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MATHEMATICS

National Curriculum Statement (NCS)

Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement

Further Education and Training Phase Grades 10-12

Curriculum Statement (NCS) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement Further Education and Training Phase Grades 10-12

CurriCulum and assessment PoliCy statement Grades 10-12 matHematiCs CAPS

CurriCulum and assessment PoliCy statement Grades 10-12

matHematiCs

CAPS

CAPS

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

department of Basic education

222 Struben Street

Private Bag X895 Pretoria 0001 South Africa Tel: +27 12 357 3000 Fax: +27 12 323 0601

120 Plein Street Private Bag X9023

Cape Town 8000 South Africa Tel: +27 21 465 1701 Fax: +27 21 461 8110 Website: http://www.education.gov.za

© 2011 department of Basic education

isBn: 978-1-4315-0573-9

Design and Layout by: Ndabase Printing Solution Printed by: Government Printing Works

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

FOREWORD by thE ministER

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12 FOREWORD by thE ministER Our national curriculum is the culmination of our efforts

Our national curriculum is the culmination of our efforts over a period of seventeen years to transform the curriculum bequeathed to us by apartheid. From the start of democracy we have built our curriculum on the values that inspired our Constitution (Act 108 of 1996). the Preamble to the Constitution states that the aims of the Constitution are to:

• heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights;

• improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person;

• lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law; and

• build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of nations.

Education and the curriculum have an important role to play in realising these aims.

in 1997 we introduced outcomes-based education to overcome the curricular divisions of the past, but the experience of implementation prompted a review in 2000. This led to the first curriculum revision: the Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 and the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (2002).

Ongoing implementation challenges resulted in another review in 2009 and we revised the Revised National Curriculum Statement (2002) to produce this document.

From 2012 the two 2002 curricula, for Grades R-9 and Grades 10-12 respectively, are combined in a single document and will simply be known as the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12. the National Curriculum Statement for Grades R-12 builds on the previous curriculum but also updates it and aims to provide clearer specification of what is to be taught and learnt on a term-by-term basis.

the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 accordingly replaces the subject statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and subject Assessment Guidelines with the

(a)

Curriculum and Assessment Policy statements (CAPs) for all approved subjects listed in this document;

(b)

National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12; and

(c)

National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12.

; and (c) National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12. MRS ANGIE MOTSHEKGA, MP MINISTER OF BASIC

MRS ANGIE MOTSHEKGA, MP

MINISTER OF BASIC EDUCATION

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CAPS

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

CoNTeNTS

seCtion 1: introduCtion to tHe CurriCulum and assessment PoliCy statements

3

1.1 Background

3

 

1.2 overview

3

1.3 General aims of the south african Curriculum

4

1.4 time allocation

6

 

1.4.1 Foundation Phase

6

1.4.2 Intermediate Phase

6

1.4.3 Senior Phase

7

1.4.4 Grades 10-12

7

seCtion 2: introduCtion to matHematiCs

8

2.1

What is mathematics?

8

2.2

Specific Aims

8

2.3

Specific Skills

8

2.4

Focus of Content areas

9

2.5

Weighting of Content areas

9

2.6

mathematics in the Fet

10

seCtion 3: oVerVieW oF toPiCs Per term and annual teaCHinG Plans

11

3.1 Specification of content to show Progression

11

3.1.1

overview of topics

12

3.2 Content clarification with teaching guidelines

16

3.2.1 Allocation of teaching time

16

3.2.2 Sequencing and pacing of topics

18

3.2.3 Topic allocation per term

21

 

Grade 10 Term: 1

21

Grade 10 Term: 2

24

Grade 10 Term: 3

26

Grade 10 Term: 4

29

Grade 11 Term: 1

30

Grade 11 Term: 2

32

Grade 11 Term: 3

34

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3 26 Grade 10 Term: 4 29 Grade 11 Term: 1 30 Grade 11 Term: 2

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

Grade 11 Term: 4

39

Grade 12

Term:1

40

Grade 12 Term: 2

44

Grade 12 Term: 3

48

Grade 12 Term: 4

50

seCtion 4: assessment in matHematiCs

51

4.1. introduction

51

4.2. informal or daily assessment

51

4.3. Formal assessment

52

4.4. Programme of assessment

53

4.5. recording and reporting

55

4.6. moderation of assessment

56

4.7. General

56

55 4.6. moderation of assessment 56 4.7. General 56 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS) 2

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

SeCTIoN 1

introduCtion to tHe CurriCulum and assessment PoliCy statements For matHematiCs Grades 10-12

1.1 Background

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (NCS) stipulates policy on curriculum and assessment in the

schooling sector.

To improve implementation, the National Curriculum Statement was amended, with the amendments coming into

effect in January 2012. A single comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment Policy document was developed for

each subject to replace Subject Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines

in Grades R-12.

1.2 overview

(a)

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January 2012) represents a policy statement for learning and teaching in South African schools and comprises the following:

(i)

Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements for each approved school subject;

(ii)

The policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12; and

(iii)

The policy document, National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12 (January 2012).

(b)

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January 2012) replaces the two current national curricula statements, namely the

(i)

Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9, Government Gazette No. 23406 of 31 May 2002, and

(ii)

National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 Government Gazettes, No. 25545 of 6 October 2003 and No. 27594 of 17 May 2005.

(c)

The national curriculum statements contemplated in subparagraphs b(i) and (ii) comprise the following policy documents which will be incrementally repealed by the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January 2012) during the period 2012-2014:

(i)

The Learning Area/Subject Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines for Grades R-9 and Grades 10-12;

(ii)

The policy document, National Policy on assessment and qualifications for schools in the General Education and Training Band, promulgated in Government Notice No. 124 in Government Gazette No. 29626 of 12 February 2007;

(iii)

The policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), promulgated in Government Gazette No.27819 of 20 July 2005;

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Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), promulgated in Government Gazette No.27819 of 20 July

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

(iv)

The policy document, An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding learners with special needs, published in Government Gazette, No.29466 of 11 December 2006, is incorporated in the policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12; and

(v)

The policy document, An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding the National Protocol for Assessment (Grades R-12), promulgated in Government Notice No.1267 in Government Gazette No. 29467 of 11 December 2006.

(d) The policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12, and the sections on the Curriculum and Assessment Policy as contemplated in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of this document constitute the norms and standards of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12. It will therefore, in terms of section 6A of the South African Schools Act, 1996 (Act No. 84 of 1996,) form the basis for the Minister of Basic education to determine minimum outcomes and standards, as well as the processes and procedures for the assessment of learner achievement to be applicable to public and independent schools.

1.3 General aims of the south african Curriculum

(a)

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 gives expression to the knowledge, skills and values worth

learning in South African schools. This curriculum aims to ensure that children acquire and apply knowledge

and skills in ways that are meaningful to their own lives. In this regard, the curriculum promotes knowledge in

local contexts, while being sensitive to global imperatives.

(b)

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 serves the purposes of:

equipping learners, irrespective of their socio-economic background, race, gender, physical ability or

intellectual ability, with the knowledge, skills and values necessary for self-fulfilment, and meaningful

participation in society as citizens of a free country;

providing access to higher education;

facilitating the transition of learners from education institutions to the workplace; and

providing employers with a sufficient profile of a learner’s competences.

(c)

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 is based on the following principles:

 

Social transformation: ensuring that the educational imbalances of the past are redressed, and that equal

 

educational opportunities are provided for all sections of the population;

 

Active and critical learning: encouraging an active and critical approach to learning, rather than rote and

 

uncritical learning of given truths;

 

High knowledge and high skills: the minimum standards of knowledge and skills to be achieved at each

 

grade are specified and set high, achievable standards in all subjects;

 

Progression: content and context of each grade shows progression from simple to complex;

4 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

Human rights, inclusivity, environmental and social justice: infusing the principles and practices of social and environmental justice and human rights as defined in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 is sensitive to issues of diversity such as poverty, inequality, race, gender, language, age, disability and other factors;

Valuing indigenous knowledge systems: acknowledging the rich history and heritage of this country as important contributors to nurturing the values contained in the Constitution; and

Credibility, quality and efficiency: providing an education that is comparable in quality, breadth and depth to those of other countries.

(d)

The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 aims to produce learners that are able to:

identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking;

work effectively as individuals and with others as members of a team;

organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively;

collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information;

communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes;

use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and the health of others; and

demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

(e)

Inclusivity should become a central part of the organisation, planning and teaching at each school. This can only happen if all teachers have a sound understanding of how to recognise and address barriers to learning, and how to plan for diversity.

The key to managing inclusivity is ensuring that barriers are identified and addressed by all the relevant support structures within the school community, including teachers, District-Based Support Teams, Institutional-Level Support Teams, parents and Special Schools as Resource Centres. To address barriers in the classroom, teachers should use various curriculum differentiation strategies such as those included in the Department of Basic Education’s Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning (2010).

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those included in the Department of Basic Education’s Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning (2010). CAPS

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

1.4 time allocation

1.4.1

Foundation Phase

(a)

The instructional time in the Foundation Phase is as follows:

 

suBJeCt

Grade r

Grades 1-2

Grade 3

(Hours)

(Hours)

(Hours)

Home Language

10

8/7

8/7

First Additional Language

 

2/3

3/4

Mathematics

7

7

7

Life Skills

6

6

7

Beginning Knowledge

(1)

(1)

(2)

Creative Arts

(2)

(2)

(2)

Physical education

(2)

(2)

(2)

Personal and Social Well-being

(1)

(1)

(1)

total

23

23

25

(b)

Instructional time for Grades R, 1 and 2 is 23 hours and for Grade 3 is 25 hours.

 

(c)

Ten hours are allocated for languages in Grades R-2 and 11 hours in Grade 3. A maximum of 8 hours and a minimum of 7 hours are allocated for Home Language and a minimum of 2 hours and a maximum of 3 hours for Additional Language in Grades 1-2. In Grade 3 a maximum of 8 hours and a minimum of 7 hours are allocated for Home Language and a minimum of 3 hours and a maximum of 4 hours for First Additional Language.

(d)

In Life Skills Beginning Knowledge is allocated 1 hour in Grades R-2 and 2 hours as indicated by the hours in brackets for Grade 3.

1.4.2

intermediate Phase

(a)

The instructional time in the Intermediate Phase is as follows:

 
 

suBJeCt

Hours

Home Language

6

First Additional Language

5

Mathematics

6

Natural Sciences and Technology

3,5

Social Sciences

3

Life Skills

4

Creative Arts

(1,5)

Physical education

(1)

Personal and Social Well-being

(1,5)

total

27,5

6 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

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CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

1.4.3

senior Phase

(a)

The instructional time in the Senior Phase is as follows:

suBJeCt

Hours

Home Language

5

First Additional Language

4

Mathematics

4,5

Natural Sciences

3

Social Sciences

3

Technology

2

economic Management Sciences

2

Life orientation

2

Creative Arts

2

total

27,5

1.4.4

Grades 10-12

(a)

The instructional time in Grades 10-12 is as follows:

suBJeCt

time alloCation Per Week (Hours)

Home Language

4.5

First Additional Language

4.5

Mathematics

4.5

Life orientation

2

A minimum of any three subjects selected from Group B Annexure B, Tables B1-B8 of the policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12, subject to the provisos stipulated in paragraph 28 of the said policy document.

12 (3x4h)

total

27,5

The allocated time per week may be utilised only for the minimum required NCS subjects as specified above, and may not be used for any additional subjects added to the list of minimum subjects. Should a learner wish to offer additional subjects, additional time must be allocated for the offering of these subjects

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a learner wish to offer additional subjects, additional time must be allocated for the offering of

7

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

SeCTIoN 2

introduction

In Chapter 2, the Further Education and Training (FET) Phase Mathematics CAPS provides teachers with a definition of mathematics, specific aims, specific skills, focus of content areas and the weighting of content areas.

2.1 What is mathematics?

mathematics is a language that makes use of symbols and notations for describing numerical, geometric and graphical relationships. It is a human activity that involves observing, representing and investigating patterns and qualitative relationships in physical and social phenomena and between mathematical objects themselves. It helps to develop mental processes that enhance logical and critical thinking, accuracy and problem solving that will contribute in decision-making.Mathematical problem solving enables us to understand the world (physical, social and economic) around us, and, most of all, to teach us to think creatively.

2.2

Specific Aims

1.

To develop fluency in computation skills without relying on the usage of calculators.

2.

Mathematical modeling is an important focal point of the curriculum. Real life problems should be incorporated into all sections whenever appropriate. examples used should be realistic and not contrived. Contextual problems should include issues relating to health, social, economic, cultural, scientific, political and environmental issues whenever possible.

3.

To provide the opportunity to develop in learners the ability to be methodical, to generalize, make conjectures and try to justify or prove them.

4.

To be able to understand and work with number system.

5.

To show Mathematics as a human creation by including the history of Mathematics.

6.

To promote accessibility of Mathematical content to all learners. It could be achieved by catering for learners with different needs.

7.

To develop problem-solving and cognitive skills. Teaching should not be limited to “how” but should rather feature the “when” and “why” of problem types. Learning procedures and proofs without a good understanding of why they are important will leave learners ill-equipped to use their knowledge in later life.

8.

To prepare the learners for further education and training as well as the world of work.

2.3

Specific Skills

To develop essential mathematical skills the learner should:

develop the correct use of the language of Mathematics;

collect, analyse and organise quantitative data to evaluate and critique conclusions;

and organise quantitative data to evaluate and critique conclusions; CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS) 8

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

use mathematical process skills to identify, investigate and solve problems creatively and critically;

use spatial skills and properties of shapes and objects to identify, pose and solve problems creatively and critically;

participate as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities; and

communicate appropriately by using descriptions in words, graphs, symbols, tables and diagrams.

2.4 Focus of Content areas

Mathematics in the FeT Phase covers ten main content areas. each content area contributes towards the acquisition of the specific skills. The table below shows the main topics in the FET Phase.

the main topics in the Fet mathematics Curriculum

1. Functions

2. number Patterns, sequences, series

3. Finance, growth and decay

4. algebra

5. differential Calculus

6. Probability

7. euclidean Geometry and measurement

8. analytical Geometry

9. trigonometry

10. statistics

2.5 Weighting of Content areas

The weighting of mathematics content areas serves two primary purposes: firstly the weighting gives guidance on the amount of time needed to address adequately the content within each content area; secondly the weighting gives guidance on the spread of content in the examination (especially end of the year summative assessment).

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gives guidance on the spread of content in the examination (especially end of the year summative

9

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

Weighting of Content areas

 

description

Grade 10

Grade 11

Grade. 12

PaPer 1 (Grades 12:bookwork: maximum 6 marks)

     

Algebra and equations (and inequalities)

30

± 3

45

± 3

25

± 3

Patterns and Sequences

15

± 3

25

± 3

25

± 3

Finance and Growth

10

±

3

   

Finance, growth and decay

 

15

± 3

15

± 3

Functions and Graphs

30

± 3

45

± 3

35

± 3

Differential Calculus

   

35

± 3

Probability

15

±

3

20

± 3

15

± 3

total

100

 

150

150

PaPer 2: Grades 11 and 12: theorems and/or trigonometric proofs: maximum 12 marks

 

description

Grade 10

Grade 11

Grade 12

Statistics

15

±

3

20

± 3

20

± 3

Analytical Geometry

15

±

3

30

± 3

40

± 3

Trigonometry

40

± 3

50

± 3

40

± 3

euclidean Geometry and Measurement

30

± 3

50

± 3

50

± 3

total

100

 

150

150

2.6 mathematics in the Fet

The subject Mathematics in the Further education and Training Phase forges the link between the Senior Phase and the Higher/Tertiary education band. All learners passing through this phase acquire a functioning knowledge of the Mathematics that empowers them to make sense of society. It ensures access to an extended study of the mathematical sciences and a variety of career paths.

In the FeT Phase, learners should be exposed to mathematical experiences that give them many opportunities to develop their mathematical reasoning and creative skills in preparation for more abstract mathematics in Higher/ Tertiary education institutions.

more abstract mathematics in Higher/ Tertiary education institutions. CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS) 10

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

SeCTIoN 3

introduction

Chapter 3 provides teachers with:

specification of content to show progression;

clarification of content with teaching guidelines; and

allocation of time.

3.1 Specification of Content to show Progression

The specification of content shows progression in terms of concepts and skills from Grade 10 to 12 for each content area. However, in certain topics the concepts and skills are similar in two or three successive grades. The clarification of content gives guidelines on how progression should be addressed in these cases. The specification of content should therefore be read in conjunction with the clarification of content.

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cases. The specification of content should therefore be read in conjunction with the clarification of content.

11

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

overview of topics

3.1.1

 

Grade 12

Introduce a more formal definition of a function and extend Grade 11 work on the relationships between variables in terms of numerical, graphical, verbal and symbolic representations of functions and convert flexibly between these representations (tables, graphs, words and formulae). Include linear, quadratic and some cubic polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and some rational functions.

The inverses of prescribed functions and be aware of the fact that, in the case of many-to-one functions, the domain has to be restricted if the inverse is to be a function.

Problem solving and graph work involving

the prescribed functions (including the

logarithmic function).

 

Identify and solve problems involving number patterns that lead to arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, including infinite geometric series.

 

Calculate the value of n in the formulae

A = P(1 + i) n and A = P(1- i) n

Apply knowledge of geometric series to solve

annuity and bond repayment problems.

Critically analyse different loan options.

(a)

(b)

 

extend Grade 10 work on the relationships

numerical,

graphical, verbal and symbolic representations of functions and convert flexibly between these representations (tables, graphs, words and formulae). Include linear and quadratic polynomial

functions, exponential functions, some rational functions and trigonometric functions.

Generate as many graphs as necessary, initially by means of point-by-point plotting, supported by available technology, to make and test conjectures and hence generalise the effects of the parameter which results in a horizontal shift and that which results in a horizontal stretch and/or reflection about the y axis.

Problem solving and graph work involving the prescribed functions. Average gradient between two points.

 

Investigate number patterns leading to those where there is a constant second difference between consecutive terms, and the general term is therefore quadratic.

Use simple and compound decay formulae A = P(1 + in) and A = P(1- i) n to solve problems (including straight line depreciation and depreciation on a reducing balance). Link to work on functions.

The effect of different periods of compounding growth and decay (including effective and nominal interest rates).

Grade 11

between variables in terms of

 

Work with relationships between variables in

graphical, verbal and

symbolic representations of functions and convert flexibly between these representations (tables, graphs, words and formulae). Include linear and some quadratic polynomial functions, exponential functions, some rational functions and

 

Generate as many graphs as necessary, initially by means of point-by-point plotting, supported by available technology, to make and test conjectures and hence generalise the effect of the parameter which results in a vertical shift and that which results in a vertical stretch and /or a reflection about the x axis.

Problem solving and graph work involving the prescribed functions.

 

numBer Patterns, seQuenCes and series

2.

Investigate number patterns leading to those

where there is constant difference between consecutive terms, and the general term is therefore linear.

Use simple and compound growth formulae

and A = P(1 + i) n to solve problems (including interest, hire purchase, inflation, population growth and other real life problems).

n to solve problems (including interest, hire purchase, inflation, population growth and other real life problems).

The implications of fluctuating foreign exchange rates.

FunCtions

1.

Grade 10

terms of numerical,

trigonometric functions.

FinanCe, GroWtH and deCay

3.

           
GroWtH and deCay 3.             CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

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MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

   

Demonstrate an understanding of the definition of a logarithm and any laws needed to solve real life problems.

 

Take note and understand, the Remainder and Factor Theorems for polynomials up to the third degree.

Factorise third-degree polynomials (including

examples which require the Factor Theorem).

 

Take note that there exist numbers other than those on the real number line, the so-called non- real numbers. It is possible to square certain non- real numbers and obtain negative real numbers as answers.

Nature of roots.

(a) Apply the laws of exponents to expressions involving rational exponents.

(b) Add, subtract, multiply and divide simple surds.

 

Revise factorisation.

   

quadratic equations;

quadratic inequalities in one variable and

interpret the solution graphically; and

equations in two unknowns, one of which is linear the other quadratic, algebraically or

graphically.

Solve:

Understand that real numbers can be irrational or rational.

Simplify expressions using the laws of exponents for rational exponents.

establish between which two integers a given

simple surd lies.

Round real numbers to an appropriate degree

of accuracy (to a given number of decimal digits).

Manipulate algebraic expressions by:

multiplying a binomial by a trinomial;

factorising trinomials;

factorising the difference and sums of two

cubes;

factorising by grouping in pairs; and

simplifying, adding and subtracting algebraic

fractions with denominators of cubes (limited to sum and difference of cubes).

 

linear equations;

quadratic equations;

literal equations (changing the subject of a

formula);

exponential equations;

linear inequalities;

system of linear equations; and

word problems.

4. alGeBra

(a)

(a)

(b)

(c)

Solve:

       

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• • • Solve: • • • • • • •         CAPS

13

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

 

An intuitive understanding of the concept of a limit.

Differentiation of specified functions from first

principles.

Use of the specified rules of differentiation.

The equations of tangents to graphs.

The ability to sketch graphs of cubic functions.

Practical problems involving optimization and rates of change (including the calculus of motion).

 

Probability problems using the fundamental counting principle.

Generalisation of the fundamental counting principle.

   

Revise earlier (Grade 9) work on the necessary and sufficient conditions for polygons to be similar.

Prove (accepting results established in earlier

grades):

that a line drawn parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides proportionally (and the Mid-point Theorem

as a special case of this theorem);

that equiangular triangles are similar;

that triangles with sides in proportion are

similar;

the Pythagorean Theorem by similar

triangles; and

riders.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

 

Dependent and independent events.

Venn diagrams or contingency tables and tree diagrams as aids to solving probability

problems (where events are not necessarily independent).

 

Investigate and prove theorems of the geometry of circles assuming results from earlier grades, together with one other result concerning tangents and radii of circles.

Solve circle geometry problems, providing reasons for statements when required.

Prove riders.

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(c)

diFFerential CalCulus

5.

 

Compare the relative frequency of an experimental outcome with the theoretical

probability of the outcome.

Venn diagrams as an aid to solving probability

problems.

Mutually exclusive events and complementary

events.

The identity for any two events A and B:

P(A or B) = P(A) + (B) - P(A and B)

euClidean Geometry and measurement

7.

Revise basic results established in earlier

grades.

Investigate line segments joining the mid-

points of two sides of a triangle.

Properties of special quadrilaterals.

ProBaBility

6.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

     
(b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c)       CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS) 14

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

14

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

   

Proof and use of the compound angle and

 

Solve problems in two and three dimensions.

 

Use a two-dimensional Cartesian co-ordinate system to derive and apply:

the equation of a circle (any centre); and

of a tangent to a circle at a given

 

Represent bivariate numerical data as a scatter plot and suggest intuitively and by simple investigation whether a linear, quadratic or exponential function would best fit the data.

Use a calculator to calculate the linear regression line which best fits a given set of bivariate numerical data.

Use a calculator to calculate the correlation co-efficient of a set of bivariate numerical data

and make relevant deductions.

 

double angle identities

 

the equation

on the circle.

point

(a)

(b)

(c)

Revise Grade 10 work.

Derive and use the identities:

and sin 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1.

sin θ θ cos

tan θ =

Derive the reduction formulae.

and / or specific

equations.

general solution

trigonometric

solutions of the

(c) Determine

establish the sine, cosine and area rules.

Solve problems in 2-dimensions.

the equation of a line through two given points;

Use a Cartesian co-ordinate system to derive and

apply :

the equation of a line through one point and parallel or perpendicular to a given line; and

the inclination of a line.

Represent measures of central tendency and dispersion in univariate numerical data by:

using ogives; and

calculating the variance and standard

sets of data) and representing

calculators

(for

manually

data using

data) of and

sets of of sets

(for larger

deviation

small

graphically.

results

Represent Skewed data in box and whisker

diagrams, and frequency polygons. Identify

outliers.

(a)

(a) (b) (d) • • (a) (b)

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b)

Solve problems involving volume and surface area of solids studied in earlier grades as well as spheres, pyramids and cones and combinations of those objects.

(a) Definitions of the trigonometric ratios sin θ,

cos θ and tan θ in a right-angled triangles.

tan θ

(b) Extend the definitions of sin θ , cos θ and

to 0 o θ ≤ 360 o .

(c) Derive and use values of the trigonometric

ratios (without using a calculator for the

special angles θ {0 o ;30 o ;45 o ;60 o ;90 o }

Define the reciprocals of trigonometric ratios.

So Solve problems in two dimensions.

analytiCal Geometry

9.

Represent geometric figures in a Cartesian co-

apply, for for any

), a formula

(x 2 ; y 2 and

and derive

(x 1 ; y 1 ) and

points system,

calculating:

ordinate

two

the distance between the two points;

the gradient of the line segment joining the

points;

conditions for parallel and perpendicular lines;

and

the co-ordinates of the mid-point of the line

segment joining the points.

(a) Collect, organise and interpret univariate

numerical data in order to determine:

measures of central tendency;

five number summary;

box and whisker diagrams; and

measures of dispersion.

triGonometry

8.

 

(d)

10. statistiCs

 
         

CAPS

15

 
CAPS 15  

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

3.2 Content Clarification with teaching guidelines

In Chapter 3, content clarification includes:

teaching guidelines;

sequencing of topics per term; and

pacing of topics over the year.

each content area has been broken down into topics. The sequencing of topics within terms gives an idea of how content areas can be spread and re-visited throughout the year.

The examples discussed in the Clarification Column in the annual teaching plan which follows are by no means a complete representation of all the material to be covered in the curriculum. They only serve as an indication of some questions on the topic at different cognitive levels. Text books and other resources should be consulted for a complete treatment of all the material.

The order of topics is not prescriptive, but ensure that part of trigonometry is taught in the first term and more than six topics are covered / taught in the first two terms so that assessment is balanced between paper 1 and 2.

first two terms so that assessment is balanced between paper 1 and 2. CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

16

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

3.2.1 allocation of teaching time

Time allocation for Mathematics: 4 hours and 30 minutes, e.g. six forty five-minutes periods, per week in grades 10, 11 and 12.

terms

Grade 10

Grade 11

Grade 12

 

no. of

 

no. of

 

no. of

weeks

weeks

weeks

 

Algebraic expressions

3

exponents and surds

3

Patterns, sequences and

3

term 1

exponents

2

equations and

3

series

Number patterns

1

inequalities

Functions and inverse

3

equations and

2

Number patterns

2

functions

inequalities

Analytical Geometry

3

exponential and

1

Trigonometry

3

logarithmic functions

Finance, growth and decay

2

Trigonometry - compound

2

angles

 

Functions

4

Functions

4

Trigonometry 2D and 3D

2

term 2

Trigonometric functions

1

Trigonometry (reduction

4

Polynomial functions

1

euclidean Geometry

3

formulae, graphs,

Differential calculus

3

MID-YeAR eXAMS

3

equations)

Analytical Geometry

2

MID-YeAR eXAMS

3

MID-YeAR eXAMS

3

 

Analytical Geometry

2

Measurement

1

Geometry

2

term 3

Finance and growth

2

euclidean Geometry

3

Statistics (regression and

2

Statistics

2

Trigonometry (sine,

2

correlation)

Trigonometry

2

area,

Counting and Probability

2

euclidean Geometry

1

cosine rules)

Revision

1

Measurement

1

Probability

2

TRIAL eXAMS

3

Finance, growth and decay

2

term 4

Probability

2

Statistics

3

Revision

3

Revision

4

Revision

3

eXAMS

6

eXAMS

3

eXAMS

3

The detail which follows includes examples and numerical references to the overview.

CAPS

eXAMS 3 eXAMS 3 The detail which follows includes examples and numerical references to the overview.

17

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

18 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS) 3.2.2 sequencing and Pacing of topics 1 matHematiCs:
18
CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
3.2.2
sequencing and Pacing of topics
1
matHematiCs: Grade 10 PaCe setter
term 1
Week
Weeks
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
11
Number
topics
Algebraic expressions
exponents
equations and inequalities
Trigonometry
patterns
assessment
Investigation or project
Test
date
completed
2
term 2
Week
Weeks
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
11
Trigonometric
topics
Functions
euclidean Geometry
functions
assessment
Assignment / Test
MID-YeAR eXAMINATIoN
date
completed
3
term 3
Weeks
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
topics
Analytical Geometry
Finance and growth
Statistics
Trigonometry
Measurement
assessment
Test
euclidean Geometry
Test
date
completed
4
term 4
Paper 2: 2 hours
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
30
euclidean geometry
20
Weeks
Week 8
Week 9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
Paper 1: 2 hours
Algebraic
expressions
and measurement
and
equations
(and
topics
Probability
Revision
Admin
inequalities)
Analytical geometry
15
exponents
Trigonometry
50
Number
Patterns
10
assessment
Test
examinations
Functions and
and growth
graphs
30
Statistics
15
Finance
15
Probability
15
date
Total marks
100
Total marks
100
completed

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

   

Week

11

       

Week

11

                 

40

60

30

20

150

   

MID-YeAR eXAMINATIoN

Week 10

 

Week 10

Analytical Geometry

Test

Week 10

Probability

Paper 2: 3 hours Geometry

measurement

and

Analytical geometry

Trigonometry

 

Total marks

Week 9

Week 9

 

Week 9

 

euclidean

Statistics

     

45

25

45

15

20

150

Week 8

Number patterns

 

Week 8

Trigonometry (reduction formulae, graphs, equations)

   

Week 8

Finance, growth and decay

Test

 

Paper 1: 3 hours expressions

Algebraic

(and

and graphs

Functions

and decay

Total marks

 

matHematiCs: Grade 11 PaCe setter term 1

Week 7

Week 7

Week 7

equations

and

patterns

inequalities)

Number

growth

Finance,

Probability

Week 6

     

term 2

Week 6

 

term 3

Week 6

rules) cosine and

area (sine,

Trigonometry

   

Week

10

Admin

   

equations and inequalities

Investigation or project

Week 9

 

FINAL eXAMINATIoN

   
           

Week 5

Week 5

Week 5

Week

8

 

Week

7

               

Week 4

   

Week 4

Week 4

term 4

Week

6

     
   

Week 3 euclidean Geometry

Week

 

Revision

Week 3

   

Week 3

   

Test

5

exponents and surds

Functions Assignment / Test

 

Week

4

 
     

Week 2

Week 2

Week 2

 

Week

3

     
   

Week

 

Statistics

Test

 

Week 1

Week 1

 

Week 1

Measurement

 

2

 

Week

1

   

1

Weeks

topics

assessment

date

completed

2

Weeks

topics

assessment

date

completed

3

Weeks

topics

assessment

date

completed

4

Weeks

topics

assessment

 

date

completed

CAPS

topics assessment date completed 4 Weeks topics assessment   date completed CAPS 19

19

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

20 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS) 1 matHematiCs: Grade 12 PaCe setter term 1
20
CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
1
matHematiCs: Grade 12 PaCe setter
term 1
Weeks
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Week
11
topics
Number patterns, sequences and series
Functions: Formal definition; inverses
Functions:
Finance, growth and decay
Trigonometry
exponential
and
assessment
Test
logarithmic
Investigation or project
Assignment
date
completed
2
term 2
Weeks
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Week
11
topics
Trigonometry
Functions:
Differential Calculus
Analytical Geometry
polynomials
assessment
Test
MID-YeAR eXAMINATIoN
date
completed
3
term 3
Weeks
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
topics
Geometry
Statistics
Counting and Probability
Revision
Week 9
trial eXamination
Week 10
assessment
Test
date
completed
4
term 4
Weeks
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week
Week 9
Week
Paper 1: 3 hours
Algebraic expressions
25
Paper 2: 3 hours
euclidean Geometry
50
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
and equations (and
and measurement
topics
Revision
FINAL eXAMINATIoN
Admin
inequalities)
Analytical Geometry
40
assessment
Number patterns
25
Trigonometry
40
Functions and graphs
35
Statistics
20
Finance, growth and decay
15
Differential Calculus
35
Counting and probability
15
date
Total marks
150
Total marks
150
completed

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

         

(R)

(R)

(R)

 

(C)

 

(R)

(P)

(R)

(R)

(C)

(C)

 

(k),

   

Clarification

is suggested: knowledge

(P)

(C) or problem-solving

cognitive demand

the procedure

complex

is given,

example (r),

procedure

Where an

routine

examples to illustrate the different cognitive levels involved in factorisation:

simplest

in all the texts.

recognise

and to appears

be able

is routine

type squares.

must

Learners

perfect

This

x - 3 + 1 (revision)

m 2 2 - - fully:

2m

Factorise

2x

1.1.

1.2.

Learners are required to work with fractions and identify

+ 18

13y

2

y 2 2 -

1.3.

when an expression has been “fully factorised”.

 

Simplify

Simplify

examples:

A simple two-step procedure is involved.

Simplify: (3 x 5 2 ) 3 - 75

not been taught,

as a

be factorised

can has

of question

numerator

this the type

Assuming that

spotting

2. Simplify

not been taught, as a be factorised can has of question numerator this the type Assuming

difference of squares requires insight.

:

Solve for x3.

125,02

x =3.1

2 x 2 3 = 54

of squares requires insight. : Solve for x 3. 1 2 5 , 0 2 x
 

Grade 10: term 1

1.

2.

1.

3.2

3.3

3.4

Curriculum statement

 

Understand that real numbers can be rational or irrational. establish surd lies. between which two integers a given simple Round real numbers to an appropriate degree of accuracy.

of a binomial by a trinomial.

Multiplication

Factorisation to include types taught in grade 9 and:

trinomials grouping in pairs sum and difference of two cubes

Simplification of algebraic fractions using factorization

with denominators of cubes (limited to sum and

 

Revise laws of exponents learnt in Grade 9 where

n Z:

 

x 0 , and

Use the laws of exponents to simplify expressions and

solve equations, accepting that the rules also hold for

 
 

difference of cubes).

m ,

y > 0 andx,

x m × x n = x m + n

x m ÷ x n = x m n ( x m ) n = x mn

x m × y m = ( xy ) m

Also by definition:

,
,

x 0 = 1 , x 0

Q.

m , n

topic allocation per term

3.2.3

   

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

1.

2.

topic

   

algebraic

expressions

 

exponents

no of

Weeks

   

3

   

2

CAPS

21

CAPS 21

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

(C)

(R)

(C)

(R)

(P)

(R)

(R)

If the pattern MATHSMATHSMATHS… is continued in this way, what will the 267 th letter be? It is not immediately obvious how one should proceed, unless similar

Determine the 5 th and the n th terms of the number pattern 10; 7; 4; 1; …. There is

Arithmetic sequence is done in Grade 12, hence is not used inGrade 10.

an algorithmic approach to answering such questions.

Solve for r in terms of V, and h: V =∏r 2 h

y =+ 13.

23

x

questions have been tackled.

Solve for x and y: x + 2y = 1;

-1 ≤ 2 - 3x ≤ 8

2m 2 - m = 1

Solve for m:

Solve for x:

Solve for x:

examples:

examples:

Comment:

4.

5.

1.
2.

1.
2.

show solution graphically).

Solve simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns.

Patterns: Investigate number patterns leading to those where there is a constant difference between consecutive terms, and the general term (without using a formula-see content overview) is therefore linear.

Solve word problems involving linear, quadratic or simultaneous linear equations.

Solve literal equations (changing the subject of a

Solve quadratic equations (by factorisation).

Revise the solution of linear equations.

known.

must be (and

inequalities

notation

Solve linear

formula).

Interval

1.
2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

equations and

numbers and

inequalities

patterns

2

1

Clarification

Grade 10: term 1

Curriculum statement

topic

Weeks

no of

u m s t a t e m e n t t o p i c
u m s t a t e m e n t t o p i c
u m s t a t e m e n t t o p i c

CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)

22

MATHEMATICS GRADES 10-12

(K)

(P)

(C)

centre of the cube), then there will be 8 smaller cubes. each of the smaller cubes will have 3 red faces and 3 white faces. Investigate the number of smaller cubes which will have 3,

(R)

Imagine a cube of white wood which is dipped into red paint so that the surface is red, but the inside still white. If one cut is made, parallel to each face of the cube (and through the

red faces if 2/3/4/…/n equally spaced cuts are made parallel to each face. This task provides the opportunity to investigate, tabulate results, make conjectures and justify

similarity of triangles is fundamental to the trigonometric ratios sin θ, cos θ and tan θ;

has a different effect from doubling an angle, for example, generally

trigonometric ratios are independent of the lengths of the sides of a similar right-angled triangle and depend (uniquely) only on the angles, hence we consider them as functions of the angles;

Care needs to be taken to set questions on all four cognitive levels: approximately 20% knowledge, approximately 35% routine procedures, 30% complex procedures and 15%

, where c is a

If 5sin θ + 4 = 0 and 0 0 θ ≤ 270 0 , calculate the value of sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ without

that A Bsuch ˆ E = 45 0

Determine the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle ABC, where

cx

=2tan,

Let ABCD be a rectangle, with AB = 2cm. Let E be on AD and BÊC = 75 0 . Determine the area of the rectangle.

, or

cx

=cos2

=sin cx or

= 30 0 and AB = 10cm

for

Solve equation of the form

It is important to stress that:

2θ; and

using a calculator.

a ratio

A, ˆ

θ ≠ sin

Solve for x:

constant.

B ˆ = 90 0

doubling

examples:

Comment:

2sin

3.
4.

1.
2.


a calculator) ratios for the special

Solve two-dimensional problems involving right-angled

Define the trigonometric ratios sin θ, cos θ and tan θ, using right-angled triangles.

in grade

examined triangles

Use diagrams to determine the numerical values of

Extend the definitions of sin θ, cos θ and tan θ for

Define the reciprocals of the trigonometric ratios

equations for angles

right-angled

Investigation or project (only one project per year) (at least 50 marks)

Test (at least 50 marks and 1 hour). Make sure all topics are tested.