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# BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING WITH HONOURS

## BFC 21103 HYDRAULICS

Semester II Session 2017/2018

## 37.07 acres of on-going development site

Runoff problem encountered at the adjacent residential situated on lower ground is described
by the following photos.

Figure 1: Sediment laden runoff from a development site has caused inconvenience to
neighboring residents whenever rain falls

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Instructions:
1. A project group MUST ONLY consists of a MAXIMUM of FIVE (5) members.
2. Project question:
A 37.07 acres of forested land is to be converted into commercial centre (Figure 1).
After land clearing (bare soil), rainfall events have caused sediment laden runoff to
intrude into lower ground, inundating depressions, and causing nuisance to neighboring
residents. Complaints by the residents have been filed at the local authority and
forwarded to the developer and contractor in-charge. Figure 1 shows the relationship of
rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency (IDF) developed from historical rainfall
record obtained from the rain station within the site. Considering rainfall duration of 30
minutes, propose a temporary drain to help the developer and contractor solve the
problem, focusing on the area marked as A in Figure 1. However, there is at least one
limitation. The width of the channel should not be greater than 1 m wide.

## 3. Selection of coefficient of land use C, Manning roughness n, longitudinal slope So,

rainfall event return period, channel section and other variables are to be justified in the
report.

4.1 For development of an area of 80 hectare or less, rational method can be used to
calculate for peak discharge by DID (2012). Rational method is given as
CIA
Q (1)
360
where, Q = peak flow (m3/s); C = runoff coefficient (see Table 1); I = average
rainfall intensity (mm/hr) (Figure 1); and A = drainage area (ha).

4.2 For the purpose of channel design, the rate of flow Q can be obtained from the
continuity equation, i.e.
Q  AV (2)
2
where, V = mean velocity of flow (m/s), and A = area of flow (m ).

## Also, the Manning flow resistance equation gives

2 1
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Q  AR 3 S o2 (3)
n
where, n = Manning roughness coefficient (see Table 2), yo = uniform depth of
 A
flow (m), R = hydraulic radius    (m), P = wetted perimeter (m), and So =
 P
longitudinal channel bed slope. Table 3 shows the recommend limit for surface
flow velocity.

## 5. Report Writing and Presentation:

5.1 Format of report:
(a) Project report should be typed with 1.5 lines spacing, in 12-pt Times New
Roman, printed on A4-size papers with margins 2.5 cm on all four sides.
(b) The report should not exceed 20 pages (including photos). All pages
(excluding cover and list of content) should be numbered (centered at the
bottom of the page).

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5.2 Content of the report:
(a) Cover page with list of group members
(b) List of content
1.0 Introduction – introduction, objectives, assumptions used and
limitations of the project.
2.0 Study Area – descriptions on channel location, topography and
channel characteristics, proposed channel alignment and flow direction,
and other important information.
3.0 Methods or Equations – justifications on the variables, methods
and/or equations used, as well as the analyses.
4.0 Results – provide results of channel alignment, channel geometry/size,
longitudinal slope So, Manning roughness coefficient n, velocity of
flow V, and rate of flow Q.
5.0 Conclusions – summary of the project including the learning outcomes
(see assessment rubric) and any recommendation.
(d) References
(e) Attachment – individual weekly and overall reflection are to be attached,
which can be hand written (see the templates provided).

5.3 Project presentation carried out either through presentation in class, video-
presentation or interview-based, is subjected to the instructor requirement. During
submission/presentation of the report, all members of the group must be present
where questions will be posed to each member of the group (see assessment
rubric).

Note: Please refer to your instructor if any doubt arises during project implementation as the
assessment and grading will be carried out by the class instructor.

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Table 1: Recommended runoff coefficients for various landuses (DID, 2012)
Runoff coefficient C
Landuse For minor system For major system
( 10 year ARI) (> 10 year ARI)
Residential
Bungalow 0.65 0.70
Semi-detached bungalow 0.70 0.75
Link and terrace house 0.80 0.90
Flat and apartment 0.80 0.85
Condominium 0.75 0.80
Commercial and Business Centres 0.90 0.95
Industrial 0.90 0.95
Sport Fields, Park and Agriculture 0.30 0.40
Open Spaces
Bare soil (no cover) 0.50 0.60
Grass cover 0.40 0.50
Bush cover 0.35 0.45
Forest cover 0.30 0.40
Water Body (Pond)
Detention pond (with outlet) 0.95 0.95
Retention pond (no outlet) 0.00 0.00

## Figure 1: Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relationship of the development site

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Table 2: Values of Manning roughness coefficent n for open channels (Chow, 1959; DID,
2012)

## Drain/pipe Manning roughness n

Grassed drain
Short grass cover (< 150 mm) 0.035
Tall grass cover ( 150 mm) 0.050
Lined drain
Concrete
Smooth finish 0.015
Rough finish 0.018
Stone pitching
Dressed stone in mortar 0.017
Random stones in mortar or rubble masonry 0.035
Rock riprap 0.030
Brickwork 0.020
Pipe material
Vitrified clay 0.012
Spun precast concrete 0.013
Fibre reinforced cement 0.013
UPVC 0.011

## Table 3: Surface flow criteria (DID, 2012)

Criteria Recommended limit
Overland flow velocity  depth < 0.5 m2/s
for vehicle stability and pedestrian areas
Flow width for street gutters 2 to 2.5 m or a half-lane
Flow velocity
i. soft lined waterways and overland flow paths < 2.0 m/s
ii. hard lined channels < 4.0 m/s
Ponding depth < 0.20 m in unfenced areas
< 1.2 m in fenced areas

References:
Chow, V. T. (1959). Open-Channel Hydraulics. USA: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
DID (Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia) (2012). Urban Stormwater
Management Manual for Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: DID.

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BFC21103 Hydraulics Project Assessment Rubric

CLO1: Explain the concept of uniform and non-uniform flows in open channel (C4, PLO4)
Assessment Criteria Subcriteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Application of suitable
Use of correct C3 1.0
equations
variables and
Analyses done through step
equations C4 1.0
by step methodology
Use appropriate Analyses the direction of
C4 1.0
concept and flow for chosen alignment
Report
methodology to Provide suitable sizing of
C4 1.0
interpret data channel
Justification on Synthesizes all data in
C5 0.5
methodology, sizing & aligning channel
assumption & Justify the use of all
C6 0.5
limitation in study variables
Total (%) 5 /25.0

CLO2: Discuss technically the given open channel hydraulics problem (P3, PLO2)
Assessment Criteria Subcriteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Descriptions on study area
Technical P1 0.5
based on provided data
investigations on
Extracting data for use in
study area P2 1.5
calculation and analyses
Careful selection of equations
Utilizing information P3 1.5
based on instructions
and equations in
Report & Solutions are clearly
sizing channel P3 1.5
Presentation described
Calculations carried out are
P4 1.5
ensured correct (validated)
Choice on complexity of
channel size for the P5 0.7
design variables selection
study area
P6 0.3
channel size technically
Total (%) 7.5 /37.5

CLO3: Respond in group effectively in solving uniform and non-uniform flows problems (A3, PLO5)
Assessment Criteria Subcriteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Follows given format of
A1 1.5
project report
Convey information Shows contribution from all
A2 1.5
in group members
Demonstrate the utilization
A3 1.5
Report & of provided information
Presentation Demonstrate the importance
A3 2.0
of documented information
Convey spoken ideas Organisation of group work
A4 0.7
in group and presentation
Support members in Q&A
A5 0.3
session
Total (%) 7.5 /37.5

## Overall Marks (%) 20 /100

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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Week: _________

## Other learning activities:__________________________________________________________

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(you may attach additional sheet if required)

## 2. Reflect on your group weekly activities/performance

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(you may attach additional sheet if required)

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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

## Overall reflection on learning experience for this project

(To be filled by student at the end of project)

1. Content

2. Learning Activities

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3. Instructor (s)

4. Group Members

5. Generic/Soft Skills

6. Overall/Others