq qrwh od suìvhqfh gh
ihuudloodjh sdvvli/ vlwxì ã 43 fp gh od euh lqiìulhxuh ghv wdorqv ghv qhuyxuhv gh od srxwuh/
hw d|dqw xqh vhfwlrq gh 5333 pp2 srxu fkdtxh qhuyxuh1
Od srxwuh hvw frqvwuxlwh hq xqh skdvh vxu flqwuh/ sxlv suìfrqwudlqwh1
Ohv fkdujhphqwv ã suhqguh hq frpswh vrqw oh srlgv sursuh/ dyhf xq srlgv yroxpltxh gh
58 nQ2p srxu oh eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw1 Xqh fkdujh I hvw dssoltxìh dx gurlw g*xqh vhfwlrq
gh gìyldwlrq gx fåeoh/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 431581 Oh uhwudlw/ oh xdjh gx eìwrq/
533 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

dlqvl txh od uhod{dwlrq ghv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh vrqw qìjoljìv1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Od orl gh frpsruwhphqw gx eìwrq hvw lpsrvìh = lo v*djlw g*xqh orl sduderoh0uhfwdqjoh lvvxh
gx uëjohphqw iudqêdlv1 Oh prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh gx eìwrq ydxw 53333 PSd/ ohv
frrugrqqìhv gx slf gh frpsuhvvlrq vrqw =

%Kf @ 3/335 +43156,

iS @ 53/33 PSd +43157,

Od gìirupdwlrq xowlph hvw rewhqxh ã 3/68( srxu xqh frqwudlqwh gh 53/33 PSd1 Rq suhqg
hq frpswh xqh uìvlvwdqfh hq wudfwlrq gx eìwrq ìjdoh ã 5/7 PSd1
O*dflhu sdvvli/ txdqw ã oxl/ d xqh orl gh frpsruwhphqw ìodvwr0sodvwltxh sduidlwh/ dyhf
xq prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh gh 533333 PSd/ hw xq sdolhu sodvwltxh ã 733 PSd1

3,5

2,5

2
Charge F (MN)
1,5
Calcul
1 Ulm
Garcia-Vargas
0,5 Franssen
Perisic
0
-50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 43159 = Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh h{whuqh

O*dflhu gh suìfrqwudlqwh vxlw od orl sro|qrpldoh gh ghjuì 8 lvvxh gx ESHO<41 Vrq


prgxoh g*\rxqj ã o*ruljlqh ydxw 4<3333 PSd/ vd olplwh g*ìodvwlflwì frqyhqwlrqqhooh ã 3/5(
ydxw 48:8 PSd/ fh txl fruuhvsrqg ã xqh olplwh gh frpsruwhphqw ìodvwltxh olqìdluh gh
474:/8 PSd/ hw xqh frqwudlqwh gh uxswxuh gh 499</8 PSd1
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 534

Uìvxowdwv

3,5

2,5

Charge F (MN) 2

1,5
Calcul
Ulm
1
Garcia-Vargas
0,5 Franssen
Perisic
0
-50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 4315: = Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh lqwhuqh

Lo ìwdlw ghpdqgì dx{ sduwlflsdqwv gh gìwhuplqhu oh gìsodfhphqw yhuwlfdo gx srlqw vlwxì dx


plolhx gh od srxwuh hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh I1 Dx wrwdo/ 47 sduwlflsdqwv rqw yx ohxuv
uìvxowdwv sxeolìv1 Srxu ghv udlvrqv gh olvlelolwì/ qrxv q*hq dyrqv uhwhqx txh txdwuh = g*xqh
sduw ohv fdofxov iudqêdlv/ uhsuìvhqwìv sdu I1M1 Xop hw Y1 Pdjqdw gx OFSF +Iudqfh,/ M1D1
Jdufld0Ydujdv/ Q1 Pìqh}ëv hw E1 Irxuì gx FHEWS +Iudqfh,/ hw g*dxwuh sduw M1P1 Iudqvvhq
gh o*Xqlyhuvlwì gh Olëjh +Ehojltxh, hw ]1 Shulvlf hw Q1 Rmgurylf gh o*Xqlyhuvlwì gh Ehojudgh
+\rxjrvodylh, fdu ohxuv uìvxowdwv vrqw vljqlfdwlyhphqw gdqv od pr|hqqh gh o*hqvhpeoh ghv
uìvxowdwv suìvhqwìv1

Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu vxu ohv jxuhv 43159 hw 4315:/ ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw wuëv vdwlv0
idlvdqwv hw vrqw vlwxìv gdqv od erqqh pr|hqqh ghv glìuhqwv sduwlflsdqwv1 Od gl!fxowì gh
fh whvw uìvlgh hvvhqwlhoohphqw gdqv oh idlw tx*lo q*| d sdv gh uìvxowdwv h{sìulphqwdx{ srxu
wudqfkhu gìqlwlyhphqw1
535 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

431617 Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh k|shuvwdwltxh

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Fh sureoëph hvw hq idlw lvvx gx píph frqfrxuv gh orjlflhov ^Frq<6d`/ ^Frq<6e`1 Od srxwuh
hvw suìvhqwìh vxu od jxuh 4315;1

0,582m
1,5 m

0,25 m

10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m

20 m 30 m 20 m

F
0,2 m
0,2 m
1,5 m
0,2 m
2,5 m

5m

Iljxuh 4315; = Srxwuh suìfrqwudlqwh k|shuvwdwltxh

Frpph suìfìghpphqw/ qrxv dyrqv vxssrvì txh od srxwuh ìwdlw frxoìh hq sodfh1 Qrxv
dyrqv ìjdohphqw phqì ghx{ w|shv g*ìwxghv/ o*xqh vxssrvdqw od suìfrqwudlqwh lqwhuqh/
o*dxwuh od vxssrvdqw h{whuqh1
Od srxwuh hvw suìfrqwudlqwh juåfh ã xqh sdluh gh fåeohv/ d|dqw fkdfxq xqh vhfwlrq gh
5583 pp2 hw xqh whqvlrq xqliruph gh 6333 nQ dsuëv shuwhv1 Oh ihuudloodjh sdvvli frpsuhqg/
srxu xqh sduw 6333 pp2 g*dflhu gdqv oh krxuglv vxsìulhxu gx fdlvvrq/ ã 43 fp gh od euh
4316 Vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw 536

vxsìulhxuh/ hw srxu xqh dxwuh sduw 7333 pp2 g*dflhu gdqv oh krxuglv lqiìulhxu gx fdlvvrq/
ã 43 fp gh od euh lqiìulhxuh1
Od srxwuh hvw frqvwuxlwh hq xqh vhxoh skdvh vxu flqwuh/ sxlv suìfrqwudlqwh1
Ohv fkdujhphqwv ã suhqguh hq frpswh vrqw oh srlgv sursuh/ dyhf xq srlgv yroxpltxh gh
58 nQ2p srxu oh eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw1 Xqh fkdujh I hvw dssoltxìh dx gurlw g*xqh vhfwlrq
gh gìyldwlrq gx fåeoh/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 4315;1 Oh uhwudlw/ oh xdjh gx eìwrq/
dlqvl txh od uhod{dwlrq ghv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh vrqw qìjoljìv1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Ohv orlv gh frpsruwhphqw ghv glìuhqwv pdwìuldx{ vrqw vwulfwhphqw ohv píphv txh fhoohv
gìfulwhv gdqv oh sdudjudskh 4316161

Uìvxowdwv

3,5

2,5

2
Charge F (MN)
1,5

1 Calcul
Ulm
0,5 Garcia-Vargas
Perisic
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 4315< = Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh lqwhuqh

Gh píph tx*dx sdudjudskh 431616/ qrxv dyrqv ìwxglì oh gìsodfhphqw yhuwlfdo gx srlqw
vlwxì dx plolhx gh od srxwuh hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh1 Ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw uhsuìvhqwìv vxu
ohv jxuhv 4315< hw 431631 Qrxv wlurqv ohv píphv frqfoxvlrqv tx*dx sdudjudskh 431616/ ã
537 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

2,5

Charge F (MN) 1,5

1 Calcul
Ulm
Garcia-Vargas
0,5
Franssen
Perisic
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240

Flèches (mm)

Iljxuh 43163 = Frxueh fkdujh0 ëfkh dyhf suìfrqwudlqwh h{whuqh

vdyrlu txh ohv uìvxowdwv txh qrxv suìvhqwrqv vrqw gdqv oh ixvhdx ghv uìvxowdwv ghv dxwuhv
sduwlflsdqwv1 Pdokhxuhxvhphqw/ rq qh shxw sdv frqfoxuh gìqlwlyhphqw gx idlw gh o*devhqfh
gh phvxuhv h{sìulphqwdohv1

4317 Vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv

Gdqv fhwwh sduwlh/ qrxv vxssrvhurqv oh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx olqìdluh ìodvwltxh1


Ohv h{hpsohv txl yrqw vxlyuh shuphwwhqw gh ydolghu od irupxodwlrq gh od qrq0olqìdulwì
jìrpìwultxh txh qrxv dyrqv ìwdeolh1

431714 Iodpehphqw g*xq påw hqfdvwuì

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph

Qrxv frqvlgìurqv xq påw hqfdvwuì vrxplv ã xqh fkdujh gh frpsuhvvlrq gh gluhfwlrq frq0
vwdqwh dssoltxìh ã vrq h{wuìplwì oleuh/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 431641 Fh sureoëph d
ìwì uìvrox dqdo|wltxhphqw sdu V1S1 Wlprvkhqnr gdqv ^Wlp99`1 Oh dpehphqw hvw hpsífkì
4317 Vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv 538

Iljxuh 43164 = Påw hqfdvwuì

vxlydqw oh vhqv gh od shwlwh lqhuwlh1 Od irufh fulwltxh g*Hxohu gh fh påw hvw grqqìh sdu =
2HL
SSo @ +43158,
7O2
Srxu xq suroì hq dflhu gh od jdpph LSH 453/ rq d =

SSo @ 8:3/48 nQ +43159,

Srxu dprufhu oh dpehphqw/ rq frqvlgëuh xqh gìirupìh lqlwldoh vlqxvrògdoh grqw od ëfkh
pd{lpdoh fruuhvsrqg ã 3/6( gh od orqjxhxu1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Od prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph hvw h{wuíphphqw vlpsoh fdu oh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx
hvw olqìdluh ìodvwltxh1 Ohv fdudfwìulvwltxhv jìrpìwultxhv hw pìfdqltxhv vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =

O @ 4:33 pp +4315:,

H @ 5/4 43D PSd +4315;,

D @ 4653 pp2 +4315<,

L @ 64; 43e ppe +43163,

Oh påw glvsrvh g*xq hqfdvwuhphqw sduidlw ã vd edvh1


539 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

Uìvxowdwv

10

9 Timoshenko u/L
Timoshenko v/L
8
4 éléments u/L
7 4 éléments v/L
6 10 éléments u/L
Charge relative 10 éléments v/L
5
P/P cr
4

0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6

Flèches relatives

Iljxuh 43165 = Påw hqfdvwuì 0 Ìyroxwlrq ghv ëfkhv hq irqfwlrq gx fkdujhphqw

Ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw sruwìv vxu od jxuh 431651 Lo v*djlw hq idlw ghv ëfkhv orqjlwxglqdoh hw
wudqvyhuvdoh udssruwìhv ã O/ od orqjxhxu lqlwldoh gx påw hq irqfwlrq gx fkdujhphqw h{sulpì
frpph xqh iudfwlrq gh od fkdujh fulwltxh SSo 1 Qrxv | dyrqv idlw jxuhu ohv uìvxowdwv rewhqxv
sdu Wlprvkhqnr1 Qrxv dyrqv xwlolvì ghx{ w|shv gh pdloodjh1 Oh suhplhu hvw uìgxlw hw qh
frpsruwh txh 7 ìoìphqwv1 Oh vhfrqg hq d 431 Rq frqvwdwh txh oh uìvxowdw hvw qdohphqw
shx vhqvleoh ã od qhvvh gx pdloodjh hw vxuwrxw tx*lo hvw hq sduidlwh dgìtxdwlrq dyhf od
wkìrulh ìodvwltxh1
Vxu od jxuh 43166/ qrxv dyrqv ghvvlqì/ vdqv dpsolfdwlrq/ ohv gìirupìhv gx påw dx
frxuv gh vrq fkdujhphqw1 Fhfl prqwuh txh oh fdofxo vh idlw hhfwlyhphqw hq judqgv gì0
sodfhphqwv hw hq judqghv urwdwlrqv1

431715 Srxwuh frqvroh vroolflwìh wudqvyhuvdohphqw


Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Qrxv ìwxglrqv xqh srxwuh frqvroh vroolflwìh sdu vrq srlgv sursuh hw xqh fkdujh wudqvyhuvdoh
S dssoltxìh ã vrq h{wuìplwì oleuh/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 431671 Od srxwuh d xqh
4317 Vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv 53:

P/P cr = 1

P/P cr = 1,07

P/P cr = 1,1

P/P cr = 1,2

P/P cr = 1,3

P/P cr = 1,7

P/P cr = 2,5
P/P cr = 9 P/P cr = 5

Iljxuh 43166 = Påw hqfdvwuì 0 Gìirupìhv vxffhvvlyhv


53; Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

Z
0,00545 rad.
Z (déformée initiale)

p = 12,41 N/m λP
Y,V
Y
X G 50,8 mm
O
2,032 m

3,15 mm

Iljxuh 43167 = Srxwuh frqvroh vroolflwìh sdu xqh fkdujh wudqvyhuvdoh

vhfwlrq wudqvyhuvdoh uhfwdqjxodluh plqfh1 Od vroxwlrq dqdo|wltxh gx frpsruwhphqw srvw0


fulwltxh d ìwì ìwdeol sdu Zrrofrfn hw Wudkdlu ^Zrr:7`1 Hq rxwuh/ rq glvsrvh gh uìvxowdwv
h{sìulphqwdx{ mxvtx*dx dpehphqw1 Srxu dprufhu oh gìyhuvhphqw odwìudo/ rq lpsrvh
dydqw fkdujhphqw xqh urwdwlrq gh 3/33878 udg dxwrxu gh o*d{h R[ vxu wrxwh od orqjxhxu
gh od srxwuh1 Fhwwh srxwuh d idlw o*remhw g*xqh ìwxgh qxpìultxh gh od sduw gh gh Ylooh gh
Jr|hw ^GhY;<` ã o*dlgh gx orjlflho ILQHOJ1 Gdqv ^GhY;<`/ gh Ylooh gh Jr|hw lqvlvwh vxu
od vìohfwlylwì gh fhw h{hpsoh ã o*ìjdug gh o*ìoìphqw ql xwlolvì1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Od srxwuh hvw gìfrpsrvìh hq 43 ìoìphqwv gh píph orqjxhxu1 Oh pdwìuldx d xq frpsruwh0
phqw olqìdluh hw vhv fdudfwìulvwltxhv pìfdqltxhv vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =

H @ 536;<3 PSd +43164,

 @ 3/6 +43165,

O*hqfdvwuhphqw hvw vxssrvì sduidlw1

Uìvxowdwv
Ohv uìvxowdwv fruuhvsrqghqw sduidlwhphqw ã o*h{sìulhqfh hw ã od wkìrulh/ píph dvvh} orlq
gdqv oh frpsruwhphqw srvw0fulwltxh gh od srxwuh1 Ohv ydohxuv dwwhlqwhv sdu od ëfkh
wudqvyhuvdoh vrqw gh o*ruguh gh od prlwlì gh od orqjxhxu lqlwldoh gh od srxwuh1 Qrxv vrpphv
frpsoëwhphqw gdqv oh grpdlqh ghv judqgv gìsodfhphqwv hw ghv judqghv urwdwlrqv wulglphq0
4317 Vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv 53<

35

30

25

20
Charge (N)
15

10 Expérience
Théorie
5 Calcul
FINELG
0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2

Déplacement transversal (m)

Iljxuh 43168 = Srxwuh frqvroh fkdujìh wudqvyhuvdohphqw 0 Ìyroxwlrq gh od ëfkh wudqvyhuvdoh


hq irqfwlrq gx fkdujhphqw

vlrqqhov1 Fhw h{hpsoh ydolgh frpsoëwhphqw qrwuh dssurfkh srxu wudlwhu od qrq0olqìdulwì
jìrpìwultxh1

431716 Duf vxuedlvvì

Suìvhqwdwlrq gx sureoëph
Lo v*djlw g*ìwxglhu xq duf vxuedlvvì gh iruph flufxodluh/ hqfdvwuì ã vhv ghx{ h{wuìplwìv/ hw
vroolflwì sdu xqh fkdujh frqfhqwuìh hq foì/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 431691 Fhw duf d
idlw o*remhw g*ìwxghv qxpìultxhv gh od sduw gh Vwroduvnl hw Eho|wvfknr ^Vwr;5` hw gh Ylooh
gh Jr|hw ^GhY;<`1 Gdqv ^Vwr;5`/ qrxv wurxyrqv od vroxwlrq wkìrultxh1

Prgìolvdwlrq gx sureoëph
Oh frpsruwhphqw gx pdwìuldx hvw olqìdluh ìodvwltxh1 Ohv fdudfwìulvwltxhv jìrpìwultxhv hw
pìfdqltxhv vrqw ohv vxlydqwhv =

H @ 43. svl @ :363; PSd +43166,


543 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv

P,v

3 pouces

R=100,0 pouces

48,62 pouces

2 pouces

1 pouce

Iljxuh 43169 = Duf vxuedlvvì

D @ 5 lqfk2 @ 45<3 pp2 +43167,


5
L @ lqfke @ 5::/8 43 ppe +43168,
6

O*duf glvsrvh gh ghx{ hqfdvwuhphqwv sduidlwv hq slhgv1

Uìvxowdwv
Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu vxu od jxuh 4316:/ od fruuìodwlrq hqwuh od wkìrulh hw o*h{sìulhqfh
hvw h{fhoohqwh1 G*dsuëv od vroxwlrq wkìrultxh h{wudlwh gh ^Vwr;5`/ srxu xq gìsodfhphqw gh
6/8 srxfhv/ vrlw ;;/< pp/ gh od fohi/ od fkdujh ã dssoltxhu hvw gh 5<;33 oev/ vrlw 468/4:6 nQ1
G*dsuëv qrwuh fdofxo/ srxu fh píph gìsodfhphqw/ lo idxw xqh fkdujh gh 5<896 oev/ vrlw
467/43 nQ/ fh txl fruuhvsrqg ã xq ìfduw gh 3/;(1
4317 Vwuxfwxuhv pìwdooltxhv 544

3,5

2,5

4
Charge P (10 lb) 2

1,5

1 FINELG
Calcul
0,5 Théorie

0
0 1 2 3 4

Flèche verticale (inch)

Iljxuh 4316: = Duf vxuedlvvì 0 Ìyroxwlrq gh od ëfkh ã od fohi hq irqfwlrq gh od fkdujh


545 Fkdslwuh 43 H{hpsohv g*dssolfdwlrqv qxpìultxhv
Fkdslwuh 44

Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh =


oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

4414 Lqwurgxfwlrq

Oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh hvw xq rxyudjh vxvshqgx txl hqmdpeh o*hvwxdluh gh od Vhlqh/ ã


sur{lplwì gx Kdyuh1 Vd plvh hq vhuylfh uhprqwh dx 6 mxloohw 4<8<1 Ghsxlv/ gh qrpeuhxvhv
uxswxuhv gh ov ghv fåeohv rqw ìwì gìwhfwìhv1 Oh 5 mxloohw 4<<8/ od vlwxdwlrq v*hvw djjudyìh
euxvtxhphqw oruv gh od uxswxuh frpsoëwh g*xq wrurq dx gurlw gh od vhoohwwh g*lq h{lrq vlwxìh
vxu od ulyh jdxfkh/ f÷wì dprqw1 Rq surfìgd doruv ã od uìsdudwlrq gx wrurq gìihfwxhx{/ hw
o*rq gìflgd gh uhpsodfhu od vxvshqvlrq frpsoëwh gh o*rxyudjh gdqv ohv phloohxuv gìodlv1 Oh
pdufkì ìwdlw frqì dx jurxshphqw JWP0Gxph} hw Edxglq0Fkdwhdxqhxi1 Hq mxloohw 4<<9/
oh VHWUD frpphqêdlw vd plvvlrq gh frqwu÷oh ghv ìwxghv g*h{ìfxwlrq1

4415 Remhw gx frqwu÷oh

Od yìulfdwlrq frpsuhqdlw ghx{ sduwlhv glvwlqfwhv ^Zdw<:`1 G*xqh sduw/ lo idoodlw yìulhu ohv
glìuhqwv ìoìphqwv frqvwlwxdqw od qrxyhooh vxvshqvlrq +fåeohv/ vxvshqwhv/ froolhuv/ ìwulhuv/
vhoohv hq wíwh gh s|o÷qhv/ vhoohwwhv g*lq h{lrq gdqv ohv fkdpeuhv g*dqfudjh/ gìyldwhxuv111,1
G*dxwuh sduw/ lo frqyhqdlw gh v*dvvxuhu txh ohv ìoìphqwv dfwxhov vxssruwhudlhqw vdqv grp0
pdjh oh wudqvihuw gh o*dqflhqqh vxvshqvlrq yhuv od qrxyhooh/ hw txh fhx{ g*hqwuh hx{ txl
qh vhudlhqw sdv uhpsodfìv +ã vdyrlu oh wdeolhu/ ohv s|o÷qhv hw ohv wludqwv g*dqfudjh, vxs0
sruwhudlhqw ohv hruwv gh od skdvh gh vhuylfh gx srqw1 Od qìfhvvlwì gh od sulvh hq frpswh
ghv hhwv gx vhfrqg ruguh dlqvl txh gh o*hhw fkdñqhwwh ghv fåeohv d frqgxlw od Glylvlrq ghv
Judqgv Rxyudjhv gx VHWUD ã phqhu ohv frqwuh0fdofxov ã o*dlgh gh SFS1 Oh jurxshphqw
g*hqwuhsulvhv xwlolvdlw srxu vd sduw oh orjlflho JS6G1
547 Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

Iljxuh 4414 = Oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

4416 Ìwxgh gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv


Dxsdudydqw/ oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh ìwdlw vxvshqgx ã ghx{ fåeohv sruwhxuv1 Fkdfxq g*hqwuh
hx{ ìwdlw irupì gh 89 wrurqv gh :5 pp gh gldpëwuh hq wudyìh fhqwudoh/ hw gh 93 wrurqv hq
wudyìhv gh ulyh1

441614 Oh sulqflsh gx wudqvihuw

Oh sulqflsh gh od uìsdudwlrq hvw gh uhpsodfhu fkdfxq ghv fåeohv sdu ghx{ fåeohv gh soxv
shwlwv gldpëwuhv +yrlu wdeohdx 4416,1 Ohv ghx{ qrxyhdx{ fåeohv vhurqw vlwxìv gh sduw hw
g*dxwuh gh o*dqflhq fåeoh hw ylhqgurqw v*dqfuhu vxu ohv wljhv g*dqfudjh h{lvwdqwhv1
Oh wudqvihuw g*xqh vxvshqvlrq ã o*dxwuh v*hhfwxh hq 43 skdvhv sulqflsdohv1 Srxu fkdfxqh
g*hqwuh hoohv/ lo frqyhqdlw gh txdqwlhu ohv gìsodfhphqwv gx wdeolhu/ ghv wíwhv gh s|o÷qhv
hw ghv fåeohv sruwhxuv/ hw gh yìulhu txh ohv hruwv ìwdlhqw dgplvvleohv gdqv oh wdeolhu/
ohv vxvshqwhv/ ohv fåeohv/ ohv vhoohv hq wíwh gh s|o÷qhv hw ohv vhoohwwhv g*lq h{lrq gdqv ohv
fkdpeuhv g*dqfudjhv1
Oh qrpeuh gh fkdujhphqwv ìwdqw dvvh} ìohyì/ srxu olplwhu ohv whpsv gh fdofxo/ qrxv
dyrqv grqf xwlolvì xq prgëoh hq ghx{ glphqvlrqv/ vlpxodqw od v|pìwulh wudqvyhuvdoh gh
o*rxyudjh1

441615 Oh prgëoh 5G

Oh prgëoh 5G frpsruwh 7<3 qúxgv hw 98< ìoìphqwv/ grqw 68: fkdñqhwwhv prgìolvdqw ohv
fåeohv hw vxvshqwhv1
Ohv ghx{ fåeohv dqflhqv vrqw prgìolvìv sdu xq fåeoh xqltxh +gh vhfwlrq ghx{ irlv soxv
4416 Ìwxgh gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv 548

Iljxuh 4415 = Prgìolvdwlrq FDR Rsìud gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

judqgh,1 Ohv txdwuh ixwxuv fåeohv vrqw ìjdohphqw prgìolvìv sdu xq vhxo fåeoh1 Lo hq hvw gh
píph srxu ohv vxvshqwhv1
Od jìrpìwulh gh uìiìuhqfh gh o*rxyudjh hvw od jìrpìwulh wkìrultxh whooh tx*hooh d ìwì
gìqlh oruv gh od frqvwuxfwlrq gx srqw/ hw fhfl dq txh gdqv od ixwxuh skdvh gh vhuylfh/ ohv
ìoìphqwv h{lvwdqwv gh o*rxyudjh +ohv s|o÷qhv hw oh wdeolhu, qh vrlhqw sdv vroolflwìv glìuhp0
phqw gh fh txl dydlw ìwì suìyx oruv gh ohxu frqfhswlrq1
Qìdqprlqv/ xqh ìwxgh klvwrultxh gh o*rxyudjh ghsxlv vd frqvwuxfwlrq mxvtx*ã qrv mrxuv
qrxv d dssulv txh oh wdeolhu suìvhqwdlw/ vrxv fkdujh shupdqhqwh/ xqh ëfkh gh ;: fp dx
qlyhdx gx qúxg fhqwudo sdu udssruw ã vd srvlwlrq wkìrultxh1 Fhwwh ëfkh v*h{soltxh hq
judqgh sduwlh sdu xq hhw gh uhod{dwlrq ghv fåeohv dx frxuv gx whpsv1 Qrxv vdyrqv txh
od qrxyhooh vxvshqvlrq q*ìfkdsshud sdv dx píph skìqrpëqh1 Fhoxl0fl vhud soxv idleoh txh
srxu ohv fåeohv h{lvwdqwv gx idlw gx soxv idleoh gldpëwuh ghv wrurqv ìoìphqwdluhv hw gh od
soxv judqgh orqjxhxu gx sdv gh wrurqdjh1 Od ëfkh gx wdeolhu gxh ã od uhod{dwlrq d ìwì
hvwlpìh ã xqh wuhqwdlqh gh fhqwlpëwuhv1 Ã od q ghv wudydx{/ oh wdeolhu grlw dlqvl suìvhqwhu/
vrxv fkdujh shupdqhqwh/ xqh frqwuh0 ëfkh gh 63 fp sdu udssruw dx suro wkìrultxh1
Dq g*ìydoxhu dx plhx{ ohv gìsodfhphqwv hw frqwudlqwhv gdqv od vwuxfwxuh oruv gx
fkdqjhphqw gh vxvshqvlrq/ lo idoodlw whqlu frpswh ghv gìsodfhphqwv hw frqwudlqwhv tx*lo
vxelvvdlw1
Ohv wurlv fkdujhphqwv vxlydqwv shuphwwhqw gh uhwurxyhu od ëfkh gh ;: fp / dlqvl txh
549 Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

ohv gìsodfhphqwv krul}rqwdx{ phvxuìv hq wíwh ghv s|o÷qhv1

41 Xq doorqjhphqw ghv fåeohv dqflhqv gh od wudyìh fhqwudoh hqwudñqdqw xqh ëfkh gx


wdeolhu gh < fp1

51 Xqh glodwdwlrq wkhupltxh gh od vxvshqvlrq hqwudñqdqw xqh ëfkh gh 97 fp1

61 Xqh glodwdwlrq wkhupltxh ghv fåeohv vlwxìv hqwuh o*dqfudjh hw od vhoohwwh ulyh jdxfkh
hqwudñqdqw xqh ëfkh gh 47 fp1

O*rsìudwlrq 4 vlpxoh xq gìidxw gh uìjodjh lqlwldo/ o*rsìudwlrq 5 vlpxoh od uhod{dwlrq


ghv fåeohv/ hw o*rsìudwlrq 6 vlpxoh xq gìsodfhphqw gx pdvvli g*dqfudjh ulyh jdxfkh/ wurlv
skìqrpëqhv txl rqw mrxì xq u÷oh fhuwdlq gdqv oh jìrpìwulh dfwxhooh gh od vwuxfwxuh1
Hq fh txl frqfhuqh oh uhpsodfhphqw gh od vxvshqvlrq gx srqw gh Wdqfduylooh/ od qrq0
olqìdulwì pdwìuldx q*d sdv ìwì uhwhqxh +h{fhswì srxu xqh ìwxgh gh gìwdlo ghv wljhv g*dq0
fudjh,1 Ohv eduuhv prgìolvdqw ohv s|o÷qhv hw oh wdeolhu/ rqw grqf ìwì gìqlhv fodvvltxhphqw/
ã o*dlgh gh ohxu vhfwlrq/ lqhuwlh hw frrugrqqìhv gx fhqwuh gh wruvlrq1
Od vxvshqvlrq/ txdqw ã hooh/ d ìwì prgìolvìh sdu ghv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv +od vhfwlrq
qrupdoh hvw ohxu vhxoh fdudfwìulvwltxh, gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh1

441616 Ohv ìwdshv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv

Oh wdeohdx 4414 uhwudfh ohv glìuhqwhv ìwdshv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv/ dyhf ohv rsìudwlrqv
fruuhvsrqgdqwhv txdqw ã od vlpxodwlrq dyhf SFS1

4417 Ìwxghv vsìfltxhv


441714 Xq prgëoh 5G26G srxu o*ìwxgh ghv s|o÷qhv

Ohv mdpehv gh s|o÷qhv qh vrqw sdv yhuwlfdohv/ pdlv suìvhqwhqw xq oìjhu iuxlw wudqvyhuvdo1
Gh fh idlw/ lo h{lvwh gdqv oh s|o÷qh ghv prphqwv wudqvyhuvdx{ qrq fdofxodeohv vxu oh prgëoh
5G hw txl prglhqw srxuwdqw ohv frqwudlqwhv gh idêrq vhqvleoh1 Lo idoodlw grqf prgìolvhu
ohv s|o÷qhv hq 6G srxu frqqdñwuh dyhf suìflvlrq ohv frqwudlqwhv tx*lov vxelvvhqw oruv gx
wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv1 F*hvw srxutxrl xq prgëoh pl{wh 5G26G d ìwì frqvwlwxì/ gdqv ohtxho
ohv vxvshqvlrqv hw oh wdeolhu ìwdlhqw fhx{ gx prgëoh 5G suìfìghqw/ hw rü oh s|o÷qh ìwdlw
prgìolvì hq 6G / frpph rq oh yrlw vxu od jxuh 44161

441715 Xq prgëoh 6G srxu o*ìwxgh gx uìjodjh q gh od vxvshqvlrq

Xqh prgìolvdwlrq frpsoëwh hq 6G d ìwì plvh dx srlqw +yrlu jxuh 4417,1 Hooh hvw elhq
hqwhqgx ehdxfrxs soxv orxugh txh ohv ghx{ suìfìghqwhv/ sxlvtx*hooh frpsruwh 4746 qúxgv
4417 Ìwxghv vsìfltxhv 54:

Ìwdshv vxu fkdqwlhu Vlpxodwlrq dyhf SFS


3 0 Dqflhq ìwdw Prglfdwlrq ghv orqjxhxuv ã ylgh ghv fkdñqhwwhv gh
od wudyìh fhqwudoh1
Prglfdwlrq ghv orqjxhxuv ã ylgh gh wrxwhv ohv
fkdñqhwwhv1
Prglfdwlrq gh od orqjxhxu ã ylgh gh od fkdñqhwwh
hqwuh od vhoohwwh hw o*dqfudjh ulyh jdxfkh1
4 0 Plvh hq sodfh ghv qrxyhdx{ Dfwlydwlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv prgìolvdqw ohv qrxyhdx{
fåeohv fåeohv1
Plvh hq whqvlrq gh fhv fkdñqhwwhv hq orqjxhxu ã ylgh1
5 0 Dffurfkdjh ã whqvlrq qxooh ghv Dfwlydwlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv prgìolvdqw ohv qrxyhoohv
qrxyhoohv vxvshqwhv vxvshqwhv1
Lqfuìphqw gh fkdujh vxu oh wdeolhu srxu whqlu frpswh
gx srlgv ghv qrxyhdx{ froolhuv hw ìwulhuv1
6 0 Plvh ã orqjxhxu ghv vxvshqwhv Plvh hq whqvlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv hq
ulyh jdxfkh orqjxhxu ã ylgh1
7 0 Plvh ã orqjxhxu ghv vxvshqwhv Plvh hq whqvlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv hq
ulyh gurlwh orqjxhxu ã ylgh1
8 0 Plvh ã orqjxhxu g*xqh vxv0 Plvh hq whqvlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv hq
shqwh vxu ghx{ gdqv od wudyìh irufh dx qrhxg vxsìulhxu1 Ã fkdtxh vrxv0skdvh/ rq
fhqwudoh/ fhooh0fl v*hhfwxdqw hq < dxjphqwh gh 46 wrqqhv fhwwh whqvlrq mxvtx*ã dwwhlq0
vrxv0skdvhv guh od orqjxhxu ã ylgh qdoh1
9 0 Plvh ã orqjxhxu ghv dxwuhv Plvh hq whqvlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv hq
vxvshqwhv gh od wudyìh fhqwudoh orqjxhxu ã ylgh1
: 0 Vxssuhvvlrq ghv dqflhqqhv Gìvdfwlydwlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv fruuhvsrqgdqwhv1
vxvshqwhv gdqv ohv wudyìhv
odwìudohv
; 0 Vxssuhvvlrq ghv dqflhqqhv Gìvdfwlydwlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv fruuhvsrqgdqw ã xqh
vxvshqwhv gdqv od wudyìh fhqwudoh vxvshqwh vxu ghx{1
Gìwhqvlrq ghv dqflhqqhv fkdñqhwwhv uhvwdqwhv sdu
gìfuìphqw gh 5 wrqqhv +h{fhswìhv 5 fkdñqhwwhv gh
sduw hw g*dxwuh gx qrhxg fhqwudo,1
< 0 Vxssuhvvlrq gx qrhxg fhqwudo Gìvdfwlydwlrq ghv eduuhv prgìolvdqw oh qrhxg fhq0
wudo hw ghv 5 fkdñqhwwhv dxwrxu1
Gìfuìphqw gh fkdujh vxu oh wdeolhu vlpxodqw oh uh0
wudlw ghv dqflhqv froolhuv hw ìwulhuv1
43 0 Vxssuhvvlrq gh o*dqflhq fåeoh Gìvdfwlydwlrq ghv fkdñqhwwhv1

Wdeohdx 4414 = Ìwdshv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv


54; Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

SETRA--PCP-PH2 05.05.97/16.12.19 TANCARVILLE - MODELE 2D -30.0 0.0 0.0 1/759.6 1/759.6

PYLONE RIVE DROITE

Iljxuh 4416 = Prgëoh 5G26G

hw 5383 ìoìphqwv1 Xq prgëoh 6G ìwdlw fhshqgdqw lqglvshqvdeoh srxu o*ìwxgh gx uìjodjh q


gh od vxvshqvlrq1
Hq hhw/ ohv qrxyhoohv vxvshqwhv qh vrqw sdv yhuwlfdohv/ pdlv lqfolqìhv/ sxlvtxh ohxu
srlqw g*dwwdfkh vxu oh wdeolhu q*hvw sdv prglì/ doruv txh ohv ixwxuv fåeohv sruwhxuv vh
wurxyhqw gh sduw hw g*dxwuh gh o*dqflhq fåeoh/ frpph lqgltxì vxu od jxuh 44181
Gh fh idlw/ o*ìfduwhphqw hqwuh ohv ghx{ fåeohv g*xqh píph qdssh gìshqg gh od orqjxhxu
ghv vxvshqwhv hw gh od whqvlrq gdqv od vxvshqvlrq1 Rq pdñwulvh fhw ìfduwhphqw +srxu ìylwhu
ohv frqwdfwv hqwuh ohv vxvshqwhv, hq o*lpsrvdqw dx{ gl{ sdluhv gh vxvshqwhv fhqwudohv +glwhv
vsìfldohv, sdu o*lqwhupìgldluh gh exwrqv uholdqw ohv froolhuv gh fhv sdluhv gh vxvshqwhv1
Oh prgëoh 6G qrxv d shuplv gh gìwhuplqhu od orqjxhxu ã lpsrvhu ã fhv exwrqv srxu
rewhqlu xq ìfduwhphqw plqlpxp gh ;3 fp hqwuh ohv ghx{ fåeohv g*xqh píph qdssh +yrlu
jxuh 4419,/ gh gìgxluh gh fhw ìfduwhphqw ohv orqjxhxuv ã ylgh ghv vxvshqwhv hq whqdqw
frpswh gh ohxu lqfolqdlvrq/ hw hqq gh frqqdñwuh od irufh gh frpsuhvvlrq v*h{huêdqw gdqv
ohv exwrqv1
O*xwlolwì gx prgëoh hvw ìjdohphqw gh srxyrlu suhqguh hq frpswh ohv fkdujhphqwv
glvv|pìwultxhv +hhw g*xq fkdqjhphqw rx g*xqh uxswxuh gh vxvshqwh vxu ohv vxvshqwhv
4418 Txhotxhv srlqwv sduwlfxolhuv gh prgìolvdwlrq 54<

SETRA--PCP-PH2 05.05.97/10.47.49 TANCARVILLE - MODELE 3D -45.0 0.0 -30.0 1/2672.5 1/2672.5

VUE D’ENSEMBLE

Iljxuh 4417 = Prgëoh 6G

yrlvlqhv,1

4418 Txhotxhv srlqwv sduwlfxolhuv gh prgìolvdwlrq


441814 Ohv vhoohv hq wíwh gh s|o÷qh

Shqgdqw ohv skdvhv gh wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv/ ohv qrxyhoohv vhoohv vrqw gìsodêdeohv/ gh idêrq
ã glplqxhu ohv hruwv gdqv od vwuxfwxuh1
Dq g*ìylwhu ohv gìsodfhphqwv huudwltxhv +gxv dx wudf/ qrwdpphqw, hw glvv|pìwultxhv/
fhv vhoohv qh vrqw sdv oleuhv/ pdlv ã gìsodfhphqw krul}rqwdo orqjlwxglqdo frqwu÷oì sdu yìulqv1
Gdqv oh fdofxo/ ohv vhoohv hq wíwh gh s|o÷qhv vrqw oleuhv gh vh gìsodfhu orqjlwxglqdohphqw/
fh txl shuphw gh gìwhuplqhu oh gìsodfhphqw uhodwli hqwuh oh fåeoh hw od wíwh gx s|o÷qh
gdqv fkdtxh skdvh gh wudqvihuw1 Vxu fkdqwlhu/ dydqw fkdtxh skdvh +yrluh vrxv0skdvh,/ rq
gìsodfhud grqf ohv vhoohv gh od ydohxu gx gìsodfhphqw fdofxoì/ sxlv rq ohv eortxhud gdqv
fhwwh srvlwlrq mxvtx*dx gìexw gh od skdvh vxlydqwh1
Gx srlqw gh yxh prgìolvdwlrq/ ohv vhoohv vrqw uhsuìvhqwìhv sdu ghv duwlfxodwlrqv grqw
rq frqqdñw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluh/ hw txl suhqqhqw hq frpswh o*h{fhqwuhphqw
553 Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

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Iljxuh 4418 = Glvsrvlwlrq wudqvyhuvdoh ghv vxvshqwhv

hqwuh ohv ghx{ h{wuìplwìv gh o*duwlfxodwlrq/ srxu oh fdofxo gh od uhglvwulexwlrq ghv hruwv1
Fhwwh sulvh hq frpswh hvw qìfhvvdluh fdu/ vxlydqw ohv skdvhv/ oh gìsodfhphqw uhodwli hqwuh oh
fåeoh hw od wíwh gx s|o÷qh hvw lpsruwdqw/ hw/ frqmxjxì ã o*hruw qrupdo tx*lqgxlw oh fåeoh
sruwhxu gdqv oh s|o÷qh/ vrq hhw +hq prphqw orqjlwxglqdo, q*hvw sdv gx wrxw qìjoljhdeoh1

441815 Ohv elhoohv g*dssxl

Oh wdeolhu uhsrvh/ dx qlyhdx ghv s|o÷qhv/ vxu ghv elhoohwwhv/ fdu od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl shxw
wuëv elhq íwuh gluljìh yhuv oh edv1
Od elhoohwwh d ìwì prgìolvìh whooh txhooh/ sdu xq ìoìphqw elduwlfxoì/ hw qrq sdv sdu xq
dssxl jolvvdqw1 Fh prgëoh/ soxv frpsoh{h g*xq srlqw gh yxh qxpìultxh/ shuphw g*íwuh soxv
surfkh gh od uìdolwì/ ã sursrv gh od gluhfwlrq gh od uìdfwlrq g*dssxl/ qrwdpphqw1
4419 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv 554

2,000

1,800

1,600

1,400

1,200
Espacement
horizontal 1,000
(m)
0,800

0,600

0,400
Calcul GTM
0,200
Calcul SETRA
0,000
0,00 200,00 400,00 600,00 800,00 1000,00

Abscisse (m)

Iljxuh 4419 = Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh 0 Hvsdfhphqw krul}rqwdo ghv fåeohv sruwhxuv

4419 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv

441914 Ohv gìsodfhphqwv oruv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv

Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv vrqw uhsulv gdqv oh wdeohdx 44151

441915 Ohv gl!fxowìv gh prgìolvdwlrq hw gh fdofxo

Xq sureoëph gh gìidxw gh frqyhujhqfh gh o*dojrulwkph jìqìudo gh uìvroxwlrq v*hvw sduirlv


srvì/ srxu glìuhqwhv udlvrqv =

 Od udlghxu uhodwlyh ghv dssxlv sduidlwv d qìfhvvlwì xq vrlq wrxw sduwlfxolhu txdqw dx
frqglwlrqqhphqw gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1 Hq hhw/ od vwuxfwxuh ìwxglìh frqwlhqw ghv
ìoìphqwv grqw od udlghxu hvw wuëv judqgh +edvh gh s|o÷qh hqfdvwuìh,/ rx wuëv shwlwh
+vhooh oleuh hq gìsodfhphqw/ vxvshqwh,1 Od glvsdulwì ghv udlghxuv dhfwh od suìflvlrq
qxpìultxh gx uìvxowdw gh o*lqyhuvlrq gx v|vwëph1

 Ohv urwdwlrqv ghv qúxgv uholìv h{foxvlyhphqw ã ghv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv q*rqw sdv
gh vljqlfdwlrq sk|vltxh = rq shxw ìolplqhu ohv ìtxdwlrqv fruuhvsrqgdqw ã fhv gh0
555 Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

Skdvh Gìsodfhphqwv oruv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv +p,


ëfkh wdeolhu Gìsodfhphqw krul}rqwdo
S|o÷qh UG Vhooh s|o÷qh UG S|o÷qh UJ Vhooh s|o÷qh UJ
3 04/4;9 3/43: 3/333 03/53: 3/333
4 04/4;: 3/439 03/8:; 03/539 03/9<6
5 04/593 3/448 03/8;; 03/548 03/:33
6 04/586 3/447 03/8;9 03/547 03/:3:
7 04/576 3/446 03/8<: 03/546 03/:37
8 4/684 03/4:; 3/354 3/3<5 03/398
9 4/6:; 03/4;6 3/35; 3/3<: 03/38;
: 3/:46 3/434 03/554 03/4:7 03/5:<
; 3/47< 03/49; 3/494 3/3<< 3/3<;
< 3/345 03/594 3/587 3/4;7 3/4;7
43 3/3:4: 3/333 03/337 3/333 03/334

Wdeohdx 4415 = Gìsodfhphqwv oruv gx wudqvihuw gh fkdujhv

juìv gh olehuwì1 Hq sudwltxh/ fhv urwdwlrqv vrqw eortxìhv dq g*ìylwhu wrxw lqflghqw
qxpìultxh1

 Hq wíwh ghv s|o÷qhv gh judqgh kdxwhxu/ vxu ohvtxhov v*dssxlhqw ohv vhoohv oleuhv gh vh
gìsodfhu orqjlwxglqdohphqw/ vrqw dssduxhv ghv rvfloodwlrqv hq gìsodfhphqw1 Lo d idoox
ohv gìwhfwhu dq gh ohv wudlwhu frqyhqdeohphqw1

Sdu dloohxuv/ lo v*hvw dyìuì txh ohv uìvxowdwv hq gìsodfhphqwv ìwdlhqw wuëv vhqvleohv dx
uìjodjh lqlwldo gh od vxvshqvlrq hq whuph gh orqjxhxuv ã ylgh ghv fkdñqhwwhv = xqh prgl0
fdwlrq h{wuíphphqw idleoh gh od orqjxhxu ã ylgh/ g*xqh ydohxu wuëv lqiìulhxuh ã od suìflvlrq
gh fkdqwlhu/ prglh ohv ëfkhv gh idêrq vljqlfdwlyh1 Sdu h{hpsoh/ xqh yduldwlrq uhodwlyh
gh orqjxhxu gh 3/334( gh od vxvshqvlrq lqgxlw xqh yduldwlrq gh ëfkh hq plolhx gh wdeolhu
gh 5 fp1
Ohv uìvxowdwv vrqw suìvhqwìv vxu ohv jxuhv 441: ã 441441 Frpph rq shxw oh frqvwdwhu/ ohv
ìfduwv hqwuh od prgìolvdwlrq hw o*rxyudjh uìho uhvwhqw wuëv idleohv1 Lo idxw vrxoljqhu oh wudydlo
lpsruwdqw gh plvh dx srlqw gx prgxoh qrq olqìdluh vxu xq rxyudjh dxvvl lpsruwdqw1 Hq
hhw/ ã o*ìsrtxh/ lo v*djlvvdlw gx prgëoh oh soxv lpsruwdqw mdpdlv wudlwì sdu SFS ghsxlv vd
plvh hq vhuylfh/ oh soxv jurv prgëoh suìfìghqw ìwdqw fhoxl gx Srqw gh Qrupdqglh1 Ghsxlv/
oh prgëoh gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh d ìwì vxssodqwì sdu fhoxl gx Srqw gh Ploodx/ hq frxuv
g*ìwxgh dx VHWUD/ dyhf SFS1 Oh fdv whvw txh frqvwlwxh oh uhpsodfhphqw gh od vxvshqvlrq
gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh ydolgh gh idêrq luuìixwdeoh od sulvh hq frpswh gh od qrq0olqìdulwì
jìrpìwultxh vxu ghv vwuxfwxuhv dxvvl lpsruwdqwhv hw frpsoh{hv1
4419 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv 556

ILFKH WHFKQLTXH

Suro hq orqj
Wudyxuhv = 4:9/66 p 0 93:/<55 p 4:7/938 p
Ud|rqv gh frxuexuh = 43 333 p 0 48 733 p 0 7 833 p
Suro hq wudyhuv Odujhxu hqwuh d{hv gh od vxvshqvlrq dfwxhooh = 49 p
Vxvshqvlrq dqflhqqh
Fåeohv dqflhqv = 5 fåeohv
4 fåeoh hvw irupì gh 89 wrurqv hq wudyìh fhqwudoh
93 wrurqv hq wudyìhv gh ulyh
4 wrurq hvw irupì gh 49< ov ! 7/: pp
Uìvlvwdqfh ã od uxswxuh = 4 833 PSd
Prgxoh g*ìodvwlflwì gh fdofxo = 4:3 333 PSd
Vxvshqwhv dqflhqqhv = 5 qdsshv gh vxvshqwhv
4 vxvshqwh hvw irupìh gh 593 ov ! 7/: pp wrurqqìv
vxu xq o gh ! 8/; pp
Uìvlvwdqfh ã od uxswxuh = 4 833 PSd
Prgxoh g*ìodvwlflwì gh fdofxo = 4:3 333 PSd
Vxvshqvlrq qrxyhooh
Fåeohv qrxyhdx{ = 
5 5 fåeohv
4 fåeoh hvw irupì gh <3 wrurqv
4 wrurq hvw irupì gh 6: ov ! 8/87 pp +kruv jdoydqlvdwlrq,
Uìvlvwdqfh ã od uxswxuh = 4 993 PSd +frhi1 gh shuwh 3/<8,
Prgxoh g*ìodvwlflwì gh fdofxo = 4:3 333 PSd
Frqwudlqwh pd{lpdoh g*xq fåeoh hq vhuylfh  833 PSd
Vxvshqwhv qrxyhoohv = 
5 5 qdsshv gh vxvshqwhv
4 vxvshqwh d xqh vhfwlrq gh 5 466 pp2
Prgxoh g*ìodvwlflwì gh fdofxo = 488 333 PSd
Uìvlvwdqfh ã od uxswxuh = 4 993 PSd +frhi1 gh shuwh 3/<,
Wudfwlrq pd{lpdoh g*xqh vxvshqwh ã o*HOV  93 w1

Wdeohdx 4416 = Ilfkh whfkqltxh


557 Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

150
GTM
100 SETRA
CHANTIER
50

Déplacement
-50
(mm)

-100

-150

-200

-250
Déroulement du chantier

Iljxuh 441: = Gìsodfhphqw gh od wíwh gh s|o÷qh ulyh gurlwh sdu udssruw ã od yhuwlfdoh
4419 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv 558

800

700

600

500

400
Position
(mm)
300

200
GTM
100 SETRA
CHANTIER
0

-100
Déroulement du chantier

Iljxuh 441; = Srvlwlrq ghv vhoohv ulyh gurlwh sdu udssruw dx s|o÷qh +od srvlwlrq qxooh hvw
fhooh gh od vhooh ã od q gh o*rsìudwlrq 5,
559 Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

250
GTM
200
SETRA

150 CHANTIER

100

50
Déplacement
(mm)
0

-50

-100

-150

-200
Déroulement du chantier

Iljxuh 441< = Gìsodfhphqw gh od wíwh gh s|o÷qh ulyh jdxfkh sdu udssruw ã od yhuwlfdoh
4419 Ohv sulqflsdx{ uìvxowdwv 55:

900

800

700

600

500
Position
400
(mm)
300

200 GTM

100 SETRA
CHANTIER
0

-100
Déroulement du chantier

Iljxuh 44143 = Srvlwlrq ghv vhoohv ulyh jdxfkh sdu udssruw dx s|o÷qh +od srvlwlrq qxooh hvw
fhooh ã od q gh o*rsìudwlrq 5,
55; Fkdslwuh 44 Xq h{hpsoh g*dssolfdwlrq uìhooh = oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh

3000

2500

2000

Flèche
1500
(mm)

1000

500 GTM
SETRA
CHANTIER
0
Déroulement du chantier

Iljxuh 44144 = Yduldwlrq gh ëfkh gx wdeolhu dx qrhxg fhqwudo sdu udssruw ã vd srvlwlrq
hq q g*rsìudwlrq 5
Fkdslwuh 45

Frqfoxvlrq jìqìudoh

Oh exw gh od wkëvh frqvlvwdlw hq o*lqwìjudwlrq ghv irqfwlrqqdolwìv gh fdofxo qrq olqìdluh


gdqv xq orjlflho h{lvwdqw/ SFS/ rulhqwì Rxyudjhv g*Duw hw edvì vxu od wkìrulh gh o*ìodvwlflwì
olqìdluh hw ghv shwlwv gìsodfhphqwv1 Rq shxw hvwlphu o*dyrlu frpsoëwhphqw dwwhlqw1 Hq
hhw/ oh fkdslwuh 43 gìprqwuh txh qrwuh irupxodwlrq shuphw gh wudlwhu fruuhfwhphqw xq
judqg qrpeuh gh sureoëphv gdqv oh fkdps g*dssolfdwlrq gh SFS1 Hq rxwuh/ oh fkdslwuh 44
surxyh o*dvshfw rsìudwlrqqho hhfwli gx surjudpph vxu ghv vwuxfwxuhv dxvvl lpsruwdqwhv
hw dx irqfwlrqqhphqw dxvvl frpsoh{h tx*xq srqw vxvshqgx/ who txh oh Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh1
Dx frxuv gh fhwwh ìwxgh/ dsuëv dyrlu ìwdeol xq ìwdw gh od txhvwlrq/ qrxv dyrqv ìwì
dphqìv ã sursrvhu +fkdslwuh 6, xqh h{whqvlrq dx 6G gh od irupxodwlrq lqlwldohphqw sodqh
gxh ã Mhqqlqjv/ hw txl d lqvsluì gh qrpeuhx{ dxwhxuv1 Qrxv dyrqv rswlplvì o*dqdo|vh gh
od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh sursrvìh sdu Qdlw0Udedk/ dq gh od uhqguh frpsdwleoh dyhf ohv
h{ljhqfhv g*xq frgh lqgxvwulho +fkdslwuh 7,1 Qrxv dyrqv gìyhorssì xq dojrulwkph jìqìudo
gh uìvroxwlrq grqw ohv vsìflfdwlrqv sulqflsdohv vrqw o*h!fdflwì hw od urexvwhvvh +fkdslwuh 8,1
G*dloohxuv/ lo frpsuhqg soxvlhxuv whfkqltxhv gh slorwdjh doodqw gh od glylvlrq gh od fkdujh
ã od gìwhfwlrq g*rvfloodwlrqv gdqv oh surfhvvxv gh frqyhujhqfh1 Sxlv/ qrxv qrxv vrpphv
lqwìuhvvìv dx{ hhwv glìuìv +fkdslwuh 9, dq g*íwuh sduidlwhphqw frqiruph ã o*remhfwli
lqlwldo/ txl ìwdlw gh pdlqwhqlu oh fdofxo ghv hhwv glìuìv gdqv oh SFS qrq olqìdluh1 Xq
lpsruwdqw wudydlo d ìwì irxuql srxu prgìolvhu fruuhfwhphqw ohv duwlfxodwlrqv hq judqgv
gìsodfhphqwv/ hw srxu jìuhu ohv skdvhv gh whqvlrq0gìwhqvlrq txh o*rq shxw revhuyhu gdqv
ohv vxvshqwhv gh srqwv vxvshqgxv +fkdslwuh :,1 Qrxv qrxv vrpphv doruv dshuêxv txh o*rq
srxydlw sursrvhu gh qrxyhoohv irqfwlrqqdolwìv dx{ xwlolvdwhxuv/ frpph oh fdofxo ghv prghv
gh dpehphqwv ghv vwuxfwxuhv +fkdslwuh ;,/ dlqvl txh oh fdofxo g|qdpltxh wudqvlwrluh/ dsuëv
uhirupxodwlrq gx sureoëph ã o*dlgh g*xq vfkìpd gh Qhzpdun +fkdslwuh <,1
Oh surjudpph lvvx gh od suìvhqwh ìwxgh shxw íwuh frqvlgìuì frpph xq rxwlo gh yìul0
fdwlrq ã sduw hqwlëuh1 Lo d g*dloohxuv ìwì xwlolvì hq wdqw txh who doruv txh vrq gìyhorsshphqw
q*ìwdlw sdv wrwdohphqw dfkhyì hq 4<<904<<:/ srxu oh frqwuh0fdofxo gx uhpsodfhphqw gh
563 Fkdslwuh 45 Frqfoxvlrq jìqìudoh

od vxvshqvlrq gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh1 Vhxoh od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh d ìwì sulvh hq


frpswh srxu fh surmhw1 Sdu dloohxuv/ oruv gx skdvdjh gh uhpsodfhphqw/ ohv vhoohv g*dssxlv
gx fåeoh hq wíwh gh s|o÷qh ìwdlhqw prgìolvìhv sdu ghv duwlfxodwlrqv hq judqgv gìsodfhphqwv/
oleuhv gh vh gìsodfhu orqjlwxglqdohphqw1 Fhv ìoìphqwv rqw grqqì hqwlëuh vdwlvidfwlrq/ wrxw
frpph ohv ìoìphqwv elduwlfxoìv gh w|sh fkdñqhwwh1
SFS/ gdqv vd yhuvlrq qrq olqìdluh/ hvw ã o*khxuh dfwxhooh xwlolvì srxu hhfwxhu o*ìwxgh gh
idlvdelolwì gx judqg yldgxf gh Ploodx sdu od Glylvlrq ghv Judqgv Rxyudjhv dx VHWUD1
Lfl/ dxvvl elhq od qrq0olqìdulwì jìrpìwultxh txh od qrq0olqìdulwì pdwìulhooh vrqw sulvhv hq
frpswh1 Ohv irqfwlrqv gh fdofxo ghv prghv gh dpehphqw vrqw ìjdohphqw xwlolvìhv vxu fh
surmhw1
SFS shxw ìjdohphqw íwuh frqvlgìuì frpph xq rxwlo gh uìjohphqwdwlrq1 Hq hhw/ lo hvw
ìjdohphqw xwlolvì srxu fdohu ohv prgëohv uìjohphqwdluhv ghv Eìwrqv ã Kdxwhv Shuirupdqfhv
+EKS, vxu ghv rxyudjhv uìdolvwhv1
Oh gìyhorsshphqw gh od sduwlh qrq olqìdluh gh SFS v*hvw idlw gdqv xq fdguh lqgxvwulho/
dyhf ghv uëjohv hw ghv frqwudlqwhv gh surjudppdwlrq dq g*hq dvvxuhu od delolwì1 Fhw
dvshfw ghv fkrvhv q*hvw sdv qìjoljhdeoh hq whuphv gh whpsv gh gìyhorsshphqw1 Oh frgh
dlqvl ìfulw uhsuìvhqwh soxv gh 63 333 oljqhv gh frgh Jhqiru +xq jìqìudwhxu gh Iruwudq,1
Ghv surmhwv g*rswlplvdwlrq gx surjudpph vrqw ã o*ìwxgh1 Oh suhplhu frqfhuqh od
sdudooìolvdwlrq ã jurv judlqv gx fdofxo ghv pdwulfhv gh uljlglwì ìoìphqwdluhv1 Fhwwh rsìudwlrq
v*hhfwxhud mxvwh dydqw o*dvvhpeodjh gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì jìqìudoh1 Oh vhfrqg frqfhuqh
o*lqyhuvlrq gx v|vwëph jìqìudo/ dq g*h{sorlwhu oh fdudfwëuh ìsduvh gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1
Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv

^D`

^Dnk:9` DNKUDV/ Jhrujhv/ GKDWW/ Jrxul1 Dq dxwrpdwlf qrgh uhodehoolqj vfkhph


iru plqlpl}lqj d pdwul{ ru qhwzrun edqgzlgwk1 Lqwhuqdwlrqdo Mrxuqdo iru Qxphu0
lfdo Phwkrgv lq Hqjlqhhulqj/ 4<:9/ yro 43/ s :;:0:<:1

^Dog:7` DOGVWHGW/ H1/ EHUJDQ/ S1J1 Odujh ghirupdwlrq dqg vwdelolw| dqdo|vlv ri
uhlqirufhg frqfuhwh iudphv frqvlghulqj pdwhuldo qrqolqhdulwlhv1 ]ÿulfk = LDEVH/
4<:71 68: s1 Uhsruw 49/ Udssruw suìolplqdluh1

^Dog:8` DOGVWHGW/ H1 Qrqolqhdu dqdo|vlv ri uhlqirufhg frqfuhwh iudphv1 Wurqgkhlp =


QWK/ pduv 4<:81 4:: s1 Uhsruw q :8041

^Duj::` DUJ\ULV/ M1K1/ NOHLEHU/ P1 Lqfuhphqwdo irupxodwlrq lq qrqolqhdu ph0


fkdqlfv dqg odujh vwudlq hodvwr0sodvwlflw| 0 Qdwxudo dssurdfk1 Sduw 41 Frpsxwhu
phwkrgv lq dssolhg phfkdqlfv dqg hqjlqhhulqj/ 4<::/ q 44/ s 548057:1

^Duj:;` DUJ\ULV/ M1K1/ GROWVLQLV/ M1Vw1/ NOHLEHU/ P1 Lqfuhphqwdo irupxod0


wlrq lq qrqolqhdu phfkdqlfv dqg odujh vwudlq hodvwr0sodvwlflw| 0 Qdwxudo dssurdfk1
Sduw LL1 Frpsxwhu phwkrgv lq dssolhg phfkdqlfv dqg hqjlqhhulqj/ 4<:;/ q 47/ s
58<05<71

^Dur9;` DURQL/ Vdpxho1 Vohqghu suhvwuhvvhg frqfuhwh froxpqv1 Mrxuqdo ri wkh Vwuxf0
wxudo Glylvlrq/ DVFH/ dyulo 4<9;/ q VW7 s ;:80<371

^E`

^Edho<4` Uëjohv EDHO<4 Uëjohv whfkqltxhv gh frqfhswlrq hw gh fdofxo ghv rxyudjhv hw frq0
vwuxfwlrqv hq eìwrq dupì vxlydqw od pìwkrgh ghv ìwdwv olplwhv1 Sdulv = FVWE/
pduv 4<<51 478 s1

^Edw:9` EDWKH/ Nodxv0Mÿujhq/ R]GHPLU/ Kdoxn1 Hodvwlf0Sodvwlf odujh ghirupd0


wlrq vwdwlf dqg g|qdplf dqdo|vlv/ Frpsxwhuv ) Vwuxfwxuhv/ 4<:9/ yro 9/ s ;40<51
565 Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv

^Edw<3d` EDWR]/ Mhdq0Orxlv/ GKDWW/ Jrxul1 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv vwuxfwxuhv sdu ìoì0
phqwv qlv/ yroxph4/ vrolghv ìodvwltxhv1 Sdulv = Khupëv/ 4<<3/ 7;7 s1 LVEQ 50
;993405760:1

^Edw<3e` EDWR]/ Mhdq0Orxlv/ GKDWW/ Jrxul1 Prgìolvdwlrq ghv vwuxfwxuhv sdu ìoì0
phqwv qlv/ yroxph5/ srxwuhv hw sodtxhv1 Sdulv = Khupëv/ 4<<3/ 799 s1 LVEQ
50;9934058<061

^Eho:5` EHOD]RXJXL/ P1 Uhfkhufkh vxu oh dpehphqw hw oh gìyhuvhphqw gh srwhdx{


hq eìwrq dupì gh vhfwlrq hq L1 Wkëvh gh Grfwhxu Lqjìqlhxu = Xqlyhuvlwì Sdulv YL/
gìfhpeuh 4<:51 449 s1

^Elo;<` ELOOLRQQHW/ Dodlq/ EUÍWHDX/ Mhdq0Iudqêrlv1 D frpsdulvrq ri


wkuhh dojrulwkpv iru uhgxflqj wkh suroh ri d vsduvh pdwul{1 Uhfkhufkh rsìud0
wlrqqhooh2Rshudwlrqv Uhvhdufk/ 4<;</ yro 56/ q 6/ s 5;<06351

^Eod:5` EODDXZHQGUDDG/ M1 Uhdolvwlf dqdo|vlv ri uhlqirufhg frqfuhwh iudphg


vwuxfwxuhv1 Khurq/ 4<:5/ yro 4;/ q 7/ 64 s1

^Esho<4` Uëjohv ESHO<4 Uëjohv whfkqltxhv gh frqfhswlrq hw gh fdofxo ghv rxyudjhv hw


frqvwuxfwlrqv hq eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw vxlydqw od pìwkrgh ghv ìwdwv olplwhv1 Sdulv =
FVWE/ dyulo 4<<51 483 s1 LVEQ 50;9;<40547041

^Euh<6` EUH\VVH/ G1/ HODFKDFKL/ V1P1/ FROVRQ/ D1/ DLWD/ V1/ SH0
QD]]L/ O1 Xqh pìwkrgh vlpsolìh srxu od suìglfwlrq gx frpsruwhphqw qrq
olqìdluh g*rvvdwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì1 Dqqdohv gh o*Lqvwlwxw Whfkqltxh gx Eåwlphqw
hw ghv Wudydx{ Sxeolfv/ mdqylhu 4<<6/ vìulh = wkìrulhv hw pìwkrghv gh fdofxo 666/
q 843/ s 460651

^F`

^Fds:<` FDSUD/ Dodlq/ GDYLGRYLFL/ Ylfwru1 Fdofxo g|qdpltxh ghv vwuxfwxuhv


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Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv 566

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uhlqirufhg frqfuhwh vkhoov zlwk hgjh ehdpv1 Sk1G1 Wkhvlv = Ghsduwphqw ri Flylo
Hqjlqhhulqj/ Xqlyhuvlw| ri Fdoliruqld/ Ehunhoh|/ 4<;51 694 s1

^Fkd<6` FKDULI/ Kd}hp/ MDFFRXG/ Mhdq0Sdxo1 Fdofxo ghv gìirupdwlrqv ghv


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vìulh = wkìrulhv hw pìwkrghv gh fdofxo 667/ q 844/ s <:04591

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556 s1 Froohfwlrq Pdwkìpdwltxhv dssoltxìhv srxu od pdñwulvh vrxv od gluhfwlrq gh
S1J1 FLDUOHW hw M10O1 OLRQV1 LVEQ 505580;3<9;051

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^Frq<6d` H{whuqdo Suhvwuhvvlqj lq vwuxfwxuhv1 Hglwhg e| Ìulf FRQWL ) Ehuqdug IRXUÌ1


Sdulv = DISF/ 4<<61 7:5 s1 LVVQ 3:940678;1

^Frq<6e` H{whuqdo Suhvwuhvvlqj lq vwuxfwxuhv Qrq0olqhdu Fdofxodwlrqv Whvwv ri Suhvwuhvvhg


Ehdpv1 Hglwhg e| Ìulf FRQWL ) Uìpl WDUG\1 Sdulv = DISF/ 4<<61 4:9 s1
LVVQ 3:940678;1

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iudphv1 Fhphqw dqg Frqfuhwh Dvvrfldwlrq/ drþw 4<981 6; s1 Whfkqlfdo Uhsruw
q WUD6<51
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^Fvd:9` FVDQVN\/ O1 Idvw sdudooho pdwul{ lqyhuvlrq dojrulwkpv/ VLDP M1 Frpsxw1/


4<:9/ yro 8/ q 7/ s 94;09561

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^Gkd;7` GKDWW/ Jrxul/ WRX]RW/ Jloehuw1 Xqh suìvhqwdwlrq gh od pìwkrgh ghv


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^GhY;<` Gh YLOOH gh JR\HW/ Ylqfhqw1 O*dqdo|vh vwdwltxh qrq olqìdluh sdu od pìwk0
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v|pìwultxh1 Wkëvh gh grfwrudw = Xqlyhuvlwì gh Olëjh/ Idfxowì ghv Vflhqfhv Ds0
soltxìhv/ 4<;;04<;<1 Sdjlqdwlrq pxowlsoh1

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frtxhv plqfhv hq wkìrulh gh Pdujxhuuh1 Wkëvh gh grfwrudw = LQVD gh O|rq/ 4<<31
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q VW5/ s 77:07831

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gh Eux{hoohv/ 4<;91 7<8 s1

^Hvs;9e` HVSLRQ/ Ehuqdug1 Qrqolqhdu dqdo|vlv ri iudphg vwuxfwxuhv zlwk d sodvwlflw|


plqghg ehdp hohphqw1 Frpsxwhuv ) Vwuxfwxuhv/ 4<;9/ yro 55/ q 8/ s ;640;6<1

^Hxu<5` Hxurfrgh5 Fdofxo ghv vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq hw Grfxphqw g*Dssolfdwlrq Qd0


wlrqdoh1 Sduwlh 404 = Uëjohv jìqìudohv hw uëjohv srxu ohv eåwlphqwv1 Sdulv = DIQRU/
gìfhpeuh 4<<51 Sdjlqdwlrq pxowlsoh1 LVVQ 366806<641

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^Idx:5` IDXFKDUW/ M1 Frxuv gh eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw1 Fhqwuh ghv Kdxwhv Ìwxghv gh od


Frqvwuxfwlrq +FKHF,1 Sdulv/ rfwreuh 4<:51
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lq d iudph vxemhfwhg wr odwhudo ordgv1 DFL VS/ 4<99/ q 46/ s :8044<1

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gh Grfwhxu0Lqjìqlhxu = Xqlyhuvlwì Sdulv YL/ 4<:<1 48: s1

^Ihu;6` IHUUDUR PDLD/ D1F/ JUHODW/ E1/ IRXUÌ/ E1 Dqdo|vh qrq olqìdluh
ghv rvvdwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì rx suìfrqwudlqw frpswh whqx gx uhwudlw/ gx xdjh
hw gh od uhod{dwlrq1 Dqqdohv gh o*Lqvwlwxw Whfkqltxh gx Eåwlphqw hw ghv Wudydx{
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^Irx;;` IRXUÌ/ Ehuqdug/ QXQJ/ ]hq Wdr1 Uhglvwulexwlrq ghv hruwv gxv dx xdjh
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vìulh = hvvdlv hw phvxuhv 547/ q 794/ s 44:04891

^Iud<9` IUDQJL/ D1 D qhz uhjxodul}hg EH irupxodwlrq iru Nlufkkr sodwhv1 Hxurshdq


Mrxuqdo ri Phfkdqlfv/ D2Vrolgv/ 4<<9/ yro 48/ q 8/ s <480<641

^Iud:3` IUDQNOLQ/ K1D1 Qrqolqhdu dqdo|vlv ri uhlqirufhg frqfuhwh iudphv dqg sdq0
hov1 Sk1G1 Wkhvlv = Ghsduwphqw ri Flylo Hqjlqhhulqj/ Xqlyhuvlw| ri Fdoliruqld/
Ehunhoh|/ 4<:3/ 58< s1

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yro 45/ q 7/ s 74<07781

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Xqlyhuvlwì gh Olëjh/ Idfxowì ghv Vflhqfhv Dssoltxìhv/ 4<::04<:;1 563 s1

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frtxhv plqfhv1 Wkëvh gh grfwrudw = Xqlyhuvlwì Eodlvh Sdvfdo/ 4<<4/ 537 s1

^Jle;;` JLEHUW/ Uhqì0Mhdq1 Yleudwlrqv ghv vwuxfwxuhv1 Sdulv = H|uroohv/ 4<;;1 9:; s1
LVVQ 36<<074<;1
569 Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv

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wrq dupì1 Dqqdohv gh o*Lqvwlwxw Whfkqltxh gx Eåwlphqw hw ghv Wudydx{ Sxeolfv/
qryhpeuh 4<:;/ vìulh = wkìrulhv hw pìwkrghv gh fdofxo 556/ q 699/ s 43804591

^Juh:;e` JUHODW/ Dodlq1 Fdofxo qrq olqìdluh ghv rvvdwxuhv hq eìwrq dupì1 Wkëvh gh
Grfwhxu0Lqjìqlhxu = Xqlyhuvlwì Sdulv YL/ 4<:;1 467 s1

^Jxh<3` JXHQIRXG/ Prkdpphg1 Ghx{ ìoìphqwv wuldqjxodluhv qrxyhdx{ srxu o*0


dqdo|vh olqìdluh hw qrq olqìdluh ghv frtxhv1 Wkëvh gh grfwrudw = LQVD gh O|rq/
4<<31 67; s1

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wxuhv/ 4<::/ yro :/ q 6/ s 58:05981

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^Kho:;` KHOOHU/ Grq1 D vxuyh| ri sdudooho dojrulwkpv lq qxphulfdo olqhdu dojheud/


VLDP Uhylhz/ 4<:;/ yro 53/ q 7/ s :730:::1

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Sdjlqdwlrq pxowlsoh1

^Luy<5` LUYLQH/ Pd{1 Fdeoh Vwuxfwxuhv1 Qhz \run = Gryhu Sxeolfdwlrqv/ Lqf1/ 4<<5/
58< s1

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olqìdluh g*xqh vwuxfwxuh eìwrq dupì hq h{lrq frpsrvìh1 Dqqdohv gh o*Lqvwlwxw
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5:6/ q 699/ s 43804591

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qrqolqhdu g|qdplfv ri 6G ehdpv1 Lqwhuqdwlrqdo Mrxuqdo iru Qxphulfdo Phwkrgv
lq Hqjlqhhulqj/ 4<<;/ yro 76/ s 44<6045551

^Mhq9;` MHQQLQJV/ Dodq1 Iudph dqdo|vlv lqfoxglqj fkdqjh ri jhrphwu|1 Mrxuqdo ri


wkh Vwuxfwxudo Glylvlrq/ DVFH/ pduv 4<9;/ yro <7/ q VW6/ s 95:09771
Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv 56:

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rxyudjhv frqvwlwxìv gh soxvlhxuv pdwìuldx{1 Wkëvh gh grfwrudw = Xqlyhuvlwì Eodlvh
Sdvfdo 0 Fohuprqw LL/ 4<<91 535 s1

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uhlqirufhg dqg suhvwuhvvhg frqfuhwh iudphv1 Sk1G1 Wkhvlv = Ghsduwphqw ri Flylo
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^Ndq;3` NDQJ/ \1M1/ VFRUGHOLV/ D1F1 Qrqolqhdu dqdo|vlv ri suhvwuhvvhg frqfuhwh


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7951

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^Nrq;9` NRQGRK/ N1/ WDQDND/ N1/ DWOXUL/ V1Q1 Dq h{solflw h{suhvvlrq iru
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ri vsdfh iudphv1 Frpsxwhuv ) Vwuxfwxuhv/ 4<;9/ yro 57/ q 5/ s 58605:41

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deoh = prgìolvdwlrq hw dssolfdwlrq ã o*dqdo|vh gh vwuxfwxuhv hq eìwrq1 Wkëvh gh
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693 s1 LVEQ 505580;7455081

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4<<7/ 669 s1 LVEQ 505580;78790;1

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pdl 4<<91 497 s1 LVVQ 459<047<91
56; Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv

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FHE/ 4<:7/ q 434/ s 49404:<1

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4<<31 543 s1

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Edjqhx{/ VHWUD/ 4<<91 Sdjlqdwlrq pxowlsoh1

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LVEQ 50;993408;40<1

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qhx{/ VHWUD/ 4<<:1 ;3 s1

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sdu od iruph qrupdoh1 Udssruw gh GHD = HQWSH/ 4<<51 ;5 s1

^Ure<7` UREHUW/ Ioruhqw/ ODPDUTXH/ Fodxgh0Khqul1 Qrqolqhdu yleudwlrqv ri


vlpsolhg fdeoh0vwd|hg eulgjh1 Srqwv vxvshqgxv hw ã kdxedqv Fdeoh0vwd|hg dqg
vxvshqvlrq eulgjhv/ yroxph51 Sdulv = DISF/ 4<<71 s 8:808:91 LVVQ 3:940678;1

^V`

^Vdu:4` VDUJLQ/ P1 Vwuhvv0vwudlq uhodwlrqvklsv iru frqfuhwh dqg wkh dqdo|vlv ri wkh
vwuxfwxudo frqfuhwh vhfwlrqv1 Fdqdgd = Xqlyhuvlw| ri Zdwhuorr/ 4<:41 V P Vwxg|
q 7/ Vrolg Phfkdqlfv Glylvlrq/ 49: s1

^Vd{;8` Gh VD[FH/ J1/ D\LQD RKDQGMD/ O1P1 Xqh pìwkrgh dxwrpdwltxh gh


fdofxo gh o*hhw S0 srxu o*dqdo|vh sdv0ã0sdv ghv rvvdwxuhv sodqhv1 Frqvwuxfwlrq
pìwdooltxh/ 4<;8/ q 6/ s 60531

^Vwr<4` VWRHU/ M1/ EXOLUVFK/ U1 Lqwurgxfwlrq wr Qxphulfdo Dqdo|vlv Vhfrqg Hgl0


wlrq1 Ehuolq = Vsulqjhu Yhuodj/ 4<<4/ 993 s1 Wh{wv lq Dssolhg Pdwkhpdwlfv 451
LVEQ 608730<:;:;0[1

^Vwr;5` VWRODUVNL/ K1/ EHO\WVFKNR/ W1 Phpeudqh Orfnlqj dqg Uhgxfhg


Lqwhjudwlrq iru Fxuyhg Hohphqwv1 Wudqvdfwlrqv ri wkh DVPH Mrxuqdo ri Dssolhg
Phfkdqlfv/ pduv 4<;5/ yro 7</ s 4:504:91

^W`

^Wdn<8` WDNRUDEHW/ Qdfhu/ IRXUÌ/ Ehuqdug1 Prgìolvdwlrq gx frpsruwhphqw


qrq olqìdluh ghv lqwhuidfhv gh uhsulvh gh eìwrqqdjh gdqv ohv vwuxfwxuhv hq eì0
wrq dupì1 Dqqdohv gh o*Lqvwlwxw Whfkqltxh gx Eåwlphqw hw ghv Wudydx{ Sxeolfv/
qryhpeuh 4<<8/ vìulh = eìwrq 658/ q 86;/ s 9404361

^Wkh<7` WKÌRGRU/ U1 Lqlwldwlrq ã o*dqdo|vh qxpìultxh/ FQDP frxuv D/ 6 ëph ìglwlrq1


Sdulv = Pdvvrq/ 4<<7/ 635 s1 LVEQ 50<3693:0:50<1
573 Uìiìuhqfhv eleolrjudskltxhv

^Wlp99` WLPRVKHQNR/ V1S1 Wkìrulh gh od vwdelolwì ìodvwltxh1 Sdulv = Gxqrg/ 4<991


875 s1

^X`

^Xop<7` XOP/ Iudq}0Mrvhi1 Prgìolvdwlrq ìodvwrsodvwltxh dyhf hqgrppdjhphqw gx eì0


wrq gh vwuxfwxuhv1 Dssolfdwlrq dx{ fdofxov vwdwltxhv hw g|qdpltxhv gh vwuxfwxuhv
hq eìwrq dupì hw eìwrq suìfrqwudlqw1 Wkëvh gh grfwrudw = Ìfroh Qdwlrqdoh ghv
Srqwv hw Fkdxvvìhv/ 4<<71 5:5 s1

^Y`

^Ylu:;` YLUORJHX[/ Plfkho1 Mxvwlfdwlrq uìjohphqwdluh ghv slëfhv vrxplvhv dx{


hhwv gx vhfrqg ruguh vhorq ohv sulflshv ghv fdofxov dx{ ìwdwv0olplwhv xowlphv =
sureoëph olìv ã od vìfxulwì1 Dqqdohv gh o*Lqvwlwxw Whfkqltxh gx Eåwlphqw hw ghv
Wudydx{ Sxeolfv/ pduv 4<:;/ vìulh = wkìrulh hw pìwkrghv gh fdofxo 547/ q 68</ s
8<0;71

^Z`

^Zdw<:` ZDWWHEOHG/ H1/ UREHUW/ I1/ FRUIGLU/ S1/ GHUDLV/ M10I1 Xwlol0
vdwlrq gx orjlflho SFS srxu oh frqwu÷oh gh od uìsdudwlrq gx Srqw gh Wdqfduylooh1
Exoohwlq Rxyudjhv g*Duw/ mxloohw 4<<:/ q 5:/ s ;0461

^Zrr:7` ZRROFRFN/ Vfrww W1/ WUDKDLU/ Qlfkrodv V1 Srvw0Exfnolqj Ehkdylru


ri Ghwhuplqdwh Ehdpv1 Mrxuqdo ri wkh Hqjlqhhulqj Phfkdqlfv Glylvlrq/ DVFH/
dyulo 4<:7/ yro 433/ q HP5/ s 48404:41

^]`

^]kd<7` ]KDR/ Elq1 Prgìolvdwlrq qxpìultxh ghv srxwuhv hw sruwltxhv pl{whv dflhu0eìwrq
dyhf jolvvhphqwv hw judqgv gìsodfhphqwv Uìvlvwdqfh ã o*lqfhqglh1 Wkëvh gh grf0
wrudw = LQVD gh Uhqqhv/ 4<<71 597 s1

^]ld9;` ]LDG/ P1 Holdv1 Gxdolw| lq qlwh hohphqw phwkrg1 Mrxuqdo ri wkh Hqjlqhhulqj
Phfkdqlfv Glylvlrq/ DVFH/ drþw 4<9;/ q HP7/ s <640<791

^]lh::` ]LHQNLHZLF]/ R1F1 Ilqlwh hohphqw phwkrg1 Vlqjdsrxu = PfJudz Kloo/ 4<::1
97; s1
Dqqh{h D

Ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh qrq


olìv

D14 Udsshov

Fodvvltxhphqw/ gdqv xqh vhfwlrq frpsrvlwh/ oruvtxh ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh vrqw olìv
dx eìwrq/ o*dflhu ghv fåeohv hvw vrolgdluh gh od vhfwlrq = lo qh jolvvh sdv sdu udssruw dx
eìwrq1 Rq shxw grqf gluh txh ohv fåeohv frqwulexhqw ã od uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq hw lo vrqw
lqwìjuìv gluhfwhphqw gdqv od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq1 Fhfl suìvhqwh o*dydqwdjh gh
qh sdv dyrlu ã jìuhu ohv vxuwhqvlrqv ghv fåeohv sxlvtx*hoohv vrqw dxwrpdwltxhphqw sulvhv hq
frpswh sdu od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq frpsrvlwh1
Vl ohv fåeohv qh vrqw sdv olìv dx eìwrq/ lov shxyhqw jolvvhu sdu udssruw ã od vhfwlrq1 Rq
qh shxw grqf soxv frqvlgìuhu txh ohv fåeohv frqwulexhqw ã od uljlglwì gh od vhfwlrq1 Oh eìwrq
vhxo uìvlvwh hw ohv yduldwlrqv gh whqvlrq ghv fåeohv qrq olìv grlyhqw íwuh uìshufxwìhv frpph
ghv hruwv h{wìulhxuv ã od vhfwlrq1 Od whqvlrq g*xq fåeoh/ vxu xq wurqêrq qrq lqmhfwì/
hvw doruv vxssrvìh frqvwdqwh oh orqj gx fåeoh hw ìjdoh ã od pr|hqqh ghv gìirupdwlrqv ghv
vhfwlrqv oh orqj gx fåeoh/ hq sdufrxudqw oh wurqêrq qrq lqmhfwì1
Oruv gx surfhvvxv lwìudwli gh uìvroxwlrq/ ã fkdtxh ìwdsh/ od gìirupdwlrq ghv fåeohv qrq
olìv dx eìwrq hvw plvh ã mrxu ã sduwlu gh od gìirupdwlrq frxudqwh ghv vhfwlrqv1

D15 Plvh hq úxyuh lqirupdwltxh

Frqfuëwhphqw/ oh wdeohdx klvfd txl frqwlhqw o*klvwrultxh g*xq fåeoh d od vwuxfwxuh vxlydqwh =

 klvfd +4, = gdwh gh plvh hq whqvlrq gx fåeoh/


 klvfd +5, = shuwh wrwdoh sdu uhod{dwlrq = S 4 /
575 Dqqh{h D Ohv fåeohv gh suìfrqwudlqwh qrq olìv

 klvfd +6, = @ frqwudlqwh frxudqwh gx fåeoh +plvh ã mrxu oruv g*xqh frqyhujhqfh hq
gìsodfhphqwv,/

 klvfd +7, @ Hf . %,rre‚ = suìgìirupdwlrq gx fåeoh/


6re e? |e?rJ?
 klvfd +8, @SJo@?|
%,rre‚ = gìirupdwlrq olvvìh frxudqwh gx fåeoh/ plvh ã mrxu gdqv Olv0
vdjhbShuwhvbQol> fhwwh txdqwlwì q*hvw soxv prglìh vl oh fåeoh hvw lqmhfwì/

 klvfd +9, @%SJo@?|


reS|J? = gìirupdwlrq frxudqwh gh od vhfwlrq/ wdqjhqwlhoohphqw dx fåeoh1
klvfd +9, vhuw ã fdofxohu klvfd +8,> fhwwh txdqwlwì q*hvw soxv prglìh vl oh fåeoh hvw
lqmhfwì1

Dlqvl/ srxu xq fåeoh qrq olì/ vd gìirupdwlrq hvw grqqìh sdu =


 
f
%@ @
HR
 SJo@?|
%,rre‚  %,rre‚ +D14,
6re e? |e?rJ?
%@ @ klvfd +7,  klvfd +8, +D15,

Srxu xq fåeoh olì/ rq d =


   

%@ @ f  %,rre‚  %,rre‚  %SJo@?|
reS|J?  %reS|J? +D16,
H ?eS|J? 6re e? |e?rJ? ?eS|J?
%@ @ klvfd +7,  klvfd +8, . klvfd +9,  %reS|J? +D17,
SJo@?|

Gdqv wrxv ohv fdv/ od whqvlrq frxudqwh gx fåeoh hvw fdofxoìh frpph vxlw/ ã fkdtxh
frqyhujhqfh hq gìsodfhphqwv =
[
@ @  +%@ ,  4 +D18,

klvfd +6, @  +%@ ,  klvfd +5, +D19,

Od vxuwhqvlrq gx fåeoh qrq olì/ frqvlgìuìh frpph xq fkdujhphqw h{wìulhxu/ hvw fdofxoìh
dlqvl/ ã fkdtxh ìwdsh gh uìvroxwlrq =
[
 +%@,  4  klvfd +6, +D1:,

Dx ixu hw ã phvxuh gh o*dydqfhphqw ghv fdofxov/ fhwwh txdqwlwì whqg yhuv 3 = od vhfwlrq hvw
hq ìtxloleuh dyhf od yduldwlrq gh whqvlrq gx fåeoh1
Dqqh{h E

Rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq
ghv qúxgv

O*remhfwli gh fh wudydlo hvw gh wurxyhu xqh rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq ghv qúxgv


g*xqh vwuxfwxuh grqqìh/ txl shuphwwud gh uìgxluh/ vl srvvleoh/ od wdlooh gh od pdwulfh gh
uljlglwì hw oh whpsv gh uìvroxwlrq gx v|vwëph olqìdluh jìqìudo1

E14 Suìvhqwdwlrq
Od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì ^N ` g*xqh vwuxfwxuh vwdeoh ruh od uhpdutxdeoh sursulìwì vxlydqwh =
hooh hvw uìhooh/ v|pìwultxh gìqlh srvlwlyh/ fh txl qrxv shuphw g*hhfwxhu xqh idfwrulvdwlrq
gh Fkrohvn| glwh srvlwlyh +ohv whuphv gldjrqdx{ gh od pdwulfh idfwrulvìh vrqw srvlwliv, =
A
^N ` @ ^O` | ^O` dyhf ^O`c 3 hw ^O` pdwulfh wuldqjxodluh lqiìulhxuh1
Oh sureoëph ã uìvrxguh d od iruph vxlydqwh = ^N ` ={ @ e1
Od pdwulfh ^N ` hvw vxssrvìh dvvhpeoìh gdqv oh uhsëuh jìqìudo1
O*rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq gìshqg hvvhqwlhoohphqw gx prgh gh udqjhphqw gh
od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1 Gdqv qrwuh fdv/ od pdwulfh hvw udqjìh vhorq vrq suro +vrxv od oljqh
gh flho,1
Rq shxw dxvvl elhq hhfwxhu od idfwrulvdwlrq hw od uìvroxwlrq srxu od pdwulfh ^S ` ^N ` | ^S `
txl uìvxowh g*xqh uhqxpìurwdwlrq ghv ìtxdwlrqv hw ghv lqfrqqxhv gìqlvvdqw od pdwulfh gh
shupxwdwlrq ^S `1
Oh surfhvvxv gh uìvroxwlrq frpsuhqg 6 ìwdshv =

41 od qxpìurwdwlrq hw od idfwrulvdwlrq orjltxh/

51 od idfwrulvdwlrq qxpìultxh/

61 od uìvroxwlrq gx v|vwëph olqìdluh1


577 Dqqh{h E Rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq ghv qúxgv

Qrxv qrxv sursrvrqv g*lqwhuyhqlu dx qlyhdx gh od qxpìurwdwlrq dq gh uìgxluh od wdlooh


gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1
Od surjudppdwlrq gh o*rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq hw gh od idfwrulvdwlrq orjltxh
hvw od skdvh od soxv gl!floh ã uìdolvhu1 Oh sulqflsh ghv pìwkrghv g*rswlplvdwlrq hvw wrx0
mrxuv dvvh} vlpsoh/ pdlv rq qh shxw sdv sruwhu gh mxjhphqw vxu o*h!fdflwì g*xqh pìwkrgh
lqgìshqgdpphqw gh vrq lpsoìphqwdwlrq1
Ohv pìwkrghv gh uhqxpìurwdwlrq txh qrxv doorqv derughu vrqw sduwlfxolëuhphqw elhq
dgdswìhv dx{ pdwulfhv fuhxvhv1

E15 Dqdo|vh gx sureoëph


Dsuëv dqdo|vh eleolrjudskltxh/ ^Dnk:9`/ ^Elo;<`/ ^Wkh<7`/ rq frqvwdwh tx*lo h{lvwh ghx{
pdqlëuhv g*derughu oh sureoëph =

 vrlw rq udlvrqqh vxu od ghpl0odujhxu gh edqgh/ txh o*rq fkhufkh ã plqlplvhu +dojr0
ulwkphv gh Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh hw Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh lqyhuvh,

 vrlw rq udlvrqqh vxu od odujhxu ghv iurqwv = ã sduwlu g*xq suhplhu iurqw gh idleoh odujhxu/
rq hvvdlh gh pdlqwhqlu od odujhxu gx iurqw od soxv shwlwh srvvleoh +Plqlplvdwlrq gh
o*Dffurlvvhphqw gh Iurqw/ dojrulwkphv gh Nlqj/ gh Oìy|,1

E1514 Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh +FP, hw lqyhuvh +UFP,

Oh sulqflsh hvw oh vxlydqw =

41 Fkrlvlu xq vrpphw u g*h{fhqwulflwì pd{lpdoh hw dhfwhu y # u1


51 Srxu l @ 4> 5> ===> q wurxyhu wrxv ohv vrpphwv dgmdfhqwv ã y hw ohv qxpìurwhu gdqv
o*ruguh furlvvdqw gh ohxu ghjuì1

61 Od qxpìurwdwlrq lqyhuvh hvw grqqìh sdu | @ y?3n srxu l yduldqw gh 4 ã q1

E1515 Plqlplvdwlrq gh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh iurqw/ dojrulwkph gh Oìy|/ do0


jrulwkph gh Nlqj

41 Fkrlvlu xq vrpphw u gh ghjuì plqlpdo hw dhfwhu y # u1


51 Frqqdlvvdqw ohv vrpphwv y ã y3 / srxu wrxv ohv vrpphwv | qrq qxpìurwìv +Oìy|,
rx srxu wrxv ohv vrpphwv | gx iurqw +Nlqj,/ rq fdofxoh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh iurqw
rx oh iurqw/ hw rq dhfwh ã y oh vrpphw txl plqlplvh oh iurqw +Oìy| hw Nlqj, rx
o*dffurlvvhphqw gh iurqw +PDI,1
E16 Lpsoìphqwdwlrq ghv dojrulwkphv 578

G*dsuëv od olwwìudwxuh vsìfldolvìh/ o*dojrulwkph gh Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh hw lqyhuvh vrqw ghv
dojrulwkphv dvvh} udslghv pdlv txl rswlplvhqw pdo o*hqyhorssh gh od pdwulfh1 Ohv phloohxuv
uìvxowdwv vrqw rewhqxv dyhf UFP1 O*dojrulwkph gh Oìy| hvw xq dojrulwkph soxv frþwhx{/
pdlv lo ruh o*dydqwdjh gh wuëv elhq rswlplvhu o*hqyhorssh gh od pdwulfh1 Vrq whpsv g*h{ì0
fxwlrq hvw dvvh} orqj1 O*dojrulwkph gh Nlqj/ gdqv od phvxuh rü lo uìgxlw o*hqvhpeoh gh
uhfkhufkh gh vrpphwv fdqglgdwv dx qxpìur vxlydqw sdu udssruw ã fhoxl gh Oìy|/ vhpeoh
uhsuìvhqwhu d sulrul xq erq frpsurplv hqwuh oh frþw hw o*h!fdflwì1

E16 Lpsoìphqwdwlrq ghv dojrulwkphv

E1614 Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh +FP, hw lqyhuvh +UFP,

Lo idxw gìwhuplqhu oh vrpphw gh gìsduw1 Srxu fhod/ rq xwlolvh xq dojrulwkph txl qh grqqh
sdv irufìphqw xq vrpphw sìulskìultxh +g*h{fhqwulflwì pd{lpdoh, pdlv txl grqqh xq erq
srlqw gh gìsduw srxu FP hw UFP1

41 Rq fkrlvlw xq vrpphw duelwudluh u1

51 Rq frqvwuxlw od vwuxfwxuh gh qlyhdx{ '+u, d|dqw srxu udflqh u/ fh txl grqqh ohv
glìuhqwv qlyhdx{ Of+u,/ O+u,/ 111/ O,Eo +u,1
61 Rq fkrlvlw xq vrpphw y gdqv O,Eo ,+u, gh ghjuì plqlpxp1
71 Rq frqvwuxlw od vwuxfwxuh gh qlyhdx{ d|dqw srxu udflqh y1 Vl o+y, A o+u, doruv rq
dhfwh u # y hw rq uhwrxuqh ã o*ìwdsh 61
81 Oh vrpphw gh gìsduw u hvw glw vrpphw svhxgr0sìulskìultxh/ rx wrsrorjltxhphqw
h{wuíph1

91 Rq dhfwh y # u1
:1 Srxu l @ 4> 5> ===> q rq wurxyh wrxv ohv vrpphwv dgmdfhqwv ã y hw rq ohv qxpìurwh gdqv
o*ruguh furlvvdqw gh ohxu ghjuì txh o*rq dxud fdofxoì dx suìdodeoh1

;1 Rq rewlhqw od qxpìurwdwlrq y > ===> y? txl hvw fhooh gh Fxwkloo Pdf Nhh

<1 Od qxpìurwdwlrq lqyhuvh hvw grqqìh sdu | @ y?3n srxu l yduldqw gh 4 ã q1

E1615 Dojrulwkph gh Oìy|

41 Rq gìwhuplqh oh ghjuì gh fkdtxh vrpphw hw rq hq vìohfwlrqqh xq gh ghjuì plqlpxp =



579 Dqqh{h E Rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq ghv qúxgv

51 Srxu l yduldqw gh 4 ã q  4/ rq fkrlvlw xq vrpphw qrq qxpìurwì |1 Rq fdofxoh oh


yrlvlqdjh +iy > ===> y > | j, hw I +| , @ +iy > ===> y > | j,qiy > ===> y > | j1 Rq fkrlvlw oh
vrpphw | txl plqlplvh Fdug +I +| ,, = yn # | 1

E1616 Dojrulwkph gh Nlqj


F*hvw oh píph txh fhoxl gh Oìy| vdxi txh | hvw sulv gdqv +iy> ===> y j,qiy> ===> y j1

E1617 Dojrulwkph gh Plqlplvdwlrq gh o*Dffurlvvhphqw gh Iurqw


41 Rq gìwhuplqh oh ghjuì gh fkdtxh vrpphw hw rq hq vìohfwlrqqh xq gh ghjuì plqlpxp =

51 Srxu l yduldqw gh 4 ã q  4/ rq fkrlvlw xq vrpphw qrq qxpìurwì |1
61 Vrlw U oh frpsoìphqwdluh gh +iy4> ===> ylj,
71 Rq fdofxoh W +| , @ U _ +i|j,
81 O*dffurlvvhphqw gh iurqw hvw grqqì sdu = in  i @ +|, dyhf =
  +|, @ Fdug+W +|,,  4 vl | 5 +iy > ===> y j,qiy > ===> y j
  +|, @ Fdug+W +|,, vlqrq1
91 Rq fkrlvlw oh vrpphw | txl plqlplvh   +|, = yn # |1
Xqh yduldqwh gh fhw dojrulwkph frqvlvwh ã suhqguh | gdqv +iy> ===> y j,qiy> ===> y j1

E17 Ìydoxdwlrq ghv dojrulwkphv


Txdwuh dojrulwkphv rqw ìwì lpsoìphqwìv/ ã vdyrlu =

41 Plqlplvdwlrq gh o*dffurlvvhphqw gh iurqw fodvvltxh +PDIF,>

51 Xqh yduldqwh gh PDIF/ dyhf uhfkhufkh gx qrxyhdx vrpphw gdqv oh iurqw +PDII,>

61 Dojrulwkph gh Oìy| +OHY\,>

71 Dojrulwkph gh Nlqj +NLQJ,1

Fhv dojrulwkphv vrqw uhjurxsìv gdqv xq sdtxhwdjh gh uhqxpìurwdwlrq/ rü o*rq wurxyh


ìjdohphqw ghx{ pìwkrghv gh uhfkhufkh gh suhplhu vrpphw gh uhqxpìurwdwlrq =

41 Vrpphw gh ghjuì plqlpxp +GHJPLQ,>

51 Vrpphw svhxgr0sìulskìultxh +SVHSHU,1


E17 Ìydoxdwlrq ghv dojrulwkphv 57:

srlqw gh gìsduw = GHJPLQ PDIF PDIY NLQJ OHY\


Hqyhorssh qdoh/ gldjrqdoh frpsulvh 576 693 578 745 578 745 575 469
Whpsv FSX +vxu Frqyh{, 876 v ;: v 653 v 8 49< v

Wdeohdx E14 = Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug

srlqw gh gìsduw = SVHSHU PDIF PDIY NLQJ OHY\


Hqyhorssh qdoh/ gldjrqdoh frpsulvh 47; :49 583 965 583 965 57< 597
Whpsv FSX +vxu Frqyh{, 879 v ;; v 5;8 v 8 474 v

Wdeohdx E15 = Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug

Oh fkrl{ ghv pìwkrghv hvw dlqvl ruwkrjrqdo = fkdtxh dojrulwkph gh uhqxpìurwdwlrq


shxw suhqguh srxu vrpphw gh gìsduw xq vrpphw fdofxoì dyhf GHJPLQ rx SVHSHU1 Hq
rxwuh/ oh vrpphw gh gìsduw gh od uhqxpìurwdwlrq shxw íwuh lpsrvì sdu o*xwlolvdwhxu1
Srxu ìydoxhu fhv dojrulwkphv/ qrxv dyrqv h{wudlw od qxpìurwdwlrq gh ghx{ prgëohv gh
grqqìhv lpsruwdqwv = oh Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug hw oh Srqw gh Qrupdqglh1 Qrwrqv txh
od qxpìurwdwlrq gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug ìwdlw euxwh/ vdqv uhfkhufkh sduwlfxolëuh srxu
dpìolruhu od wdlooh gh od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1 Od qxpìurwdwlrq gx Srqw gh Qrupdqglh/
sdu frqwuh/ txdqw ã hooh/ dydlw ìwì rswlplvìh ã od pdlq/ gh idêrq lqwxlwlyh hw qrq
dxwrpdwltxh1 Fhwwh qxpìurwdwlrq d o*dydqwdjh gh qrxv rulu xqh uìiìuhqfh hq pdwlëuh
g*rswlplvdwlrq gh qxpìurwdwlrq1

E1714 Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug

Srqw gh Od Urfkh Ehuqdug = :65 qúxgv/ 4347 ìoìphqwv1


Hqyhorssh lqlwldoh/ gldjrqdoh frpsulvh = 5 343 5:91
O*hqyhorssh lqlwldoh fruuhvsrqg dx qrpeuh gh whuphv orjltxhphqw qrq qxov gh od pd0
wulfh gh uljlglwì/ rx hqfruh od orqjxhxu gx yhfwhxu frqwhqdqw od pdwulfh gh uljlglwì1
Rq uhpdutxh wrxw gh vxlwh txh od qxpìurwdwlrq lqlwldoh hvw orlq g*íwuh rswlpdoh/ fdu
oh jdlq uhodwli dyhf PDFI 0 SVHSHU ydxw 46/841 Rq qrwh ìjdohphqw txh o*dojrulwkph gh
Oìy| hvw wuëv hw píph wurs frþwhx{1
PDIY hw NLQJ/ txl uhfkhufkhqw wrxv ghx{ gdqv oh iurqw/ grqqhqw od píph hqyhorssh
qdoh/ PDIY ìwdqw oh soxv udslgh gh wrxv1 Od phloohxuh hqyhorssh hvw rewhqxh dyhf
PDIF0SVHSHU1

E1715 Srqw gh Qrupdqglh

Srqw gh Qrupdqglh = 4966 qúxgv/ 5347 ìoìphqwv1


Hqyhorssh lqlwldoh/ gldjrqdoh frpsulvh = 868 3;<1
57; Dqqh{h E Rswlplvdwlrq gh od qxpìurwdwlrq ghv qúxgv

srlqw gh gìsduw = GHJPLQ PDIF PDIY NLQJ OHY\


Hqyhorssh qdoh/ gldjrqdoh frpsulvh 5<8 65< 697 566 :94 ;;< 0
Whpsv FSX +vxu Frqyh{, 93<4 v <4< v 6 645 v dedqgrq = A <33 pq
Wdeohdx E16 = Srqw gh Qrupdqglh

srlqw gh gìsduw = SVHSHU PDIF PDIY NLQJ OHY\


Hqyhorssh qdoh/ gldjrqdoh frpsulvh 647 994 783 786 :;3 438 0
Whpsv FSX +vxu Frqyh{, 9 3<9 v <63 v 7 66: v 0

Wdeohdx E17 = Srqw gh Qrupdqglh

Ohv whpsv gh fdofxo vrqw qhwwhphqw soxv lpsruwdqwv1 PDIF hw PDIY vhpeohqw
uhsuìvhqwhu ohv phloohxuv frpsurplv1 Rq qrwh dx sdvvdjh txh NLQJ gìjudgh od qxpìur0
wdwlrq lqlwldoh/ txl/ srxu xqh qxpìurwdwlrq pdqxhooh ìwdlw wuëv erqqh1 OHY\/ txdqw
ã oxl/ q*duulyh sdv ã frqfoxuh dsuëv 48 khxuhv FSX vxu Frqyh{1
Oh srlqw gh gìsduw fdofxoì sdu GHJPLQ grqqh ohv phloohxuv uìvxowdwv1

E18 Frqfoxvlrq
Oh srlqw gh gìsduw gh od qxpìurwdwlrq q*hvw sdv qhxwuh hq fh txl frqfhuqh o*hqyhorssh qdoh/
g*xqh sduw hw g*dxwuh sduw/ oh fkrl{ hqwuh GHJPLQ hw SVHSHU q*hvw sdv v|vwìpdwltxh1
Ghx{ dojrulwkphv vh gìwdfkhqw qhwwhphqw = PDIF srxu od txdolwì gh vrq rswlplvdwlrq
hw PDIY srxu vd udslglwì1 Hwdqw grqqìh od ylwhvvh vdwlvidlvdqwh gh PDIY/ o*dojrulwkph
UFP q*d sdv ìwì frgì = vrq h!fdflwì hvw qhwwhphqw prlqguh srxu xq jdlq hq ylwhvvh txl
qh vhudlw sdv wuëv lpsruwdqw1
57<
THESE SOUTENUE DEVANT L’INSTITUT NATIONAL DES SCIENCES APPLIQUEES DE LYON

NOM : ROBERT
DATE de SOUTENANCE
2 avril 1999
Prénom : Florent Jean-Claude Germain
TITRE :
Contribution à l’analyse non linéaire géométrique et matérielle des ossatures spatiales en Génie civil.
Application aux ouvrages d’art.

NATURE : Doctorat Numéro d'ordre : 99ISAL0032


Formation doctorale : Génie civil : Sols, matériaux, structures, physique du bâtiment
Ecole doctorale : MECANIQUE, ENERGETIQUE, GENIE CIVIL, ACOUSTIQUE (MEGA)

Cote B.I.U. - Lyon : T 50/210/19 / et bis CLASSE :

RESUME : En Génie civil, la tendance actuelle à concevoir des structures de plus en plus élancées et le besoin
d’optimiser les quantités de matériau, conduisent les projeteurs à mener des calculs prenant en compte les non-linéarités du système. En
ouvrage d’art, considérer le couplage entre les non-linéarités matérielle et géométrique est impératif, d’où la nécessité de disposer d’outils
informatiques adaptés au métier et résolvant ce problème. Nous proposons une formulation basée sur les coordonnées convectées spatiales en
décomposant le mouvement d’une particule en un mouvement de corps rigide de grande amplitude et un mouvement modéré induisant les
déformations. Ceci permet de prendre en compte les grands déplacements et les grandes rotations pour des éléments de poutre
tridimensionnels alors que la non-linéarité matérielle repose sur l’hypothèse des petites déformations. On peut ainsi modéliser les ossatures
spatiales composées de métal, de béton armé ou de béton précontraint. Les effets différés, à savoir le retrait et le fluage du béton ainsi que la
relaxation des aciers de précontrainte, sont intégrés dans le schéma général de résolution. Pour simuler la construction des ouvrages d’art et
étudier leur schéma statique, nous développons la prise en compte des grands déplacements pour les articulations ainsi qu’un élément
simulant correctement le comportement d’un cible pesant, même lors des phases où il est détendu. Nous développons le calcul d’instabilité
élastique à partir de la matrice des contraintes initiales issue de notre formulation. Nous proposons l’extension possible de l’algorithme de
résolution du cas de chargement statique au cas dynamique. Nous validons notre approche en confrontant les résultats de nos calculs à des
mesures expérimentales ou à la solution théorique de cas tests représentatifs. Enfin, un exemple d’utilisation du programme sur un projet réel
est présenté : la simulation du remplacement du système de suspension du Pont de Tancarvillc..

MOTS-CLES : Constructions à ossatures, éléments finis, poutre, béton armé, béton précontraint, non-linéarité,
ouvrages d’art, grands déplacements.

Laboratoire(s) de recherche :
Laboratoire GéoMatériaux de I’ENTPE et le SETRA.

Directeur de Thèse : Patrick ROYIS et Claude-Henri LAMARQUE

Président du Jury : Pierre LAREAL


Composition du jury : Mme COURTADE, MM. ROELANDT, de VILLE de GOYET, ROYIS, LAMARQUE.