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FUNDAMENTALS OF Database Systems

Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers

Subject : FUNDAMENTALS OF Database


Systems
PART 1 Introduction to Databases
chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)

chapter 2 Database System Concepts and Architecture


1. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
2. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
3. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
4. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
5. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
6. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
7. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)

PART 2 The Relational Data Model and SQL


chapter 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database
Constraints
1. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
2. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
3. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
4. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)

chapter 4 Basic SQL


1. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
2. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
3. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
4. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
5. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
6. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)

chapter 5 More SQL Complex Queries Triggers Views and


Schema Modification
1. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
2. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
3. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
4. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
5. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)

chapter 6 The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus


1. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
2. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
3. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
4. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
5. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
6. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
7. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
8. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)

PART 3 Conceptual Modeling and Database Design


chapter 7 Data Modeling Using the Entity Relationship ER Model
1. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
2. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
3. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
4. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
5. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
6. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
7. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
8. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
9. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
10. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)

chapter 8 The Enhanced Entity Relationship EER MODEL


1. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
2. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
3. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
4. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
5. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
6. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
7. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
8. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)

chapter 9 Relational Database Design by ER and EER to


Relational Mapping
1. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
2. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
3. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)

chapter 10 Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of


UML Diagrams
1. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
2. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
3. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
4. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
5. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
6. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
7. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
8. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
9. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
10. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
11. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
12. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)

PART 4 Object Object Relational and XML Concepts Models


Languages and Standards
chapter 11 Object and Object Relational Databases
1. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
2. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
3. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
4. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
5. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
6. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
7. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
8. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
9. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
10. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
11. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
12. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)

chapter 12 XML Extensible Markup Language


1. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
2. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
3. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
4. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
5. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
6. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
7. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)

PART 5 Database Programming Techniques


chapter 13 Introduction to SQL Programming TECHNIQUES
1. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
2. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
3. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
4. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
5. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
6. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
7. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
8. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
9. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
10. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
11. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)

chapter 14 Web Database Programming Using PHP


1. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
2. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
3. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
4. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)

PART 6 Database Design Theory and Normalization


chapter 15 Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization
or Relational Databases
1. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
2. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
3. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
4. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
5. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
6. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
7. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
8. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)

chapter 16 Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further


Dependencies
1. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
2. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
3. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
4. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
5. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
6. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
7. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)

PART 7 File Structures Indexing and Hashing


chapter 17 Disk Storage Basic File Structures and Hashing
1. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
2. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
3. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
4. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
5. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
6. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
7. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
8. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
9. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
10. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
11. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
12. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
13. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
14. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)

chapter 18 Indexing Structures for Files


1. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
2. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
3. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
4. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
5. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
6. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
7. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
8. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
9. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)

PART 8 Query Processing and Optimization and Database Tuning


chapter 19 Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization
1. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
2. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
3. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
4. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
5. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
6. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
7. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
8. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
9. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
10. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
11. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
12. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
13. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
14. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
15. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
16. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
17. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
18. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
chapter 20 Physical Database Design and Tuning
1. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
2. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
3. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
4. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
5. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)

PART 9 Transaction Processing Concurrency Control and


Recovery
chapter 21 Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and
Theory
1. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
2. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
3. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
4. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
5. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
6. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
7. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)

chapter 22 Concurrency Control Techniques


1. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
2. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
3. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
4. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
5. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
6. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
7. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
8. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)

chapter 23 Database Recovery Techniques


1. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
2. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
3. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
4. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
5. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
6. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
7. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
8. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)

PART 10 Additional Database Topics Security and Distribution


chapter 24 Database Security
1. Database Security - Answer (click here)
2. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
3. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
4. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
5. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
6. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
7. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
8. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
9. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
10. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
11. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)

chapter 25 Distributed Databases


1. Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
2. Distributed Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
3. Types of Distributed Database Systems - Answer (click here)
4. Distributed Database Architectures - Answer (click here)
5. Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for
Distributed Database Design - Answer (click here)
6. Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
7. Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
8. Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed
Databases - Answer (click here)
9. Distributed Catalog Management - Answer (click here)
10. Current Trends in Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
11. Distributed Databases in Oracle - Answer (click here)

PART 11 Advanced Database Models Systems and Applications


chapter 26 Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications
1. Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications - Answer (click here)
2. Active Database Concepts and Triggers - Answer (click here)
3. Temporal Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
4. Spatial Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
5. Multimedia Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
6. Introduction to Deductive Databases - Answer (click here)

chapter 27 Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search


1. Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search - Answer (click here)
2. Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts - Answer (click here)
3. Retrieval Models - Answer (click here)
4. Types of Queries in IR Systems - Answer (click here)
5. Text Preprocessing - Answer (click here)
6. Inverted Indexing - Answer (click here)
7. Evaluation Measures of Search Relevance - Answer (click here)
8. Web Search and Analysis - Answer (click here)
9. Trends in Information Retrieval - Answer (click here)

chapter 28 Data Mining Concepts


1. Data Mining Concepts - Answer (click here)
2. Overview of Data Mining Technology - Answer (click here)
3. Association Rules - Answer (click here)
4. Classification - Data Mining - Answer (click here)
5. Clustering - Answer (click here)
6. Approaches to Other Data Mining Problems - Answer (click here)
7. Applications of Data Mining - Answer (click here)
8. Commercial Data Mining Tools - Answer (click here)

chapter 29 Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP


1. Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP - Answer (click here)
2. Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology - Data warehouses - Answer
(click here)
3. Characteristics of Data Warehouses - Answer (click here)
4. Data Modeling for Data Warehouses - Answer (click here)
5. Building a Data Warehouse - Answer (click here)
6. Typical Functionality of a Data Warehouse - Answer (click here)
7. Data Warehouse versus Views - Answer (click here)
8. Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses - Answer (click here)