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CHAPTER 1

Problem 1.1

Starting from the basic definition of stiffness, determine


the effective stiffness of the combined spring and write the
equation of motion for the spring–mass systems shown in
Fig. P1.1.

Figure P1.1

Solution:
If ke is the effective stiffness,
fS  keu

u
k1
k1 u
fS fS
k2 u
k2

Equilibrium of forces: fS  ( k1  k2 ) u
Effective stiffness: ke  fS u  k1  k2
Equation of motion: mu  keu  p ( t )

1
Problem 1.2

Starting from the basic definition of stiffness, determine


the effective stiffness of the combined spring and write the
equation of motion for the spring–mass systems shown in
Fig. P1.2.

Figure P1.2

Solution:
If ke is the effective stiffness,
fS  keu (a)

u
k1 k2
fS

If the elongations of the two springs are u1 and u2 ,


u  u1  u2 (b)
Because the force in each spring is fS ,
fS  k1u1 fS  k2u2 (c)
Solving for u1 and u2 and substituting in Eq. (b) gives
fS f f 1 1 1
 S  S    
ke k1 k2 ke k1 k2
k1 k2
ke 
k1  k2
Equation of motion: mu  keu  p ( t ) .

2
Problem 1.3

Starting from the basic definition of stiffness, determine


the effective stiffness of the combined spring and write the
equation of motion for the spring–mass systems shown in
Fig. P1.3.

Figure P1.3

Solution:

k1 k3
m
Figure P1.3a
k2

k 1+ k 2 k3
m
Figure P1.3b

u
ke
m
Figure P1.3c

This problem can be solved either by starting from the


definition of stiffness or by using the results of Problems
P1.1 and P1.2. We adopt the latter approach to illustrate
the procedure of reducing a system with several springs to
a single equivalent spring.
First, using Problem 1.1, the parallel arrangement of
k1 and k2 is replaced by a single spring, as shown in Fig.
1.3b. Second, using the result of Problem 1.2, the series
arrangement of springs in Fig. 1.3b is replaced by a single
spring, as shown in Fig. 1.3c:
1 1 1
 
ke k1  k2 k3
Therefore the effective stiffness is
( k1  k2 ) k3
ke 
k1  k2  k3
The equation of motion is mu  keu  p ( t ) .

3
Problem 1.4 4. Determine natural frequency.

Derive the equation governing the free motion of a simple g


n 
pendulum that consists of a rigid massless rod pivoted at L
point O with a mass m attached at the tip (Fig. P1.4).
Linearize the equation, for small oscillations, and
determine the natural frequency of oscillation.

Figure P1.4

Solution:
1. Draw a free body diagram of the mass.

O T

 mg sin  mg cos 

2. Write equation of motion in tangential direction.


Method 1: By Newton’s law.
mg sin   ma
mg sin   mL (a)
mL  mg sin   0
This nonlinear differential equation governs the motion for
any rotation .
Method 2: Equilibrium of moments about O yields

mL2  mgL sin 

or

mL  mg sin   0

3. Linearize for small .


For small , sin    , and Eq. (a) becomes

mL  mg  0

  
 g   0
 (b)
L

4
Problem 1.5 mL2  mgL
 sin   0 (a)
3 2
Consider the free motion in the xy plane of a compound
pendulum that consists of a rigid rod suspended from a 4. Specialize for small .
point (Fig. P1.5). The length of the rod is L, and its mass m
For small , sin   and Eq. (a) becomes
is uniformly distributed. The width of the uniform rod is b
and the thickness is t. The angular displacement of the mL2  mgL
centerline of the pendulum measured from the y-axis is   0
3 2
denoted by θ(t).
3g
(a) Derive the equation governing θ(t).    0 (b)
2L
(b) Linearize the equation for small θ.
5. Determine natural frequency.
(c) Determine the natural frequency of small oscillations.
3g
n 
2L

Figure P1.5

Solution:
1. Find the moment of inertia about O.
From Appendix 8,
2

I0 
1
mL2  m 
 L   1 mL2

12 2 3
2. Draw a free body diagram of the body in an arbitrary
displaced position.

L/2
L/2
xx

mg
mg

y
y

3. Write the equation of motion using Newton’s second law


of motion.

M 0  I 0

L 1
 mg sin   mL2
2 3

5
Problem 1.6 3. Write the equation of motion using Newton’s second law
of motion.
Repeat Problem 1.5 for the system shown in Fig. P1.6,
which differs in only one sense: its width varies from zero M 0  I 0
at O to b at the free end. 2L 1
 mg sin   mL2
3 2
mL2  2mgL
 sin   0 (a)
2 3
4. Specialize for small .
For small , sin  , and Eq. (a) becomes
Figure P1.6
mL2  2mgL
  0
Solution: 2 3
1. Find the moment of inertia about about O. or

4g
   0 (b)
3L
L

r
2
I0   dA 5. Determine natural frequency.
x
0
4g
L n 
3L
L
L rr 
  r 2 ( r  dr )
0
In each case the system is equivalent to the spring-
  mass system shown for which the equation of motion is
 L4 
4
1  w  
 mL 2   u  ku  0
2 g

2. Draw a free body diagram of the body in an arbitrary k


displaced position.

w

2L/3
2L/3 u
xx

The spring stiffness is determined from the deflection u


 under a vertical force fS applied at the location of the
lumped weight:

mg fS L3 48 EI
yy mg Simply-supported beam: u   k 
48 EI L3
fS L3 3 EI
Cantilever beam: u   k 
3 EI L3
fS L3 192 EI
Clamped beam: u   k 
192 EI L3

6
Problem 1.7

Develop the equation governing the longitudinal motion of


the system of Fig. P1.7. The rod is made of an elastic
material with elastic modulus E; its cross-sectional area is
A and its length is L. Ignore the mass of the rod and
measure u from the static equilibrium position.

Figure P1.7

Solution:
Draw a free body diagram of the mass:

fS

u
p(t)

Write equation of dynamic equilibrium:

mu  f S  p (t ) (a)

Write the force-displacement relation:

fS 
 AE  u
  (b)
 L 
Substitute Eq. (b) into Eq. (a) to obtain the equation of
motion:

mu 
 AE  u  p (t )
 
 L 

7
Problem 1.8

A rigid disk of mass m is mounted at the end of a flexible


shaft (Fig. P1.8). Neglecting the weight of the shaft and
neglecting damping, derive the equation of free torsional
vibration of the disk. The shear modulus (of rigidity) of the
shaft is G.

Figure P1.8

Solution:
Show forces on the disk:

fS

O

Write the equation of motion using Newton’s second law


of motion:
m R2
 f S  I O where IO  (a)
2
Write the torque-twist relation:

fS 
 GJ   where J 
 d4
  (b)
 L  32

Substitute Eq. (b) into Eq. (a):

I O 
 GJ    0
 
 L 
or,

 mR 2      d 4 G    0
   
 2   32 L 

8
Problems 1.9 through 1.11

Write the equation governing the free vibration of the


systems shown in Figs. P1.9 to P1.11. Assuming the beam
to be massless, each system has a single DOF defined as
the vertical deflection under the weight w. The flexural
rigidity of the beam is EI and the length is L.

Solution:
In each case the system is equivalent to the spring-
mass system shown for which the equation of motion is
 w  
  u  ku  0
g

w

u

The spring stiffness is determined from the deflection u


under a vertical force fS applied at the location of the
lumped weight:
fS L3 48 EI
Simply-supported beam: u   k 
48 EI L3
f S L3 3EI
Cantilever beam: u   k 
3EI L3

f S L3 192 EI
Clamped beam: u   k 
192 EI L3

9
Problem 1.12 1. Write the equation of motion.
Equilibrium of forces in Fig. 1.12c gives
Determine the natural frequency of a weight w suspended
from a spring at the midpoint of a simply supported beam mu  f S  w  p(t ) (a)
(Fig. P1.12). The length of the beam is L, and its flexural
rigidity is EI. The spring stiffness is k. Assume the beam to where
be massless. f S  k eu (b)

The equation of motion is:


mu  ke u  w  p(t ) (c)

2. Determine the effective stiffness.



Figure P1.12
f s  k eu (d)
Solution: where
L u   spring   beam (e)

f S  k spring  k beam  beam (f)

EI Simply Substitute for the ’s from Eq. (f) and for u from Eq. (d):
k
supported
fS f f
w
w   S  S
ke k k beam
Figure 1.12a kk beam
ke 
k  k beam
k  48 EI L3 
ke 
48 EI
k 3
L
Undeformed position 3. Determine the natural frequency.
δst ke
u Static Equlibrium n 
m
u
Deformed position

Figure 1.12b

fs

fs
..
mu
p(t)
p(t)
ww 

Figure 1.12c

10
Problem 1.13

Derive the equation of motion for the frame shown in Fig.


P1.13. The flexural rigidity of the beam and columns is as
noted. The mass lumped at the beam is m; otherwise,
assume the frame to be massless and neglect damping. By
comparing the result with Eq. (1.3.2), comment on the
effect of base fixity.

Figure P1.13

Solution:
Compute lateral stiffness:

1
3
3EI c /h

3EI c 6 EI c
k  2  kcolumn  2  
h3 h3
Equation of motion:
mu  ku  p ( t )
Base fixity increases k by a factor of 4.

11
Problem 1.14 3. Form structural stiffness matrix.
u1  1, u2  u3  0
Write the equation of motion for the one-story, one-bay
frame shown in Fig. P1.14. The flexural rigidity of the
beam and columns is as noted. The mass lumped at the k21 k 31
beam is m; otherwise, assume the frame to be massless and
neglect damping. By comparing this equation of motion
with the one for Example 1.1, comment on the effect of
base fixity.

u2  1, u1  u3  0

k 22 k 23

Figure P1.14

Solution:
1. Define degrees-of-freedom (DOF).

2 3 3EI c 4 EI c 5EI c
1
k 22   
h ( 2h ) h
2 EI c EI c
k 32  
( 2h ) h
3EI
k12  2c
h

2. Reduced stiffness coefficients. u3  1, u1  u2  0

Since there are no external moments applied at the


pinned supports, the following reduced stiffness k23 k33
coefficients are used for the columns.
k13
Joint rotation:

3EI
EI
L
1
3EI 3 EI
L 2
L2 3EI c 4 EI c 5EI c
k 33   
L h ( 2h ) h
2 EI c EI c
Joint translation: k 23  
( 2h ) h
EI 3EI
3EI k13  2 c
1 h
3EI L2
L3 3EI Hence
3
L L
 6 3h 3h 
EI c  
k  3 3h 5h 2 h2 
h
3h h 2 5h 2 

12
4. Determine lateral stiffness.
The lateral stiffness k of the frame can be obtained by
static condensation since there is no force acting on DOF 2
and 3:
 6 3h 3h   u1   f S 
EI c     
3h 5h 2 h 2  u2    0 
h3 
3h h 2 5h 2  u3   0 

First partition k as
 6 3h 3h 
EI c    k tt k t0 
k 3h 5h 2 h2   
h 3  k t0 k 00 
3h h 2 5h 2  

where
EI c
k tt  6
h3
EI c
k t0  3h 3h
h3
EI c 5h 2 h2 
k 00   
h 3  h 2 5h 2 

Then compute the lateral stiffness k from


1 T
k  k tt  k t 0 k 00 k t0

Since

1 h  5  1
k 00   1 5 
24 EI c  
we get

6 EI c EI c h  5  1 EI c 3h 
k 3
 3 3h 3h 
24 EI c
 1 5   3 3h 
h h   h  
EI c
k 6  3
h3
3EI c
k
h3
5. Equation of motion.
3EIc
m u  u  p(t )
h3

13
Problem 1.15 u2  1, u1  u3  0

Write the equation of motion of the one-story, one-bay k22 k32


frame shown in Fig. P1.15. The flexural rigidity of the k12
beam and columns is as noted. The mass lumped at the
beam is m; otherwise, assume the frame to be massless and
neglect damping. Check your result from Problem 1.15
against Eq. (1.3.5). Comment on the effect of base fixity by
comparing the two equations of motion. 4 EI c 4 EI b 4 EI c EI c 5 EI c
k 22     
h (2h ) h h h

2 EI b EI c
k32  
(2h ) 2h

Figure P1.15 6 EI c
k12 
h2
Solution:

1
Ib = I c / 2 u3  1, u1  u2  0
k

h Ic Ic k23 k33
k13
2h

Define degrees-of-freedom (DOF):

2 3 4 EI c 4 EI b 4 EI c EI c 5 EI c
1 k33     
h (2h ) h h h

2 EI b EI c
k 23  
(2h ) 2h
Form structural stiffness matrix:
u1  1, u2  u3  0 6 EI c
k13 
h2
k21 k31
k11 Hence

24 6h 6h 
EI c  
k  3 6 h 5h 2 1
2
h2 
h 
6 h
1
2
h2 5h 2 
12 EI c 24 EI c
k11  2  The lateral stiffness k of the frame can be obtained by
h 3
h3 static condensation since there is no force acting on DOF 2
and 3:
6 EI c
k 21  k 31  24
h2 6h 6h   u1   f S 
EI c      
6 h 5h 2 1
2
h2  u 2    0 
h3  u   0 
6 h
1
2
h2 5h 2   3  

14
First partition k as

24 6h 6h 
EI c   k k t0 
k  3 6 h 5h 2 1
h 2    Ttt
h 
2
k t 0 k 00 
6 h
1
2
h2 5h 2 

where
EIc
ktt  24
h3
EIc
kt 0  6h 6h
h3

EI c  5h 2 1
h2 
k 00   2 2

h 3  12 h 5h 2 

Then compute the lateral stiffness k from


1 T
k  ktt  kt 0 k 00 kt 0
Since

1 4h  5  12 
k 00   1 
99 EI c   2 5

we get

24 EI c EI c 4h  5  12  EI c 6h 
k   6 h 6 h    
h3 h3 99 EI c  12 5 h3 6h 
EI 144
 3c (24  )
h 11
120 EI c

11 h3
This result can be checked against Eq. 1.3.5:

24 EI c  12  1 
k   
h 3  12   4 

Substituting   Ib 4 Ic  1 8 gives

24 EI c  12 8 1  24EI c  5  120 EI c
1
k    
h 3  12 18  4  h 3  11  11 h 3

Equation of motion:
 120 EI c 
m u   3
 u  p (t )
 11 h 

15
Problem 1.16 u2  1 , u1  u3  u4  u5  0

Write the equation of motion of the one-story, one-bay


frame shown in Fig. P1.16. The flexural rigidity of the
beam and columns is as noted. The mass lumped at the u2 =1
beam is m; otherwise, assume the frame to be massless and
neglect damping.

4EIc 6EI c
k 22  k12 
h h2
2EI c
k 32  k 42  k52  0
h
Figure P1.16
u3  1 , u1  u2  u4  u5  0
Solution:
1. Define degrees-of-freedom (DOF). u3 =1

u3 m u4
u1
EIc /2
h EIc EIc
u2 u5
4 EI c 4 EI c 5 EI c
2h k33  + 
h 2(2 h) h
2. Form the structural stiffness matrix.
6 EI c 2 EI c
u1  1 , u2  u3  u4  u5  0 k13  k 23 
h 2
h
u1 =1 2 EI c EI c
k 43   k53  0
2(2h ) 2h

u4  1 , u1  u2  u3  u5  0

12EI c 24EIc
k11  2 
h3 h3 u4 =1
6EI
k 21  k 31  k 41  k 51  2 c
h

4 EI c 4 EI c 5 EI c
k 44  + 
h 2(2 h ) h

6 EI c
k14  k 24  0
h2

2 EI c EI c 2 EI c
k34   k54 
2(2 h ) 2h h

16
u5  1 , u1  u2  u3  u4  0

u5 =1

4EIc 6EI c
k 55  k15 
h h2
2EIc
k 45  k 25  k 35  0
h
Assemble the stiffness coefficients:

 24 6h 6h 6h 6h 
 6h 4h 2 2h 2
0 0 
EI c  
k  6h 2h 2 5h 2 1
2
h2 0 
h3  
 6h 0 h2 5h 2 2h 2
1
2 
 6h 0 0 2h 2 4 h 2 
3. Determine the lateral stiffness of the frame.
First partition k.

 24 6h 6h 6h 6h 
 6 h 4h 2 2h 2 0 0 
EI c    k tt kt0 
k  3  6 h 2h 2 5h 2 1
h2 0 
k 00 
2
h   k
T
t0

6h 0 h2 5h 2 2h 2 
1
2

6h 0 0 2h 2 4h 2 
Compute the lateral stiffness.
k  k tt  k t 0k 1 T
00k t 0

24EIc 22EI c 2EI c


k 3  3  3
h h h
4. Write the equation of motion.
mu  ku  p(t )
 2 EI 
mu   3 c  u  p (t )
 h 

17
Problem 1.17 Then the equation of motion in the x-direction is
mux  kx ux  0
A heavy rigid platform of weight w is supported by four
columns, hinged at the top and the bottom, and braced (b) Equation of motion in the y-direction.
laterally in each side panel by two diagonal steel wires as The lateral stiffness in the y-direction, ky  kx , and
shown in Fig. P1.17. Each diagonal wire is pretensioned to
the same equation applies for motion in the y-direction:
a high stress; its cross-sectional area is A and elastic mod-
ulus is E. Neglecting the mass of the columns and wires, muy  kyuy  0
derive the equation of motion governing free vibration in
(a) the x-direction, and (b) the y-direction. (Hint: Because
of high pretension, all wires contribute to the structural
stiffness, unlike Example 1.2, where the braces in
compression do not provide stiffness.)

Figure P1.17

Solution:
(a) Equation of motion in the x-direction.
The lateral stiffness of each wire is the same as the
lateral stiffness of a brace derived in Eq. (c) of Example
1.2:
 AE  2
kw   cos 
 L 
 AE  2  1 AE
  cos 45 

h 2 2 2 h
Each of the four sides of the structure includes two wires.
If they were not pretensioned, under lateral displacement,
only the wire in tension will provide lateral resistance and
the one in compression will go slack and will not
contribute to the lateral stiffness. However, the wires are
pretensioned to a high stress; therefore, under lateral
displacement the tension will increase in one wire, but
decrease in the other; and both wires will contribute to the
lateral direction. Consequently, four wires contribute to the
stiffness in the x-direction:
AE
k x  4kw  2
h

18
Problem 1.18

Derive the equation of motion governing the torsional


vibration of the system of Fig. P1.17 about the vertical axis
passing through the center of the platform.

Solution:

z
h kw h 2

h f u = 1
O I O

f
S

Figure P1.18a Figure P1.18b

1. Set up equation of motion.

The elastic resisting torque f S and inertia force f I are


shown in Fig. 1.18a. The equation of dynamic equilibrium
is
fI  fS  0 or IOu  fS  0 (a)
where
h2  h2 mh2
IO  m  (b)
12 6
2. Determine torsional stiffness, k .

f S  k u (c)

Introduce u  1 in Fig. 1.18b and identify the


resisting forces due to each wire. All the eight forces are
the same; each is k w h 2 , where, from Problem 1.17,

1 AE
kw 
2 2 h
The torque required to equilibrate these resisting forces is
h h 2 AE 2
k  8k w  2k w h 2  ( )h
2 2 2 2 h
AEh
 (d)
2
3. Set up equation of motion.
Substituting Eq. (d) in (c) and then Eqs. (c) and (b) in
(a) gives the equation of motion:
mh 2 AEh
u  u  0
6 2

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Problem 1.19

An automobile is crudely idealized as a lumped mass m


supported on a spring–damper system as shown in Fig.
P1.19. The automobile travels at constant speed v over a
road whose roughness is known as a function of position
along the road. Derive the equation of motion.

Figure P1.19

Solution:

ut

m v f
I

k c ut - u
g
f f
S D
ug

Figure P1.19a Figure P1.19b

Displacement u t is measured from the static


equilibrium position under the weight mg .
From the free-body diagram in Fig. 1.19(b)
fI  fD  fS  0 (a)
where
f I  mut

f D  c  u t  u g  (b)

fS  k  u t  ug 

Substituting Eqs. (b) in Eq. (a) gives


mut  c ( u t  ug )  k ( u t  ug )  0

Noting that x  vt and transferring the excitation terms to


the right side gives the equation of motion:
mut  cu t  ku t  cug ( vt )  kug ( vt )

20