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## Analytical Models for Transmission Lines

Paola A. Gómez G.
Maestrı́a en Ingenierı́a Eléctrica, Universidad Industrial de Santander
Bucaramanga, Colombia

Abstract—This paper determines two analytical models repre- for each configuration of transmission lines. The computations
senting the overhead three-phase transmission lines.These models with the transformation matrix to the sequence domain, the
are the phase impedance matrix and its transformation to the special case for multi-circuit lines and the equations for the
sequence impedance matrix that includes the zero, positive and
negative sequence impedance. Its computations are based on zero sequence impedance to transposed and untransposed lines
the series impedance parameters of the transmission lines, the with ground wires.
self-impedance of each conductor and the mutual impedances
between them which depend on the configuration in which II. M ETHODOLOGY
they are located. These computations vary when there are lines
with bundled conductors, overhead ground wires, parallel multi-
circuit lines, and when the line is untransposed, completely trans- A. Phase Impedances of Transmission Lines
posed or partially transposed. Therefore, the paper indicates the
configuration in which the three-phase system of the transmission
lines may be analized as three uncoupled single-phase systems of 1) Series Impedance: Subsubsection text here.
zero sequence, positive and negative.
Index Terms—bundled conductors, ground wires, multi-circuit
Z = R + jX [Ω] (1)
lines, mutual impedances, phase impedances, self impedances,
sequence impedances, transpositions, transmission lines.
z = (r + jx)s [Ω] (2)
I. I NTRODUCTION
In an energy system, the electric power flows from the x = wl [Ω] (3)
generation centers to the consumption centers through the  
transmission lines. The transmission of electrical energy is 2s
l = k ln −1 [H/unit length] (4)
carried out mainly by overhead lines, so that the insulation Ds
between the conductors is the surrounding air. In addition, it
operates with three-phase alternating current and with genera- Ds = 0, 779r [unit length] (5)
tion and transformation devices for high and medium voltage
levels. 
2s

Based on the above, it is important to develop analytical m = k ln −1 [H/unit length] (6)
Dm
models representing the behavior of the overhead transmission         
line of alternating and three-phase current. Vaa0 Va Va0 Zaa Zab Ia
= − = (7)
Vbb0 Vb Vb0 Zab Zbb Ib
These models are mainly characterized by the series re-
sistance and inductance parameters, hence, they will be de-
termined for the series impedance and the conductance and 2) Carson’s Line: The work of Carson provides a con-
capacitance parameters in derivation will not be taken into venient method for considering the effect of the return path
account. through the ground. The method assumes the return current to
be confined to a fictitious conductor which has a self GMD of
Thus, to determine the phase impedances matrix, first, 1f t and which is directly below the overhead conductors at
the series impedance is found, then the methodology of the a distance De dependent on the resistivity ρ of the earth and
Carsons Line is explained to may calculate the three phase frequency f of current in Hz. The value of De in ft can be
line impedances. After that is shown how to form the matrix calculated by the following equation:
when there are lines with bundled conductors, with one or two r
ρ
ground wires and parallel multi-circuit lines. De = 2160 [f t] (8)
f
Furthermore, the effect of line transpositions is important. In a simplified form, Carson gives the resistance of the earth
Since it is becoming more common to not transpose lines, it’s rd as:
analyzed what effect does this have on the phase impedances,
likewise, when they are completely and partially transposed. rd = 1, 588x10−3 f [Ω/mi] (9)
Once the phase impedance matrix has been defined, next, for
determining sequence impedance there are expedient methods rd = 9, 869x10−4 f [Ω/km] (10)
2

## Fig. 1. Carson’s line with ground return.

Fig. 2. Three-phase line with earth return.

## For f = 60Hz, rd = 0, 09528Ω/mi or rd =

3) Three-Phase Line Impedances: Subsubsection text here.
0, 059214Ω/km.
    
         Va zaa zab zac Ia
Vaa0 V V 0 z̄ z̄ad Ia  Vb  =  zba zbb zbc   Ib  (25)
= a − a = aa , (11)
Vdd0 Vd Vd0 z̄ad z̄dd Id Vc zca zcb zcc Ic
 
zaa zab zac
Id = −Ia (12)
zabc =  zba zbb zbc  (26)
As Vd = 0 thus Va0 − Vd0 = 0, then Va0 = Vd0 , and: zca zcb zcc
De
Va = (Zaa + Zdd − 2Zad )Ia (13) zaa = (ra + rd ) + jwk ln (27)
Ds

## Zaa = (Zaa + Zdd − 2Zad )Ia (14) De

zbb = (rb + rd ) + jwk ln (28)
Ds

2s
 De
Zaa = ra + jwla = ra + jwk ln −1 (15) zcc = (rc + rd ) + jwk ln (29)
Dsa Ds
De
2s
  zab = rd + jwk ln (30)
Zdd = rd + jwld = rd + jwk ln −1 (16) Dab
Dsd
zba = zab (31)
Dsd = 1[unitylength] (17)
De
zbc = rd + jwk ln (32)
rd = 1, 588x10−3 f [Ω/mi] (18) Dbc

## zcb = zbc (33)

rd = 9, 869x10−4 f [Ω/km] (19)
For f = 60Hz, rd = 0, 09528Ω/mi or rd = De
zca = rd + jwk ln (34)
0, 059214Ω/km. Dca
 
2s
Zad = jwmad = jwk ln −1 (20) zac = zca (35)
Thus,
4) Impedances of Lines with Bundled Conductors: Subsub-
D2 section text here.
zaa = (ra + rd ) + jwk ln ad (21)
Dsa     
2
Va zaa zab zac zar zas zat Ia
Dad  Vb   zba zbb zbc zbr zbs zbt   Ib 
De = (22)
Dsa
    
 Vc   zca zcb zcc zcr zcs zct 
  Ic 
 
 = (36)
Vr  zra zrb zrc zrr zrs zrt 
 Ir 
r  
ρ   
De = 2160 [f t] (23) Vs  zsa zsb zsc zsr zss zst  Is 
f
Vt zta ztc ztc ztr zts ztt It
Table 4.2
De Vr − Va = 0 Vs − Vb = 0 and Vt − Vc = 0 (37)
zaa = (ra + rd ) + jwk ln (24)
Dsa Making use of equation (42), the fourth, fifth and sixth rows
and columns of equation (??) can be modified subtracting
3

## them by rows and columns first, second and third respectively.

    
Va zaa zab zac zau zaw Ia
This origins a new partitioned matrix which have the  Vb   zba zbb zbc zbu zbw   Ib 
form   
 Vc  =  zca
 
   zcb zcc zcu   Ic 
zcw    (46)
      Vu  zua zub zuc zuu zuw  Iu 

Vabc Z1 Z2 Îabc
= (38) Vw zsa zwb zwc zwu zww Iw
0 Z3 Z4 Irst
and its solution is the following
and its solution is the following

## Vabc = (Z1 − Z2 Z−1 Vabc = (Z1 − Z2 Z−1

4 Z3 )Îabc V (47)
4 Z3 )Îabc V (39)

From equation (47), the new impedance matrix is given by From equation (47), the new impedance matrix is given by

## Znew = Z1 − Z2 Z−1 Ω Znew = Z1 − Z2 Z−1

4 Z3 Ω (48)
4 Z3 (40)
6) Current division between the ground wire and the earth:
5) Impedances of Lines with One or Two Ground Wires: If it is set Ia = Ib = Ic = Ia0 , the ratio of the ground wire to
Subsubsection text here. the earth current is given by equation (49).

Iw zag
= (49)
Id zww − zag
where,
zww = rw + rd + jwk ln DDwwe
, Ω/unit length.
rw = Resistance of wire w, Ω/unit length.
rd = Resistance of the earth, Ω/unit length.
Dww = Self Geometric Mean Distance of wire w, unit length.
zag = rd + jwk ln DDag
e
, Ω/unit length.
Dag = (Dwa Dwb Dwc )1/3 , Unit length

## 7) Impedances of Parallel Multicircuit Lines: Subsubsec-

Fig. 3. A three-phase line with one ground wire. tion text here.

P    
P Va zaa zab zac zaa0 zab0 zac0 Ia
    
Va zaa zab zac zau Ia
 Vb   zba  Vb   zba zbb zbc zba0 zbb0 zbc0   Ib 
zbb zbc zbu   Ib 
 Vc  =  zca (41)
P    
 Vc   zca zcb zcc zca0 zcb0 zcc0    Ic 
    
zcb zcc zcu   Ic 
 
 Va0  = za0 a
P  
Vu = 0 zua zub zuc zuu Iu P   za0 b za0 c za0 a0 za0 b0 za0 c0 
 Ia0 
 
 Vb0   zb0 a zb0 b zb0 c zb0 a0 zb0 b0 zb0 c0   Ib0 
P
Vc0 zc0 a zc0 c zc0 c zc0 a0 zc0 b0 zc0 c0 Ic0
Vr − Va = 0 Vs − Vb = 0 and Vt − Vc = 0 (42) (50)

Making use of equation (42), the fourth, fifth and sixth rows
and columns of equation (??) can be modified subtracting
them by rows and columns first, second and third respectively. B. Transpositions and Twist Line Conductors
Subsection text here.
This origins a new partitioned matrix which have the
form
    
Vabc Z Z2 Îabc
= 1 (43)
0 Z3 Z4 Irst
and its solution is the following

## Vabc = (Z1 − Z2 Z−1

4 Z3 )Îabc V (44)

From equation (47), the new impedance matrix is given by Fig. 4. A complete transposition or rotation cycle.

Znew = Z1 − Z2 Z−1
4 Z3 Ω (45)
4

## 1) Rotation of line conductors using Rφ : Subsubsection C. Sequence Impedances of Transmission Lines

text here.   In the sequence impedances of transmission lines, the
0 0 1 positive and negative self-impedances are equal and the zero
Rφ = 1 0 0 (51) sequence value is always greater than them, because, the
0 1 0 series line impedance includes the effect of any return current
through the earth and when zero sequence currents flow,
R2φ = R−1
φ , (R−1 2
φ ) = Rφ (52) however, all three currents return through it.
Thus:
The result of the matrix manipulations using Rφ are shown
in table II-B1. Z1 = Z2 = R1 + jX1 Ω/phase (62)
Operation Effect
Premultiply by Rφ Move 3rd row to position 1 Or the impedance on a per unit length basis and multiply
Postmultiply by R−1φ Move 3rd column to position 1 by the line length:
Premultiply by R−1
φ Move 1st row to position 3
Postmultiply by Rφ Move 1st row to position 3 Z1 = (r1 + jx1 )s Ω/phase (63)

Where,
r1 = line resistance to positive sequence currents of each phase,
2) Twisting of line conductor pairs: Subsubsection text x1 = line reactance .
here. zf3 = Rφ−1 zf1 Rφ .
 
0 1 0 1) Similarity Transformation: For a transmision line with
Tφ 12 = 1 0 0 (53) unequal self-impedance and unequal mutual impedances, the
0 0 1 voltage current equations of the line are written as [equation];
 
1 0 0 [Vabc ] = [Zabc ] [Iabc ] V (64)
Tφ 23 = 0 0 1 (54)
0 1 0 Where,
 

0 0 1
 Zaa Zab Zac
Tφ 13 = 0 1 0 (55) Zabc =  Zba Zbb Zbc  Ω (65)
1 0 0 Zca Zcb Zcc

## 3) Completely Transposed Lines: Subsubsection text here.

[A−1 ] [Vabc ] = [A−1 ] [Zabc ] [A] [I012 ] V (66)
1 Where the similarity transformation is defined as:
f1 = f2 = f3 = (56)
3
P     Z012 = A−1 Zabc A Ω (67)
P Va zs zk zk Ia
And:
 Vb  = zk zs zk   Ib  (57)
P
Vc zk zk zs Ic  
1 1 1
De A = 1 a2 a  (68)
zs = (ra + rd ) + jwkIn (58) 1 a a2
Ds
 
1 1 1
Deq = (DabDbcDca) 3
1
(59) A−1 = 1 a a2  (69)
1 a2 a

## 1 Therefore, the sequence impedance matrix of a line can be

zk = (z12 + z23 + z13 ) (60) calculated using Equation(similarity) and expressed as:
3
 
Z00 Z01 Z02
De Z012 = Z10 Z11 Z12  Ω (70)
zk = rd + jwkIn (61)
Deq Z20 Z21 Z22
5

## 2) Sequence Impedance of a transposed or untransposed 4) Sequence Impedance of transpositions line conductors:

line with one or two ground wires: Subsubsection text here. Subsubsection text here

z0(m) 2 1
f1 = f2 = f3 = (84)
z00 = z0(a) − (71) 3
z0(g)
    
Va0 z0 0 0 Ia0
De Va1  =  0 z1 0  Ia1  (85)
z0(a) = (ra + re ) + j3wk ln 1 1 (72)
Ds 3 Deq 3 Va2 0 0 z2 Ia2

De De3
z0(m) = re + j3wk ln (73) z0 = (ra + 3rd ) + jwkIn (86)
Dag DsDeq

## For one ground wire: Deq

z1 = (ra ) + jwk ln (87)
Ds
De
z0(g) = (3rw + re ) + j3wk ln (74) 1
Dww Deq = (DabDbcDca) 3 (88)
For two ground wires:
III. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION
3 De
z0(g) = ( rw + re ) + j3wk ln (75)
The following is an example to determine the phase and
2 Dww Duw
sequence impedances matrices of a transmission line.
where, For determining the phase impedances matrix, it will be
zww = rw + rd + jwk ln DDww e
, Ω/unit length. considering its order, 3N x 3N, where N is the number of
rw = Resistance of wire w, Ω/unit length. parallel circuits supported in the same right of way. It will
rd = Resistance of the earth, Ω/unit length. be considered if the phase conductors of the transmission line
Dww = Self Geometric Mean Distance of wire w, unit length.are integrated by a prime conductor and bundled conductors.
De Furthermore, it will be considered the overhead ground wires
zag = rd + jwk ln Dag , Ω/unit length.
1/3
Dag = (Dwa Dwb Dwc ) , Unit length effects.
Thus, for a transmission line with just one circuit, the
3) Sequence Impedance of a parallel transposed and un- general phase impedances matrix should be constructed in
transposed multicircuit lines: Subsubsection text here the following order:
     1. Main conductors.
Vabc zaa zaa0 Iabc 2. Bundled conductors.
= V (76)
Va0 b0 c0 za0 a za0 a0 Ia0 b0 c0 3. Ground wires conductors.

z00 = A−1 zaa A (77) In addition, when the transmission line is of the multi-circuit
type, then the previous order will be modified. Suppose that
two circuits A and B are supported in the same transmission
z000 = A−1 zaa0 A (78) tower. In this case, the order for the formation of the general
phase impedances matrix will be as follows:
1. Main conductors of A.
z00 0 = A−1 za0 a A (79) 2. Main conductors of B.
3. Bundled conductors of A.
4. Bundled conductors of B.
z00 00 = A−1 za0 a0 A (80) 5. Ground wires conductors of A.
6. Ground wires conductors of B.
  The matrix order will be the total number of conductors
A 0 and will always be square and symmetric, for conductors with
A2 = (81)
0 A the same technical specifications. After the general matrix
 −1  has been formed, the necessary computations will be made
A 0 to reduce it, until obtaining the equivalent matrix ”phase
A2 −1 = (82)
0 A−1 impedances” of order 3N x 3N.
    This matrix is in [Ohm/ unity length], so it’s necessary
z00 z000 −1 zaa zaa0 to defined if the transmission line is untransposed, partially
= A2 A2 (83)
z00 0 z00 00 za0 a za0 a0 transposed, transposed or completely transposed.
If it is untransposed, simply multiply the matrix with the
total length of the line. If it is not, the necessary calculations
6

## are made for each section of the transmission line, rotating

the calculated phase impedance matrix in the positions 123. 
9.73 + j41.43 7.67 + j18.78 7.32 + j15.68

Finally, the matrices obtained from each section are summed Zabc = 7.67 + j18.78 10.35 + j40.91 7.67 + j18.78 Ω
to have the phase impedance matrix of the entire transmission 7.32 + j15.68 7.67 + j18.78 9.73 + j41.43
line in [Ohm].
Next, the sequence impedances matrix, for the unstrans-
Therefore, with the phase impedances matrix obtained,
posed line, is obtained from the () equation:
the sequence impedances matrix may be formed. It may be
calculated with the transformation equation, or directly the  
zero, positive and negative sequence impedances with the 25.03 + j76.75 0.58 − j0.71 −0.91 − j0.15
equations found for certain cases of the transmission lines. Z012 =  −0.91 − j0.15 2.38 + j23.51 −1.93 + j1.14 Ω
Example 0.58 − j0.71 1.95 + 1.10 2.38 + j23.51
A three phase bundled conductor 345 kV line with 795000 On the other hand, for the 40 mile length complete trans-
CM (26/7) ACSR phase conductors and 3/8 inch EBB steel posed line, the 3 x 3 reduced matrix obtained from the general
ground wires is shown in Figure 5. There are two ACSR impedances matrix is taken as the ”123 position matrix”.
conductors in each phase bundled spaced 18 inches apart as Then, including ”123 position matrix” in () equations, and
shown in the insert figure. An earth resistivity of 100 ohm/m3 with the sum of all such terms, the phase impedances matrix
and system frequency of 60 Hz are assumed. Compute the result as:
impedance matrices Zabc and Z012 Ω. Let the line length be
40 miles for untransposed and completely transposed line.
 
9.93 + j41.26 7.55 + j17.75 7.55 + j17.75
Zabc = 7.55 + j17.75 9.93 + j41.26 7.55 + j17.75 Ω
7.55 + j17.75 7.55 + j17.75 9.93 + j41.26
Finally, the sequence impedances matrix is obtained in the
same way than before:
 
25.03 + j76.75 0 0
Z012 = 0 2.38 + j23.51 0 Ω
0 0 2.38 + j23.51

IV. C ONCLUSIONS
The overhead three-phase transmission lines may be rep-
resented by two analytical models, the phase and sequences
impedances matrixes. The order of these matrices depends
Fig. 5. Conductor arrangement for a 345 kV bundled-conductor line.
on the number of parallel circuits supported in the same
The parameters for this circuit can be obtained from tabu- transmission towers.
lated conductor data, and listed in the following table: For untransposed lines, the values of series-phase
impedances are not equal and the mutual impedances between
TABLE I
lines are not equal to each other, forming unsymmetrical Zabc
C ONDUCTORS DATA impedance matrix.
However, the values of series-phase impedances for trans-
Conductor r (Ω/mille) Ds (ft)
795 kCM 26/7 ACSR 0,117 0,0375
posed lines are equal and the mutual impedances between lines
3/8 inch EBB steel 4 0,001 are equal to each other to form symmetrical Zabc impedance
matrix.
First, we must determine the general impedance matrix On the other hand, the sequence impedances matrix is
of self and mutual impedances defined by equation (), with readily computed by similarity transformation.
the next necessary information: rd = 0.117(Ω/mi), De = The positive and negative self-impedances are equal and
2790(f t) for ρ = 100(Ω/m3 ) and wk = 0.12134 for the zero sequence value is always greater than them, because,
f = 60(Hz). the series line impedance includes the effect of any return
The general impedance matrix of the two ACSR conductors current through the earth and when zero sequence currents
in each phase bundled is computed first from (equa). This flow, however, all three currents return through it.
matrix is 6 x 6 order, so its reduced to a 3 x 3 matrix by the The value of positive sequence impedance is the same,
4, 5, and 6 rows and columns elimination. whatever the line is single or double circuit and with or without
Then, to this reduced matrix the guard wires are added, ground wires.
hence, the phase impedances matrix is now 6 x 6 order, For transposed and untransposed lines, the values of the
therefore, using ... equation is reduced to the phase impedances positive, negative, and zero sequence impedances are the same.
matrix. The transpositions are effective in reducing the coupling
The result for an untransposed 40 miles length line is: between sequence networks. Even one rotation produces a
7

## substantial reduction in the magnitude of the off-diagonal

terms of Z012 and two rotations practically eliminate this
coupling. A completely transposed line has zero coupling
between sequences.
Finally, the presence of ground wires in transmission lines
increases the real part R00 and reduces the imaginary part X00
from the zero sequence impedance.

R EFERENCES
 P. M. Anderson, Analysis of Faulted Power Systems, 1st ed. New York,
United States of America: IEEE, 1973.