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LTE/EPS Overview

LTE Extended Introduction course

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1 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
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2 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Objectives
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

• Understand the reasons driving to the LTE/EPS project.


• List the LTE/EPS main requirements.
• Discuss the future of wireless communications.
• Compare LTE/EPS capabilities with other mobile technologies.
• Review the 3GPP specification work concerning LTE/EPS.
• Identify the major steps in the Network Architecture Evolution
towards an LTE/EPS network.
• Underline the LTE/EPS key features.
• Briefly explain the basics of the LTE Air Interface.
• Name the Standardisation bodies around LTE/EPS.
• Introduce IMT-Advanced and LTE-Advanced

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3 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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4 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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5 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
A little bit of History

•New technologies developed in the last 15


years in telecommunication brought available
transmission rates to a total new level.
•Two systems have affected the life of nearly
everyone:
– mobile communication via 2G network
like GSM
– Wired & wireless data connectivity
(xDSL & WLAN IEEE 802.11/a/b/g
standards)
•3G networks the first step towards a
convergence between both networks

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6 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
The way to LTE: 3 main 3G limitations

1.- The maximum bit rates still are factor of 20 and more behind
the current state of the art systems like 802.11n and 802.16e/m.
Even the support for higher mobility levels is not an excuse for
this.

2.- The latency of user plane traffic (UMTS: >30 ms) and of
resource assignment procedures (UMTS: >100 ms) is too big
to handle traffic with high bit rate variance efficiently.

3.- The terminal complexity for WCDMA or MC-CDMA systems


is quite high, making equipment expensive, resulting in poor
performing implementations of receivers and inhibiting the
implementation of other performance enhancements.

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7 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
The way to the Long-Term Evolution (LTE): a 3GPP
driven initiative

•LTE is 3GPP system for the years 2010 to 2020


and beyond.
•It shall especially compete with WiMAX 802.16e/m
•It must keep the support for high mobility users like
in GSM/UMTS networks
•The architectural changes are big when comparing
to UMTS
• First LTE commercial deployments are expected in
2010.

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8 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE Drivers
Wireless Data
Wireline Evolution: extensively used:
pushes higher data rates
Pushes more capacity

Driving to clear
LTE Targets

Other Wireless Flat Rate pricing:


technologies: pushes cost efficiency
Competition pushes new
capabilities
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9 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
What are the LTE challenges?
The Users’ expectation… ..leads to the operator’s challenges

• Best price, transparent flat rate • reduce cost per bit


• Full Internet • provide high data rate
• Click-bang responsiveness • provide low latency
User experience will have an Price per Mbyte has to be reduced
impact on ARPU to remain profitable

Throughput Latency
Cost per MByte
Fa
10

ct
or
or

2-3
ct
Fa

HSPA LTE HSPA LTE UMTS HSPA I-HSPA LTE

LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience
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10 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Reduction of network cost is necessary to remain
profitable
Revenues and Traffic
decoupled
Traffic
Traffic volume

Revenue

€/bit
Profitability

Network
cost

Time
Voice Data
dominated dominated

Source: Light Reading (adapted)


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11 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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12 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE Main Requirements
• Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
Networks, but also for A true global roaming technology
cdma2000 operators

• Peak data rates to


exceed 100 Mbps in DL
/ 50 Mbps in UL Enhanced consumer experience
• Low latency 10-20 ms

• Scalable bandwidth: from Easy to introduce on any


1.4MHz up to 20 MHz frequency band

• OFDM technology
• Spectral efficiency increased (2-4
times compared with HSPA Rel6) Decreased cost / GByte
• Flat Architecture, optimized PS
• IP based interfaces
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13 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Schedule for 3GPP releases
• Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
Networks, but also for A true global roaming technology
cdma2000 operators
3GPP Specification work:
MBMS IMS Evolution LTE & EPC
IMS WLAN IW LTE Studies
HSDPA HSUPA
UMTS
UMTS Rel
Rel 99/4
99/4 UMTS
UMTS Rel
Rel 55 UMTS
UMTS Rel
Rel 66 UMTS
UMTS Rel
Rel 77 UMTS
UMTS Rel
Rel 88

2000 2003 2005 2007 2008 2009 year

• LTE have been developed by the 3GPP, the same standardization organization responsible fro
WCDMA/HSPA. The target has been simple multimode implementation and backwards
compatibility.
• HSPA and LTE have in common:
– Sampling rate using the same clocking frequency
– Same kind of Turbo coding
• The harmonization of these parameters is important as sampling and Turbo decoding are
typically done on hardware due to high processing requirements.
• WiMAX and LTE do not have such harmonization.
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14 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Comparison of Throughput and Latency (1/2)
Enhanced consumer experience:
• Peak data rates to - drives subscriber uptake
exceed 100 Mbps in
DL / 50 Mbps in UL - allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams

Max. peak data rate


350

300
Downlink
250 Uplink 173 Mbps in DL
57 Mbps in UL
200
Mbps

150

100

50

0
HSPA R6 Evolved HSPA LTE 2x20 MHz LTE 2x20 MHz
(REL. 7/8, 2x2 (2x2 MIMO) (4x4 MIMO)
MIMO)

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15 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Comparison of Throughput and Latency (2/2)
Enhanced consumer experience:
• Reduce Latency: - drives subscriber uptake
•User Plane 10-20 ms
•Control Plane < 100 ms - allow for new applications
- provide additional revenue streams

USER PLANE Latency: CONTROL PLANE Latency:


Latency (Roundtrip delay)*

GSM/
EDGE

HSPA ACTIVE
Rel6 IDLE “ECM_
“ECM_Idle” Connected”
HSPAevo
(Rel8) (no (EPS Bearer
resources) allocated)
LTE
mi ma
n x
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 ms

DSL (~20-50 ms, depending on


* Server near RAN operator) < 100 ms

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16 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Scalable Bandwidth
Scalable bandwidth
Easy to introduce on any
• Scalable bandwidth: frequency band: Frequency
from 1.4MHz up to Refarming
20 MHz (Cost efficient deployment on lower
frequency bands supported)

Urban
2.6 GHz LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS
or
2.6 GHz LTE
LTE
2.1 GHz UMTS

2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020

Rural
900 MHz GSM UMTS
LTE
or

900 MHz GSM LTE

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2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
17 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Increased Spectral Efficiency
• OFDMA technology •LTE target is to increase 2-4 times
increases Spectral the HSPA R6 spectral efficiency
•HSPA R7 and WiMAX have Similar
efficiency Spectral Efficiency

• All cases assume 2-antenna terminal reception


• HSPA R7, WiMAX and LTE assume 2-antenna BTS transmission (2x2 MIMO)

2.0 ITU contribution from


Downlink WiMAX Forum shows
1.8
Uplink downlink 1.3 and uplink 0.8
1.6 bps/Hz/cell
1.4
bps/Hz/cell

1.2
1.0
0.8
Simulations show LTE can
0.6 provide:
0.4 ¾ >3 times HSPA R6
0.2 spectral efficiency in DL
0.0 ¾ >2 times HSPA R6
HSPA R6 HSPA R6 + HSPA R7 WiMAX LTE R8
spectral efficiency in UL
UE
equalizer
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18 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Reduced Network Complexity
• Flat Architecture: 2 nodes
• Flat Architecture, architecture
Optimized PS Domain • IP widely used as the network layer
• IP based Interfaces in the protocol stack of all interfaces
(both for the control and user plane)

Flat, IP based architecture

Access Core Control

MME IMS HLR/HSS

Internet

Evolved Node B Gateway

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19 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE Requirements Summary
1.- Simplify the RAN:
- Reduce the number of different types of RAN nodes, and their
complexity.
- Minimize the number of RAN interface types.
2.- Increase throughput.
3.- Reduce latency (which is a prerequisite for CS replacement).
4.- Improve spectrum efficiency.
5.- Provide greater flexibility with regard to the frequency bands in which the
system may be deployed (Frequency Refarming)
6.- Migrate to an optimized PS domain, with no CS domain in the core
network.
7.- Provide efficient support for a variety of different services. Traditional CS
services will be supported via VoIP, etc.
8.- Minimise the presence of single points of failure in the network above the
evolved Node Bs (eNBs).
9.- Support inter-working with existing 3G systems and non-3GPP specified
systems in order to support handover to/from these systems.
10.- All-IP transport network.
11.- Improve terminal power efficiency.
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20 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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21 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
History and Future of Wireless

1990 2000 2005 2010


mobility
time

HSPA LTE
WCDMA/cdma2000
HIGH GSM/IS95 3G 3G Enhacements 3G Evolution
AMPS 2G
1G WiMAX Family

802.16e
802.16e
802.16a/d
802.16a/d Mobile
Mobile WiMAX
WiMAX
LOW
Fixed
Fixed WiMAX
WiMAX
WLAN Family
802.11 802.11a/b/g
802.11a/b/g 802.11n
data rates

< 200 kbps < 1 Mbps < 10 Mbps < 50 Mbps < 100 Mbps < 1 Gbps

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22 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
WiMAX and HSPA/LTE Technology Positioning
Spectrum
Licenced
Licenced
• HSPA for paired FDD spectrum HSPA/LTE
HSPA/LTE
FDD
FDDband
band
• LTE initially for paired FDD
spectrum
Licenced
Licenced
• WiMAX initially for unpaired TDD WiMAX
WiMAX
TDD
TDDband
band
spectrum

Interworking
• Tight interworking between 3GPP
technologies (HSPA, LTE) including
common network management and
handovers GSM
• Loose interworking between 3GPP WCDMA
and WiMAX
LTE

Terminals and services


• LTE terminals include GSM/HSPA for full coverage
• WiMAX/LTE initially in USB modems and embedded
in laptops while GSM/HSPA supports also CS voice
• HSPA/LTE/WiMAX for broadband IP services

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23 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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24 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
3GPP LTE specification work completed so far
• End 2004 3GPP workshop on UTRAN Long Term Evolution
• Beginning 2005 Study item started
• December 2005 Multiple Access selected
• March 2006 Functionality split between radio and core
• September 2006 Study item closed & approval of the work items
• December 2007 1st version of all radio specs approved
• December 2008 3GPP REL. 8: content Finalized
• March 2009 Protocol Freezing (Backwards compatibility starts)

Standardization
LTE Start of the Close Study and 1st full set of Content Protocol
Workshop Study Start Work Item specifications Finalized Freezing¡

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Multiple Access RAN/CN PDCP moved from FDD/TDD Frame


Decision functional split CN to EUTRAN Structure Alignment

Technology
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25 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
3GPP Release 9 and beyond
During 2008 the 3GPP has analyzed topics to be included in the Release 9 .
Examples of those topics are:
•LTE MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System): operation of a
broadcast carrier.
•Self Optimized Networks (SON)
•Network Sharing
•Enhanced VoIP support in LTE
•Requirements for LTE Multi-band and Multi-Radio base stations

2008 2009 2010 2011 & beyond

Demonstrate Operator Trials. Large Scale LTE Networks.


LTE Networks
LTE Air Friendly-use Launch: VoIP service optimized.
Interface
Japan networks commercial 3GPP R9
Performance solution available

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26 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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27 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (1/4)
3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Internet
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN

User plane
Control Plane

• Original 3G architecture.
• 2 nodes in the RAN.
• 2 nodes in the PS Core Network.
• Every Node introduces additional delay.
• Common path for User plane and Control plane data.
• Air interface based on WCDMA.
• RAN interfaces based on ATM.
• Option for Iu-PS interface to be based on IP.
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28 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (2/4)

3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B RNC Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

• Separated path for Control Plane and User Plane data in the PS
Core Network.
• Direct GTP tunnel from the GGSN to the RNC for User plane data:
simplifies the Core Network and reduces Signalling.
• First step towards a flat network Architecture.
• 30% core network OPEX and CAPEX savings with Direct Tunnel.
• The SGSN still controls traffic plane handling, performs session and
mobility management, and manages paging.
• Still 2 nodes in the RAN.
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29 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (3/4)

3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B
Direct tunnel
(RNC Funct.) User plane
Control Plane

• I-HSPA introduces the first true flat architecture to WCDMA.


• Standardized in 3GPP Release 7 as: “Direct Tunnel with collapsed
RNC”.
• Most part of the RNC functionalities are moved to the Node B.
• Direct Tunnels runs now from the GGSN to the Node B.
• Solution for cost-efficient broadband wireless access.
• Improves the delay performance (less node in RAN).
• Deployable with existing NSN WCDMA base stations.
• Transmission savings
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30 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution (4/4)
MME
3GPP Rel 8 / LTE
SAE GW
Internet
Evolved Node B
Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

• LTE takes the same Flat architecture from Internet HSPA.


• Air interface based on OFDMA.
• All-IP network.
• New spectrum allocation (i.e 2600 MHz band)
• Possibility to reuse spectrum (i.e. 900 MHZ)

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31 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
NSN Network Architecture Evolution - Summary
3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Internet
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN

3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B RNC Direct tunnel

3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA SGSN


GGSN
Internet
Node B
Direct tunnel
(RNC Funct.)
MME
3GPP Rel 8 / LTE
SAE GW
Internet
Evolved Node B
Direct tunnel
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32 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

For public use – IPR applies


33 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features
EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) /
SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) /
LTE ( Long Term Evolution )
IP
IP Network
Network
EUTRAN
EUTRAN EPC
EPC (( Evolved
Evolved Packet
Packet Core
Core ))
(( Evolved
Evolved UTRAN
UTRAN ))
IP
IP Network
Network

IP
IP Network
Network

OFDMA/SC-FDMA
MIMO ( beam-forming/ Evolved Node B / PS Domain only,
spatial multiplexing) No RNC No CS Domain
HARQ IP Transport Layer IP Transport Layer

Scalable bandwidth UL/DL resource QoS Aware


(1.4, 3, 5, 10, .. 20 MHz) scheduling
3GPP (GTP) or
QoS Aware IETF (MIPv6)
Self Configuration Prepared for
Non-3GPP Access
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34 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features – EUTRAN 1/2

Evolved NodeB
•No RNC is provided anymore
•The evolved Node Bs take over all radio management functionality.
•This will make radio management faster and hopefully the network
architecture simpler

IP transport layer
•EUTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer

UL/DL resource scheduling


•In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated
•Evolved Node B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns
them dynamically to users and channels
•This provides greater flexibility than the older system

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35 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features – EUTRAN 2/2

QoS awareness
•The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service
classes
•Otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
•The system provides the possibility for differentiated services

Self configuration
•Currently under investigation
•Possibility to let Evolved Node Bs configure themselves
•It will not completely substitute the manual configuration and optimization.

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36 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Key Features – EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

Packet Switched Domain only


•No circuit switched domain is provided
•If CS applications are required, they must be implemented via IP
•Only one mobility management for the UE in LTE.

3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option


•The EPC can be based either on 3GPP GTP protocols (similar to PS
domain in UMTS/GPRS) or on IETF Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)

Non-3GPP access
•The EPC will be prepared also to be used by non-3GPP access networks
(e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.)
•This will provide true convergence of different packet radio access system

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37 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

For public use – IPR applies


38 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Multiple Access Methods User 1 User 2 User 3 User ..

FDMA TDMA CDMA OFDMA


• Frequency Division • Time Division • Code Division • Frequency Division
• Orthogonal subcarriers

f f f f

des
t t co t t

f f f f

OFDM is the state-of-the-art and most efficient and robust air interface

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39 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Air Interface 1/3
OFDMA
•Downlink multiplexing
•OFDMA stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access
•Receiver complexity is at a reasonable level
•it supports various modulation schemes from BPSK, QPSK,
16QAM to 64 QAM.

SC-FDMA 64QAM
Modulation
•Uplink multiplexing
•SC-FDMA stands for Single Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access, a variant of OFDMA
•The advantage against OFDMA to have a lower PAPR
(Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) meaning less power
consumption and less expensive RF amplifiers in the
terminal.

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40 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Air Interface 2/3

MIMO
•Multiple Input Multiple Output TX RX
•LTE will support MIMO as an option,
•It describes the possibility to have multiple transmitter MIMO
and receiver antennas in a system. Tx Channel Rx
•Up to four antennas can be used by a single LTE cell
(gain: spatial multiplexing)
•MIMO is considered to be the core technology to
increase spectral efficiency.
HARQ Hybrid
Automatic
HARQ Repeat Request
•Hybrid Automatic Retransmission on reQuest
•HARQ has already been used for HSDPA and HSUPA.
•HARQ especially increases the performance (delay and
throughput) for cell edge users.
• HARQ simply implements a retransmission protocol on
layer 1/layer 2 that allows to send retransmitted blocks
with different coding than the first one.

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41 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE/SAE Air Interface 3/3

Scalable bandwidth
• LTE air interface allows to drive cells with
1.4 MHz, 3 MHz, 5 MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz & scalable

20 MHz.
•This gives the required flexibility for
operators to use spectrum allocations not
available to a non-scalable wide-band or
ultra-wide-band system. DL: OFDMA
UL: SC-FDMA

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42 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Requirements for LTE Air Interface
OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)

HSDPA (Rel6) Target SAE/LTE

Peak Bit Rate 14.4 > 100 173


(Mbps)
Spectral 0.75 2 - 4 times 1.84
Efficiency HSDPA
(bps/Hz/cell)

DOWNLINK

UPLINK
UPLINK

SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)

HSUPA (Rel6) Target SAE/LTE

Peak Bit Rate 5.67 > 50 57


(Mbps)
Spectral 0.26 2 - 4 times 0.67
Efficiency HSUPA
(bps/Hz/cell)

For public use – IPR applies


SC-FDMA is technically close to OFDMA, but is more power efficient
43 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

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44 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Standardisation around LTE

Collaboration agreement established in December


1998. The collaboration agreement brings together a
number of telecommunications standards bodies: ARIB,
CCSA, ETSI, ATIS, TTA, and TTC.
More in www.3gpp.org

Next Generation Mobile Networks. Is a group of mobile


operators, to provide a coherent vision for technology
evolution beyond 3G for the competitive delivery of
broadband wireless services.
More in www.ngmn.org

LTE/SAE Trial Initiative. Is was founded in may 2007 by a


group of leading telecommunications companies.
Its aim is to prove the potential and benefits that the LTE
technology can offer.
More in http://www.lstiforum.com/

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45 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
3GPP List of
Specification Series

36 Series contains most


part of LTE related
specifications for Radio

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46 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
NGMN Alliance

LTE /SAE approved by the


NGMN as first technology which
broadly meets NGMN
requirements

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47 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LSTI (LTE-SAE Trial Initiative)
- joint test bed for LTE worldwide

…….. active parties within LSTI

LSTI initiatives goals/objectives


Schedule & Program Office:
• demonstrate feasibility and
capabilities of 3GPP LTE-SAE 2007 2008 2009 2010
technology under real world Proof of Concept
conditions. Indoor & outdoor tests Test of OFDM Air Interface
Test of basic functions
• accelerate development of 3GPP
specification by identifying IODT Interoperability
shortcomings out of test phases IOT
• reduce risk of market introduction of Friendly customer trials Trials
new LTE-SAE technology
Public Relation work PR

For public use – IPR applies


48 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

For public use – IPR applies


49 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
LTE Advanced
Mobility

HIGH

IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Evolution IMT-


Advanced
LOW

1 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps data rates


WCDMA HSPA LTE LTE-Advanced

•IMT-Advanced is a concept for mobile systems beyond IMT-2000


•During 2009, ITU will submit a request for IMT-Advanced candidates. Radio
interface submission deadline is expected October 2009.
•IMT Target bit rates:
– 100Mbps for high mobility users
– 1Gbps for low mobility users
•3GPP has already started to work on the IMT-Advanced targets under the name:
LTE-Advanced. To be part of 3GPP REL 10.
For public use – IPR applies
50 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Module Contents

• Why LTE?
• LTE main requirements
• LTE versus other Mobile technologies
• LTE Specification work
• Network Architecture Evolution
• LTE key features
• Basics of the LTE Air Interface
• Standardisation around LTE
• IMT-Advanced
• LTE Summary

For public use – IPR applies


51 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Overview of LTE/SAE design benefits
New Architecture Access Core Control
• Flat Architecture: 2-node architecture
• PS Core Network optimized
• No CS Core Network LTE BTS MME/GW IMS HLR/HSS
(eNodeB)

Improved Radio Principles RF Modulation:


• peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL , 57 UL • OFDMA in DL
• Scalable Carrier Bandwidth: • SC-FDMA in UL
• 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
• Short latency: 10 – 20 ms
RAN MME GW
• 2 - 4 times better spectral efficiency that
HSPA Rel. 6
eUtran
New Interfaces Design
• Simplified Protocol Stack
• Simple, more efficient QoS
• IP network layer
For public use – IPR applies
52 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
Appendix

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53 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number
The right solution for each segment

W-CDMA/HSPA WiMAX LTE


For operators with 3G spectrum Fixed or mobile network operators with WiMAX Mainstream; 3G evolution – leverage large
Broad terminal eco system spectrum installed 3G base
High data security and QoS Device eco system started to evolve Utilizes 2G and 3G spectrum – efficient re-
Quick and cost-effective upgrade Optimized wireless-DSL services farming with flexible bandwidth
of existing networks High capacity and low latency Broad terminal eco system expected
Seamless 2G/3G handover – Flat and IP based architecture Highest capacity, lowest latency
global coverage, global roaming Very flat and IP based architecture
Short term availability
Proven technology

Spectrum availability Spectrum availability Economy Spectrum availability


Economy of scale and cost impact Economy of scale and cost impact of scale and cost impact

IPR Variety of IPR Variety of IPR Variety of


regime terminals regime terminals regime terminals

Compatibility Compatibility Compatibility


Voice Voice Voice
with existing with existing with existing
performance performance performance
standards standards standards

Lean Broadband data Lean Broadband data Lean Broadband data


architecture performance architecture performance architecture performance

High speed data rates High speed data with Broadband multimedia
with full mobility limited mobility with full mobility
For public use – IPR applies
54 © Nokia Siemens Networks LTE/EPS Overview / Jose Maria Anarte / v 2.0 / Document Number