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Introductory Sommelier Course Workbook

master
court of

sommeliers
Americas
The Court of Master
Sommeliers focuses on
skills and knowledge
needed for success when
working on a restaurant
dining room floor.
Our Vision
The Court of Master Sommeliers sets the global standard of excellence for
beverage service within the hospitality industry with integrity, exemplary
knowledge, and humility.

Our Mission
The Court of Master Sommeliers elevates the quality of beverage service
throughout the hospitality industry with our peerless credentials. We expand
the rich heritage of our organization through mentorship, rigorous preparation
and examination. We chart the course for current and future Master Sommeliers
worldwide.

What is a Sommelier?
A sommelier has traditionally been understood to be a wine steward in the
dining room of a restaurant. Recently, sommeliers have branched out to
engage in many other activities in the beverage alcohol industry. The Court of
Master Sommeliers focuses on skills and knowledge necessary for success when
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Why Become a Master Sommelier?


Becoming a Master Sommeliers entails more than acquiring a title and a
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outstanding service, and general professionalism as an industry leader.
Acquiring these capacities and attaining expertise at the highest level is not a
short-term undertaking but rather a journey. The journey begins here.

1
master
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sommeliers
Americas

Introduction to the Course


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Course is given over a two-day period by a team of Master Sommeliers.
Students receive an intensive review on the world of wine and spirits, training
on proper wine service and learn the Deductive Tasting Method.

Philosophy of Curriculum
Our philosophy revolves around the three, mutually reinforcing pillars of
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by building understanding of the factors that determine their characteristics.
Similarly, tasting experience reinforces theoretical knowledge by providing
memorable examples of how differences in climate or production techniques
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knowledge and growth of an extensive inventory of tasting experiences
can contribute to improved service, as these will inform practical decisions
regarding — for example — appropriate glassware or proper serving
temperature.

Theoretical Knowledge
This Course provides fast-paced instruction regarding the essential aspects
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The Deductive Tasting Method


Students are introduced to the Deductive Tasting Method. They are then
offered the opportunity to practice The Method with fellow students and
Masters in six tastings over the course of two days.

Service, Salesmanship and Hospitality


The Court of Master Sommeliers service standards are demonstrated and
reviewed.

2
Introduction to this Workbook
This workbook is intended to aid students in their preparation for the Court of
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during the class itself and becomes a useful tool for future study.

Each region or subject covered follows a similar format.

Learning Points Each section begins with a list of points a student should take
away from the subject.

Factors of Production Each section will follow a similar format so the student
will learn the most important aspects or factors of a wine-growing area or topic.

• Historical background
• Location / Geography
• Climate
• Topography/ Aspect
• Soil
• Grape varieties planted
• Viticultural practices
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• Harvest
• Yearly weather / Vintage variation
• Terroir
• Regional wine law

Quiz Questions A short quiz follows each section to ensure all important points
were learned and is a chance to test your knowledge in preparation for the
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How to prepare for the Introductory Course


Advanced preparation is imperative to getting the most out of this Course and
for success on the exam. Reading over each section and taking each quiz is a
great place to start. Use Guildsomm.com for additional reading and details.
The Course itself is taught by Master Sommelier instructors that will bring color,
clarity and perspective to these subjects.

3
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Introductory Course
Program Schedule — Day One

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Philosophy of Curriculum
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Break
The Deductive Tasting Method — Tasting Flight One — Tasting
Basics of Food and Beverage Pairing — Beverage Service
France
The French Paradigm — Understanding European Wine Law
Burgundy
Bordeaux
Lunch
Deductive Tasting Flight Two
Champagne and World Sparkling Wines
Loire Valley
Alsace
Rh ône Valley
Break
Deductive Tasting Flight Three
Service, Salesmanship and Hospitality

Your Course Instructors:

4
Introductory Course
Program Schedule — Day Two

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Germany and Austria
Spain and Portugal
Break
Deductive Tasting Flight Four
North America: The United States
South America and South Africa
Australia and New Zealand
Lunch
Deductive Tasting Flight Five
Break
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Beer
Sake
Cider
Spirits
Break
Examination
Results and Reception

Your Course Instructors:

5
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Table of Contents
The Core Lectures
Viticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
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The Deductive Tasting Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Basics of Food and Beverage Pairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

France
The French Paradigm — Understanding European Wine Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Burgundy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Bordeaux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Champagne and World Sparkling Wines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Loire Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Alsace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Rh ône Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

Europe
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Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

The New World


North America — The United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

World Wines and Beverages


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Beer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Sake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Cider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Service and Hospitality


Wine Service and Salesmanship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Demeanor of the Professional Sommelier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Deductive Tasting Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

6
Day One
Day One

Viticulture
The Art of Vine Growing
Learning Points
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Viticulture
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• Location / Geography
• Climate
• Topography / Aspect
• Soil
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• Harvest
• Yearly weather / Vintage variation
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Location/Geography
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Latitudinal Zones of Winegrowing

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8
Day One

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Important Factors That Affect Climate


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10
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Grapes: A Look From The Inside Out


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• Grape Skins

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• Pulp
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Pulp

11
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sommeliers
Americas

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 ‡*UDSHVDUHWKHIUXLWRIDYLQLQJSODQWRIWKHJHQXV9LWLV

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• Vitis Vinifera
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Grape Variety: Matching Soil and Climate

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 ‡2WKHUIDFWRUVLQFOXGH
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12
Day One

Cause and Effect


Climate, ripeness and the connection to wine style

• Cool Climate
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• Warm Climate
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In the Vineyard
Viticultural Practices
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  ODLGRXW

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 'URSSLQJRUFXWWLQJJUDSHEXQFKHVRIIRIYLQHEHIRUHKDUYHVWWRIRFXV
 WKHYLQH·VHQHUJ\RQIHZHUKLJKHUTXDOLW\EXQFKHV

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Vinyard Management
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HOHPHQWV

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  (XURSHDQZLQHUHJLRQV

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:KHQDQGKRZJUDSHVDUHSLFNHGIURPWKHYLQHLVRQHRIPDQ\IDFWRUVWKDW
GHWHUPLQHZLQHVW\OHDQGTXDOLW\

• Timing of Picking:KHQH[DFWO\DUHWKHJUDSHVSLFNHG"

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14
Day One

• Number of Vineyard Passes0DQ\ZLQHPDNHUVRUYLQH\DUG


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• Method of Harvest+RZWKHJUDSHVDUHKDUYHVWHGPD\EH
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  ²Bin Size: Small vs Large +DUYHVWLQJE\KDQGLQWRVPDOOELQV


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Americas

Yearly Weather and Vintage Variation


$OWKRXJKJURZLQJJUDSHVWRPDNHZLQHPD\EHPRUHJODPRURXVWKDQ
JURZLQJOHWWXFHLWLVLPSRUWDQWWRUHPHPEHUWKDWJUDSHJURZLQJLVVWLOOMXVWD
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sense of place. $VZHZLOOGLVFRYHULQXSFRPLQJVHFWLRQVPDQ\ZLQHUHJLRQVOHJLVODWHZKLFK
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that character?
Historical Background
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16
Day One

Viticulture
Quiz Questions

Which of the following terms refers to the climate of a single


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E0DFURFOLPDWH
F0LFURFOLPDWH
G=RQH

The majority of the world’s vineyards are planted:


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Name three positive effects of wind in a vineyard.

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Name three wine regions of the world that are affected by rain shadows.
(Come back to this question as we progress through the wine regions of
the world.)

Most quality grape varieties we see today are made from which
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Explain why “green harvesting” is practiced.

17
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Americas

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
The Art of Winemaking
Learning Points
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• Pre-Fermentation Factors
• Fermentation
• Types of Winemaking
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• Fermentation Vessels
• Aging and Maturation
• ,PSRUWDQW9LQLÀFDWLRQ7HUPV
• Preparation for Bottling
• Packaging

18
Day One

Pre-Fermentation Factors
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  FOXVWHU³RUHYHQGRZQWRVHOHFWLQJVLQJOHJUDSHVIURPFOXVWHUV

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Fermentation

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+
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+HDW

19
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Americas

Winemaking Steps
White Wine Rosé Red Wine

+DUYHVW +DUYHVW +DUYHVW


 UHGRUZKLWHJUDSHV  UHGJUDSHV  UHGJUDSHV

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• Size and Shape of Vessel


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each of these vessels • Vessel Material
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wine?   ²&RQFUHWH

20
Day One

Aging and Maturation


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• Barrel Aging:KDWGRHVLWGR"
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• +RZ2OGLVWKH%DUUHO"
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   FDQFRQWLQXHWRFRQWULEXWHR[LGDWLYHÁDYRUDQGWH[WXUDOHIIHFWVWR
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How long will the wine
• Financial Considerations EHDJHGLQWKHEDUUHO"
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• Size of the Barrel
aging for white wines
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  ²Small Barrels:LOOLPSDUWPRUHÁDYRUWRWKHZLQHDVDKLJKHU
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21
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sommeliers
Americas

7KHÁDYRULPSDUWHGE\DQRDNEDUUHOLVGHSHQGHQWRQWKHPHWKRGRI
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22
Day One

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9LQLÀFDWLRQ
Quiz Questions

American oak barrels are generally characterized by more intense


aromas of coconut and vanilla than French oak barrels.
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What process involves intracellular fermentation of whole berries,


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In the process of fermentation, yeasts metabolize grape sugars and


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24
Day One

Deductive Tasting Method


Learning Points
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How to Learn the Deductive Method


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The Five Criteria of Deductive Tasting


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Sensory Evaluation
 Sight:KDWWKHZLQHORRNVOLNH
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Theoretical Deduction
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 Final Conclusion7KHÀQDODQVZHU

Steps in Evaluating the Sight of a Wine


(What a Wine Looks Like)

Evaluating the Sight of a Wine


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26
Day One

Steps in Evaluating the Sight of Wine


1. Clarity / Visible Sediment
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  ²Winemaking technique Tasting Method to
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• Scale7KHVHDUHWKHZRUGVZHXVHWRGHVFULEHWKHFODULW\RIDZLQH
  ²Clear / Hazy / Turbid

Sediment and Particles in Wine

Sediment in Red Wines


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White Wines Can Have Sediment as Well!


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2. Concentration of Color
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White Wines
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  ²Age of the Wine
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Red Wines
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  ²Grape variety
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Steps in Evaluating the Sight of Wine


Evaluating Color

3. Color
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Color Scale for White Wine


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Straw Yellow Gold Amber

28
Day One

Color Scale for Red Wine


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Purple Ruby Garnet

Steps in Evaluating the Sight of Wine


Evaluating Color

4. Secondary Color and Hues


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7KLQNDERXWZLQHV\RX
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them?
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5. Rim Variation
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Rim

Core

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6. Color Extract and Staining

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7. Tearing

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8. Gas Bubbles

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wine to have heavy or   LQGLFDWLRQWKDWWKHZLQHZDVERWWOHGYHU\VRRQDIWHUIHUPHQWDWLRQDWFRRO
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30
Day One

Evaluating the “Nose” or Aromas of Wine


(What a Wine Smells Like)
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Smelling technique
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Steps in Evaluating the Nose of a Wine

1. Clean or Faulty&KHFNLQJIRUSUREOHPVZLWKWKHZLQH

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• Trichloroanisole (“TCA”) / Corkiness


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• Oxidation
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sommeliers
Americas

• Volatile Acidity (“VA”)


  ²7KLVLVDFDWFKDOOWHUPUHIHUULQJWRWKHSUHVHQFHRIDFHWLFDFLGJLYLQJD
   ZLQHYLQHJDU\DURPDV
  ²$FHWLFDFLGLVWKHPDLQFRPSRQHQWLQYLQHJDU,WLVSURGXFHGLQZLQH
   ZKHQWKHEDFWHULDDFHWREDFWHU RUFHUWDLQZLOG\HDVWV DQGR[\JHQDUH
   SUHVHQWGXULQJWKHIHUPHQWDWLRQSURFHVV

• Ethyl Acetate (“EA”)


  ²($IRUPVIURPWKHUHDFWLRQRIHWKDQRODQGDFHWLFDFLG,WLPSDUWVD
   GLVWLQFWDURPDRIDFHWRQHRUQDLOSROLVKUHPRYHU

• Excess Sulfur Dioxide – SO2


  ²622LVFRPPRQO\XVHGGXULQJWKHZLQHPDNLQJSURFHVV7RRPXFK
   KRZHYHUFDQOHDYHDZLQHVPHOOLQJRIDVWUXFNPDWFKVWLFNRURIZHWZRRO

• Brettanomyces
  ²7KLVLVD\HDVWJURZWKWKDWJLYHVDZLQHDURPDVUDQJLQJIURP
   VPRNHFORYHVDQGVSLFHWREDQGDLGVDQGPDQXUH

 ‡+\GURJHQ6XOÀGH +2S)
  ²+26LVDFRQVHTXHQFHRILQDGHTXDWH\HDVWQXWULWLRQGXULQJIHUPHQWDWLRQ
   DQGFDQJLYHZLQHVXQSOHDVDQWDURPDVRIRQLRQUXEEHURUURWWHQHJJV

2. Intensity of Aromas+RZLQWHQVHDUHWKHDURPDVRIWKHZLQHXSRQÀUVW
VQLII"$UHWKH\SRZHUIXORUVXEWOH"

• Scale7KHVHDUHWKHZRUGVZHXVHWRGHVFULEHDURPDWLFLQWHQVLW\
Low (delicate) / Moderate / High (powerful)

3. Age Assessment +RZROGLVWKHZLQH"7KHVHDUHWKHZRUGVDQGGHVFULSWRUV


ZHXVHZKHQGHVFULELQJWKHDJHRIDZLQH

• Youthful<RXQJEULJKWSULPDU\IUHVKIUXLWDURPDV
• Developing%HJLQQLQJWRVKRZVLJQVRIDJH
• Vinous6LJQVRIDJHDQGR[LGDWLRQ

32
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4. Describing Fruit Aromas in Wine7KHVHDUHWKHZRUGVZHXVHWRGHVFULEH


IUXLWDURPDVLQZLQH

• White Wine Fruit Descriptors


  ²Citrus/HPRQOLPHRUDQJHJUDSHIUXLWWDQJHULQH
  ²Apple / Pear*UHHQUHGRU\HOORZDSSOHVSHDUV
  ²Stone / Pit Fruit3HDFKQHFWDULQHDSULFRW
  ²Tropical Fruit3LQHDSSOHPDQJRSDSD\DSDVVLRQIUXLW
  ²Melon&DQWDORXSHKRQH\GHZ
Hint:
• Red Wine Fruit Descriptors Start with recognizing
  ²Red Fruits&KHUU\UDVSEHUU\UHGSOXPFUDQEHUU\VWUDZEHUU\ the larger category
   SRPHJUDQDWH RIIUXLW¾UVWDQG
  ²Black Fruits%ODFNEHUU\EODFNFKHUU\EODFNSOXPEODFNFXUUDQW WKHQPRYHWRVSHFL¾F
  ²Blue Fruits%OXHEHUU\ER\VHQEHUU\ IUXLWV$VDQH[DPSOH
UHFRJQL]HFLWUXVEHIRUH
specifying lemons or
limes.

Reference the CMS


'HGXFWLYH7DVWLQJ
/DQJXDJH&KDUWLQWKH
EDFNRIWKLVERRNWR
VSXU\RXUPHPRU\

Examples:

Baked apple vs.


fresh green apple

5. Fruit Character:KDWLVWKHFRQGLWLRQRUFKDUDFWHURIWKHIUXLW\RXVPHOO" )UHVKVWUDZEHUULHVYV


7KHVHDUHMXVWVRPHRIWKHZRUGVZHFDQXVHWRGHVFULEHWKHIUXLWRIWKHZLQH·V VWUDZEHUU\MDP
QRVH
Dried cherries vs.
• Ripe
fresh cherries
• Fresh
• Tart
• Baked /HPRQSHHODQGMXLFH
• Stewed / Cooked vs.
• Dried 6ZHHWOHPRQFXUG
• Desiccated
• Bruised
• Jammy / Preserves

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Americas

6. Non-Fruit Character 7KHUHRIWHQLVPXFKPRUHWRDZLQH·VDURPDWKDQ


MXVWIUXLWFKDUDFWHU%HORZLVDVPDOOVDPSOHRIDURPDVWKDWDUHQRWSDUWRIWKH
IUXLWHDUWKRURDNFDWHJRULHV$JDLQRUJDQL]H\RXUWKRXJKWVE\LGHQWLI\LQJWKH
EURDGHUFDWHJRU\EHIRUHJHWWLQJVSHFLÀF

%HVXUHWRXVHWKH'HGXFWLYH7DVWLQJ&KDUWIRUUHIHUHQFH

• Floral Aromas
  ²White Wines<HOORZ GDLV\ ZKLWH EDE\·VEUHDWKMDVPLQHKRQH\VXFNOH
  ²Red Wines5HG URVHV SXUSOH OLODFYLROHW 
  ²Other Descriptors)UHVKGULHG

• Vegetal Aromas
  ²White Wines%HOOSHSSHUMDODSHxRSHSSHU
  ²Red Wines%HOOSHSSHUMDODSHxRSHSSHU

• Herbal or Green Aromas


  ²White Wines )UHVKO\FXWJUDVV
  ²Red Wines2UHJDQRVDJHWK\PH

• Spices
  ²White Wines:KLWHSHSSHUFRUQ
  ²Red Wines%ODFNSHSSHUFRUQ

• Animal or Barnyard

• Petrol)XHOJDVROLQH

• Fermentation0DORODFWLFIHUPHQWDWLRQFDUERQLFPDFHUDWLRQ
  OHHVFRQWDFW

• Botrytis+RQH\JLQJHUVDIIURQPXVKURRP

• Leather, tobacco and many, many more!

34
Day One

7. Earth and Mineral Character 7KHVHDUHMXVWVRPHRIWKHSRVVLEOHGHVFULSWRUV


IRUHDUWKDQGPLQHUDOFKDUDFWHULQDZLQH·VQRVH

• Earth/LYLQJHDUWK
  ²)RUHVW ÁRRU
  ²&RPSRVW
  ²0XVKURRPWUXIÁH
  ²3RWWLQJ VRLO
  ²)UHVKWXUQHGHDUWK

• Mineral1RQOLYLQJHDUWK
  ²:HW 6WRQH
  ²/LPHVWRQH
  ²&KDON
  ²6ODWH
  ²)OLQW

8. Wood / Oak 2DNHVSHFLDOO\ZKHQKHDWHGRYHUÀUHWRIRUPVWDYHVIRU


DEDUUHOKDVDGLVWLQFWDURPD:LQHIHUPHQWHGDQGRUVWRUHGLQRDNKDVD
GLIIHUHQWQRVHWKDQZLQHWKDWKDVQHYHUEHHQLQEDUUHO,WLVLPSRUWDQWWREH
DEOHWRLGHQWLI\WKHDURPDVWKDWFRPHIURPRDNEHIRUHDVVHVVLQJPRUHVSHFLÀF
GHWDLOVVXFKDVWKHW\SHRIRDNWKHVL]HDQGDJHRIWKHEDUUHOVDQGWKHDPRXQW
RIWLPHWKHZLQHKDVVSHQWLQWKHP

7KHVHDUHVRPHRIWKHGHVFULSWRUVXVHGWRGHVFULEHRDNFKDUDFWHU

• &HGDU
• 7RDVW
• 6PRNH Certain aromas (and
• 'ULHG EDNLQJ VSLFHVVXFKDVFLQQDPRQFORYHDOOVSLFHDQGQXWPHJ ¿DYRUV FDQJLYHDQ
• 9DQLOOD indication of the type
• 'LOO DQGVL]HRIEDUUHOXVHG
• &RFRQXW
• 6DZGXVW

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Americas

Large Barrel Small Barrel or Barrique


/HVVZLQHLVLQFRQWDFWZLWKWKH 0RUHZLQHLVLQFRQWDFWZLWKWKH
EDUUHOWKHUHIRUHOLWWOHRDN\ÁDYRULV EDUUHOLWVHOILPSDUWLQJPRUHZRRG
LPSDUWHG+RZHYHUROGHUEDUUHOV EDVHGDURPDVDQGÁDYRUV
WKDWDUHQRORQJHULPSDUWLQJ VS.
ZRRGEDVHGDURPDVRUÁDYRUVFDQ
FRQWLQXHWRFRQWULEXWHR[LGDWLYH
QRWHVDQGWH[WXUDOHIIHFWVWRWKH
ZLQH

Older Oak New Oak


2DNEDUUHOVORVHWKHSRWHQF\RI 1HZRDNEDUUHOV RU´ÀUVWXVHµ
ÁDYRULPSDFWDSSUHFLDEO\DIWHU EDUUHOV ZLOOLPSDUWWKHPRVW
HDFKXVH$IWHUWKHWKWK\HDU
WKHEDUUHOLVHVVHQWLDOO\GHHPHG
VS. SXQJHQWÁDYRUVWRDZLQHVXFKDV
 ‡7RDVW
QHXWUDOEXWVWLOOKDVDQLPSDFWZLWK  ‡6PRNH
R[LGDWLYHQRWHVDQGWH[WXUDOHIIHFWV  ‡%DNLQJVSLFHV
WRWKHZLQH  ‡9DQLOOD

French Oak American Oak


7HQGVWREHPRUHVXEWOHLQ 7HQGVWREHVWURQJHULQDURPDDQG
DURPDDQGÁDYRUZLWKQRWHVRI ÁDYRUZLWKQRWHVRI
     ‡9DQLOODEHDQ  ‡&DUDPHO
     ‡'ULHGEDNLQJVSLFHV VS.  ‡9DQLOODH[WUDFW
     ‡&HGDU  ‡'LOOGULHGKHUEV
     ‡6DZGXVW  ‡&RFRQXW
 ‡6DZGXVW

Steps in Evaluating the Palate


How a Wine Tastes
How to Taste a Wine for Evaluation
• 7DNHDVLSRIWKHZLQHDERXWRQHRXQFH
• *DUJOH6ZLVK&RYHU\RXUHQWLUHSDODWHZLWKZLQH
5HPHPEHUFDXVH
• 6SLW<HVVSLWLWLQWRDVHSDUDWHFXSRUGHVLJQDWHGYHVVHOWKLVLVLPSRUWDQW
and effect.   HVSHFLDOO\ZKHQHYDOXDWLQJDODUJHQXPEHURIZLQHVLQRQHVLWWLQJ
• )RFXVRQKRZWKHÁDYRUVHYROYHRQ\RXUSDODWH³HVSHFLDOO\LQ
  WKHZLQH·VÀQLVK

1. Evaluating and Describing Flavor Elements 8VLQJWKHVDPHGHVFULSWRUV


\RXXVHGIRUWKHZLQH·VQRVHFRQÀUPDQGGHVFULEHHDFKRIWKHIROORZLQJ

• )UXLWÁDYRUV
• )UXLWFKDUDFWHU
• 1RQIUXLWÁDYRUV
• (DUWK
 ‡0LQHUDO
• 2DNLQGLFDWRUV
• $Q\QHZÁDYRUVWKDWZHUHQRWLQWKHZLQH·VQRVH
• +DVWKHZLQHFKDQJHGRQWKHSDODWH",IVRGHVFULEHKRZ

36
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2. Evaluating and Describing Structure and Other Elements on the Palate


7U\WRLGHQWLI\WKHIROORZLQJFKDUDFWHULVWLFVXVLQJWKHVXJJHVWHGODQJXDJH

• Sweetness / Dryness7KLVGHVFULEHVWKHSUHVHQFHRUODFNRI
  UHVLGXDOVXJDULQWKHZLQH
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Bone Dry / Dry / Off-Dry / Medium-Sweet / Sweet /
Lusciously Sweet

• Phenolic Bitterness :KLWH:LQHV


  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Yes or No 'RHVWKHZLQHWDVWHELWWHU" 

• Tannin 5HG:LQHV
  ²6HQVHGDVDVWULQJHQF\RUELWWHUQHVVWDQQLQFRPHVSULPDULO\IURPWKH
   VNLQDQGVRPHWLPHVWKHVHHGVRIWKHJUDSHDQGLVSUHVHQWLQDOOUHGZLQHV
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Low / Medium - / Medium / Medium + / High

• Acidity
  ²)RFXVRQWKHVDOLYDU\JODQGVDQGWKHÀQLVK'RHVWKHZLQHWDVWH
   UHIUHVKLQJRULVLWRYHUO\WDUW"'RHVLWKDYHHQRXJKDFLGLW\RUGRHV
   LWWDVWHÁDEE\DQGXQIRFXVHG"
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Low / Medium - / Medium / Medium + / High

• Alcohol
  ²6HQVHGDVKHDWLQWKHQRVHWKURDWDQGFKHVW
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Low / Medium - / Medium / Medium + / High

• Body
  ²%RG\LVWKHIHHOLQJRIZHLJKWRQWKHSDODWH
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Light / Medium / Full

• Texture
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Lean / Round / Creamy / Other Textures

• Balance
  ²'RDQ\RIWKHDERYHOLVWHGHOHPHQWVGRPLQDWHWKHRWKHUV"
   ,IVRWKHZLQHPD\QRWEHLQSURSHUEDODQFH

• Length / Finish
  ²+RZORQJGRWKHZLQH·VÁDYRUVVWD\RQ\RXUSDODWHDIWHUVZDOORZLQJ"
  ²'RWKHÁDYRUVUHPDLQFRQVWDQWRUGRWKH\FKDQJH"
  ²:KDWLVWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHÀQLVK²IRUH[DPSOHWDUWELWWHU
   DVWULQJHQWVPRRWKRUVLON\"
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Short / Medium - / Medium / Medium + / Long

• Complexity
  ²5HIHUVWRWKHQXPEHURIDURPDVDQGÁDYRUVLQWKHZLQHDQGKRZWKH\
   UHDFWZLWKHDFKRWKHU
  ²+RZWRGHVFULEH
Low / Medium - / Medium / Medium + / High
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sommeliers
Americas

Theoretical Deduction
The Conclusion'HGXFLQJZKDWWKHZLQHLV+HUHLVZKHUHZHWDNHDOOWKH
LQIRUPDWLRQZHKDYHJDWKHUHGIURPRXUGHGXFWLYHUHDVRQLQJDQGFRPHWRD
ORJLFDOFRQFOXVLRQ

+RZWRGRWKLV"
• %UHDNLWGRZQLQWRInitialDQGFinalFRQFOXVLRQV
• 7DNHHYLGHQFHJDLQHGIURPWKHVLJKWRIWKHZLQHLWVQRVHDQGWKH
  LPSUHVVLRQLWPDNHVRQ\RXUSDODWHWRIRUPWKHEHVWSRVVLEOHFRQFOXVLRQ
• /LVWHQWR\RXUVHOIDQGXVHWKHSURFHVVRIGHGXFWLRQ
• .QRZPDUNHUVIRUFODVVLFJUDSHYDULHWLHVDQGZLQHVW\OHV
  7KLVFRPHVZLWKWLPH 
• 8VHEHQFKPDUNZLQHVWDVWHGLQWKHSDVWDVIUDPHVRIWDVWHUHIHUHQFH
  7KLVLVZKDWZHDUHJRLQJWRGRLQWKLVFODVV

Initial Conclusion7KLVLVZKHUH\RXQHHGWRVWDUWPDNLQJGHFLVLRQVQDUURZLQJ
GRZQWKHJUDSHDQGZKHUHWKHZLQHFRPHVIURP

1. Possible Grape Varieties


• 5HFRUGDQGNQRZWKHPDUNHUVIRUFODVVLFJUDSHYDULHWLHVDQG
  VW\OHVLQRUGHUWREHDEOHWRLGHQWLI\WKHPZKHQ\RXHQFRXQWHUWKHP
• $V\RXWDVWHPRUHZLQHDQGFRQWLQXHHPSOR\LQJWKH'HGXFWLYH
  7DVWLQJ0HWKRG\RXZLOOJDLQYDOXDEOHH[SHULHQFH
• +HUHDUHHOHPHQWVWRORRNIRUWRKHOS\RXGHWHUPLQHIURPZKLFK
  JUDSHRUJUDSHVWKHZLQHZDVPDGH
  ²7KHFRORURIWKHZLQH
  ²7HOOWDOHRUW\SLFDODURPDVRUÁDYRUV
  ²7\SLFDOVWUXFWXUDOHOHPHQWV

2OG:RUOGRU1HZ:RUOG"(XURSHDQRU2OG:RUOGZLQHVRIWHQ EXWQRW
DOZD\V H[KLELWGLIIHUHQWFKDUDFWHULVWLFVIURP1HZ:RUOGZLQHV$OWKRXJKWKLV
GLFKRWRP\LVFHUWDLQO\QRWIRROSURRIGHWHUPLQLQJZKHWKHUWKHZLQHFRPHVIURP
WKH2OGRU1HZ:RUOGFDQEHDXVHIXOZKHQWU\LQJWRUHDFKDQLQLWLDOFRQFOXVLRQ
• :K\"*LYHUHDVRQVIRUZK\\RXWKLQNWKHZLQHFRPHVIURPWKH2OG
  RU1HZ:RUOG
• *LYLQJUHDVRQVZLOOKHOS\RXUHPHPEHUZKDW\RXKDYHVDLGWKURXJKRXW
  \RXUGHGXFWLRQWKXVKHOSLQJ\RXGHWHUPLQHLI\RXDUHRQWKHULJKWWUDFN
  WRZDUG\RXUFRQFOXVLRQ
• 'R\RXUUHDVRQVPDNHVHQVHEDVHGRQ\RXUWDVWLQJGHVFULSWRUV"
• Remember,WLVDOODERXWFDXVHDQGHIIHFW

Old World — Potential Reasons New World — Potential Reasons


 ‡'RPLQDQFHRIHDUWKDQGRU  ‡7KHUHLVQRGRPLQDQWHDUWKRU
  PLQHUDOFKDUDFWHU   PLQHUDOFKDUDFWHU
 ‡'RPLQDQFHRIQRQIUXLWDURPDV  ‡)UXLWDURPDVDQGÁDYRUVOHDGDQG
  DQGÁDYRUV   GRPLQDWHWKHQRQIUXLWHOHPHQWV
 ‡7KHIUXLWLVUHVWUDLQHGFRPSDUHG  ‡7KHIUXLWVPHOOVVZHHWDQGULSH
  WRQRQIUXLWDQGHDUWKDURPDV   WKXVGRPLQDWLQJWKHQRVH
  DQGÁDYRUV  ‡7KHIUXLWVWD\VULSHRUJHWVULSHU
 ‡7KHIUXLWEHFRPHVWDUWRQWKH   RQWKHSDODWH
  SDODWH
 ‡1RQIUXLWDURPDVDQGÁDYRUV
  EHFRPHPRUHDSSDUHQWLQWKH
  ÀQLVK

38
Day One

3. Climate
• 'LGWKHJUDSHVJURZLQDCool, Moderate or Warm Climate"
• :K\GLG\RXDQVZHUDV\RXGLG"*LYH5HDVRQV
• 'R\RXUUHDVRQVPDNHVHQVHEDVHGRQ\RXUWDVWLQJGHVFULSWRUV"
• $JDLQUHPHPEHU²FDXVHDQGHIIHFW

Cool Climate — Potential Reasons Warm Climate — Potential Reasons


 ‡$FLGLW\LVHOHYDWHGIRUWKH  ‡7KHDFLGLW\LVUHVWUDLQHGIRUWKH
  JUDSHYDULHW\   JUDSHYDULHW\
 ‡$OFRKROLVPRUHUHVWUDLQHG  ‡$OFRKROLVHOHYDWHG
 ‡7KHIUXLWVPHOOVDQGWDVWHV  ‡7KHIUXLWVHHPVULSHPD\EH
  VRPHZKDWWDUW   HYHQMDPP\
 ‡7KHZLQHIHHOVOLQHDURQWKHSDODWH  ‡7KHZLQHIHHOVURXQGDQGOXVK
  RQWKHSDODWH

4. Possible Countries
• &ODVVLFDOO\ZKLFKUHJLRQVRUFRXQWULHVPDNHZLQHVOLNHWKLV"
• :KDWDUHWKHORJLFDORSWLRQVEDVHGRQWKHJUDSHYDULHWLHVPHQWLRQHG" Do all of these things
DGGXSDQGPDNHVHQVH
5. Age Range ZLWKWKHZLQH\RXDUH
• ,VWKHZLQH1 – 3 years old"3 – 5 years"5 – 10 years" tasting?
More than 10 years old"
• &RQVLGHUWKHVHHOHPHQWVLQWKHZLQHZKHQWU\LQJWRDQVZHUWKDWODVW
  TXHVWLRQ
  ²&RORU
  ²5LPYDULDWLRQ
  ²<RXWKYVYLQRXVDURPDVDQGÁDYRUV
  ²4XDOLW\RIWH[WXUHDQGÀQLVK
.H\&OXHV
For each wine pick a
Final Conclusions7KLVLVZKHUH\RXKRQHLQDQGJLYH\RXUÀQDODQVZHU'HFLGH
RQWKHIROORZLQJSRLQWVEHIRUHDUULYLQJDW\RXUÀQDOFRQFOXVLRQ IHZRIWKHPRVWQRWDEOH
• *UDSHYDULHW\RUEOHQG traits that make this
• &RXQWU\ wine different from
  ²5HJLRQ similar wines.
  ²$SSHOODWLRQ
• $SSHOODWLRQTXDOLW\OHYHOLIDSSURSULDWH
7KLVFRXOGEHD
  ²Burgundy9LOODJHYVHU&UXYV*UDQG&UXOHYHO FRPELQDWLRQRI¿DYRUV
  ²German Riesling.DELQHWWYV6SlWOHVHYV$XVOHVH DURPDVDQGVWUXFWXUDO
elements.
  ²Rioja&ULDQ]DYV5HVHUYDYV*UDQ5HVHUYD

• 9LQWDJH EHVSHFLÀF
  ²$ÀQDOFKHFNRIWKHFRORURIWKHZLQH
  ²8VHWKHRUHWLFDONQRZOHGJHRIYLQWDJHV
  ²$GGVL[PRQWKVIRU6RXWKHUQ+HPLVSKHUHZLQHV

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sommeliers
Americas

The Deductive Tasting Method


Quiz Questions

Tannin in wine
D,VVZHHWRQWKHSDODWH
E&UHDWHVDPRXWKZDWHULQJVHQVDWLRQ
F'ULHVWKHSDODWHRXW
G&UHDWHVDEXUQLQJVHQVDWLRQLQWKHFKHVWDQGWKURDW

Acidity in wine
D,VVZHHWRQWKHSDODWH
E&UHDWHVDPRXWKZDWHULQJVHQVDWLRQ
F'ULHVWKHSDODWHRXW
G&UHDWHVDEXUQLQJVHQVDWLRQLQWKHFKHVWDQGWKURDW

Which of the following descriptors potentially indicates


RDNXVHLQDZLQH"
D$SSOHSHDUÁDYRUV
E/HDWKHU
F:HWURFN
G&ORYHDQGFLQQDPRQ

Sweetness in wine is due to


D7KHSUHVHQFHRIVXJDULQWKHZLQH
E$URPDVRIIUXLW
F$URPDVRIHDUWK
G(OHYDWHGDFLGLW\

TCA or Tricholoranisol in wine is due to


D$JLQJZLQHZKLFKSURGXFHVWKH7&$FRPSRXQG
E7KHFRUNEHLQJLQIHFWHGZLWKWKH7&$FRPSRXQG
F6FUHZFDSV
G([WUDFWRIFRORU

A wine would be hazy or cloudy due to


D6HGLPHQWLQWKHZLQH
E+LJKDOFRKRO
F6ZHHWQHVV
G%HLQJIURPWKH2OG:RUOG

Match the CAUSE with the EFFECT 7KHUHPD\EHPXOWLSOHDQVZHUV

:DUPFOLPDWHRUYLQWDJH &ODULW\LQVLJKW
 'HHSSXUSOHFRORUZLQH (OHYDWHGDOFRKROLQZLQH
 &ROGVWDELOL]DWLRQ 6WDLQLQJRUFRORUH[WUDFWLRQLQWHDUV
 +LJKH[WUDFWLRQRIFRORU (OHYDWHGDFLGLW\LQZLQH
 &RROFOLPDWHRUYLQWDJH *UDSHYDULHW\ZLWKKLJKSLJPHQWDWLRQ
CAUSE EFFECT

40
Day One

The Basics of Food and Beverage Pairing


Learning Points
$IWHUVWXG\LQJWKLVVHFWLRQDVWXGHQWVKRXOGEHDEOHWR

 ‡8QGHUVWDQGWKHEDVLFVRIIRRGDQGEHYHUDJHSDLULQJ
 ‡/HDUQSUHGLFWDEOHIRRGDQGEHYHUDJHLQWHUDFWLRQV
 ‡/HDUQDIHZRIWKHPDQ\SKLORVRSKLHVEHKLQGÀQGLQJJUHDWPDWFKHV
 ‡8QGHUVWDQGWKLVLVDIXQGDPHQWDOSDUWRIEHLQJDVRPPHOLHU
 ‡)HHOIUHHWRH[SORUHDQGH[SHULPHQWZLWKQHZDQGH[FLWLQJSDLULQJV

:KHUHWR%HJLQ"
/HDUQLQJDERXWZLQHFDQEHHQMR\DEOHLQLWVHOIEXWIRUPDQ\VRPPHOLHUV
GHOYLQJLQWRWKHFKDOOHQJHRIÀQGLQJZRQGHUIXOSDLULQJVRIEHYHUDJHVDQGIRRGV
LVHYHQPRUHLQWHUHVWLQJDQGHQMR\DEOH7KHSRVVLELOLWLHVIRUH[SHULPHQWDWLRQ
DQGGLVFRYHU\DUHYLUWXDOO\OLPLWOHVV2QWKHIRRGVLGHWKHUHDUHFRXQWOHVVÁDYRUV
DQGWH[WXUHVZLWKZKLFKWRZRUNDQGRQWKHEHYHUDJHVLGHWKHUHDUHKXQGUHGV
RIWKRXVDQGVRIGLIIHUHQWZLQHV³EHIRUHZHHYHQJHWWREHHUVDNHDQG
VSLULWV2SSRUWXQLWLHVIRUFUHDWLYLW\DERXQGDVGRFKDQFHVWRHQKDQFHJXHVWV·
H[SHULHQFHVDWWKHWDEOH(QDEOLQJJXHVWVWRPD[LPL]HWKHLUHQMR\PHQWRIZLQH
DQGIRRG³DQGWKHZRQGHUIXOV\QHUJLHVEHWZHHQWKHP³LVDPRQJWKHPRVW
LPSRUWDQWFRPSRQHQWVRIWKHVRPPHOLHU·VFUDIW

First Steps
 ‡5HIHUHQFH\RXUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIYLWLFXOWXUHDQGYLQLÀFDWLRQ
 ‡&UHDWHFRQQHFWLRQVZLWKZKDW\RXNQRZDERXWKRZJUDSHVDUHJURZQ
  DQGPDGHLQWRZLQHDQGDERXWKRZZLQHVKDYHDULVHQKLVWRULFDOO\IURP
  GLIIHUHQWUHJLRQV ZLWKGLIIHUHQWFXOLQDU\WUDGLWLRQV DURXQGWKHZRUOG
 ‡5HFDOO\RXUNQRZOHGJHRIKRZWRWDVWHZLQHDQGDVVHVVVWUXFWXUDOHOHPHQWV
 ‡$SSO\VRPHEDVLFSULQFLSOHV
 ‡$VN«:K\GRHVDSDUWLFXODUSDLULQJZRUNDQGKRZFDQLWVVXFFHVV
  EHH[SODLQHGWRDJXHVW"

+RZWR$SSURDFK)RRGDQG%HYHUDJH3DLULQJ"
7KHUHDUHPDQ\DSSURDFKHVWRIRRGDQGEHYHUDJHSDLULQJEXWDIHZJXLGLQJ
SULQFLSOHVFDQSURYLGHKHOSIXOSRLQWVRIUHIHUHQFH$SRLQWRIGHSDUWXUHLVWR
FRQVLGHUZKHWKHUWREXLOGDSDLULQJE\VWDUWLQJZLWKDGLVKDQGWKHQFRQVLGHULQJ
SURPLVLQJZLQHVRU³DOWHUQDWLYHO\³WREHJLQZLWKDZLQHFKRVHQE\DJXHVW
DQGWKHQVHHNIRRGLWHPVWKDWZLOOSDLUZHOOZLWKLW,QHLWKHUFDVHWKHJXHVW·V
SUHIHUHQFHLVRISDUDPRXQWLPSRUWDQFH

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FKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIZLQHVWKDWDUHLPSRUWDQWIRUDFKLHYLQJVXFFHVVIXOSDLULQJV

Guiding Principle #1³Evaluate the Wine


/RRNDWGRPLQDQWHOHPHQWVLQWKHSDLULQJ

Wine Structural Elements Wine Flavor Elements Taste Elements


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 ‡6HUYLFHWHPSHUDWXUH

41
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Basic Principle #2 — Evaluate the Dish


/RRNLQJDWWKHGLVKDVDZKROHRUWKHPHDOLQLWVHQWLUHO\LVSDUDPRXQW:H
QHHGWRFRQVLGHUDOOWKHFRPSRQHQWVRQWKHSODWHDQGWKHSUHSDUDWLRQRIHDFK
HOHPHQWWRDFKLHYHDVXFFHVVIXOSDLULQJ

7KHIROORZLQJDUHMXVWDIHZH[DPSOHVRIGLIIHUHQWIRRGLWHPVSUHSDUDWLRQVDQG
VDXFHVWKDWSOD\DUROHLQSDLULQJGHFLVLRQV7U\WRLPDJLQHRWKHUIRRGVPHWKRGV
DQGJDUQLVKHVWKDWFRPHLQWRSOD\

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ZLQHV"

• Steak
  ²/HDQÀOHWPLJQRQRUDULFKHUULEH\H
• Poultry
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• Fish and Seafood
  ²'HOLFDWH'RYHUVROHIDWWLHUVDOPRQRUPHDWLHUWXQD
  ²6LPSOHIUHVKR\VWHUVRUULFKGHQVHOREVWHUWDLO

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WKHSDLULQJHYHQPRUHGHFLVLYHO\WKDQWKHIRRGLWHPDWWKHFRUHRIDGLVK
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42
Day One

Basic Principle #3 — Match the Intensity 7KHIRRGDQGEHYHUDJHPXVW


URXJKO\PDWFKRQHDQRWKHULQLQWHQVLW\'HOLFDWHIRRGVSDLUZHOOZLWKOLJKW
GHOLFDWHEHYHUDJHVWKDWZRQ·WRYHUZKHOPWKHPMXVWDVULFKLQWHQVHIRRGVFDOO
IRUFRPSDUDEO\UREXVWEHYHUDJHV

Basic Principle #4 — Understand Important Interactions&HUWDLQIRRGVKDYH


YHU\VSHFLÀFSUHGLFWDEOHUHDFWLRQVZLWKRXUVHQVHRIWDVWH

• Salt,QIRRGZLOOKHOSUHGXFHRXUSDODWH·VSHUFHSWLRQRIDFLGLW\LQ
  ZLQH,QWHQVHO\VDOW\IRRGVPDNHWDQQLQVLQZLQHIHHOPRUHDVWULQJHQW

• Animal Fats)RXQGLQULFKIDWW\PHDWVOLNHEHHIDQGODPERULQGDLU\
  SURGXFWVOLNHFKHHVHUHGXFHWKHSDODWH·VSHUFHSWLRQRIWDQQLQVLQZLQH Name a few important
  &RQYHUVHO\WKHWDQQLQVLQZLQHPDNHPHDWVDQGFKHHVHVIHHOOHVVULFKDQG
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  WDQQLQORYHVIDW with sweet or spicy
elements.
• Sugar,QIRRGWHQGVWRZRUNEHVWZLWKVZHHWQHVVLQWKHEHYHUDJHSDLULQJ
  DQGLVQRWOLPLWHGWRGHVVHUWVRUGHVVHUWZLQHV0DQ\FXLVLQHVDURXQGWKH
  ZRUOGHPSOR\EDVHVDXFHVWKDWFRQWDLQVXJDU6XFKVDXFHVFDQPDNHGU\
  ZLQHVVHHPERQHGU\RUHYHQDXVWHUH 

• Spicy Heat,QIRRGVKDVWKHHIIHFWRIKHLJKWHQLQJRXUSHUFHSWLRQRI
  DOFRKROLQEHYHUDJHVEXWFDQEHPLWLJDWHGZKHQSDLUHGZLWKEHYHUDJHV
  WKDWDUHRIIGU\VOLJKWO\VZHHWRUORZLQDOFRKRO

43
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Pairing Theories and Approaches2QFH\RXKDYHWKHEDVLFSULQFLSOHV


FRPPLWWHGWRPHPRU\LWLVWLPHWRSXWWKHPLQWRSUDFWLFH6XFFHVVIXOSDLULQJV
FDQUHVXOWIURPGLIIHUHQWDSSURDFKHVDQGVRPHWLPHVIURPDFRPELQDWLRQRI
GLIIHUHQWLGHDV+HUHDUHDIHZWULHGDQGWUXHDSSURDFKHV

What Grows Together Goes Together)RRGVDQGZLQHVWKDWERWK


RULJLQDWHIURPDSDUWLFXODUUHJLRQRIWHQSURYLGHJUHDWSDLULQJV

Example6DQFHUUHDQGIUHVKJRDWFKHHVHERWKVRXUFHGIURPWKH/RLUH
9DOOH\RI)UDQFH

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Complementing and Contrasting

• Complementing7KLVDSSURDFKUHOLHVRQDQHOHPHQWLQWKHIRRG
  DQGDVLPLODUHOHPHQWLQWKHEHYHUDJHWRFUHDWHDV\QHUJLVWLFSDLULQJ
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  RULQWHQVLW\RIWKHIRRGDQGWKHEHYHUDJH6LPLODUO\FRPSDUDEOHDURPDV
  RUÁDYRUVLQDGLVKDQGDEHYHUDJHFDQSURYLGHDVHQVRU\´EULGJHµ
  EHWZHHQWKHWZR

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  &KLDQWL&ODVVLFR5LVHUYD
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  WKDQNVWRWKHVLPLODUKHUEDOQRWHVRIEHHISUHSDUHGLQWKLVPDQQHU

  3URYLGHWZRH[DPSOHVRI\RXURZQ

• Contrasting2SSRVLWHVFDQDWWUDFW7KLVDSSURDFKXVHVRSSRVLQJ
  HOHPHQWVLQVWUXFWXUHÁDYRURUWH[WXUHLQWKHIRRGDQGEHYHUDJHWR
  FUHDWHKDUPRQ\EHWZHHQWKHP

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  FRQWUDVWDULFKIRRGVXFKDVDGLVKLQFRUSRUDWLQJIUHVKEXUUDWDFKHHVH

  3URYLGHWZRH[DPSOHVRI\RXURZQ

44
Day One

Classic Food and Wine Pairings 7KHVHSDLULQJVKDYHVWRRGWKHWHVWRIWLPH


,WLVLPSRUWDQWWREHJLQXQGHUVWDQGDQGH[SODLQZK\DSDUWLFXODUSDLULQJZRUNV

 )22' :,1( :+<,7:25.6


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   FUHDP\ULFKVDOW\IDW
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   KLJKDFLGZLQH WKHZRUOGRIZLQH
 6WHDN &DEHUQHW6DXYLJQRQ 7DQQLQYVSURWHLQDQGIDW take note of the classic
 6DUGLQHV 0DQ]DQLOOD6KHUU\ 6DOWDQGÀVKRLOFDQVWDQGXSWR SDLULQJVZHGLVFXVVDQG
   VWURQJHUÁDYRUVLQZLQH give them a try to see
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   PDNHLWYHUVDWLOHZLWKWKH
   OHDQHUFKLFNHQ
 6WLOWRQ 3RUW 6DOW\FKHHVHYVVZHHWZLQH

45
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sommeliers
Americas

Unique Approaches and Helpful Advice from Master Sommeliers

Melissa Monosoff MS
2QHRIP\¿UVWMREVZDVDWDKLJKHQG¿VKDQGVHDIRRGUHVWDXUDQW:HKDGDQ
H[WHQVLYHZLQHOLVWWKDWRIFRXUVHLQFOXGHGORWVRIUHGZLQH*UDSHVZLWKVRIWHU
WDQQLQVVXFKDV3LQRW1RLU*DPD\DQG%DUEHUDGRQRWLQWHQVLI\WKH´¿VKLQHVVµ
RIWKH¿VKRLOVOLNHKLJKHUWDQQLQZLQHVFDQ,QPRVWFDVHVWKHVDXFHVDQGVLGHV
RIWKHGLVKGLFWDWHGWKHSDLULQJ$JUHDW3LQRW1RLUDQGURDVWHGRUJULOOHGVDOPRQ
ZDVDOZD\VDIDYRULWH

James Tidwell MS
'RQ·WXSVWDJHWKHVWDURIWKHVKRZ,I\RXKDYHDQDPD]LQJERWWOHRIZLQH\RX
ZDQWWRVKRZRIIHVSHFLDOO\DQROGHUYLQWDJH WKH\WHQGWREHPRUHVXEWOH GRQ·W
VHUYHDQLQWHQVHO\FRPSOH[GLVKZLWKLW$VLPSOHGLVKZLOODOORZWKHZLQHWREHWKH
FHQWHURIDWWHQWLRQ

Fred Dexheimer MS
:KHQWKLQNLQJDERXWIRRGDQGZLQHSDLULQJ,·YHIRXQGWKURXJKP\H[SHULHQFHV
LQDOOW\SHVRIGLQLQJVFHQDULRVWKDWWH[WXUHZLOOPDNHRUEUHDNWKHSDLULQJ6R
WKHROGUXOHRIWKXPERIPDWFKLQJZHLJKWVLVKXJHO\LPSRUWDQW/LJKWIRRGVZLWK
FULVSZLQHVFKDUUHGIRRGVZLWKZLQHVWKDWVHHRDNDQGIRUFRPSOLFDWHGIRRGV³
PRUHURXQGWH[WXUHVLQWKHZLQH2QFH,KDYHWKHZHLJKWRIWKHZLQHDQGIRRG
FRQVLGHUHG,WKHQORRNDWWKHÀDYRUFRPSRQHQWVRIHDFK³GUDZLQJIURPWKH
FRORUVRIHDFK,ORRNIRUZLQHVZLWKJUHHQÀDYRUVLQERWKZKLWHVDQGUHGVVHHNLQJ
WKHVDPHWRQHVLQWKHIRRG6DPHZLWK\HOORZVJROGVSLQNVDQGPRUHWDZQ\
FRORUV7\SLFDOO\LI\RXZRUNIURPWKRVHWZRSODWIRUPV\RXFDQFUHDWHDJUHDW
SDLULQJH[SHULHQFHRQDYHU\EDVLFDQGVLPSOHOHYHODQGEXLOGIURPWKHUH

Jack Mason MS
:KHQHYHU,EHJLQWRWKLQNDERXWLGHDOZLQHSDLULQJVIRUGLIIHUHQWIRRGV,DOZD\V
ORRNWRZKDWWKHSHRSOHWKDWPDGHWKHZLQHPLJKWKDYHRQWKHLUWDEOH7KLVLV
DOZD\VDJUHDWUHIHUHQFHSRLQWDQGFDQEHDQLQFUHGLEO\KHOSIXOSODWIRUPWRWKLQN
DERXWZKDWZLQHVWRSDLUZLWKZKDW\RXDUHJRLQJWRHDW³ZKHWKHUWKDWPLJKWEH
5LHVOLQJZLWKVPRNHGPHDWVVWHDNZLWK&KLDQWLRU$OEDULxRZLWKVKHOO¿VK

Jim Rollston MS
,DOZD\VVWDUWWRWKLQNRIDIRRGDQGEHYHUDJHSDLULQJE\ORRNLQJIRUÀDYRU
´EULGJHVµEHWZHHQVRPHFRPSRQHQWRIWKHGLVK KRSHIXOO\DGRPLQDQWRQH DQG
DÀDYRUWKDW,¿QGLQWKHZLQHRUEHYHUDJH,QP\H[SHULHQFHWKHPRVWVXFFHVVIXO
SDLULQJVOLQNÀDYRUVLQWKHFRPELQDWLRQDQGFUHDWHEHWWHUKDUPRQLHVEHWZHHQ
IRRGDQGZLQH$IWHUWKLQNLQJDERXWVSHFL¿FWDVWHVLQWKHGLVKDQGZLQH,WKHQ
FRQVLGHUPDWFKLQJWKHRYHUDOOZHLJKWRIWKHZLQHDQGGLVKDQGFRQVLGHU´FXOWXUDOµ
KDUPRQLHVDVZHOOLH´ZKDWJURZVWRJHWKHUJRHVWRJHWKHUµ0HGLWHUUDQHDQ
ÀDYRUVZLWK0HGLWHUUDQHDQZLQHV)UHQFKZLQHVZLWK)UHQFKFODVVLFGLVKHVRU
SUHSDUDWLRQVDQGVRRQ

46
Day One

The Basics of Food and Beverage Pairing


Quiz Questions

Animal fat in food can:


D0DNHDZLQHVHHPPRUHWDUW
E0DNHDZLQHVHHPVZHHWHU
F&DQGHFUHDVHWKHSDODWH·VSHUFHSWLRQRIWDQQLQLQZLQH
G&DQLQFUHDVHWKHSDODWH·VSHUFHSWLRQRIWDQQLQLQZLQH

Spicy heat in food can:


D%HLQÁDPHGE\KLJKDOFRKROEHYHUDJHV
E%HVRIWHQHGE\ORZDOFRKROEHYHUDJHV
F%HVRIWHQHGE\VZHHWQHVVLQEHYHUDJHV
G$OORIWKHDERYH

Salt in food can:


D'HFUHDVHVWKHSDODWH·VSHUFHSWLRQRIDFLGLW\
E,QFUHDVHVWKHSDODWH·VSHUFHSWLRQRIDFLGLW\
F0DNHIRRGWDVWHVZHHWHU
G0DNHZLQHWDVWHPRUHWDQQLF

When pairing a sweet wine and a sweet food:


D7KHZLQHVKRXOGEHVZHHWHUWKDQWKHIRRG
E7KHIRRGVKRXOGEHVZHHWHUWKDQWKHZLQH
F7KHIRRGDQGZLQHVKRXOGEHHTXDOLQVZHHWQHVV
G7KLVSDLULQJGRHVQRWZRUNDQGVKRXOGEHDYRLGHG

:KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJLVDFODVVLFSDLULQJZLWK6WLOWRQ"
D6DXWHUQHV
E%RUGHDX[
F%XUJXQG\
G0DQ]DQLOOD6KHUU\

Think of two of your favorite food and beverage pairings.


:K\GRWKH\ZRUNVRZHOO"

:KHQGLG\RXHQMR\WKHP"

47
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

France
The French Paradigm
Understanding European Wine Law
Learning Points
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DQG)UHQFKYDULHWLHVDUHFXOWLYDWHGLQYLUWXDOO\HYHU\ZLQHSURGXFLQJFRXQW\DFURVV
WKHZRUOG

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History and Development of French Wine Law


The $SSHOODWLRQG·2ULJLQH&RQWU{OpH RU$2& V\VWHPZDVFUHDWHGE\WKH,1$2
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48
Day One

DSSHOODWLRQ .QRZLQJZKLFKJUDSHVDUHSODQWHGLQZKLFKUHJLRQVUHTXLUHVVRPH France

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AOC / AOP Quality Levels


WINES WITHOUT GEOGRAPHIC INDICATION

Vin de France — 20% of all French Wine


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WINES WITH GEOGRAPHIC INDICATION

IGP / Vin de Pays — 30% of all French Wine


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AOC / AOP — 50% of all French Wine


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49
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

France
Burgundy
Learning Points
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France — Overview — All Regions

50
Day One

Historical Background France

For the Love of Burgundy


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Monastic Work
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French Revolution and the Napoléonic Code of Inheritance


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Factors of Production
Location / Geography
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France — Burgundy

Climate
 ‡&RQWLQHQWDO

Topography / Aspect
 ‡5ROOLQJKLOOV
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52
Day One

Soil France

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Grape Varieties
• White
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  ²$OLJRWp VPDOOSORWV 

• Red
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Burgundy AOP Pyramid %XUJXQG\·V$SSHOODWLRQ6\VWHPLVEDVHGRQVSHFLÀF


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DQGLQWKHRU\TXDOLW\LQFUHDVHV

33 Grands Crus — 2%
550–600 Premiers Crus — 12%

Village Wines — 30%

Regional Appellations —
56% of Total Production

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Burgundy Wine Label Terminology


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Domaine
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Négociant
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Clos
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Reading a Burgundy Wine Label

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LGHQWLI\WKHW\SHRIZLQHLQWKHERWWOH6HHWKHH[DPSOHVEHORZ

Village Wine
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Single Vineyard Premier Cru (1ERCru)


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Single Vineyard Grand Cru


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54
Day One

France

Burgundy — Sub-Regions from North to South


Chablis
• Location / Geography
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• Climate
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• Soil
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• Grape Varieties
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• Viticulture
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France — Chablis — Overview

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Chablis AOPs
• Chablis AOP

• Petit Chablis AOP

• Chablis Premier Cru AOP


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• Chablis Grand Cru AOP


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France — Chablis — Grand Cru

56
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France

Côte d’Or
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France — Burgundy — Côte d’Or

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Côte de Nuits WKHQRUWKHUQVHFWLRQRIWKH&{WHG·2U 

• Topography / Aspect
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• Climate
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What effect does whole • Grape Varieties


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France — Burgundy — Côte de Nuits

58
Day One

France

Appellation Hierarchy

Regional Appellation — Bourgogne AOP


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Côte de Nuits-Villages AOP


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Village AOP
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Premier or 1er Cru AOP


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Grand Cru AOP


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Top Recent Vintages of the Côte de Nuits

T T T T T T T T T T T
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

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Côte de Beaune WKHVRXWKHUQVHFWLRQRIWKH&{WHG·2U

• Climate
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• Soil
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• Grape Varieties
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• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
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France — Burgundy — Côte de Beaune

60
Day One

Appellation Hierarchy France

Regional Appellation — Bourgogne AOP


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Village AOP
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  ²Puligny-Montrachet
  ²Chassagne-Montrachet

Premier or 1er Cru AOP


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 ‡7KHUHDUHKXQGUHGVRISUHPLHUVFUXVYLQH\DUGVLQWKH&{WHGH%HDXQH

Grand Cru AOP


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Top Recent Vintages of Côte de Beaune

T T T T T T T T T T T
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

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Côte Chalonnaise

• Location / Geography
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• Climate
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• Soil
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• Grape Varieties
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  ²Red
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• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
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France — Burgundy — Côte Chalonnaise

62
Day One

Appellation Hierarchy France

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• Montagny AOP
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• Bouzeron AOP
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• Rully AOP
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• Givry AOP
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• Mercurey AOP
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Mâconnais

• Climate
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   %XUJXQG\UHJLRQV

• Topography
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• Grape Varieties
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• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
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France — Burgundy — Mâconnais

Appellation Hierarchy

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• Mâcon AOP
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• Saint-Véran AOP
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• Pouilly-Fuissé AOP
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64
Day One

Beaujolais France

• Location / Geography
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• Climate
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• Soils
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  ²6DQGVWRQHDQGFOD\ LQWKHVRXWK

• Grape Varieties
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  ²Red
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• Viticulture
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• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
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France — Burgundy — Beaujolais

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Regional Appellations and Styles

• Beaujolais AOP
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• Beaujolais Nouveau
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   GUXQNVRRQDIWHUZDUGV

• Beaujolais-Villages AOP
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   YLOODJHQDPHVRQWKHODEHOVEXWDUHVLPSO\GHVLJQDWHGDVYLOODJHV

• Beaujolais Crus
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France — Burgundy — Beaujolais Crus

66
Day One

Burgundy France

Quiz Questions

:KDWLVWKHPDLQJUDSHRIWKH0RUJRQ$23"
D&KDUGRQQD\
E*DPD\
F3LQRW1RLU
G$OLJRWH

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D*UDQGV&UXV
E&ODVVLFR
F&UpPDQW
G9LOODJH

Which of the following is not a classic region or village for


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D&KDEOLV
E0kFRQ
F3RXLOO\)XLVVp
G3RPPDUG

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D0RQWUDFKHW
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F5RPDQpH
G/HV&ORV

:KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJLVQRWLQWKH&{WH&KDORQQDLV"
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:KDWZHUHWKH&LVWHUFLDQPRQNVLQ%XUJXQG\UHVSRQVLEOHIRUÀUVWGRLQJ"

How did Napoléon’s Code of Inheritance affect the vineyards of


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Describe the difference between Négociant and Domaine bottling.

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D&ORV

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F0RQRSROH

Match the following villages, regions or grands crus with their


primary grape variety.
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 0HXUVDXOW 3LQRW1RLU
 3RPPDUG
&KDUGRQQD\
 9ROQD\
 0RUJRQ *DPD\
 %RX]HURQ
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68
Day One

France France

Bordeaux
Learning Points
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Factors of Production
Historical Background
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France — Bordeaux — Overview

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• Médoc and Graves on the Left Bank*UDYHO


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Gravel Limestone Clay

Grape Varieties
• White
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– Sémillon
– 0XVFDGHOOH ³VPDOOTXDQWLWLHV 7KH%RUGHDX[IDPLO\RI
• Red grape varieties.
– Merlot — WKHPRVWZLGHO\SODQWHG
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Cabernet Franc
– 3HWLW9HUGRW ³VPDOOTXDQWLWLHV
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– &DUPHQqUH ³DOVRDOORZHGEXWUDUHO\VHHQ

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• Examples of typical wine styles and blends from Bordeaux


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² &DEHUQHW6DXYLJQRQ
² 0HUORW
² 3OXV«&DEHUQHW)UDQFDQG3HWLW9HUGRW
² 7KHVHZLQHVDUHXVXDOO\DJHGLQQHZ)UHQFKRDNEDUUHOV

• Red WinesIURP6DLQWePLOLRQDQG3RPHURO ULJKWEDQN 


² 0HUORW
² &DEHUQHW)UDQF
² 7KHVHZLQHVDOVRVSHQGVRPHWLPHLQ)UHQFKRDNEDUUHOV

• Dry White WinesPDLQO\IURP*UDYHV 3HVVDF/pRJQDQ RQWKH


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   WHQGWREHDJHGLQQHZ)UHQFKRDNEDUULTXHV

• Sweet WinesPDLQO\IURP6DXWHUQHVDQGQHDUE\FRPPXQHV
  :HZLOOFRYHUWKHVHZLQHVLQPRUHGHSWKLQWKHVHFWLRQRQVZHHWZLQHV 
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Yearly Weather and Vintage Variation


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Bordeaux Appellations France

Regional Appellations
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Sub-Regional or District Appellations


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Left Bank
The Médoc
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France — Bordeaux — Médoc

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Top Recent Vintages of the Médoc

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Graves AOP

Location / Geography
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Grape Varieties
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France — Bordeaux — Graves

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Entre-Deux-Mers France

Location / Geography
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Grape Varieties
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Bordeaux
Quiz Questions

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France
Champagne
Learning Points$IWHUVWXG\LQJWKLVVHFWLRQDVWXGHQWVKRXOGEHDEOHWR
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Factors of Production

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Soil France

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Grape Varieties
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Méthode Champenoise

Step One
Making the Base Still Wine
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Step Two
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6XUOLHDJLQJLPSDUWVDURPDVDQGÁDYRUVUHPLQLVFHQWRIIUHVKO\EDNHGEUHDG

84
Day One

Step Five France

Riddling (Remuage) — Removal of Sediment Part 1


$IWHUDJLQJWKHOHHVPXVWEHUHPRYHGIURPWKHERWWOHLQRUGHUWRKDYHDFOHDU
ZLQH(DFKERWWOHLVJHQWO\WXUQHGWRJUDGXDOO\PRYHWKHOHHVLQWRLWVQHFN7KLV
FDQEHGRQHE\KDQGRUE\PDFKLQH

By Hand $SXSLWUHLVDZRRGHQ$IUDPHZLQHUDFN,WZDVÀUVWFUHDWHGE\WKH
ZLGRZ&OLFTXRWIURPKHUGLQLQJURRPWDEOHH[SUHVVO\IRUULGGOLQJFKDPSDJQH
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WDNHVDERXWZHHNVWRFRPSOHWH

By Machine A J\URSDOHWWHLVDODUJHPDFKLQHWKDWFDQKROGERWWOHVDWD
WLPH,WWDNHVDSSUR[LPDWHO\GD\VWRFRPSOHWHULGGOLQJE\PDFKLQH

Step Six
Disgorging 'pJRUJHPHQW — Removal of Sediment Part 2
2QFHWKHVHGLPHQWKDVFROOHFWHGLQWKHQHFNRIWKHERWWOHLWQHHGVWREH
UHPRYHG7RGLVJRUJHWKHVHGLPHQWHDFKERWWOH·VQHFNLVIUR]HQLQDQLFHEDWK
VRWKDWWKH\HDVWFDQEHHMHFWHG7KLVFDQEHGRQHE\KDQGRUDVLVPRUHRIWHQ
WKHFDVHE\PDFKLQH

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Step Seven
Dosage
$IWHUGpJRUJHPHQWDPL[WXUHRIZLQHDQGVXJDUFDOOHGWKHOLTXHXUG·H[SpGLWLRQLV
DGGHGWRWKHERWWOH7KHDPRXQWRIVXJDUDGGHGGHWHUPLQHVWKHVZHHWQHVVOHYHO
DQGWKHUHIRUHWKHVW\OHRIWKHFKDPSDJQH

Champagne Sweetness Levels and Style Categories

Regional Wine Law — Champagne Appellations


• Champagne AOP
  ²6SDUNOLQJZLQHPDGHYLDWKHPpWKRGHFKDPSHQRLVH
• Champagne Sub-Regions
  ²9DOOpHGHOD0DUQH
  ²&{WHGHV%ODQFV
  ²0RQWDJQHGH5HLPV

Champagne Age Designations


• Non-Vintage (NV) Champagne
  ²$JHGIRUDPLQLPXPRIPRQWKVZLWKDWOHDVWPRQWKVVSHQW
   RQWKHOHHV
  ²0DQ\SURGXFHUVIDUH[FHHGWKHVHPLQLPXPV
• Vintage Champagne
  ²$JHGIRUDPLQLPXPRIPRQWKV
  ²0DQ\SURGXFHUVIDUH[FHHGWKLVPLQLPXP

86
Day One

France
France — Champagne — Sub-Regions

Champagne Styles
• Rosé$SLQNFRORUHGFKDPSDJQH
• Blanc de Blancs&KDUGRQQD\FKDPSDJQH
• Blanc de Noirs&KDPSDJQHPDGHZLWKRQO\WKHGDUNJUDSHV
  3LQRW1RLUDQG0HXQLHU

Champagne Special Cuvées and Other Bottlings


• Single Vineyard$QRWHGVLQJOHYLQH\DUGRQWKHODEHO
• Clos or Mono Parcel$QRWHGVLQJOHSDUFHOLQDYLQH\DUGXQGHUDVLQJOH
  RZQHUVKLS
• Cuvée Prestige or Tête de Cuvée7KHWRSHQGERWWOLQJRIDSDUWLFXODU
  FKDPSDJQHKRXVHRUSURGXFHU

Types of Champagne Producers


• Négociants3URGXFHUVRIFKDPSDJQHZKREX\JUDSHVMXLFHRU
  ÀQLVKHGZLQHDQGERWWOHWKHZLQHXQGHUWKHLURZQQDPH
• Growers3URGXFHUVWKDWRZQWKHYLQH\DUGVWKH\DUHSURGXFLQJZLQHIURP
  VWDUWWRÀQLVK

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Vintage Variation
 ‡+XJHZHDWKHUH[WUHPHVPHDQWKDWTXDOLW\YDULHVIURPVHDVRQWRVHDVRQ
  DQG\HDUWR\HDUUHVXOWLQJLQZLGHYLQWDJHYDULDWLRQV
 ‡7KHUHDUHDOLPLWHGQXPEHURIYLQWDJHZLQHVLQDGHFDGH
 ‡0RVWFKDPSDJQHVDUHQRQYLQWDJHZLQHV

Top Recent Vintages of Champagne

T T T T T T T T T T T
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Other Methods of Making Sparkling Wine

Tank Method
Méthode Champenoise Transfer Method Charmat Process /
&XYH&ORVH

%DVHZLQHLVERWWOHG %DVHZLQHLVERWWOHG
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<HDVWDXWRO\VLV <HDVWDXWRO\VLV 6XJDUDQG\HDVWDGGHG
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'RVDJH WDQNVXQGHUSUHVVXUH LQWDQN
)LOWHUHG )LOWHUHGXQGHUSUHVVXUH
$OOVWHSVKDSSHQLQ 'RVDJH 'RVDJHXQGHUSUHVVXUH
WKHVDPHERWWOH 5HERWWOHG

Advantages
6DYHVWLPH
Advantages Advantages )HUPHQWDWLRQÀQLVKHV
([WHQGHGOHHVFRQWDFW /HHVFRQWDFW LQGD\V
,QWHQVHOHHVÁDYRU (OLPLQDWHVULGGOLQJ 1RFRVWO\ULGGOLQJRU
GLVJRUJLQJ
%HVWSURFHVVIRU
DURPDWLFYDULHWLHV

Examples Examples Examples


&KDPSDJQH 8VHGIRUODUJHDQGVPDOO 3URVHFFR
&UpPDQW IRUPDWERWWOLQJRI 0RVFDWRG·$VWL
&DYD &KDPSDJQHDQGRWKHU /DPEUXVFR
)UDQFLDFRUWD VSDUNOLQJZLQHV

88
Day One

World Sparkling Wines France

French Sparkling Wines

Crémant$WHUPXVHGIRUDOO)UHQFKVSDUNOLQJZLQHVLQ)UDQFHJURZQRXWVLGH
&KDPSDJQHWKDWDUHSURGXFHGE\WKHPpWKRGHFKDPSHQRLVH WKRXJKODZ
UHTXLUHVWKDWWKHPHWKRGPXVWEHUHIHUUHGWRRQODEHOVDVPpWKRGHFODVVLTXH

Examples
• Crémant de Bourgogne%XUJXQG\
• Crémant d’Alsace$OVDFH
• Crémant de Loire/RLUH9DOOH\

Italian Sparkling Wines

Asti DOCG 3LHGPRQW


 ‡0RVFDWRG·$VWL²PDGHE\WKH&KDUPDW7DQN0HWKRG

Prosecco (Veneto)
 ‡0DGHE\WKH&KDUPDW7DQN0HWKRG

Lambrusco (PLOLD5RPDJQD
 ‡0DGHE\WKH&KDUPDW7DQN0HWKRG

Franciacorta DOCG /RPEDUG\


 ‡0DGHE\WKHPpWKRGHFODVVLTXH RIWHQUHIHUUHGWRLQ,WDOLDQDV
  WKHPHWRGRFODVVLFRRUPHWRGRWUDGL]LRQDOH
 ‡0DGHZLWKVLPLODUJUDSHYDULHWLHVWRWUDGLWLRQDOFKDPSDJQH
  ²Chardonnay
  ²Pinot Nero
  ²3LQRW%LDQFR

Spanish Sparkling Wines


6SDLQSURGXFHVPRUH
Cava DO &DWDORQLD sparkling wine than
 ‡&ODVVLF0HWKRG DQ\RWKHUFRXQWU\
 ‡*UDSHV
  ²;DUHOOR
  ²3DUHOODGD
  ²0DFDEHR

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Champagne and World Sparkling Wines


Quiz Questions

:KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJLVQRWDJUDSHJURZQLQ&KDPSDJQH"
D3LQRW1RLU
E0HXQLHU
F5LHVOLQJ
G&KDUGRQQD\

Sur lie aging refers to


D%RWU\WLVDIIHFWHGGHVVHUWZLQHV
E:LQHVDJHGLQQHZ)UHQFKRDN
F)RUWLÀHGZLQHV
G$JLQJZLQHVRQEURNHQGRZQ\HDVWFHOOV

+RZGRHVVXUOLHDJLQJDIIHFWWKHÁDYRURI&KDPSDJQH"
D,QFUHDVHVWKHDOFRKRO
E0DNHVDZLQHVZHHWHU
F0DNHVDZLQHGULHU
G*LYHVWKHZLQHD\HDVW\IUHVKEDNHGEUHDGDURPDDQGÁDYRU

If a Champagne is labeled Blanc de Blancs, which grape variety


KDVEHHQXVHG"
D3LQRW1RLU
E0HXQLHU
F0HUORW
G&KDUGRQQD\

&KDPSDJQHYLQH\DUGVDUHEHVWNQRZQIRUZKLFKVRLOW\SH"
D6DQG
E&OD\
F*UDQLWH
G&KDON

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D0pWKRGH&KDPSHQRLVH
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F7UDQVIHU0HWKRG
G1RQHRIWKHDERYH

90
Day One

France France

Loire Valley

Learning Points$IWHUVWXG\LQJWKLVVHFWLRQDVWXGHQWVKRXOGEHDEOHWR
 ‡1DPHWKHPDMRUVXEUHJLRQVRIWKH/RLUH9DOOH\
 ‡.QRZWKHÀYHSULPDU\JUDSHYDULHWLHVRIWKH/RLUH9DOOH\
 ‡/LQNZKLFKJUDSHVDUHJURZQLQZKLFKDSSHOODWLRQV

Introduction7KH/RLUHLVWKHORQJHVWULYHULQ)UDQFHRULJLQDWLQJLQWKHFHQWHU
RIWKHFRXQWU\LQWKH0DVVLI&HQWUDODQGPHDQGHULQJPLOHVWRWKH$WODQWLF
2FHDQ7KHZLQHUHJLRQVDORQJLWVEDQNVDUHUHPDUNDEO\GLYHUVHZLWKGLVWLQFW
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France — Loire Valley

France — Loire Valley — Overview

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Pays Nantais
Location / Geography
 ‡$WODQWLF&RDVW

Climate
 ‡&RRODQGZHWPDULWLPH
 ‡$IIHFWHGE\SUR[LPLW\WRWKH$WODQWLF2FHDQ

Soils
 ‡*UDYHODQGVDQGRYHUVFKLVWDQGJUDQLWH

Grape Varieties
 ‡0HORQGH%RXUJRJQH

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Sur Lie7KLVWHUPUHIHUVWRWKHWHFKQLTXHRIDJLQJZLQHVRQWKHUHPDLQV
  RISRVWIHUPHQWDWLRQ\HDVWFHOOV RU´OHHVµ WRDGGFRPSOH[LW\DQGULFKQHVV
  WRWKHÀQLVKHGZLQH

Pays Nantais Appellations


 ‡0XVFDGHW$23
 ‡0XVFDGHW6qYUHHW0DLQH$23

France — Loire Valley — Pays Nantais

92
Day One

Anjou-Saumur France

Location / Geography
• 7RWKHHDVWRIWKH3D\V1DQWDLV

Climate
 ‡0DULWLPHFRQWLQHQWDO VKLIWLQJIURPWKHIRUPHUWRWKHODWWHUDV
  YLQH\DUGORFDWLRQVPRYHLQODQGWRZDUGWKHHDVW
 ‡+XPLG

Grape Varieties
• White
  ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
• Red
  ²&DEHUQHW)UDQF

Anjou-Saumur Appellations
• Anjou-Villages AOP
  ²Grape Variety
   ²5HG
    ²&DEHUQHW)UDQF
  ²9LQLÀFDWLRQ'U\UHGZLQHV

Saumur AOP
• Grape Varieties
  ²White
   ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
  ²Red
   ²&DEHUQHW)UDQF
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
  ²7KLV$23LVZHOONQRZQIRU&KHQLQ%ODQFEDVHGVSDUNOLQJZLQHV

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Savennières AOP
• Location1RUWKRIWKH/RLUH5LYHU
• Aspect6WHHSVRXWKIDFLQJKLOOVLGHV
• Grape Variety
  ²:KLWH
   ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ'U\ZKLWHZLQHV

Bonnezeaux AOP
• Location6RXWKRIWKH/RLUH5LYHURQWKHEDQNRIWKH/D\RQ5LYHU
• Climate+XPLG SUR[LPLW\WRWZRULYHUV 
• Grape Variety
  ²:KLWH
   ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
• Viticulture/DWHKDUYHVWERWU\WLVDIIHFWHGJUDSHV
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ6ZHHWZLQHV

Quarts-de-Chaume AOP
• Location6RXWKRIWKH/RLUH5LYHURQWKHEDQNRIWKH/D\RQ5LYHU
• Climate+XPLG SUR[LPLW\WRWZRULYHUV 
• Grape Variety
  ²:KLWH
   ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
• Viticulture/DWHKDUYHVWERWU\WLVDIIHFWHGJUDSHV
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ6ZHHWZLQHV

France — Anjou-Saumur

94
Day One

Touraine France

Location / Geography
• 7RWKHHDVWRI$QMRX6DXPXU

Climate
 ‡&RQWLQHQWDO³OHVVPDULWLPHLQÁXHQFHDVYLQH\DUGORFDWLRQVVKLIW
  LQODQGWRZDUGWKHHDVW

Soils
 ‡7XIIHDX VRIWOLPHVWRQH

Grape Varieties
• White
  ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
• Red
  ²&DEHUQHW)UDQF

Touraine Appellations
• Chinon AOP
  ²Location6RXWKRIWKH/RLUH5LYHU
  ²Grape Varieties
   ²Red
    ²&DEHUQHW)UDQF
  ²9LQLÀFDWLRQ
   ²'U\UHGZLQHV

• Bourgueil AOP
  ²Location1RUWKEDQNRIWKH/RLUH5LYHU
  ²Grape Varieties
   ²Red
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  ²9LQLÀFDWLRQ
   ²'U\UHGZLQHV

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• Vouvray AOP
  ²Location1RUWKEDQNRIWKH/RLUH5LYHU
  ²Soil7XIIHDX
  ²Grape Varieties
   ²White
    ²&KHQLQ%ODQF
  ²9LQLÀFDWLRQ
   ²6SDUNOLQJZLQHV
   ²'U\ZLQHV
   ²2IIGU\ZLQHV
   ²6ZHHWZLQHV

France — Loire Valley — Touraine

Central Vineyards

Location / Geography
• 7KHFHQWHURI)UDQFH

Climate
 ‡&RQWLQHQWDO

Soils
 ‡6LOH[ ÁLQW OLPHVWRQH
 ‡.LPPHULGJLDQFOD\

Grape Varieties
• White
  ²6DXYLJQRQ%ODQF
• Red
  ²3LQRW1RLU

96
Day One

Central Vineyard Appellations France

• Sancerre AOP
  ²Location:HVWHUQEDQNRIWKH/RLUH5LYHU
  ²Grape Varieties
   ²White
    ²6DXYLJQRQ%ODQF
   ²Red
    ²3LQRW1RLU
  ²9LQLÀFDWLRQ
   ²'U\UHGDQGZKLWHZLQHV

• Pouilly-Fumé AOP
  ²Location(DVWHUQEDQNRIWKH/RLUH5LYHU
  ²Grape Varieties
   ²White
    ²6DXYLJQRQ%ODQF
  ²9LQLÀFDWLRQ
   ²'U\ZKLWHZLQHVRQO\

France — Loire Valley — Central Vineyards

97
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Americas

Loire Valley
Quiz Questions

:KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJLVQRWDVW\OHRI9RXYUD\$23"
D6SDUNOLQJ
E'U\ZKLWH
F6ZHHW
G'U\UHG

:KDWGRHVVXUOLHDJLQJUHIHUWR"
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D3D\V1DQWDLV
E$QMRX6DXPXU
F7RXUDLQH
G&HQWUDO9LQH\DUGV

Match the appellation with the grape variety. Some grapes may be used
more than once.
 &KLQRQ
 6DQFHUUH%ODQF 3LQRW1RLU
 %RXUJXHLO 6DXYLJQRQ%ODQF
 0XVFDGHWGH6qYUHHW0DLQH
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 9RXYUD\
 6DQFHUUH5RXJH

98
Day One

France France

Alsace

Learning Points$IWHUVWXG\LQJWKLVVHFWLRQDVWXGHQWVKRXOGEHDEOHWR
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  YLWLFXOWXUHDQGZLQHVW\OH
 ‡.QRZWKHIRXUSULPDU\ZKLWHJUDSHYDULHWLHVRI$OVDFH

France — Alsace

Factors of Production

Historical Background
$OVDFHLVDPRQJ)UDQFH·VPRVWGLVWLQFWLYHZLQHUHJLRQV,WVJHRJUDSKLFDO
LVRODWLRQDQGKLVWRU\DVDKLJKO\GHVLUDEOH³DQGKRWO\GLVSXWHG³UHJLRQ
ZLWKDOWHUQDWLQJ)UHQFKDQG*HUPDQUXOHRYHUWKHFHQWXULHVKDVVKDSHG$OVDFH·V
VLQJXODUFXOWXUHDQGZLQHV7KHZLQHVUHPDLQVWURQJO\FRQQHFWHGWRERWK
*HUPDQDQG)UHQFKURRWVDVVRPHRIWKHSURPLQHQWJUDSHVDUH*HUPDQLFLQ
RULJLQWKRXJK)UHQFKZLQHPDNLQJWHFKQLTXHVDUHRIWHQHPSOR\HG

99
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Americas

Location / Geography
 ‡$OVDFHLVORFDWHGLQWKHQRUWKHDVWHUQFRUQHURI)UDQFHDORQJWKHERUGHU
 ZLWK*HUPDQ\,WLVQHVWOHGEHWZHHQWKH9RVJHV0RXQWDLQVWRWKHZHVW
 DQGWKH5KLQH5LYHUWRWKHHDVW7KH9RVJHV0RXQWDLQVFUHDWHDUDLQVKDGRZ
 SURWHFWLQJWKHUHJLRQIURPWKHKDUVKUDLQ\ZHDWKHUFRPLQJIURP1RUWKHUQ
 )UDQFHDQGWKH$WODQWLF

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Climate
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 ‡'U\VXQQ\VXPPHUVGXHWRWKHUDLQVKDGRZIURPWKH9RVJHV
 ‡$OVDFHLVRQHRIWKHGULHVWUHJLRQVLQ)UDQFH

Topography / Aspect
 ‡9LQH\DUGVDUHSODQWHGRQWKHUROOLQJIRRWKLOOVRIWKH9RVJHV0RXQWDLQV
 ‡7KHEHWWHUYLQH\DUGVDUHSODQWHGRQWKHORZHUVORSHVIDFLQJHDVW
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France — Alsace

100
Day One

Soil France

 ‡7KHUHLVWUHPHQGRXVGLYHUVLW\DFURVVWKHUHJLRQEHFDXVHRIDQFLHQW
  JHRORJLFDFWLYLW\ZLWKYDULRXVVRLOW\SHVLQFOXGLQJPDUOOLPHVWRQHJQHLVV
  VFKLVWVDQGVWRQHJUDQLWHFOD\DQGYROFDQLFVRLOV

Grape Varieties
• White
  ²5LHVOLQJ
  ²*HZXU]WUDPLQHU
  ²0XVFDW
  ²3LQRW*ULV
  ²3LQRW%ODQF
  ²6\OYDQHU 2YHURI$OVDFH
• Red wines are made from
  ²3LQRW1RLU white grape varieties.
Viticulture
 ‡/RQJFRROGU\JURZLQJVHDVRQGXHWRWKHUDLQVKDGRZFDVW
  E\WKH9RVJHV

Cause Effect

5DLQVKDGRZ 'ULHUFOLPDWH
IURPWKH9RVJHV 6XQQLHUFOLPDWH QRWQHFHVVDULO\ZDUPHU
 /RQJJURZLQJVHDVRQ
 5LSHUJUDSHV
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 )XOOHUERGLHGZLQHV

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
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Regional Wine Law


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YDULHW\PXVWEHPDGH
entirely from the grape
Alsace Appellations
 ‡$OVDFH9LQG·$OVDFH$23
indicated.
  ²2QH$23FRYHULQJWKHHQWLUHUHJLRQ
  ²$OO$OVDFH$23ZLQHVPXVWEHERWWOHGLQWKHWUDGLWLRQDO
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101
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sommeliers
Americas

Alsace Grand Cru AOP


 ‡*UDQGV&UXVYLQH\DUGV
 ‡)RXUJUDSHYDULHWLHVDUHDOORZHGWREHSODQWHGLQWKHVHYLQH\DUGV
 ‡7KHVHYDULHWLHVDUHPDWFKHGZLWKWKHVSHFLÀFVRLOW\SHDQGWHUURLURIWKH
  VSHFLÀFYLQH\DUGVLWH
  ²5LHVOLQJ
  ²*HZXU]WUDPLQHU
  ²0XVFDW
  ²3LQRW*ULV

France — Alsace — Grands Crus

Crémant d’Alsace AOP


 ‡0pWKRGH7UDGLWLRQQHOOH6SDUNOLQJ:LQHVWKDWDUHXVXDOO\PDGH
  IURPDEOHQGRIJUDSHV

Late Harvested Wines

VT and SGN are Vendange Tardive (“VT”)


single variety wines. /DWHKDUYHVW PD\DOVREHDIIHFWHGE\ERWU\WLV
5LFKIXOOERGLHGEXWQRWDOZD\VVZHHW
2QO\5LHVOLQJ
*HZXU]WUDPLQHU Sélection de Grains Nobles (“SGN”)
0XVFDWDQG3LQRW*ULV 7KHVHZLQHVDUHDOZD\VDIIHFWHGE\ERWU\WLVPDGHLQYHU\VPDOO
FDQEHXVHG TXDQWLWLHVRQO\LQYLQWDJHVZKHQJURZLQJFRQGLWLRQVDUHFRQGXFLYHWR
WKHLUSURGXFWLRQ

102
Day One

Alsace France

Quiz Questions

:KDWLVWKHQDPHRIWKHPRXQWDLQUDQJHWKDWSURWHFWV$OVDFH"
D9RVJHV
E0DVVLI&HQWUDO
F3\UHQHHV
G$OSV

:KDWLVWKHQDPHRIWKHULYHUWKDWÁRZVWRWKHHDVWRI$OVDFH"
D/RLUH
E5K{QH
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:KDWGRHVDUDLQVKDGRZSURYLGH"
D3URWHFWLRQIURPKDUVKZHDWKHU
E0RUHUDLQ
F0RUHZLQG
G+DLO

Which of the following grapes is not allowed in Alsace Grand Cru


$23ZLQHV"
D*HZXU]WUDPLQHU
E0XVFDW
F3LQRW1RLU
G3LQRW*ULV

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If a wine from Alsace is labeled by reference to a grape variety, it must


be made _____ % from that variety.
D
E
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G

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France
Rhône Valley
Learning Points$IWHUVWXG\LQJWKLVVHFWLRQDVWXGHQWVKRXOGEHDEOHWR
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  6RXWKHUQ5K{QH
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France — Rhône Valley

Location / Geography
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  QRUWKDQG9DOHQFHLQWKHVRXWK

Climate
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  VORSHVDQGUHÁHFWLQJVXQOLJKWXSWRWKHYLQHV
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  WKH1RUWKHUQ5K{QH9DOOH\,WVOLJKWO\ZDUPVWKHDUHDDQGGULHVWKHFOLPDWH
  KHOSLQJSUHYHQWPLOGHZDQGRWKHUPROGV

Topography / Aspect
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104
Day One

Soil France

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Grape Varieties
• White
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• Red
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Viticulture
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  FRPSOH[LW\DQGOHVVHQLQJWKHSURPLQHQFHRIWDQQLQ

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Appellations of the Northern Rhône


Côte-Rôtie
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Condrieu
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Saint-Joseph
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 ‡:KLWHZLQHV5RXVVDQQHDQG0DUVDQQH

Crozes-Hermitage
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 ‡:KLWHZLQHV5RXVVDQQHDQG0DUVDQQH

Hermitage
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 ‡:KLWHZLQHV5RXVVDQQHDQG0DUVDQQH

Cornas
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France — Rhône Valley — North

106
Day One

The Southern Rhône Valley France

Location/Geography
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Climate
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Topography / Aspect
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  WKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQ6HD

Soil
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Grape Varieties
• White
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• RedRISURGXFWLRQ
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Viticulture
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9LQLÀFDWLRQ
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Southern Rhône AOC System

Single Village AOCs

Côtes du Rhône-Villages
*HRJUDSKLF'HVLJQDWLRQV

Côtes du Rhône

Southern Rhône Single Village Appellations

Châteauneuf-du-Pape
• White
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• Red
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Gigondas
• Red
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Vacqueyras
• White
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• Red and rosé wines
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Tavel
• Rosé only
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France — Rhône Valley — South

108
Day One

Rhône Valley France

Quiz Questions

For each of the following, note the difference between the Northern
Rhône and the Southern Rhône.

Factor of Production Northern Rhône Southern Rhône

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Match the Appellation with the Grape Variety. Some grapes may be used
more than once.
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 &RUQDV

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110
Day Two
Day Two

Italy Italy

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Know the location of Italy’s major wine regions
• Know the primary grape varieties of the highlighted regions and their
primary wine style
• Know the prominent geographic features of Italy including the major
mountain ranges and bodies of water
• Understand how these geographic features play a role in viticulture

Italy — Regions

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Italy — Factors of Wine Production


Introduction
• Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in Italy before the rise of
the Romans, who developed the ancient world’s most extensive wine
culture. Evidence indicates that vines were planted widely across the
peninsular “boot” by the 3rd century, with special concentration in
areas close to Rome itself. Today, Italy offers an astonishing array
of wines, thanks to innumerable indigenous varieties that have been
protected by proud local wine cultures — but also popularized worldwide
in tandem with the country’s famous cuisine.

Location / Geography
• Italy is made up of twenty very independent regions, covering a large
expanse from the snowcapped northern Alpine regions — bordering
Austria and Switzerland — down to a latitude that is actually south of the
northern edge of the African continent. The peninsula of Italy lies
between the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas on the west, the Ionian Sea
to the south, and the Adriatic Sea to the east. The Apennine Mountains
run like a backbone down the center of the peninsula, diversifying the
altitudes at which vines can be planted and separating regions in a way
that has historically protected the distinctiveness of regional varieties and
wine styles.

Climate
• Spans from cool, continental in the north to warm Mediterranean in
the south

Topography / Aspect
 ‡,WDO\LVFDSSHGLQWKHQRUWKE\WKH$OSVDQGGHÀQHGOHQJWKZLVHE\
the spine of the Apennine Mountains

Grape Varieties
• 1,300 registered grape varieties with hundreds of those being
indigenous to Italy

Viticulture
• A remarkable total of 900,000 registered vineyards

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Italy
,WDOLDQ:LQH/DZDQG&ODVVLÀFDWLRQ

Wines without Wines with


geographic indication geographic indication
• Vino • IGP Indicazione
These are generic wines that *HRJUD¿FD Protetta
can be blanco, rosso or Includes IGT Indicazione
rosato and labeled with or • *HRJUD¿FD Tipica
without a vintage
• DOP Denominazione di
Origine Protetta
• Includes DOC and DOCG

• A producer may choose


which term to use
depending on one’s
  FODVVLÀFDWLRQZLWKLQWKH
“old” system, meaning
producers in a traditional
DOCG zone most likely will
not use the DOP acronym

The Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) system was introduced


in 1963 as a means of formalizing and protecting Italian wine
appellations.

,WDOLDQ:LQH&ODVVLÀFDWLRQ

Denominazione de Origine
Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)

Denominazione di Origine

,QGLFD]LRQH*HRJUDÀFD
Tipica (IGT)

Vino

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Helpful Italian Label Terminology

Classico A traditional, theoretically superior vineyard area within a DOC


or DOCG

Riserva 0HDQV´UHVHUYHµDQGLVOHJDOO\GHÀQHG7KLVWHUPXVXDOO\LQGLFDWHV
extended ageing (in cask, then bottle) and can denote lower yields and
higher alcohol depending on the appellation.

Superiore Denotes higher level of alcohol or longer aging depending on


the appellation

Spumante Sparkling

Frizzante Lightly sparkling

Metodo Classico Traditional method sparkling wines

Secco Dry

Dolce Sweet

Recioto / Passito Wine made from dried grapes and is most often sweet

Northern Italy

Italy — Northern Regions

114
Day Two

Piedmont — Factors of Production Italy

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Location / Geography
• Piedmont is located in Northwestern Italy, bordering both France
and Switzerland. Piedmont is actually a French word meaning “foot of
the mountain,” as the region is cradled by the Alps to the north and
west and the Apennines to the south and east. The verdant Po River,
Italy’s most important, begins in Piedmont

Climate
• Continental with a rain shadow effect from the Alps protecting the
wine region Nebbia —
A pervasive fog that
Topography / Aspect often settles over the
• Mountains and rolling foothills
vineyards near harvest
Soil time. It is thought this
• Limestone and sandstone is how the Nebbiolo
grape was named.
Grape Varieties
• White
– Moscato
– Cortese
– Arneis
• Red
– Nebbiolo
– Barbera
– Dolcetto
– Brachetto

Italy — Piedmont

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Appellations of Piedmont

Barolo and Barbaresco DOCG


• Grape Variety
– Red
– 100% Nebbiolo
• Viticulture/Aspect The best vineyards are on hillsides with
optimal exposure to ripen Nebbiolo
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry red wines
– Long oak aging in large barrels or small barriques, depending
on producer
– Time in oak and minimum aging requirements are stipulated by law
– Barolo requires 38 months total aging with a minimum of
18 months in oak
– Barbaresco requires 24 months total aging with a minimum
of 9 months in oak

Moscato d’Asti / Asti DOCG


• Grape Variety
– White
– Moscato
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Moscato d’Asti: Off-dry, frizzante sparkling wines
– Asti DOCG: White, spumante or metodo classico sparkling wines

Barbera d’Asti DOCG


• Grape Variety
– Red
– Barbera
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, red wines

Gavi DOCG
• Grape Variety
– White
– Cortese
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, white wines

Brachetto d’Acqui DOCG


• Grape Variety
– Red
– Brachetto
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Sweet, sparkling, red wines

116
Day Two

Italy
Italy — Lombardy

Lombardy

Location / Geography
• Northeast of Milan in the foothills of the Alps near the famous Lakes
Como, Iseo and Garda

Climate
• Cool continental

Topography / Aspect
• Mountainous and rolling foothills

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Pinot Bianco
• Red
– Pinot Nero
– Nebbiolo

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Appellations of Lombardy
• Franciacorta DOCG
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Chardonnay
– Pinot Bianco
– Red
– Pinot Noir
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Metodo classico sparkling wines only

• Valtellina Superiore DOCG


– Climate
– High altitude and alpine
– Abundant sunshine allows for a long, slow growing season
– Grape Variety
– Red
– Nebbiolo
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Oak-aged, dry red wines

Trentino-Alto Adige

Location / Geography
• On the Alpine border of Austria and Switzerland. A region of two distinct
cultures with two nearly autonomous regions, Germanic to the north and
Italian to the South

Climate
• Continental with cold winters and surprisingly warm summers

Topography / Aspect
• Mountainous and rolling foothills

Grape Varieties Wide variety of both red and white grapes grown and
varietally labeled
• White
– Pinot Grigio
– Sauvignon Blanc
– Pinot Bianco
• Red
– Pinot Nero
– Nebbiolo

Appellations of Trentino-Alto Adige


Both DOCs allow for a • Trentino DOC
wide number of grape • Alto Adige (Südtiroler) DOC
varieties to be planted
and varietally labeled.

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Italy
Italy — Veneto

Veneto

Location / Geography
• Northeastern Italy in the foothills of the Alps extending eastward to the
border of the Adriatic Sea

Climate
• Continental with a warmer maritime climate near the coast

Veneto Appellations
• Soave DOC
– Grape Variety
– White
– Garganega
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry white wines
– Superior sub-zone
– Soave Superiore DOCG

• Prosecco DOC
– Grape Variety
– White
– Glera (Prosecco)
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Charmat/tank method sparkling wines
– Superior sub-zone
– Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco DOCG

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• Valpolicella DOC
– Grapes Variety
– Red
– Corvina (predominant)
– Rondinella
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry red wines
– Superior sub-zone
– Valpolicella Classico DOC

• Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG


– Grape Varieties
– Red
– Corvina (predominant)
– Rondinella

• 9LQLÀFDWLRQAmarone is made with the Appassimento Process


– Appassimento Process
– Grapes harvested and dried for several weeks
    ²)UXLWGULHVDQGGHYHORSVXQLTXHÁDYRUFKDUDFWHULVWLFV
– Wine fermented dry or off-dry
– High alcohol wine 14-16% abv

120
Day Two

Friuli-Venezia-Giulia Italy

Location / Geography
• Northeastern Italy, extending eastward to the border with Slovenia

Climate
• Continental

Grape Varieties (wines are labeled with grape variety indicated)


• White
– Pinot Grigio
– Sauvignon
– Friulano
• Red
– Merlot (most widely-planted) Emilia-Romagna is a
great source for more
9LQLÀFDWLRQ than just wine. Here
• Mostly unoaked whites and reds
ZH¾QGVRPHRIRXU
favorite Italian foods
such as Parmigiano-
Emilia-Romagna Reggiano, Prosciutto di
Parma and Balsamic
Location / Geography vinegar.
• A large region extending from the heart of north-central Italy eastward
to the coast of the Adriatic Sea

Climate
• Continental

Topography / Aspect
• Broad, vast plains with intensive agriculture and viticulture
• Considered the breadbasket of Italy

Appellations of Emilia-Romagna
• Lambrusco DOC
– Grape Variety
– Red
– Lambrusco
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Red, sparkling wine (frizzante or spumante) made by the
Charmat/Tank Method
– Styles
– Secco = Dry
– Amabile = Off-Dry

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Italy — Central Regions

Central Italy

Tuscany

Location / Geography
• Extends from the Ligurian Sea in the west to the foothills of the
Apennine Mountains in the east

Climate
 ‡0DULWLPHLQÁXHQFHGRQWKHFRDVWDQGPRUHFRQWLQHQWDOLQODQG

Grape Varieties
• White
– Vernaccia
• Red
– Sangiovese
– Syrah
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot

Tuscany Appellations

Chianti DOCG
• Large zone with 8 smaller subzones
• Grape Variety
– Red
– Sangiovese (minimum 70%)
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, red wines only

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Day Two

Italy — Tuscany
Italy

Chianti Classico DOCG


• Smaller area in the heart of the larger Chianti Region
• More stringent rules and aging requirements than Chianti DOCG
• Grape Variety
– Red
– Sangiovese (minimum 80%)
• Soil
– Galestro, a soft marl-like soil
– Sandstone
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, red wines only

Brunello di Montalcino
• Location / Geography
– Slopes around the hill town of Montalcino
• Soil
– Clay and marine sediments at lower elevation
– Galestro at higher elevation
• Grape Variety
– Red
– 100% Sangiovese Grosso (locally called Brunello)
• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, red wines only
– Time in oak and minimum aging requirements are stipulated by law
– Wines are required to be aged for a minimum of 2 years in
wood plus 4 months in bottle. They may not be sold before January
1st of the 5th year following the harvest
– Large Slavonian oak barrels or small barriques are used depending on
the producer

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Marches
Location / Geography
• On the eastern coast of Italy along the Adriatic Sea and extending
westward into the foothills of the Apennine Mountains

Climate
• Mediterranean

Grape Variety
• White
– Verdicchio

Important Appellations of the Marches


• Verdicchio di Matelica DOC
• Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC

9LQLÀFDWLRQIRU9HUGLFFKLR
• Dry, unoaked white wines

Italy — Marche

124
Day Two

Southern Italy and Sicily Italy

Italy — Southern Regions

Campania

Location / Geography
• Southern Italy, extending from the Mediterranean Sea into the mountains
  WRWKHHDVWQHDU1DSOHVDQGWKH$PDOÀ&RDVW

Climate
• Mediterranean, sunny and warm

Topography / Aspect
• A combination of relatively low-lying areas near the sea but also very
rugged terrain in the mostly-volcanic mountains to the east

Soil
• Alluvial sediments, volcanic soils in the mountains to the east and on the
famous Mount Vesuvius

Grape Varieties
• White
– Falanghina
– Fiano
– Greco
• Red
– Aglianico

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Appellations of Campania
• Fiano di Avellino DOCG
– Grape Variety
– White
– Fiano
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, white wines

• Greco di Tufo DOCG


– Grape Variety
– White
– Greco (an old grape variety planted by the ancient Greeks)
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry white wines

• Taurasi DOCG
– Grape Variety
– Red
– Aglianico
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry, oak-aged, age-worthy red wines
– Time in oak and minimum aging requirements are stipulated by law
– Wines must be aged for a minimum of three years with
one year in wood

Italy — Compania

126
Day Two

Italy
Italy — Siclily

Sicily

Location / Geography
• Island to the west of the mainland Italy in the Mediterranean Sea

Climate
• Overall Mediterranean climate, but with important local variations
• Maritime near the sea, hot inland becoming much cooler at higher
elevations on Mt. Etna

Topography / Aspect
• Rolling hillsides near Mt. Etna and in inland districts
• Flatter areas near the coast

Soil
• Notably varied across different areas on this very large island,
but famously volcanic on and near the slopes of the active Mt. Etna

Grape Varieties
• White
– Carricante
• Red
– Nero d’Avola
– Nerello Mascalese

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Important Appellation of Sicily


• Etna DOC
– Location / Geography
– Eastern Sicily with the vines on the slopes of Mount Etna
– Soil
– Well-drained volcanic soils
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Carricante
– Red
– Nerello Mascalese
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQDry white, red and rosé wines

128
Day Two

Italy Italy

Quiz Questions

The Alps provide ____ to the Piedmont wine region


a. A rainshadow
b. Storms
c. Heat
d. A cooling affect

What does Metodo Classico refer to?


a. Drying grapes
b. Oak aging
c. Special way of making sweet wines
d. Sparkling wines made using the Classic Method

What is Italy’s most important river in Piedmont?


a. Loire
b. Danube
c. Rhine
d. Po

Which of the following wines is made by the Appassimento Process?


a. Prosecco
b. Soave
c. Amarone
d. Barolo

By law, when can Brunello di Montalcino wines be released for sale?


a. After January 1st following the harvest
b. After January 1st of the 2nd year following the harvest
c. After January 1st of the 5th year following the harvest
d. After January 1st of the 10th year following the harvest

Which of the following DOCG zones is located in Piedmont?


a. Taurasi
b. Soave
c. Amarone
d. Barolo

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Match the Italian DOC/DOCG with the primary style of wine.


Some styles will be used more than once.

Moscato d’Asti DOCG Off-dry, semi-sparkling,


white wines
Barbera d’Asti DOCG
Gavi DOCG
Dry red wines
Brachetto d’Acqui DOCG
Franciacorta DOCG
Dry white wines
Valtellina Superiore DOC
Soave Superiore DOCG
Sweet, sparkling, red wines
Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
Etna Rosso DOC
Dry, metodo classico,
Taurasi DOCG
sparkling wines
Fiano di Avellino DOCG
Greco di Tufo DOCG
Dry, Charmat method,
Verdicchio di Matelica DOC sparkling wines

Match the following grapes with its DOC/DOCG.


Some grapes may be used more than once.

Barbaresco DOCG Sangiovese


Gavi DOCG Lambrusco
Barolo DOCG
Corvina
Prosecco DOC
Nebbiolo
Valtellina Superiore DOCG
Garganega
Franciacorta DOCG
Soave DOC Cortese

Valpolicella DOC Aglianico


Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG Chardonnay
Lambrusco DOC
Pinot Nero
Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
Pinot Bianco
Chianti Classico DOCG
Etna Rosso DOC Glera

Taurasi DOCG Nerello Mascalese

130
Day Two

Germany Germany

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Name the primary white grape variety of Germany
• Locate the main wine regions of Germany geographically
• Understand the climate of Germany and its effect on viticulture
  DQGYLQLÀFDWLRQ
– Cause and effect: Climate > Ripeness > Wine style
• Know the names of the main rivers of important wine regions and
how they affect climate and viticulture
• Understand the hierarchy of German wine law
• Understand the premise of the Prädikat system
• Recite the Prädikat levels in order of sweetness

Germany — Overview Regions

Factors of Wine Production

Introduction to Germany
• Germany is home to some of the world’s coolest vineyards at the
northernmost extreme of viticulture in the northern hemisphere.
Some of the top vineyards are also among the world’s steepest in
grade, producing what is arguably the world’s purest expression
of Riesling.

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Location / Geography
• The majority of vineyards are clustered in the southwestern corner of
Germany near the borders of Belgium, France and Switzerland. Most wine
regions are at 49°N latitude or above.

Climate
 ‡&RRODQGFRQWLQHQWDOZLWKVWURQJPRGHUDWLQJLQÁXHQFHVIURPULYHUVDQG
mountain ranges

Topography / Aspect
• Rolling hills with rivers and steep hillside vineyards on river banks

Soil
• Varies depending on the region, but the best vineyards are planted on
heat-retaining soils and rocks such as slate and basalt. These soils are
prized for absorbing sun during the daytime and retaining heat at night.

Grape Varieties
• White 70% of production
– Riesling
– Müller-Thurgau
– Silvaner
• Red
– Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir)

Viticulture
• Vineyards are generally planted on steep, south-facing hillsides
maximizing sunlight and warmth to achieve ripeness in the grapes
• The grapes enjoy a long, cool growing season, but often struggle
to fully ripen
• Most vineyards are planted along river valleys of the Rhine, Mosel and
their tributaries. Bodies of water can act as a climate moderator and
  SURYLGHZDUPWKIURPWKHUHÁHFWLRQRIVXQOLJKW

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• The vast majority of wines are fermented in stainless steel or
large oak casks
• Chaptalization (sugar addition) of wine is controversial and against
the law for most quality levels
• Wines can be fermented dry (trocken), off-dry or lusciously sweet

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Germany
German Wine Law

Wines without Wines with


geographic indication geographic indication

• Wein • Landwein (PGI)


– Regional wines: rarely exported

• Qualitätswein (PDO)
– Quality wine from one of 13 major regions
called Anbaugebiete
– This category includes top trocken wines

• Prädikatswein (PDO)
– A subset of Qualitätswein categorized by
ripeness at harvest. There are six prädikate
levels of quality. These wines are often, but
not necessarily, sweet.

Prädikatswein

Ripeness of the grapes at harvest means everything and is the basis of


the quality level system.
Not all German
wines are sweet. The
The six Prädikat
Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)
Prädikat levels are
Levels of Quality determined when the
Eiswein grapes are picked in
Beerenauslese (BA) the vineyard. What
Increasing quality, happens in the winery
Auslese* and how the wine is
price and ripeness
at harvest Spätlese* fermented is a different
story.
*Can be sweet or dry Kabinett*

Kabinett/Spätlese BA Kabinett, Spätlese and


even Auslese wines
can be fermented dry!
Look at the alcohol
levels or for the word
trocken to determine
Auslese that the wine is dry.
TBA

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VDP
The Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter, or VDP, is a German association
of over 200 top producers. Founded in 1910, this association is committed
to quality by emphasizing the tradition of making dry riesling from the best
terroir and vineyard sites. The quality levels the VDP has set forth are a more
UHVWULFWLYHFODVVLÀFDWLRQRIYLQH\DUGVRUHLQ]HOODJHQGHVLJQHGWRHPXODWHWKH
grand cru model of Burgundy.

GG (Grosses Gewächs)
These are dry or trocken wines from the top vineyard sites in the VDP
&ODVVLÀFDWLRQ

Decode the label and geographical indications


Learning to read a German wine label is half the battle in understanding what
you are drinking. The basis of labeling is to provide information on exactly
where the wine is from, the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvest, and
(potentially) the style of the wine.

German Term Label Example

Producer Dr. Loosen

Vintage 2012

Alcohol level 7.5%

Wine region Anbaugebiet Mosel

Village name Gemeinde Ürzig

Vineyard name Einzellage Würzgarten

Grape variety Riesling

Ripeness level at harvest Prädikat Auslese

Ürziger means from the


village of Ürzig just like
a New Yorker is from
New York. The “er” at
the end of a word is a
possessive, meaning
“from that place”.

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German Wine Regions Germany

Germany — Rhein and Mosel Valleys

Mosel

Germany’s oldest winemaking region and one of the greatest locations for the
pure expression of Riesling.

Location / Geography
• Northern limit of viticulture at the 49th parallel along the Mosel river
• These are some of the most northerly vineyards in the world

Climate
• Cold and continental, moderated by the Mosel river

Topography / Aspect
• Very steep vineyards — among the steepest in the world
• Facing south to capture the warmth of the sun

Soil
• Slate that is porous yet heat-retaining

Grape Varieties
• Riesling

Viticulture
• A long growing season to achieve ripeness. Vines are planted on
precipitous, south-facing slopes very close to the Mosel river. Northerly
growing conditions make ripening a challenge. Harvested grapes are
generally high in acidity and low in sugar.

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9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Mainly stainless steel fermentation
• Residual sugar is left in the wine to counter-balance the intense acidity
 ‡$OFRKROLQWKHÀQLVKHGZLQHLVJHQHUDOO\ORZRIWHQWRSSLQJRXWDWMXVW

Germany — Mosel

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Rheingau Germany

Location / Geography
• South of the Mosel on the Rhine river with a backdrop of the
Taunus Mountains

Climate
• Continental and slightly warmer with the more southerly latitude
• The Taunus Mountains provide protection
 ‡7KH5KLQH5LYHUUHÁHFWVVXQOLJKWGLUHFWO\XSLQWRWKHYLQHV
providing additional light for photosynthesis and warmth for ripening

Soil
• Mixture of slate and others

Topography / Aspect
• The Rheingau boasts one long south-facing slope on the north
bank of the Rhein

Grape Varieties
• White
– Riesling
• Red
– Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir)

Viticulture
• More reliable ripeness than the Mosel

Germany — Rheingau

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Rheinhessen
Location / Geography
• Large, sprawling wine area just south of the Rheingau

Climate
• Continental

Topography / Aspect
• Flat, fertile farmland

Soil
• Red sandstone mixed with slate
In the 1980s, over
60% of all German Grape Varieties
wine exports were of • White
Liebfraumilch. This – Riesling (the best but not the most planted grape in the Rheinhessen)
– Müller-Thurgau
sweet, cheap wine – Silvaner
(mainly made from
Müller-Thurgau), was Viticulture
extremely popular. • The Rheinhessen has the most area under vine, and is largest wine region
However, it severely in Germany. The best vineyards are found on a small strip along the steep
damaged the image of west bank of the Rhein. Quality ranges from Liebfraumilch (e.g., Blue Nun)
  XSWRWRSYLQH\DUGVIRUPRGHUQGU\5LHVOLQJ6SHFLÀFLW\RIYLOODJHDQG
quality German wine vineyard is key.
for decades.
Germany — Rheinhessen

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Pfalz Germany

Location / Geography
• The Pfalz is geographically contiguous with Alsace, despite the important
fact that the Rhine River separates the two regions. The Haardt Mountains
  DUHWKHGRPLQDQWLQÁXHQFHLQWKHDUHDDQGDUHWKHQRUWKHUO\H[WHQVLRQRI
the Vosges Mountains of France. Just as the Vosges provide protection
to Alsace and create a particularly sunny environment, so too do the
Haardt Mountains for the vineyards of the Pfalz

Climate
• A relatively southerly latitude with sunny and dry climate, making this one
of the warmest growing areas in Germany

Soil
• Limestone

Grape Varieties Quite diverse


• White
– Riesling
– Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc)
– Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)
• Red
– Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir)

Viticulture
• Because of its more southerly latitude and abundant sunshine, ripening is
  VLJQLÀFDQWO\OHVVFKDOOHQJLQJWKDQLQPRVW*HUPDQUHJLRQV

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Focus is on dry wines

Germany — Pfalz

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Germany
Quiz Questions

What is the Prädikat system is based on?


a. Ripeness of grapes at harvest
b. The sweetness of the wine when it is bottled
c. Alcohol level
d. Oaky character

Which of the following is an important river in one of


Germany’s wine regions?
a. Loire
b. Rhine
c. Danube
d. Rhône

All GG wines are


a. Sweet
b. Dry (Trocken)
c. Oaky
d. Sparkling

Spätburgunder is the German word for which grape variety?


a. Pinot Gris
b. Cabernet Sauvignon
c. Riesling
d. Pinot Noir

Place the following Prädikat in order of ripeness.


__ Eiswein
__ Beerenauslese (BA)
__ Auslese
__ Spätlese
__ Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)
__ Kabinett

Name 5 of the 13 German anbaugebiete.

What is an Einzellage?

Name three ways vineyards in the Mosel attain extra warmth to help
grapes ripen.

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Austria Austria

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Name the primary white grape varieties grown in Austria
 ‡1DPHWKHLPSRUWDQWULYHUWKDWÁRZVWKURXJK$XVWULD·VPDLQ
wine-growing regions
• Recognize four main wine regions of Austria
• Recognize three important sub-regions of Niederösterreich
 ‡5HFRJQL]HWKHWKUHHFDWHJRULHVRIWKH:DFKDXGU\ZLQHFODVVLÀFDWLRQ

Austria — Overview

Factors of Wine Production

Introduction
• Grape growing has existed in Austria for thousands of years. For such a
  VPDOOFRXQWU\³SURGXFLQJOHVVWKDQRIWKHZRUOG·VÀQHZLQH³TXDOLW\
is exceptionally high.

Location / Geography
• Austria is located in Central Europe, southeast of Germany and
northeast of Italy. Much of Western Austria is covered by the Alps, with
the wine-growing area located on the eastern edge of the country along
the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary.

Climate
• The climate is continental, with cold winters and very warm summers
moderated by the Danube River and its tributaries

Topography / Aspect
• Rolling foothills east of the Alps

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Grape Varieties
• White Majority of plantings over 70%
– Grüner Veltliner
– Riesling
• Red Only 30% of plantings
– Zweigelt
– Blaufränkisch
– St.-Laurent

Viticulture
• Steep, terraced vineyards overlooking the Danube River and its
tributaries in some areas, but also vast planes in the lower lying areas

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Austrian wines are either very dry or very sweet, as there is no
tradition of off-dry styles
• New oak is rarely used for white wine production

(8:LQH&ODVVLÀFDWLRQ

Wines without Wines with


geographic indication geographic indication

• Wein • Landwein (PGI)


Regional wines: rarely exported

• Qualitätswein (PDO)
– Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC)
This is a terroir-based system of quality
wines with appellation of origin is similar
   WR$2&RU'2&2QO\VSHFLÀFJUDSHV
and wine styles are permitted in these
demarcated regions. The focus is on
dry wines.

• Prädikatswein (PDO)
Similar system and use of terms as in
Germany, with wines categorized by
ripeness level at harvest. This system is
rarely used today, aside from the very
sweet styles such as BA, TBA and Eiswein.

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Austrian Wine Regions Austria

Four main wine growing regions


• Niederösterreich (Lower Austria)
• Burgenland
• Steiermark (Styria)
• Wien (Vienna)

Austria — Niederösterreich Detail

Niederösterreich (Lower Austria) is the largest wine-growing region, with


many sub-zones along the Danube River and its tributaries. The focus is on dry,
unoaked, high quality expressions of Grüner Veltliner and Riesling.

Three important sub-regions


• Kremstal DAC located in the valley of the Krems River
• Kamptal DAC located in the valley of the Kampt River
• Wachau many of Austria’s best vineyards are located in the Wachau
on a narrow band of steep slopes along the banks of the Danube.
The region has instituted its own system of quality for dry wines.

:LQH&ODVVLÀFDWLRQIRU:DFKDX'U\:LQHVbased on ripeness at harvest

Steinfeder
11.5% maximum alcohol. The lightest of the three styles and named for a
local grass found in the vineyards

Federspiel
11.5 – 12.5% alcohol. Named for a falconer’s tool

Smaragd
12.5% minimum alcohol. Named for an emerald-colored lizard that suns
itself in the vineyards. These wines are often made from very ripe grapes
and produce intensely rich, dry white wines.
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Austria
Quiz Questions

Which of the following is not one of the four major wine-growing


regions of Austria?
a. Wien (Vienna)
b. Pfalz
c. Burgenland
d. Niederösterreich

Which of the following is Austria’s signature white grape variety?


a. Chardonnay
b. Pinot Grigio
c. Grüner Veltliner
d. Pinot Gris

Which styles of wine are mainly produced in Austria?


a. Either very dry or very sweet
b. Off-dry
c. Sparkling and sweet
d. Sparkling and dry

Smaragd is a quality term used in which wine region?


a. Wachau
b. Wien
c. Mosel
d. Alsace

Which of the following rivers is most important to Austrian viticulture?


a. Russian River
b. Mosel
c. Rhine
d. Danube

144
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Spain Spain

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to
• Know the location, climate, primary grape varieties and style of wine in
each of the main growing regions
• Understand the hierarchy of Spanish wine designations
• Understand the importance of oak aging to red wines from Rioja
• Know the bottle aging requirements for Rioja
• Know the sub-regions of Rioja

Spain

Factors of Spanish Wine Production

Introduction
• Spain has the largest planted acreage of any wine producing country.
However, it is 3rd in global production behind Italy and France.

Location / Geography
• Eastern majority of the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal on the
western border
• Atlantic Ocean to the north and northwest
• Mediterranean Sea to the south and east

Climate
• A variety of climates depending on the location. From cool maritime in
the north to arid warm in the center of the country and to the south.

Topography / Aspect
• Very mountainous with an interior, raised plateau called the Meseta

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Grape Varieties
• Tempranillo is the most well-known variety

Regional Wine Law

Wines without Wines with


geographic indication geographic indication
• Vino • IGP Wines
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)-similar to
   )UHQFK9LQGH3D\VQRWLQJDVSHFLÀF
location yet with few requirements in
terms of grape variety, yields or aging

• DOP Wines
VCIG Vinos de Calidad con Indicación
   *HRJUiÀFD$FDWHJRU\XVHGDVD
gateway for current VdlT regions to
gain DO status.

DO Denominación de Origen
Equates to the French AOC. Each DO
has a regulatory body that is
   UHVSRQVLEOHIRUFUHDWLQJDQGGHÀQLQJ
wine law and regulations for each DO

DOCa Denominación de Origen


    &DOLÀFDGD
A step above the DO category
recognizing the top quality wine
regions in Spain. To date there are two
wine regions recognized as DOCa, Rioja
and Priorat.

• Vinos de Pagos A single estate


wine that is noted as a great estate of
Spain and can be situated outside of
the DO system. The wine from a DO
Pago must be made and bottled at that
domain or estate. An estate within an
existing DO must surpass the basic DO
requirements.

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Northwest Spain Spain

Rías Baixas DO

Location / Geography
• Borders Portugal in the northwest corner of Spain. This area is called
“Green Spain” because relatively high rainfall for Spain results in lush
vegetation

Climate
 ‡'XHWRSUR[LPLW\WRWKH$WODQWLF2FHDQDQGWKHQXPHURXVULYHUVWKDWÁRZ
through the region, the climate is humid and maritime

Soil
• Granite, alluvial and slate

Grape Varieties
• White
– Albariño represents 90% of plantings in this area and must be 100%
Albariño if varietally labeled. Most Spanish wine labels feature a
geographic name, but here the grape variety appears on the bottle.

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Stainless steel fermentation
• Crisp, dry, aromatic white wine

Spain — Rias Baixas

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North Central Spain


Rioja DOCa
Introduction
• Rioja has been producing wines for over 2,000 years and is Spain’s
  KLJKHVWSURÀOHUHGZLQHUHJLRQ,WLVQDPHGDIWHUWKH2MDDVPDOOWULEXWDU\
  RIWKHPDLQULYHU(EUR,WZDVWKHÀUVWUHJLRQLQ6SDLQWREHQDPHGD'2&D

Location / Geography
• The region is located in north-central Spain and is protected by the
Pyrenees Mountains to the northeast and the Cantabrian Mountains to
the northwest

Climate
• Continental
• Mountains create a rain shadow protecting the region from harsh
Atlantic weather
• There are three sub-regions within Rioja, each with slightly
different climates
– Alavesa
– Alta
– Baja

Spain — Rioja

Grape Varieties
• White
– Viura
• Red
– Tempranillo
– Garnacha

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9LQLÀFDWLRQ Spain

• Length and time of oak aging is the primary focus of quality categories
• Traditionally, American oak was used but today producers use French
oak as well
• Rioja DOCa aging quality levels for red wines
– Crianza Requires a total two years of aging before release
– Reserva Requires wines be aged for three years, including one year in
oak. These wines are from the best sites, best vintages and best
selection of grapes
– Gran Reserva Requires that wines age for at least two years in oak and
three years in bottle. These are generally sourced from the best sites
and made only in top vintages. Gran Reserva wines are rare and can
offer outstanding value.

The Duero River Valley

Spain — Duero Valley

Ribera del Duero DO

Climate
• Continental with a challenging climate of very hot summers and cold
winters and extreme diurnal shifts

Topography / Aspect
• On the high central plateau (Meseta) at 2500 feet these are the highest
elevation vineyards in Spain

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Tempranillo (known locally as “Tinto Fino”)

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Viticulture
• The high elevation and intense diurnal shifts allow the grapes to get very
ripe while preserving natural acidity in spite of the hot summers

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Red wines only, with quite small production of rosé

Toro DO

Climate
• Continental, with extremely hot, dry summers

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Tempranillo (known locally as “Tinto de Toro”)

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Toro is known for rich, intense red wines

Rueda DO

Climate
• Continental

Grape Varieties
• White
– Verdejo
– Sauvignon Blanc

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Rueda is best known for crisp, dry white wines

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Northeastern Spain — Catalonia Spain

Spain — Catalonia

Penedès DO / Cava DO

Located in the vicinity of Barcelona, this area is most widely known as Cava
country, producing an immense amount of traditional method sparkling wine.

Location / Geography
• Environs of Barcelona reaching up into the Pyrenees Mountains at the
French border

Climate
• Mediterranean

Grape Varieties
• White
– Macabeo
– Xarel-lo
– Parellada

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Sparkling wines made by the traditional method

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Priorat DOCa
Priorat is one of two DOCa wines of Spain (DOQ in Catalan).

Location / Geography
• A very rugged area just a few miles from the Mediterranean Sea but
completely isolated and surrounded by mountains

Climate
• Hot and dry

Soil
• Stony schist soils, with the best vineyards situated on “llicorella,” a mix of
black slate and quartzite

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Garnacha (Grenache)
– Cariñena (Carignan)

Viticulture
• Low yields due to the climate
• Vines must dig deeply for water due to the nature of the soil

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Intense, concentrated, dry red wines

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Spain Spain

Quiz Questions

,QZKLFK'2ZLOO\RXÀQGZLQHVPDGHIURPWKH$OEDULxRJUDSH"
a. Rías Baixas DO
b. Penedès DO
c. Rueda DO
d. Cava DO

What are the two DOCa regions of Spain?


a. Rioja and Ribera del Duero
b. Rioja and Cava
c. Rioja and Priorat
d. Cava and Rueda

Priorat DOQ produces which of the following styles of wine?


a. Sparkling wine made in the traditional method
b. Powerful, dry red wines
c. Sweet white wines
G)RUWLÀHGZLQHV

Which aspect of topography affects the climate of Ribera del Duero?


a. Strong diurnal difference
b. Warm to hot summer
c. High elevation of the Meseta
d. All of the above

The main white grape variety of Rueda is?


a. Verdejo
b. Chardonnay
c. Riesling
d. Xarel-lo

Which combination of region and grape variety is not correct?


a. Rioja and Tempranillo
b. Ribera del Duero and Tempranillo
c. Toro and Tempranillo
d. Priorat and Tempranillo

What does “Gran Reserva” on a label of Rioja refers to?


a. Sweetness level
b. Aging requirements for time in barrel and bottle
c. Location
d. Estate bottled

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Portugal
Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Recognize the location of Portugal on the Iberian Peninsula
• Know the location, climate, main grape variety and style of
Vinho Verde DOP
• Know the location, climate, main grape variety and style of Douro DOP
• Recognize the three sub-regions of the Douro DOP
• Recognize Bairrada, Dão and Alentejo are DOP regions located
in Portugal

:HZLOODGGUHVV3RUWDQG0DGHLUDLQWKHIRUWLÀHGZLQHVHFWLRQ

Portugal — Overview

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Factors of Wine Production Portugal

Introduction
• Portugal is steeped in tradition with a multitude of indigenous varieties
and some of the oldest demarcated wine regions. However, the country’s
wine industry has picked up the pace of change recently, with modern
equipment and production techniques turning out wines of excellent
quality and value.

Location / Geography
• Portugal is located on the southwest portion of the Iberian Peninsula,
with the Atlantic Coast to the west being a dominant feature

Climate
• Portugal has a varied climate that can be divided into three distinct
areas. Along the coast in the north, conditions are cool and humid due
  WRWKHLQÁXHQFHRIWKH$WODQWLF2FHDQZLWKDEXQGDQWUDLQIDOODQGDOXVK
green environment akin to Rías Baixas across the Spanish border. Moving
south along the coast, conditions become warmer and more characteristic
of a Mediterranean climate. The interior of the country has a decidedly
continental climate marked by hot, arid conditions.

Topography / Aspect
 ‡5XJJHGGLIÀFXOWWHUUDLQIRUYLWLFXOWXUHLQODQG

Grape Varieties
• Portugal has an remarkable array of over 200 indigenous varieties

Regional Wine Law

Wines without Wines with


geographic indication geographic indication

• Vinho • IGP
,QGLFDomR*HRJUi¿FD3URWHJLGD
– Larger regional designations
85% must be from the stated region
– Many grape varieties are allowed
depending on the region
– Minimum alcohol is regulated

• DOP
Denominação de Origem Protegida
– Primary category for quality wine
    ²6SHFLÀFZLQHUHJLRQVORFDWHGLQVLGH
a larger IGP/VR
– Regulates wine style, maximum
yields, minimum alcohol and aging
requirements

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Important Appellations of Portugal


Vinho Verde DOP
Vinho Verde translates to “green wine,” referencing the youthful nature of the
wines and the implied recommendation to drink them while young. Vinho
Verde is the largest DOP in Portugal.

Location / Geography
• Northern Portugal on the Atlantic Coast, just south of the Spanish border

Climate
• Cool, maritime, rainy and humid. This is a contiguous region of the
Spanish Rías Baixas to the north

Grape Varieties
• White
– Loureiro (most planted)
– Trajadura
– Alvarinho (Albariño in Spanish)

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• The most characteristic wine from the region is a low alcohol, white wine
with lively acidity and a slight effervescence due — most often — to an
injection of carbon dioxide at bottling

Portugal — Northern — DOPs

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Douro DOP Portugal

7KH'RXUR9DOOH\ZDVRQHRIWKHÀUVWGHPDUFDWHGZLQHUHJLRQVLQWKHZRUOG
0RVWNQRZQIRULWVSURGXFWLRQRIWKHIRUWLÀHGZLQH3RUWWKLVDUHDKDVEHHQ
JDLQLQJUHSXWHDVDKLJKTXDOLW\SURGXFHURIGU\XQIRUWLÀHGUHGZLQHV

Location / Geography
• Northern Portugal along the Douro River (this is the same river as the
Spanish Duero)
• The Douro DOP shares the same appellation boundaries as Port, the
  IDPRXV3RUWXJXHVHIRUWLÀHGZLQH

Climate
• There are three sub-regions of the Douro each with a very different
climate as you move inland. The climate changes and become drier and
hotter as you move away from the Atlantic
– Baixo Corgo
– Cima Corgo
– Douro Superior

Topography / Aspect
• Mountainous, rugged, wild and remote

Soil
• Schist (top vineyards)

Portugal — Douro Valley

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Grape Varieties
• Red
– Touriga Nacional (these wines are usually a blend of many
indigenous grapes)

Viticulture
• Incredibly steep, terraced vineyards along the banks of the Douro
and its tributaries
• Single vineyards or quintas

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Rich, dry, ripe, powerful red wines

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Portugal Portugal

Quiz Questions

,QZKLFK'23ZLOO\RXÀQGZLQHVPDGHIURPWKH$OYDULQKR7UDMDGXUDDQG
Loureiro grapes?
a. Cava
b. Vinho Verde
c. Rueda
d. Douro

The Douro DOP shares the same appellation boundaries as which


IRUWLÀHGZLQH"
a. Sherry
b. Port
c. Madeira
d. Banyuls

What description best characterizes the white wines from the Vinho
Verde DOP?
a. Youthful, high acid, low alcohol, slightly effervescent
b. Youthful, moderate acid, moderate alcohol, oak aged
c. Youthful, high acid, low alcohol, fully sparkling
d. Aged in oak for a minimum of 1 year

Baixo Corgo is a sub-zone of which wine region?


a. Rioja DOCa
b. Toro DO
c. Rueda DO
d. Douro DOP

The best vineyards are planted on which soil type in the Douro DOP?
a. Slate
b. Volcanic
c. Tufo
d. Schist

What description best characterizes the red wines from the Douro DOP?
a. Earthy and elegant
b. Rich, intense and full-bodied
c. Soft and earthy
d. Fruity and light

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North America
United States
Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Understand the general history of winemaking in the United States and
the key players to the success of the industry
• Know the governing body that regulates beverage alcohol in the
United States
• Recognize wine label minimum requirements for vintage, variety
and location
 ‡.QRZWKHGHÀQLWLRQRIDQ$9$
• Recognize important AVAs of California, Oregon, Washington and
New York State
 ‡%HJLQWRWDNHQRWHRIFOLPDWHLQÁXHQFHVLQHDFKUHJLRQDQGOLQN
grape varieties to climates and regions

Factors of Wine Production

Introduction / Historical Background


Winemaking in the United States is a tale of two histories. One, on the East
Coast, dates back to the 1500s with French Huguenots in Florida and to the
1600’s with Colonists in Jamestown and other Northeast settlements. The other,
in the West, was initiated by Franciscan Mission plantings in present day Texas
and New Mexico in the 16th century and along the California coast in the 17th
century.

7KHZLQHLQGXVWU\EHJDQWRÁRXULVKLQWKHPLGVDQGJDLQLQWHUQDWLRQDO
recognition. Agoston Haraszthy, a Hungarian fur trader, saw the potential
Agoston Haraszthy of Sonoma in particular and is considered the “Father of the California Wine
Industry.” He founded the Buena Vista winery in 1857, and is credited with
importing European vinifera vines to California. The Gold Rush attracted Italian
and French immigrants to California, with important results for the wine cultures
of California and the broader United States.

Hard Times
By the late 1800s, just as the USA’s wine industry was establishing itself, it was
plagued a series of setbacks.

While California wines were on the rise, European vineyards were ravaged
by phylloxera. The vine louse made its way to California vineyards in the
1880s and 1890s, delivering a devastating blow to the growing regions. After
struggling for several decades to re-plant and recover commercial momentum,
the industry was undercut yet again by the enactment of Prohibition (1920-
1933), which forbade the production and sale of beverage alcohol except for
sacramental purposes. This purportedly “noble experiment” failed to eradicate
the nation’s taste for alcoholic drinks, but it succeeded in crippled the growing
wine trade. At the time of repeal of Prohibition in 1933, fewer than 100
wineries remained. Repeal occurred during The Great Depression, which badly
hampered industry recovery. As the Depression was followed immediately by
:RUOG:DU,,DIXOOVFDOHUHYLYDOWRRNQHDUO\ÀYHGHFDGHVIURPWKHRQVHWRI
Prohibition.
Robert Mondavi

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A New Era United States

,WZDVQRWXQWLOWKHVDQGVWKDWWKHZLQHLQGXVWU\EHJDQWRÁRXULVK
again. The modern era of the industry was ushered in, thanks to luminaries
like Robert Mondavi and André Tchelistcheff who—along with many others—
brought quality winemaking back to life in California. The “world class” caliber
of their accomplishments was established by a famous blind tasting in 1976 that
became known as “The Judgment of Paris,” in which two California contenders
prevailed classic French wines from Burgundy and Bordeaux in a blind tasting
conducted by renowned experts.

Today, the United States is currently the world’s 4th largest producer of wine,
with wine being made in every state, exports trending upward, and total wine
consumption exceeding that of every other nation.

United States Appellation Law

• All federal beverage alcohol laws are regulated by the Tax and
Trade Bureau (TTB)
 ‡7KH77%GHÀQHVDQGDSSURYHVWKHERXQGDULHVRI$PHULFDQZLQHUHJLRQV
• The TTB demarcates appellations based on distinctive geographical,
physical, and climatic features
• According to the TTB, “The establishment of viticultural areas allows
vintners to describe more accurately the origin of their wines to
consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase”

Named wine-growing regions are called


American Viticultural Areas (AVAs)
 ‡7KHVHDUHGHÀQHGDV´GHOLPLWHGJUDSHJURZLQJDUHDVµZKLFKUHIHUVWR
geographic location only
 ‡7KHÀUVW$9$VZHUHQDPHGLQWKHHDUO\VEHJLQQLQJZLWK$XJXVWD
Missouri (1980) and Napa Valley, California (1981)

United States Wine Labeling Law —


These are the minimum percentages that can be used on labels

Variety
• 75% minimum varietal composition if from a county or state
• 85% minimum varietal composition if from an AVA
• 90% minimum in Oregon for most varieties

Vintage
• 85% minimum from the vintage stated if from state or county
• 95% minimum from the vintage stated if from an AVA

Appellation or AVA
• 75% minimum for country, state or county
• 85% minimum from stated AVA
• 95% minimum from stated single vineyard

Estate Bottling
• 100% of the wine must come from grapes grown on land owned or
controlled by the winery which must be located in an AVA

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California
Factors of Wine Production

Location / Geography
• West Coast of the United States

Climate
 ‡&RRORQWKHFRDVWGXHWRWKHLQÁXHQFHRIWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ:DUPWRKRW
  LQODQGEDVHGRQGLVWDQFHIURPRFHDQ·VLQÁXHQFH7KLVLVDFRPPRQWKHPH
for almost all wine regions we will discuss in California

Topography / Aspect
 ‡0RXQWDLQUDQJHVDQGUROOLQJKLOOVHLWKHUEORFNLQJFRRO3DFLÀFDLURU
depending upon orientation, funneling it inland

United States — California — Overview

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Grape Varieties United States

• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot
– Zinfandel
– Pinot Noir

Important Areas
• North Coast
• Central Coast
• Central Valley
• Sierra Foothills

California — North Coast

United States — California — North Coast

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Napa Valley
Location / Geography
• The Napa Valley stretches from the San Pablo Bay 30 miles north to
  0W6W+HOHQD7KH9DFD0RXQWDLQVÁDQNWKHYDOOH\WRWKHHDVWDQGWKH
Mayacamas Mountains separate Napa from Sonoma to the west.
 ‡7KH1DSD5LYHUÁRZVWKURXJKWKHKHDUWRIWKHUHJLRQ

Climate
• The climate is maritime and varies depending on altitude and the
  LQÁXHQFHRIFRRODLUDQGIRJUROOLQJRIIWKH6DQ3DEOR%D\7KLVPRUQLQJ
and evening cool air and fog creates large diurnal shifts in temperatures
throughout the day. The AVAs in the southern portion of the Napa Valley
are highly affected by cool air and fog. This lessens as you move north up
the valley.

United States — California — Napa Valley

Looking at the map


of the AVAs, note
which are in the valley
and which are in the
mountains. Think
about the climate of
each and what grapes
may be best grown.

Topography / Aspect
• The mountainous portions of Napa Valley vineyard land rises up to
2,000 feet in altitude

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Soil United States

• Very diverse across the valley and up in the mountainous areas

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot
– Zinfandel
– Pinot Noir

Viticulture
• Vineyards in the Napa Valley are planted on the higher elevation slopes
  DQGKLOOVLGHVRURQWKHYDOOH\ÁRRU7KHVHGLIIHULQJORFDWLRQVEULQJ 
  GLIIHUHQFHVLQLQWHQVLW\RIFRORUÁDYRUDQGVWUXFWXUHLQWKHUHVXOWLQJZLQHV
• Morning and evening fogs rolling in off the bay create the large shifts in
temperatures from day to night, helping retain needed acidity and
imparting freshness to the wines
• The wide range of climates from south to north allows for different types
and styles of wine, including cooler climate Pinot Noir and warmer climate
Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Wines of the Napa Valley are often marked by extensive use of new
French and American oak barrels, lending notes of vanilla and toast to
both red and white wines
• Malolactic fermentation is often employed when making white wines,
  HVSHFLDOO\&KDUGRQQD\LPSDUWLQJULFKEXWWHU\DURPDVDQGÁDYRUV
• Sparkling wines are produced in the cooler southern areas of Napa, most
notably in Carneros

Important AVAs
There are many AVAs in the Napa Valley; these are a few of the most important:
• Carneros AVA
• Stags Leap District AVA
• Oakville AVA
• Rutherford AVA
• Howell Mountain AVA

Sonoma County

Location / Geography
 ‡:HVWHUQHGJHRIWKH1RUWK&RDVWH[WHQGLQJHDVWZDUGIURPWKH3DFLÀF
Ocean to the ridge line of the Mayacamas Mountains bordering the
Napa Valley

Climate
• Cooler coastal areas, with warmer zones moving inland. Climate is
  H[WUHPHO\YDULHGDQGGHSHQGVRQSUR[LPLW\WRWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQDOWLWXGH
  RUWKHLQODQGLQÁXHQFHRIIRJDQGFRRODLUIURPWKHRFHDQÁRZLQJWKURXJK
a gap in the mountains called the Petaluma Gap. The fog and cool air
create large diurnal shifts from night to day.

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United States — California — Sonoma

Looking at the map of


the Sonoma AVAs, note
which are close to the
3DFL¾FDQGKDYHWKH
LQ¿XHQFHRILWVFRRODLU
and fog and those that
do not.

Topography / Aspect
• Hilly or mountainous throughout

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Pinot Noir
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot
– Zinfandel
– Syrah

Viticulture
• Hillsides
• Differences in elevation
• Diurnal shifts

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Intense red wines, often aged in new oak barrels
• Sonoma is incredibly diverse in the types of wine made. Styles are
highly dependent on climate and cooling factors.

Important Sonoma County AVAs


• Carneros AVA
• Sonoma Valley AVA
• Sonoma Coast AVA
• Alexander Valley AVA
• Russian River Valley AVA
• Dry Creek Valley AVA

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Mendocino County United States

Location / Geography
 ‡1RUWKRI6RQRPD&RXQW\DORQJWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ

Climate
 ‡9HU\GHSHQGHQWRQSUR[LPLW\WRWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ&RROFRDVWDODUHDVDQG
warm inland areas

Important Mendocino County AVAs


• Anderson Valley AVA
– Climate
– Cool coastal
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Chardonnay
– Red
– Pinot Noir
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Well-known for traditional-method sparkling wines

United States — California — Mendocino

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California — Central Coast

United States — California — Central Coast

Monterey AVA

Location / Geography
• South of San Francisco and San Jose, near the town of Monterey
• A very fertile area known for many types of agriculture

Climate
• Cool maritime with fog and intense wind near the coast
• Very warm to hot further south and inland

Topography / Aspect
• A gap in the mountains along the coast begin to run east-west instead of
the typical north-south orientation, funneling cool air and strong winds
directly inland

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Grape Varieties United States

• White
– Chardonnay
• Red
– Pinot Noir
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot
– Zinfandel

Viticulture
• Vineyards site selection is important to protect from severe harsh winds
  IXQQHOHGLQIURPWKH3DFLÀF

Paso Robles AVA

Location / Geography
• San Luis Obispo County between Monterey and Santa Barbara

Climate
• Generally, a very warm AVA with hot days and cool nights
 ‡3DVR5REOHVLVEORFNHGIURPWKHFRROPDULWLPHLQÁXHQFHRIWKH
  3DFLÀF2FHDQE\PRXQWDLQVWRWKHZHVW+RZHYHUDVPDOOJDSLQ
the mountains allows cool air to funnel in and reach a portion of the
wine-growing area

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
• Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Rhône Varieties
– Grenache
– Syrah
– Zinfandel

Santa Barbara County

Location / Geography
• North of Los Angeles and north of the city of Santa Barbara

Climate
• Maritime, with a dramatic change in climate from the cool, wet and windy
coast to the warm and dry areas inland

Topography / Aspect
• California’s Coastal Range turns and runs west to east, unlike the north-
south orientation that predominates further up the coast. This creates a
  YDOOH\WKDWIXQQHOVFRRODLUDQGIRJGLUHFWO\LQIURPWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ

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Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Pinot Noir
– Rhône varieties
– Grenache
– Syrah
– Bordeaux varieties
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot

Important AVAs
• Santa Maria Valley AVA
• Santa Ynez Valley AVA
• Sta. Rita Hills AVA

Oregon

United States — Oregon

Factors of Wine Production

Location / Geography
 ‡3DFLÀF1RUWKZHVW
• Main wine regions are situated between the Coast Range and the
Cascade Mountains, running south from Portland

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Climate United States

 ‡&RRODQGPDULWLPHLQÁXHQFHG7KH&RDVWDO5DQJHSURYLGHVDUDLQVKDGRZ
offering partial protection against storms headed eastward from the
  3DFLÀF2FHDQ

Topography / Aspect
• Rolling hills and mountains

Soil
• Mix of volcanic, alluvial and clay

Grape Varieties
• White
– Pinot Gris
– Chardonnay
– Riesling
• Red
– Pinot Noir (70% of plantings)

Viticulture Oregon Pioneer


David Lett — Eyrie Vineyards
• Vineyards in the Willamette Valley are planted on the higher elevation 1975
  VORSHVDQGKLOOVLGHVRURQWKHYDOOH\ÁRRU7KHVHGLIIHULQJORFDWLRQV
  EULQJGLIIHUHQFHVLQLQWHQVLW\RIFRORUÁDYRUDQGVWUXFWXUHLQWKH
resulting wines

Important AVA
• Willamette Valley AVA
– Many sub-AVAs

Regional Wine Law


• Oregon wine law is unique in that it requires a minimum of 90% of the
grape variety stated on the label. An exception is made for Cabernet
Sauvignon which is allowed the standard 75%
• Oregon also has stricter state laws for labeling by region:
– A wine labeled by reference to an AVA within Oregon must contain a
minimum 95% of grapes grown in that appellation, rather than the
standard 85%

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Washington State

United States — Washington State

Factors of Production

Location / Geography
 ‡/RFDWHGLQWKH3DFLÀF1RUWKZHVWZLWKPDMRULW\RIYLQH\DUGVORFDWHGWRWKH
east of the Cascade Mountains

Climate
• The Cascade Mountains create a rain shadow protecting the entire eastern
  SRUWLRQRIWKHVWDWHIURPWKHUDLQ\DQGFRROZHDWKHUIURPWKH3DFLÀF
Ocean. This protection creates a continental, high-desert climate with hot
summers, very cold winters and little precipitation.

Grape
• White
– Chardonnay
– Riesling
• Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot
– Syrah

Viticulture
• The desert-like conditions offer a dramatic diurnal differences of up to 40
degrees between day and night. Low temperatures allow the vines
to rest and help preserve acidity and freshness in the wine.
• Irrigation is essential. The Columbia, Yakima and Snake Rivers are the
primary sources of water.

Important AVAs
• Columbia Valley AVA
– Yakima Valley AVA
– Walla Walla Valley AVA
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New York State United States

United States — New York State

Factors of Wine Production

Location / Geography
• Northeastern United States

Climate
 ‡&RQWLQHQWDOZLWKPRGHUDWLQJLQÁXHQFHVRIODNHVDQGULYHUVIRULQODQG
areas and the Atlantic Ocean for coastal regions

Grape Varieties
• White
– Riesling
– Gewürztraminer
– Chardonnay
• Red
– Pinot Noir
– Merlot
– Cabernet Franc
• Hybrid
– Concord
– Vidal Finger Lakes Pioneer
Dr. Konstantin Frank

Viticulture
• It is important to protect vines from deep freezes during the harsh winters
and from mold in the warm, humid summer months

Important AVAs
• Finger Lakes AVA
• Hudson Valley AVA
• Long Island AVA
• Lake Erie AVA
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North America
Quiz Questions

Which governmental body controls the production and sale of


beverage alcohol?
a. FDA
b. TTB
c. IRS
d. FAA

For a Rutherford AVA Merlot, what is the minimum percentage


of Merlot that must be in the wine?
a. 75%
b. 85%
c. 95%
d. 100%

Which of the following best describes the climate of the


Anderson Valley along with its most well-known style of wine?
a. Cool climate/sparkling wines
b. Cool climate/sweet wines
F:DUPFOLPDWHIRUWLÀHGZLQHV
d. Warm climate/red wines

Which of the following is an AVA in Sonoma County?


a. Rutherford
b. Stags Leap
c. Monterey
d. Russian River Valley

Who is credited with importing European vinifera vines to California?


a. Agoston Haraszthy
b. Dr. Konstantin Frank
c. Robert Mondavi
d. David Lett

The Willamette Valley is best known for which grape variety?


a. Cabernet Sauvignon
b. Grenache
c. Merlot
d. Pinot Noir

:KDWKDVWKHPRVWGUDPDWLFLQÁXHQFHRQWKHFOLPDWHRI
Columbia Valley AVAs?
a. Hail
E)RJIURPWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ
c. Moderation from the lakes and rivers
d. Rain shadow from the Cascade Mountains

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South America South America

Chile

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
 ‡.QRZWKHPDMRUJHRJUDSKLFDOLQÁXHQFHVWKDWDIIHFWWKHYLQHJURZLQJ
regions of Chile
• Know the major grape varieties grown in Chile and how they arrived
to the country
• Have a familiarity with the DO system
• Recognize the major growing areas and major sub-regions

South America — Chile Overview

Factors of Chilean Wine Production

South America Introduction / Historical Background


Viticulture arrived in Chile and other South American countries from Spain (by
way of Mexico) during the mid-16th century. After a promising beginning, the
wine industry was hampered by restrictive laws from Spain intended to prevent
competition with Iberian producers. Restrictions were put in place to limit
production to sacramental purposes, though some private estates managed to
circumvent these rules. As South American countries achieved autonomy in the
1800s, waves of European immigrants revived wine production with vine
cuttings from their various homelands.
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Location / Geography
• Chile stretches 2670 miles along the southern half of South America’s
  3DFLÀF&RDVW
• The country is very narrow, rarely exceeding 100 miles in width and
  ERXQGHGE\WKH$QGHVDQGWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ

Climate
• Chile’s climate varies immensely from the hot and extraordinarily dry
Atacama Desert in the north to the very cool southern regions
• The icy ocean Humboldt Current brings cool, moist air and fog to the
coastal areas
• The Coastal Range of mountains blocks the cool, moist air from the
  3DFLÀFFUHDWLQJDUDLQVKDGRZ7KHLQODQGDUHDVEHWZHHQWKH&RDVWDO
Range and the Andes have a warm to hot Mediterranean climate

Topography / Aspect
 ‡6LJQLÀFDQWYDULDWLRQVLQDOWLWXGHPDUN&KLOH·VPDMRUUHJLRQVZLWKYLQH\DUGV
in valleys, on foothills, or at upper elevations

Grape Varieties Many of Chile’s vines were brought from Bordeaux in the 1800s
• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red (75% of plantings)
– Cabernet
– Merlot
– Carmenère (long mistaken for Merlot)

Viticulture
• Phylloxera does not exist in Chile because of its strict quarantine laws and
geographical isolation
• Many rivers descending from the Andes bring snow melt water for
irrigation and create channels in the Coastal Range enabling cool air from
  WKH3DFLÀFWRWUDYHOLQODQG

Regional Wine Law


• Denominación de Origen (DO) Very similar to the AVA system in the US
for denoting geographic origin
  ²7KH'2V\VWHPGHÀQHV
– Zones
– Regions
– Minimum 75% must be from the region
– There are six regional DO’s in Chile from north to south
1. Atacama
2. Coquimbo
3. Aconcagua
4. Valle Central
5. Sur
6. Astral
– Sub-regions of the above Regions

• Varietal labeling
– Only Vitis vinifera (no hybrids)
– Must be a minimum 75% of the stated variety

• Vintage labeling
– Must be a minimum 75% of the stated year
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– In practice, most wines conform to 85% laws for all of the categories South America

above to comply with EU export standards

• Major Chilean Regions and Notable Sub-Regions


– Aconcagua DO
– San Antonio DO and Casablanca Valley DO
– Both of these areas are situated west of the Coastal Mountains
    QHDUWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ
– Cool maritime climate
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
– Red
– Pinot Noir

South America — Chile — Aconcagua – Valle Central

• Valle Central DO (Central Valley DO)


– Location / Geography
– Between the Andes and the Coastal Mountains
– More than 80% of Chile’s wine production is located in this broadly
encompassing region, which stretches southward 200 miles from the
suburbs of Santiago

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– Climate
– Warm to hot

– Grape Varieties
– Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Carmenère
– Merlot

– Important Sub-Regions
– Maipo Valley DO — most famous, best known for Cabernet Sauvignon
– Curicó DO
– Rapel DO
– Maule Valley DO

Argentina

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Know the location of Argentina in South America
• Understand the importance of elevation and diurnal differences for
viticulture
• Understand the role of irrigation and how vines are irrigated
• Know the primary grape varieties of Argentina
• Recognize three of the main wine regions in Argentina and —
for each — know important geographic and climate factors

South America — Argentina

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Factors of Argentine Wine Production South America

Introduction
• Argentina is South America’s largest wine-producing country and is the
5th largest producer in the world. Vineyards were revitalized by Italian
and Spanish immigrants towards at the end of the 19th century.

Location / Geography
• Argentina is located on the eastern side of the Andes Mountains

Climate
• The Andes form a rain shadow offering protection from westerly winds
and storms, creating a very dry, arid climate

Topography / Aspect
• Vineyards are planted in the front range of the Andes at an average
altitude of 3,000 feet above sea level. This elevation is key to the success
of viticulture in Argentina.

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Malbec
– Bonarda
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Syrah
• White
– Torrontés

Viticultural practices
• The wine regions are very dry and low in humidity, keeping the vineyards
free of fungal problems
• Irrigation is essential due to the rain shadow cast by the Andes Mountains
creating an arid climate. Snowmelt from the Andes provides
plentiful water.
• Major diurnal swings between hot days and cool nights during the
growing season
• The brutal Zonda wind blows down from the Andes in the late spring and
  HDUO\VXPPHU7KLVZLQGFDQDIIHFWÁRZHULQJRIWKHYLQHV
• Hail is a frequent hazard in the vineyards. Hail nets are employed in many
vineyards to protect the vines.

Regional Wine Law


• ,*V,QGLFDFLRQHV*HRJUiÀFDV JHRJUDSKLFLQGLFDWLRQV
– Regions are demarcated by political or geographical boundaries,
similar to AVAs

• DOCs (Denominación de Origen Controlada)


– Specify grape varieties, viticultural practices, and aging requirements
– Similar to European appellation systems

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Important Appellations of Argentina

Salta IG

Location / Geography
• Most northerly wine region in Argentina

Climate
• Generally warm, however vineyards are planted at high elevation where
temperatures are cooler

Grape Varieties
• White
– Torrontés
• Red
– Malbec

Viticulture
• Home to some of the highest-altitude vine plantings in the world at
almost 10,000 feet

Important sub-region
• Cafayate IG

Mendoza IG

Climate
• Continental and arid
• Elevation-dependent

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Malbec

Viticulture
• Mendoza is the largest viticultural region in Argentina
• Most vineyards are planted at altitudes between 2,000-4,000 feet
• The strong Zonda wind helps to keep mildew and other diseases
to a minimum
• Irrigation is essential
 ‡7KHWUDGLWLRQDOIXUURZRUÁRRGWHFKQLTXHLVZLGHO\
utilized, with water from rivers directed through the vineyards in channels
• Modern methods such as drip irrigation are used increasingly

Flood irrigation

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9LQLÀFDWLRQ South America

• Many producers age their wines in new French or American oak barrels

Important Sub-Region
• Luján de Cujo DOC
• Uco Valley IG

South America — Argentina — Mendoza

Patagonia IG

Climate
• A notably cool area with some of Argentina’s most southerly vineyard sites

Grape Varieties
• White
– Torrontés
• Red
– Malbec
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Pinot Noir

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South America — Chile


Quiz Questions

What makes up most of the vineyard plantings in Chile?


a. Hybrids
b. White grape varieties
c. Red grape varieties
G*UDSHVIRUIRUWLÀHGZLQHSURGXFWLRQ

The Valle Central DO is the largest wine-growing area in Chile.


a. True
b. False

Both the San Antonio and Casablanca DOs of Chile share this trait.
D&RROFOLPDWHUHJLRQVQHDUWKH3DFLÀF&RDVW
b. Cool climate, high elevation regions near the Andes
c. Warm climate regions in the Valle Central
d. Warm climate regions in northern Chile

What is the most well-known grape variety produced in the Maipo Valley
of Chile?
a. Cabernet Sauvignon
b. Pinot Noir
c. Malbec
d. Merlot

Which of the following brings cool, moist air and fog to the
coastal regions of Chile?
a. Humboldt Current
b. Mistral
c. Zonda
d. Andes snow

Carmenère is a grape brought to Chile from the Bordeaux region of


France.
a. True
b. False

Which of the following is not a sub-region of the Valle Central DO in


Chile?
a. Rapel Valley
b. Mendoza
c. Maipo Valley
d. Maule Valley

For a long time, Carmenère was mistaken for which grape variety?

In order to bear the name of a grape, vintage or region a wine must


contain a minimum what % according to Chilean wine law.

Most producers use what % in order to adhere to European law for


export?
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South America — Argentina South America

Quiz Questions

What is the primary red grape variety of Argentina?


a. Pinot Noir
b. Cabernet Sauvignon
c. Torrontés
d. Malbec

What is the primary white grape variety of Argentina?


a. Pinot Noir
b. Cabernet Sauvignon
c. Torrontés
d. Malbec

Which is a prominent area in Argentina for Torrontés?


a. Salta
b. Mendoza
c. Patagonia
d. Casablanca

What is an important feature of the Salta vineyards?


a. Rain shadow
b. High altitude
c. Proximity to the sea
d. Low lying plains

What is the Zonda?


a. A type of vineyard rot
E$ÀHUFHZLQGIURPWKH$QGHV
F$FXUUHQWIURPWKH3DFLÀF2FHDQ
d. A type of vineyard pest

Where is the Luján de Cujo DOC located?


a. Chile
b. Patagonia
c. Salta
d. Mendoza

Choose the major hazard to the vineyards of Mendoza.


a. Snow
b. Tornados
c. Hail
d. Rain

List one pro and one con for how the Zonda affects
viticulture in Mendoza.

Pro:

Con:

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South Africa

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Know the location of South Africa
• Understand the basics of South Africa’s wine-growing history
• Know the two adjacent oceans and how they affect South African
wine regions
• Know the name of the ocean current that cools the coastal vineyards
• Recognize the term “Cape Doctor” and its effect on
South African viticulture
• Understand the basics of the Wine of Origin System
• Understand the role of the KWV
• Know the primary grape varieties
• Recognize examples of important South African Geographic Origins

South Africa — Overview

Factors of Wine Production

Introduction / Historical Background


South Africa’s long history of wine production dates back to the 17th century.
The Cape became a refueling and trade station for ships on voyages to India
and beyond, and then a settlement for the Dutch East India Company. The
ÀUVWYLQHVZHUHSODQWHGLQEXWJUDSHJURZLQJGLGQRWUHDOO\EHJLQWR
ÁRXULVKXQWLOZKHQ)UHQFK+XJXHQRWVDUULYHGLQWKH&DSHEULQJLQJZLWK
strong winemaking skills. There were many high points and setbacks over the
FHQWXULHVEXWZKHQ$SDUWKHLGFDPHWRDGHÀQLWLYHHQGZLWKIXOO\GHPRFUDWLF
elections in 1994, economic boycotts were lifted and South African wines
gained full access to export markets. Along with the privatization of the KWV,
this stimulated a rebirth and modernization of the industry. Today, South Africa
ranks in the top 10 wine-producing countries worldwide.

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Location / Geography South Africa

• The southern tip of Africa adjacent to both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans

Climate
• Mostly maritime with the cooling effect of the oceans
 ‡7KH%HQJXHOD&XUUHQWÁRZVQRUWKIURP$QWDUFWLFDWRFRROWKH
coastal areas
• It becomes very warm to hot moving inland away from the coast

Soil
• Ancient and diverse
The KWV —
Grape Varieties In 1918 the Ko-
• White operatiewe
– Chenin Blanc (locally called Steen) Wijnbouwers
– Chardonnay Vereniging van Zuid-
– Sauvignon Blanc Afrika (KWV) was
formed, rescuing the
• Red
– Pinotage (a Pinot Noir x Cinsault crossing) South African wine
– Cabernet Sauvignon industry from disaster
– Syrah after the ravages of
– Merlot phylloxera and the
– Pinot Noir severe loss of exports
in the late 1800s.
Viticulture
• High occurrence of vine virus The KWV produced
• The Cape Doctor, a strong southeasterly wind, blows across the wine, stabilized prices
Western Cape in the spring and summer and established a
– This wind can quota system that
– Help suppress fungal disease emphasized quantity
– Help moderate temperatures
over quality.
   ²&DQLQMXUHWKHYLQHVDQGGLVWXUEÁRZHULQJ
The KWV controlled
Regional Wine Law the South African
wine industry until
Wine of Origin System (WO) Apartheid was lifted,
• The WO system was introduced in 1973 and became a private
 ‡3URGXFHUVORRNLQJIRUFHUWLÀFDWLRQPXVWDGKHUHWRVSHFLÀFVWDQGDUGV
• Wines must be submitted to the board and are tasted and tested
company in 1997.
for approval
• A WO seal appears on all bottles of South African wine that pass
  WKLVFHUWLÀFDWLRQ

WO Labeling Laws
• Vintage: Minimum 85% of stated year
• Varietal Labeling: Minimum 85%
• Appellation: 100% of the grapes must come from the named
Geographic Designation

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Geographic Designations — largest to smallest with prime


South African examples

Geographical Units
• Western Cape

Regions
• Coastal Region

Districts
• Stellenbosch
• Paarl
• Walker Bay
• Swartland

Wards GHÀQHGE\VRLOFOLPDWHDQGJHRORJLFIDFWRUV
• Constantia
– A rich history, with sweet wines long regarded among the best
in the world

Estates
• Single vineyards

South Africa — Coastal Region

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South Africa South Africa

Quiz Questions

Steen is a local name for which grape variety?


a. Chardonnay
b. Riesling
c. Chenin Blanc
d. Pinot Noir

The grape variety Pinotage is a ______ of Cinsault and Pinot Noir.


a. Crossing
b. Hybrid
c. Clone
d. Blend

The Benguela Current can help


a. Cool coastal South African vineyards
b. Warm coastal South African vineyards
c. Prevent rot
d. Prevent phylloxera

Which of the following is a District in South Africa?


a. Mendoza
b. Stellenbosch
c. Maipo
d. Salta

Order the following South African Geographic Origin


designations from smallest to largest:

1. Geographical Units (Smallest) 1.

2. Estates 2.

3. Regions 3.

4. Wards 4.

5. Districts (Largest) 5.

What is the KWV?

Name three effects of the Cape Doctor wind on the vineyards of South
Africa

1.

2.

3.

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Australia

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
 ‡.QRZWKHORFDWLRQRI$XVWUDOLDDQGLWVFOLPDWLFLQÁXHQFHV
• Know the general location of wine grape-growing on the
Australian continent
• Understand the Australian GI system
• Know the primary vine-growing states and their major wine regions
• Be able to associate the primary wine regions with climate and
grape variety
• Understand the philosophy and importance of blending for the
Australian wine industry

Australia — Overview

Factors of Wine Production

Introduction / Historical Background


7KHÀUVWYLQH\DUGVZHUHSODQWHGLQ1HZ6RXWK:DOHVLQWKHODWHWKFHQWXU\
and commercial viticulture was established in multiple areas across the
southern swath of the continent between 1820 and 1840. As in most New
World winegrowing countries, European immigrants brought experience as
well as varietal and stylistic preferences that took root along with the vines
they worked. Phylloxera caused serious setbacks in Victoria, where the wine
industry was centered late in the 19th century, but recovery was achieved
TXLFNO\DOEHLWZLWKDVKLIWWRZDUGIRUWLÀHGZLQHVIURPZDUPHUUHJLRQVORFDWHG
principally in the state of South Australia. Immense tracts of irrigated vineyard
land were planted along major rivers, establishing a foundation for Australia’s
role as a wine-exporting powerhouse in the 20th century. Fine wine gained
in prominence with the advent of temperature-controlled fermenters in the
mid 1950s and a shift to planting in cooler areas with premium vine varieties.
188 Boutique wineries arose and spread very rapidly, though never displacing
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industrial-scale producers. Today, wineries of both types coexist, serving Australia

different types of consumers both domestically and internationally.

Location / Geography
• Australia is a large country roughly the size of the continental U.S.A.
  ,WLVVLWXDWHGLQWKH6RXWK3DFLÀF2FHDQDQGPDGHXSRIVL[6WDWHVDQG
multiple Territories.

Climate
• Australia is the world’s driest inhabited continent with a hot desert interior
that is inhospitable to viticulture
• Most wine regions are clustered in the southeastern part of the continent
in temperate latitudes near the major cities

Soil
• Ancient, eroded and nutrient-poor soils with great diversity

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
– Semillon
– Riesling
• Red
– Shiraz
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot
– Grenache
– Pinot Noir

Viticulture
• Vine-growing is concentrated in cooler coastal areas moderated by
the Southern and Indian Oceans. Vineyards are also planted in cooler
high-elevation areas
• Irrigation is imperative, especially for turning vast interior Outback into
land hospitable for vine growing
• The warm, dry climate tends to produce very ripe grapes. It is
  LPSRUWDQW³WKRXJKRIWHQGLIÀFXOW³WRPDLQWDLQDGHTXDWHQDWXUDO
  DFLGLW\IRUDFKLHYLQJEDODQFHLQÀQLVKHGZLQHV
• The combination of artisanal and industrial wineries is an important factor
in Australian wine production

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Australia’s wine industry has long been a world leader in technological
development, partly due to a strongly innovative culture and partly
because expansion could only be achieved through mechanization due to
labor shortages
• Emphasis on technical precision has also manifested itself in a broad
tendency to produce wines in a very clean, fruit-driven style
• Oak aging: Traditionally, American oak was prevalent, but use of French
barriques has become increasingly common
 ‡$FLGLÀFDWLRQLVRIWHQHPSOR\HGWRFRXQWHUEDODQFHWKHHIIHFWVRIWKH
country’s warm climate
• Australia has long been a global leader in alternative packaging and
closures, from bag-in-box to screw caps for still wines and crown caps for
sparkling wines

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The Importance of Large Scale Blending


Vineyards and wineries in Australia are often widely separated. Grapes are
IUHTXHQWO\WUXFNHGKXQGUHGVRIPLOHVWRDZLQHU\IRUYLQLÀFDWLRQ0DQ\ZLQHV
are blended from multiple growing sites far removed from one another, with
WKHREMHFWLYHRIDWWDLQLQJFRQVLVWHQWÁDYRUVIURP\HDUWR\HDU7KLVSUDFWLFHLV
not limited to bulk production. Indeed, some of the Australia’s most esteemed
wines are made by this method, including the iconic Penfolds “Grange.”
Blending grapes and regions is crucial to the consistency and quality of
Australian wine.

Harvest
• With labor in relatively short supply, and large vineyards widely dispersed,
many sites are planted to accommodate mechanical harvesting
• Picking is often performed at night to preserve freshness and acidity

Australian Appellation System


• The Label Integrity Program of Australia requires an 85%
minimum across the board
– 85% stated grape variety on label
– 85% stated vintage on label
– 85% stated region on label
• Geographical Indications (GI)
  ²$XVWUDOLDQ*,VGHÀQHJHRJUDSKLFDODUHDVPXFKOLNHWKH$9$VRIWKH
United States

GI Categories — from largest area to smallest

Country Australia — 100% of the grapes must originate from Australia

South-Eastern Australia

State of Origin

Zones

Regions

Sub-Regions

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Southeastern Australia GI Australia

A massive geographical area covering 5 states. This GI is integral to the


practice of blending for mass-market wines and meeting EU appellation
requirements.

Australia — Southeastern

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New South Wales


Location / Geography
• Eastern Australia near Sydney

Climate
• Cooler and wetter near the coast; dry and arid inland

Topography
• The Great Dividing Range runs north to south, separating the wet
coastal regions from the dry interior

Australia — New South Wales

Hunter Semillon is
considered one of the
great, unique wines of
Australia.

Important GIs of New South Wales


• Hunter Valley — Hunter GI
– Location / Geography
– North of Sydney
– Climate
– Hot and humid; among the warmest climates in Australia
– Moderated by wind and the cooling effect of the sea
– Topography
   ²*HQWOHÁDWULYHUYDOOH\
– Grape Varieties
– White (60% of production)
– Semillon

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• Riverina GI Australia

– Location / Geography
– Far inland on the western side of the Great Dividing Range in the
fertile river lands. Riverina is largest wine region in Australia
– Climate
– Hot and very humid in some areas
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Semillon
– Chardonnay
– Red
– Shiraz
– Merlot
– Viticulture
– Riverina represents 50% of Australian wine production
– Irrigation from nearby rivers is required for viticulture in this area
to succeed
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Riverina is most known for bulk table wine production but also
    SURGXFHVIRUWLÀHGZLQHVDQGERWU\WLVDIIHFWHGGHVVHUWZLQHV

Victoria

Location / Geography
• Southeastern Australia, with Melbourne being the most important
metropolis

Climate
• A broad range, extending from cool, coastal maritime to continental,
which can be very hot when remote from the Southern Ocean

Australia — Victoria

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9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Victoria produces a wide range of wine styles depending on location
and climate
– Sparkling
– Still
  ²)RUWLÀHG
– Dessert

Important GIs
• Yarra Valley GI
– Climate
Rutherglen Muscat is – Cool, humid, maritime-moderated by the Southern Ocean
considered one of the – Grape Varieties
– White
world’s great sweet – Chardonnay
wines. – Red
– Pinot Noir
– Shiraz
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Still and sparkling wine production

• Rutherglen GI
– Climate
– Continental with very hot summers
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Muscadelle
– Red
– Shiraz
– Brown Muscat (Muscat Rouge à Petits Grains)
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Still wine production
   ²)RUWLÀHGGHVVHUWZLQHVRIWHQUHIHUUHGWRORFDOO\DV´6WLFNLHV´

• Murray-Darling GI
– Location / Geography
– Northwestern Victoria — this GI is partly in New South Wales
– Climate
– Very Hot
– Viticulture
– Riverland planting
– Irrigation is essential
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– An important region for bulk wine production

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South Australia Australia

Location / Geography
• Southern Australia, with Adelaide being the most important metropolis

Climate
• Broad range of climates
• Warm, dry and Mediterranean moderated by cool breezes from
the Southern Ocean
• Cooler climates at higher elevations

Important GIs
• Barossa Valley GI Largest, most important premium wine area
– Location / Geography
– Near the city of Adelaide
– Climate
– Mediterranean
– Grape Varieties
– Red
– Shiraz
– Grenache
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Viticulture
Barossa old vines
– Extremely old vines due to the prevention of phylloxera from
reaching this area

Australia — South Australia

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• Eden Valley GI
– Climate
– Cooler, higher elevation
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Riesling
– Chardonnay
– Red
– Shiraz
– Viticulture
– High altitude helps retain acidity in the grapes
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
   ²5LHVOLQJYLQLÀHGGU\

• McLaren Vale GI
– Location / Geography
– South of Adelaide
– Climate
– Warm, yet moderated by cool ocean air
– Grape Varieties
– Red
– Shiraz
– Grenache
– Viticulture
– Vineyards slope down toward the sea to maximize exposure
to cool breezes

Although the Clare


• Clare Valley GI
Valley is mainly
– Location / Geography
planted to red grape – 60 miles north of Adelaide
varieties, Clare Riesling – Climate
is an iconic New World – Warm continental
interpretation of the – Hot days and cool nights
grape. – Topography / Aspect
– 1,300-1,800 feet elevation
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Riesling
– Red
– Shiraz
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Viticulture
– High altitude and cool nights help retain acidity in the grapes
– 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– Dry Riesling production

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• Coonawarra GI Australia

– Location / Geography
– Southern strip of land near the sea
– Climate
– Cool, Mediterranean climate
– Soil
– Best vineyards are on a single, narrow, 9-mile strip with
Terra Rossa soil; a vivid red soil over limestone base
– Grape Varieties
– Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon

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Western Australia
Important GIs

• Margaret River GI
– Location / Geography
– Western Australia, with Perth being the most important metropolis
– Climate
   ²:DUPPDULWLPHZLWKWKHPRGHUDWLQJLQÁXHQFHVRIWKH,QGLDQ2FHDQ
– Grape Varieties
– White
– Chardonnay
– Semillon
– Sauvignon Blanc
– Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Shiraz
– Merlot

Australia — Western Australia

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Australia Australia

Quiz Questions

Which of the following is the largest Australian GI?


a. South Australia
b. McLaren Vale
c. South-Eastern Australia
d. Western Australia

Which region is famous for its Terra Rossa soil?


a. Hunter Valley
b. Barossa Valley
c. Coonawarra
d. Yarra Valley

The Clare Valley and the Eden Valley are most noted for which
style of wine?
a. Dry Semillon
b. Dry Riesling
c. Muscat-based sweet wines
d. Pinot Noir

Sparkling wines production thrives in Victoria due to which factor?


D+RWLQODQGDLUÁRZ
b. Rain shadow
c. Proximity to cool ocean breezes
d. Intense wind

Why does the Barossa Valley have many 100+ year old vines?
a. Absences of phylloxera
b. Proximity to the ocean
c. Shiraz prefers older vines
d. Careful planting

Match the Australian GI with its most famous style of wine.


Eden Valley Dry Riesling
Yarra Valley Dry Semillon
Barossa Valley Semillon/Sauvignon Blanc Blends
Hunter Valley Bold Shiraz
Margaret River Dry Riesling
Coonawarra Muscat-Based Sweet Wines
Rutherglen Cabernet Sauvignon
Clare Valley Pinot Noir
McLaren Vale

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New Zealand

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Know the location of New Zealand
 ‡.QRZWKHJHQHUDOFOLPDWHVRIHDFKLVODQGDQGFOLPDWHLQÁXHQFHV
• Know primary grape varieties of main growing regions

New Zealand — Overview

Factors of Wine Production

Introduction / Historical Background


7KHÀUVWYLQHVLQ1HZ=HDODQGZHUHSODQWHGLQ-DPHV%XVE\D%ULWLVK
UHVLGHQWZDVWKHÀUVWWRPDNHZLQHIURPDYLQH\DUGKHHVWDEOLVKHGLQ
Momentum built during the remainder of the 19th century as other Europeans
brought their winemaking traditions to the country. The early decades of the
20th century saw serious setbacks due to phylloxera, a strong temperance
movement between 1910 and 1919, and global economic depression between
the two World Wars. Wine seeped into the national culture very slowly,
as it could not be sold in restaurants until 1960 or in supermarkets until
1990. However, by the late 1990s New Zealand’s planted acreage and wine
production increased many-fold. New Zealand built export markets and gained
worldwide fame on the strength of Marlborough’s distinctively pungent and
ÁDYRUIXO6DXYLJQRQ%ODQF7RGD\WKDQNVWRJUHDWVWULGHVZLWK3LQRW1RLU6\UDK
and other varieties, New Zealand continues to diversify and strengthen its
global presence.

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Location / Geography New Zealand

• Located in the Southern Hemisphere, New Zealand is the world’s


southernmost winemaking country
• New Zealand is about 1,300 miles from the mainland of Australia
• Divided into two islands (North and South) and surrounded by the
  7DVPDQ6HDWRWKHZHVWDQGWKH6RXWK3DFLÀF2FHDQWRWKHHDVW

Climate
• Range of climates from warm, humid and maritime on the North Island to
cool and continental on the South Island. The climate is strongly
  LQÁXHQFHGE\WKHVXUURXQGLQJVHDV

Grape Varieties
• White
– Sauvignon Blanc
– Chardonnay
• Red
– Pinot Noir
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Syrah
– Merlot

Viticulture
• Forefront of innovation in vine training and viticulture

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Modern, clean winemaking
• New Zealand producers pioneered the Screwcap Initiative in 2001
• Today, over 85% of the country’s wines use screw caps

Regional Wine Law


• On par with EU regulations, New Zealand wines must contain a minimum:
– 85% of a stated grape variety
– 85% of a stated vintage
  ²1HZ=HDODQGGRHVQRW\HWKDYHRIÀFLDOUHJXODWHG*,ERXQGDULHV
though they are forthcoming and will adhere to the 85% rule as above

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New Zealand — North Island


Important Appellations

Auckland

Climate
• Warm, rainy, humid and maritime

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Cabernet Sauvignon
– Merlot

New Zealand — North Island

Wairarapa

Location / Geography
• Located on the southern tip of the North Island

Grape Varieties
• White
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Pinot Noir

Important Sub-Region
• Martinborough

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Gisborne New Zealand

Climate
• Cool, maritime

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Pinot Gris

Hawke’s Bay

Climate
• Moderate maritime (this is the North Island’s driest climate)

Grape Varieties
• White
– Chardonnay
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Bordeaux varieties (Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon)
– Syrah

Important sub-region
• Gimblett Gravels
– A warmer, inland area with a unique gravelly soil type
– Planted mostly to red Bordeaux varieties and Syrah

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New Zealand — South Island


Important Appellations

Marlborough

Location / Geography
• Located on the northern tip of the South Island

Climate
• Cool, dry and sunny
• The Southern Alps create a rain shadow protecting the South Island from
strong winds and weather systems from the west off the Tasman Sea

Grape Varieties
• White
– Sauvignon Blanc (almost 80% of plantings)
• Red
– Pinot Noir

Viticulture
• Plentiful sunshine hours
• Long, cool growing season with cool nights allowing grapes to
retain acidity
• Irrigation is widely used

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Marlborough produces over half of the entire country’s wine

New Zealand — South Island

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Canterbury New Zealand

Location / Geography
• South of Marlborough, stretching a long distance along the eastern
coast of the South Island
• One of the fastest-growing regions

Climate
• Cool continental
• Long, dry summer

Grape Varieties
• White
– Sauvignon Blanc
• Red
– Pinot Noir

Central Otago

Location / Geography
• Home to the world’s most southerly grape vines, with some planted
below the 45th parallel

Climate
• Cool continental
• Low humidity

Topography / Aspect
• Highest altitude vineyards in New Zealand
• Mountain-protected, north-facing slopes, oriented to maximize
sun exposure

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Pinot Noir

Viticulture
• High sun intensity
• Dry growing season

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New Zealand
Quiz Questions

What is the primary grape variety of Marlborough?


a. Riesling
b. Müller-Thurgau
c. Cabernet Sauvignon
d. Sauvignon Blanc

What is the primary grape variety of Central Otago?


a. Riesling
b. Müller-Thurgau
c. Pinot Noir
d. Syrah

What do the Southern Alps provide?


a. A rain shadow that protects the vineyard areas of the South Island
b. A rain shadow that protects the vineyard areas of the North Island
c. More wind and rain to the vineyard areas of the South Island
d. More wind and rain to the vineyard areas of the North Island

Which of the following is true about the Gimblett Gravels?


a. Well-known for red Bordeaux grape varieties
b. Sub-zone of Hawke’s Bay
c. Has a unique gravelly soil type
d. All of the above

Match North Island or South Island for the following


New Zealand Wine Regions:
Marlborough
Martinborough North Island
Central Otago
Hawke’s Bay
Gisborne South Island
Auckland
Wairarapa

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)RUWLÀHG:LQH

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Understand the reasons for fortifying wine
 ‡'HVFULEHWKHZD\VLQZKLFKIRUWLÀHGZLQHVDUHPDGH
• Know the differences in the production methods of sweet and
  GU\IRUWLÀHGZLQHV
• Recognize the main grape varieties used for Sherry, Madeira and Port
• Know what a solera is and how it works
 ‡'HÀQH9LQ'RX[1DWXUHODQGJLYHWZRH[DPSOHV

:KDWLV)RUWLÀHG:LQH"

)RUWLÀHGZLQHVDUHEDVHZLQHVWKDWKDYHKLJKSURRIQHXWUDOJUDSHEUDQG\
added to increase alcoholic strength to 15-22%. The purpose of fortifying wine
is to add body and increase the wine’s ability to age.

7LPLQJRI)RUWLÀFDWLRQ³%DVHZLQHVFDQEHIRUWLÀHGDWYDULRXVWLPHV
during the fermentation process depending on the wine style desired

)RUWLÀHGEHIRUHIHUPHQWDWLRQ
No alcohol is created from fermentation of the base wine

)RUWLÀHGGXULQJIHUPHQWDWLRQ
This stops the action of yeast retaining residual sugar in the wine

)RUWLÀHGDIWHUIHUPHQWDWLRQ
Boosts alcohol levels; a dry wine is most often produced

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Sherry

Factors of Production

Introduction / Historical Background


• Sherry, also known as Jerez or Xérès, is regarded as one of the world’s
  EHVWIRUWLÀHGZLQHV,WEHFDPHRQHRIWKHÀUVWSURWHFWHG6SDQLVK
appellations in 1933.

Spain — Sherry

Location / Geography
• Jerez is located in Andalusía on the Atlantic Coast near the tip of
North Africa

Climate
• Hot and windy
 ‡&RROLQJPDULWLPHLQÁXHQFHIURPWKH$WODQWLF

Soil
• Albariza
  ²7KHPRVWSUL]HGVRLOFRPSRVHGRIZKLWHFKDON\FOD\7KLVVRLOUHÁHFWV
sunlight up to the vines and retains water during the summer heat.
• Barros
– Brown-colored clay
• Arenas
– Sand

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Grape Varieties
• White
– Palomino
– Major grape for all quality styles of Sherry
– 95% of all plantings
– Pedro Ximénez (PX) and Moscatel
– Mainly used for blending, adding sweetness and color
– These grapes can also be found as sweet varietal wines

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Base Wine Production
– For most Sherry styles, the base wine is a neutral, dry, white wine
from the Palomino grape Flor — Barrels of Sherry are not
WRSSHGXSDOOWKHZD\$ÀOPRI
• )RUWLÀFDWLRQ yeast (Saccharomyces) grows
  ²)RUGU\VW\OHVRI6KHUU\IRUWLÀFDWLRQRFFXUVDIWHUIHUPHQWDWLRQ on the surface of the maturing
  ²7KHGHJUHHRIIRUWLÀFDWLRQGHSHQGVRQWKHVW\OHRI6KHUU\EHLQJPDGH wine and acts like a protective
blanket preventing oxidation and
  ²:LQHVDUHIRUWLÀHGJHQWO\ZLWKDPL[WXUHRIJUDSHVSLULWDQG spoilage.
mature Sherry wine

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Aging and Maturation of Sherry — The Solera System


• Sherry matures in a complex series of barrels called a solera. While in the
solera, young wine is progressively blended together with a series of older
more complex wines.
 ‡)RU)LQRVW\OH6KHUULHVWKHÁRUQHHGVQHZZLQHWRPDLQWDLQOHYHOVRI
nutrients to keep it alive

What does a solera do for Sherry?


• The solera method of aging is one aspect that makes Sherry unique and
  FUHDWHVLWVGLVWLQFWLYHÁDYRUV
• The solera also ensures continuity and consistency of brand and style by
blending multiple vintages over time

How does it work?

A group of barrels is selected


• Solera%DUUHOVZLWKWKHROGHVWZLQHVXVXDOO\FORVHVWWRWKHÁRRU
or the bottom row
• Criadera The “nurseries”
– 1st criadera: Holds the wines that are the next oldest after the solera
– 2nd criadera: Holds wines younger than the 1st criadera
• Añada The youngest and freshest wines

Running of the Scales This is the fractional blending process


• A maximum of 1/3 of the barrel volume is removed per year; no barrel
is ever completely emptied
• Wine from the solera row is bottled
• Wine from the 1st criadera is used to top up the barrels of the solera row
• Wines from the 2nd criadera are used to top up the 1st criadera, etc.

Solera System

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Madeira

Factors of Production

Introduction / Historical Background


• The island of Madeira is a territory of Portugal claimed in 1419 during
their Age of Discovery. Madeira became an important refueling station for
long ocean voyages to the Americas. The island’s wines initially developed
their unique character on these expeditions when they were subjected to
repeated heating and cooling over month and even years! This historic
  SURFHVVLVLQWHUSUHWHGWRGD\E\KHDWLQJWKHZLQHGXULQJYLQLÀFDWLRQ
  DQGH[WHQVLYHDJLQJWRFUHDWHWKHVLJQDWXUHÁDYRUVRIWKHVHORQJOLYHG
nearly indestructible wines.

Location / Geography
• Madeira is an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco and
is 625 miles from the mainland of Portugal

Portugal — Madeira

Climate
• Subtropical

Topography / Aspect
• The island was created by volcanic action and rises sharply out of the sea
 ‡0DGHLUDLVH[WUHPHO\PRXQWDLQRXVZLWKYHU\OLWWOHÁDWODQG

Soil
• Volcanic

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Grape Varieties
• White
– Sercial
– Verdelho
– Boal
– Malvasia (Malmsey)
• Red
– Tinta Negra (85% of plantings)

Viticulture
• Vineyards are planted on steep hillside terraces and tended to by many
small family growers
• Grapes must be hand-harvested on this difficult terrain

Vinification
• Fortification Timing of fortification is dependent on the style of
wine being made
– For sweeter wines, fermentation is stopped by the addition of
grape spirit
– For drier wines the wine is fortified after fermentation
• Heating After fortification, the wine goes through one of two heating
processes giving Madeira its distinctive character
– Estufagem Most wines are transferred to the estufa, a stainless steel
vat that warms the wine by circulating hot water through coils inside
the tank. The wine is heated and held there for at least three months.
With this method, the sugars in the wine will gradually caramelize,
ensuring thorough oxidation or maderization of the wine.
– Canteiro This method is used for a producer’s best wines. These wines
are aged in cask for at least two years in attics exposed to the natural
warmth of the sun and undergo a much slower, gentler maturation
process.

Aging and Labeling


• Most Madeira wines are blended; age indications are typically seen as 5,
10, 15 and 20 years old

Madeira Grape Varieties and Wine Style Connection — The grape name
on the label is an indication of a sweet or drier style of Madeira.

I I
Sercial Boal
Verdelho Tinta Negra Malvasia (Malmsey)
I I I
Dry and semi-dry This grape name is Semi-sweet and sweet
Madeira; these wines not found on Madeira; these wines
are fortified closer to labels, but are fortified closer to
the end of represents 85% the beginning of
fermentation of production; fermentation
Can be sweet or
dry in style

212
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Port

Factors of Production

Port is the most revered wine of Portugal and is considered one of the most
VRXJKWDIWHUVZHHWIRUWLÀHGZLQHVLQWKHZRUOG$QFLHQW*UHHNVDQG5RPDQV
prized the juicy red wines from the steep banks of the Douro. Centuries passed
before the British transformed these wines into what they are today.

Portugal — Douro Valley

Location / Geography
• Northern Portugal along the Douro River

Climate
• Warm to hot maritime depending on the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean
• The climate becomes incredibly hot and dry as one moves inland

Topography / Aspect
• Incredibly steep hillsides, rugged, mountainous

Soil
• The best vineyards are on well-draining schist

Grape Varieties
• Red
– Touriga Nacional (and many others)

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Viticulture
• Steep hillside terraces overlooking Douro River that were built by hand
over the centuries
• There are many named quintas or single vineyards

9LQLÀFDWLRQ
• Port is often a blend of many grape varieties
• Traditionally, lagares or shallow troughs were used for foot treading or
crushing and maceration of the grapes
 ‡)HUPHQWDWLRQLVVKRUWWRPD[LPL]HH[WUDFWLRQRIFRORUDQGÁDYRU
 ‡:LQHVDUHIRUWLÀHGGXULQJIHUPHQWDWLRQZKHQDERXWRIWKHVXJDU
content has been converted to alcohol
 ‡7KHZLQHLVIRUWLÀHGWRDEYZLWKWKHDGGLWLRQRIaguardente
(neutral grape spirit)

Aging
• Port style is based on length of time the wine is aged in barrel
and/or bottle

Styles of Port

Ruby Port Tawny Port


Bottle-Aged Ports Cask-Aged Ports
I I
Ruby Tawny
I With Indication of Age
Late Bottled Vintage I
(LBV) 10 Year
I I
Vintage 20 Year
I I
Single Quinta 30, 40+

Ruby Port
• House wine of each lodge made from multiple vintages and vineyards
• Created to be an inexpensive, consistent house style or brand

Late-Bottled Vintage (LBV) Port


• Fruit sourced from top quintas and aged 4-6 years in cask

Vintage Port
• The most expensive and age-worthy style
• Produced from top quintas only in exceptional vintages
• Vintage Ports spend about two years aging in oak with the remainder
in bottle

Single Quinta Port


• Fruit sourced from the best quintas in non-declared vintage years

Aged-Tawny Port
• Wine matured entirely in cask
• These wines take on a nutty, oxidized character over time
• Age declarations on the bottle are approximations

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Declared Port Vintages of the Last Decade

T T T T T T T T T T T
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Les Vins Doux Naturels

9LQV'RX[1DWXUHOVDUH)UHQFKIRUWLÀHGZLQHV7KHVHZLQHVDUHIRUWLÀHGGXULQJ
fermentation typically to 15-16% abv. thus remaining sweet.

Examples of Vin Doux Naturel

Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise
• Location / Geography
– Southern Rhône Valley, France
• Grape Variety
– White
– Muscat Blanc

Banyuls
• Location / Geography
– Roussillon, France

• Grape Variety
– Red
– Grenache

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)RUWLÀHG:LQH
Quiz Questions

Which of the following wines is matured under a layer of Flor?


a. Sercial Madeira
b. LBV Port
c. Fino Sherry
d. Oloroso Sherry

$VROHUDLVXVHGIRUZKLFKSDUWRIWKHYLQLÀFDWLRQSURFHVV"
a. Fermentation
b. Maturation
c. Distillation
G)RUWLÀFDWLRQ

Which grape variety and soil combination produces the highest


quality Sherry?
a. Sercial / Volcanic
b. Palomino / Albariza
c. Pedro Ximénez/ Barros
d. Touriga National / Schist

Describe each Madeira grape style below as either sweet or dry.


a. Malmsey -
b. Sercial -
c. Verdelho -
d. Boal -

Which of the following Port styles is simple, inexpensive and considered


a house brand?
a. Ruby
b. Tawny
c. LBV
d. Vintage

%DQ\XOVLVDVZHHWIRUWLÀHGZLQHIURP
a. France made with the Grenache grape
b. France made with the Muscat grape
c. Spain made with the Palomino grape
d. Spain made with the Pedro Ximenez grape

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What type of wine is Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise?


a. Port
b. Vin Doux Naturel
c. Madeira
d. Sherry

Which of the following is a main grape of Port?


a. Palomino
b. Sercial
c. Muscat
d. Touriga Nacional

$JXDUGHQWHLVGHÀQHGDV
a. Dried grapes for sweetening and blending
b. Neutral grape spirit used for Port production
c. Yeast layer protecting wine from oxidation
d. Solera

What is the difference between Estufa aging and Canteiro aging


with regard to Madeira?

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Sweet Wines

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Describe the ways in which sweet wines are made
• Know what Botrytis cinerea is and how it affects grapes on the vine
• Recognize important appellations of sweet wine and their method
of production
• Recognize the location, main grape variety and production method
of Tokaji Aszú
• Recognize the terms recioto and passito and classic Italian wines
that specialize in this style
• Recall which German Prädikatswein are sweet, botrytis-affected wines

How Are Sweet Wines Made?

Sweet wines can be made in a variety of ways, both in the vineyard and in the
winery.

In the vineyard — Viticultural Techniques


The goal is to concentrate sugars in the grapes. This can be done in a few ways.

Late Harvest
Leaving grapes on the vine long into the autumn increasing their sugar content

Noble Rot
Botrytis cinerea does not affect Botrytis cinerea is a mold that attacks ripe grapes in humid climates. It causes
grapes evenly. grapes to shrivel and dehydrate on the vine, concentrating their sugars and
drastically reducing yields. Botrytis also causes oxidation, deepening the color
RIDZLQHDQGFUHDWLQJFKDUDFWHULVWLFDURPDVDQGÁDYRUVRIKRQH\PXVKURRP
and saffron.

Classic Appellations for Late Harvest / Botrytis-Affected Wines

France
• Bordeaux
– Sauternes

• Alsace
– Vendange Tardive (VT)
– Sélection de Grains Nobles (SGN)

• The Loire Valley


– Quarts de Chaume
– Bonnezeaux
– Vouvray Moelleux

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Germany
• Prädikatswein
– Auslese (may have botrytis)
– Beerenauslese (BA)
– Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)

Hungary
• Tokaji Aszú An incredibly old wine region making sweet wines dating
to the 15th Century
– Location / Geography
– The Tokaj wine region is located in northeastern Hungary
• Grape Varieties
– White
– FurmintÀYHRWKHUZKLWHYDULHWLHV

• Viticulture
– Aszú The name for grapes picked at high sugar levels and have been
affected by botrytis

• 9LQLÀFDWLRQ
– The botrytis-affected grapes are pressed into a paste and then added
back to a dry still wine
– The amount of paste added to the still wine determines the
sweetness level
– Eszencia Wine made from the sugar-laden, syrupy, free-run juice
from 100% botrytised grapes

Drying grapes
Late harvested, healthy grapes that are either shriveled on the vine or dried
after picking

Classic appellations for sweet wines made from dried grapes

Italy
• Passito or Recioto are the Italian words most often seen on labels to
indicate grapes that were dried
• Examples
– Vin Santo (Tuscany)
– Recioto di Soave (Veneto)
– Recioto della Valpolicella (Veneto)

Freezing grapes
Icewine/Eiswein is made from healthy (minimal to no botrytis) grapes that
are left on the vine far into winter. The water content of the grapes is frozen,
naturally concentrating the sugars. Grapes are hand-harvested frozen and
immediately put into the press. Intensely sweet, syrupy juice is released, leaving
behind the frozen water.

Classic appellations for sweet wines made from frozen grapes


• Germany (eiswein)
• Canada (icewine)

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0DNLQJ:LQH6ZHHWLQWKH:LQHU\²9LQLÀFDWLRQ7HFKQLTXHV
The goal is to stop the action of the yeast and — therefore, fermentation —
leaving residual sugar in the wine. This can be done in a few ways:

• )RUWLÀFDWLRQAdding high alcohol grape spirit to the wine will


stop fermentation

• &KLOOLQJWKHZLQHDQGÀOWHULQJRXWRUUHPRYLQJWKH\HDVW

• Chilling the wine and adding sulfur dioxide (SO2) to kill the
yeast cells

• Adding sweetness back to a wine


– This can be done by adding unfermented grape juice to a wine as a
sweetening agent. This is called süssreserve in Germany and Austria.
– Adding sweet wine to a dry wine

220
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Sweet Wine
Quiz Questions

What does “Trockenbeerenauslese” (TBA) on a bottle of German Riesling


indicate?
a. The wine is made from grapes affected by Botrytis
E7KHZLQHLVIRUWLÀHG
c. The wine is sparkling
d. The wine is aged

What two countries are famous for Icewine production?


a. France and Spain
b. Germany and Canada
c. Italy and Argentina
d. Spain and Portugal

Tokaji Aszú is a famous sweet wine from which country?


a. France
b. Germany
c. Italy
d. Hungary

What is the main grape variety used to make Tokaji Aszú?


a. Riesling
b. Furmint
c. Chenin Blanc
d. Sauvignon Blanc

Recioto is an Italian word referring to which type of wine?


a. Botrytis-affected grapes
b. Dried grapes
c. Frozen grapes
d. Late harvest

Bonnezeaux is a famous botrytis-affected sweet wine from


which wine region?
a. Bordeaux, France
b. Loire Valley, France
c. Alsace, France
d. Champagne, France

Name four ways to concentrate sugars for sweet wine production


in the vineyard.

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Beer

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Name the four major ingredients of beer
 ‡8QGHUVWDQGKRZHDFKLQJUHGLHQWFRQWULEXWHVWRWKHRYHUDOOÁDYRU
and style of a beer
• Name the two main categories of beer and their basic differences
• Name examples of styles and brands of beer in a few selected categories

Essential ingredients of beer

Water Accounts for 85-90% of beer content. The chemical properties of


differing water sources determine the style of beer that is brewed. Today,
modern breweries can alter the chemical makeup of their water to brew many
styles of beer.

Cereal Grain and Malt Beer is traditionally made from cereal grains with barley
being the most important for quality. Wheat, rice, corn, rye and oats are also
used in smaller amounts. Starches in the grain must be converted to sugars for
fermentation to occur. This is accomplished through germination of the grain
to produce enzymes that turn starch into sugar, creating malt. The malt is
then dried in a kiln. The temperature and length of time the malt is kilned is an
LPSRUWDQWGHWHUPLQDQWRIWKHFRORUÁDYRUDURPDDQGVW\OHRIDEHHU

Yeast Is responsible for fermentation. Different yeast strains determine if a beer


Hops LVDQDOHRUODJHUDQGRIWHQFRQWULEXWHVGLVWLQFWLYHDURPDVDQGÁDYRUVWREHHU

Hops Resin from the cone of the hop plant imparts bitterness to balance the
sweet, malty character of beer. All beers use hops, but some feature them more
SURPLQHQWO\WKDQRWKHUV+RSVDOVRSURYLGHDURPDDQGÁDYRUDQGDFWDVD
preservative.

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Beer Categories
Beer can be divided into two basic categories based on the type of yeast used

Ales Lagers

Top-Fermenting Yeast Bottom-Fermenting Yeast

Ferments Quickly at Ferments Slowly at


Warmer Temperatures Cooler Temperatures

Often More Fruity Aromas More Subtle, Crisp


and Flavors are Created and Clean Flavors

CLASSIC EXAMPLES CLASSIC EXAMPLES

German Czech Republic


Hefeweizen Pilsner

British German
Pale Ale Bock
India Pale Ale (IPA) Doppelbock
Porter Oktoberfest

Irish Large-Scale European and


Stout American Lagers

Belgian
Lambic (spontaneous fermentation)
Wit or White Bier

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Beer
Quiz Questions

Which of the following is not a primary ingredient in beer?


a. Hops
b. Yeast
c. Malt
d. Oak

Hops contribute which of the following to beer?


a. Bitterness to balance the sweetness of malt
E3URYLGHDURPDDQGÁDYRU
c. Act as a preservative
d. All of the above

What is malt in beer?


a. Germinated barley that contributes the sugars needed for fermentation
b. Resins that contribute bitterness to beer
c. 90% of the beer and can be chemically altered
d. Causes fermentation to happen

What are the two broad beer categories of ale and lager are based on?
a. Color of the malt
b. Strain of yeast used for fermentation
c. Kilning
d. Level of bitterness

Which of the following beer styles is an example of an ale?


a. Stout
b. Pilsner
c. Doppelbock
d. Oktoberfest

Which of the following beer styles is an example of a lager?


a. IPA
b. Stout
c. Pilsner
d. Hefeweizen

224
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Sake

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
 ‡'HÀQHZKDWVDNHLV
• Name the primary ingredients of sake
 ‡.QRZWKHGHÀQLWLRQRI-XQPDL
• Understand the quality categories of sake
 ‡.QRZWKHLPSRUWDQWIHDWXUHVDQGÁDYRUVRI1DPD]DNHDQG1LJRUL

Introduction

What is sake?
Sake is a fermented rice beverage. Its origins go back 2,500 years ago when Sake can be seen
rice-growing became prevalent in Japan. Today, there are approximately 1,400 as terroir-driven —
sake breweries in Japan. YHU\VSHFL¾FQDWXUDO
ingredients create this
unique beverage.
What are the primary ingredients of Sake?

Water6DNHEUHZHULHVDUHVHWXSLQSDUWLFXODUDUHDVEHFDXVHRIWKHVSHFLÀF
mineral properties of the water source

Rice There are over 50 types of sake rice grown in Japan with 8-10 varieties
XVHGIRUTXDOLW\VDNH7KLVLVGHÀQLWHO\QRW\RXUDYHUDJHWDEOHULFH7KHYDULHWLHV
RIULFHXWLOL]HGIRUPDNLQJVDNHDUHRIWHQUHJLRQRUYLOODJHVSHFLÀF

Koji-Kin A fungus native to Asian countries that converts the rice starches into
sugar for fermentation to occur. This fungus has many applications in the Asian
beverage and culinary realms.

Yeast Performs the fermentation creating alcohol in sake. Different yeast strains
SURYLGHGLVWLQFWLYHDURPDVDQGÁDYRUV6DNHLVXVXDOO\EHWZHHQDOFRKRO

Added Neutral Distilled Alcohol (Brewer’s Alcohol) Cheap sake often has
copious amounts of distilled alcohol added to increase yields. Quality sake can
KDYHDYHU\VPDOODPRXQWRIDOFRKRODGGHGDWWKHÀQDOVWDJHVRIEUHZLQJ³QRW
WRLQFUHDVH\LHOGV³EXWUDWKHUWRLQFUHDVHULFKQHVVDQGERRVWDURPDDQGÁDYRU

Rice Milling/Polishing
Rice grains for sake production are milled, polishing the kernels to get to the
SXUHÁDYRUVDWWKHLUFRUH'HJUHHVRISROLVKLQJDOVRGHWHUPLQHVTXDOLW\JUDGHV
By milling the rice further and further, more unwanted fats, proteins and other
impurities can be removed before fermentation begins. In general, the higher
WKHUDWHRIPLOOLQJWKHFOHDQHUPRUHUHÀQHGDQGPRUHIUDJUDQWWKHÁDYRURIWKH
resulting sake.

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Premium Sake Quality Grades — Sake quality grades are based on how
much of the grain is milled. The more that is milled away the smaller the
grain, the purer the product and the higher the quality.

Junmai — Pure rice sake. Nothing is used in its production except rice, water,
\HDVWDQGNRMLNLQ-XQPDLFDQEHXVHGDVDSUHÀ[WR*LQMRDQG'DLJLQMR
grades to indicate that no additional alcohol was added during production.
70% of the grain remains
30% of the grain is milled away

Honjozo — A small amount of alcohol is added at the end of fermentation


HQKDQFLQJDURPDDQGÁDYRU
70% of the grain remains
30% of the grain is milled away

Ginjo
60% of the grain remains
40% of the grain is milled away

Daiginjo — Junmai Daigingo is the highest grade of sake


50% of the grain remains (maximum)
50% of the rice milled away (minimum)

Quality grade increases


the as the size of the
rice grain decreases.

No Milling Honjozo Ginjo Daiginjo


70% 60% 50%

Other Styles of Sake

Namazake — Unpasteurized sake that requires refrigeration

Nigori — 0LON\XQÀOWHUHGVDNHXVXDOO\RIIGU\

226
Day Two

Sake
Quiz Questions

What is Koji-Kin?
a. A fungus used to convert starches to sugar in sake rice
E8QÀOWHUHGVDNH
F$VSHFLÀFNLQGRIULFH
d. A yeast strain

What type of sake is Nigori?


D8QÀOWHUHG
b. Filtered
c. Oaky
d. Unpasteurized

What type of sake is Namazake?


D8QÀOWHUHG
b. Filtered
c. Oaky
d. Unpasteurized

If a label says Junmai Daigingo what can be said about:

How much of the rice grain is polished away?

How much of the rice grain is remaining?

Is alcohol added?

Order the following polish levels from highest to lowest in quality.

Daigingo
Ginjo
Honjozo

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Cider

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to:
• Name the major ingredient of cider
• Understand how cider is made
• Recognize the major production areas of cider

Introduction

What is Cider?
• Traditional cider is 100% fermented apple juice
• Cider has been made for thousands of years in Europe and is believed
  WREHWKHÀUVWDOFRKROLFGULQNEURXJKWE\WKH%ULWLVKWR$PHULFDLQ
the 1600s

What are the Primary Ingredients of Cider?

Apples There are thousands of varieties of apples used with varying levels of
ELWWHUDQGVZHHWÁDYRUV$SSOHVXVHGIRUFLGHUPDNLQJDUHQRW\RXUHYHU\GD\
eating varieties.

Yeast Yeast ferments the apple juice into cider. Native yeast strains can create
XQLTXHDURPDVDQGÁDYRUV

Sugar Can be added to increase alcohol content and balance tartness

How is Cider Made?


• Although cider is a category unto its own, production is similar to
wine. Apples are crushed and pressed into juice which is then fermented
into cider.
• Cider generally has an alcohol content between 5-8% (closer to beer!)
• Cider can be fermented in large wooden vats or stainless steel tanks

Styles of Cider
• Old World/ European countries produce distinctive time-honored
  VW\OHVRIFLGHUUHÁHFWLQJVRLOZHDWKHUDQGFXOWXUHRIDUHJLRQ WHUURLU
– Some styles are very tart and funky using native yeast and bacteria
• In the New World, producers span the gamut from sweet to dry styles
• Cider can be effervescent as Champagne
– To make a cider sparkling, it must go through a secondary fermentation
or be carbonated to create the bubbles
– This can be done in tank or in bottle

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Day Two

Where is Cider Made?


Cider production is most often found in temperate areas where it is often too
cold for viticulture.

Europe Cider Production Areas

North America Cider Production Areas

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Cider
Quiz Questions

Name three primary cider production areas in North America.

1.

2.

3.

Name three primary cider production areas in Europe.

1.

2.

3.

What are the primary ingredients of Cider?

1.

2.

Apples destined for cider are the same as grocery store eating apples.
a. True
b. False

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Spirits

Learning Points
After studying this section, a student should be able to
• Have a basic understanding of the process of distillation
• Understand the process of making spirits, beginning with the choice of
raw materials or ingredients, extending to the fermentation of the raw
material or ingredients, and culminating in distillation of the fermented
liquid
• Know the names of the two major types of stills
• Understand how spirits are aged and the effect of aging on color
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• Recognize the location, base ingredients and aging vessel for Cognac,
Armagnac and Calvados
• Know the base ingredient, common distillation and aging techniques for
Rum, Tequila, Mezcal, Gin and Vodka
• Understand the purpose of apéritifs and digestifs
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• Know where Bourbon can be made and its base ingredient minimum
requirement

The Process of Making Spirits

What type of What type of


still is used? vessel?
• Pot
• Continuous How long?

Fermentation of the Raw Materials


Spirits can be made from fermented fruits, vegetables, grains and other plants.

Common raw materials used to create alcoholic beverage base:


• Grains
– Barley, Corn, Rye, Rice
• Fruits
– Grapes, Cherries, Raspberries, Apples, Pears
• Other
– Plants, Vegetables, Sugar Cane

Sugars in fruit or many plant-based spirits are fermented directly into alcohol
by the action of yeast.

For grain and some plant- or vegetable-based spirits, the starches must be
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Fermented Beverage is Distilled


The purpose of distilling a fermented beverage is to separate and remove
diluting components of a liquid such as water and other impurities to capture
the essence of a beverage though purity of the alcohol.

Alcoholic liquid
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Heated to boiling temperature


Alcohol Boils at 173°
Water Boils at 212°
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Liquid boils, alcohol evaporates


 T

Alcoholic vapor travels up the still to a condenser


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Liquid is cooled
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Vapor condenses
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New spirit

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beverage

Pot Still
• Provides a slow, gentle distillation
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• Pot stills are used for richer, generally wood-aged spirits like Cognac
and Single Malt Scotch

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Continuous Still
• A continuous still is continuously running and is a faster distillation
than a pot still
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very neutral spirit
• A continuous still is used for vodka and most bourbons
• Most often used for large-scale distillation

Aging of the Distillate


The liquid that leaves the still is clear; there are two paths the spirit can take
once it leaves the still.

Immediately Bottled Aged in Oak


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The spirit remains clear and Aging in oak changes the color,
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Examples include most vodka, This depends on the length, time


blanco Tequila and light rum and char of the oak barrels used

Examples include most whiskies


and brandies

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Whiskey
All whiskeys are grain-based spirits

Scotland
• Location / Geography
– Whisky produced on the island of Scotland is called Scotch Whisky
• Flavor
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the malted barley with peat as the burning fuel. The smoke from the
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region and producer, some Scotch whiskys will have delicate aromas
of peat and others will be much more pungent.
• Single Malt Scotch Whisky
– Distilled from 100% malted barley, in a pot still, at a single distillery
– Must be bottled in Scotland
• Blended Scotch Whisky
– Blend of one or more single malt whiskies

Scotland — Whisky Overview

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Ireland
• Irish Whiskey is a barley-based whiskey made only in Ireland, where
they are aged for a minimum of three years in barrels. Portions of the
barley will be unmalted, resulting in a lighter style.

Canada
• Canadian Whisky can be made of corn, wheat, rye or barley and must
be aged a minimum of 3 years

United States
• Bourbon Whiskey
– Must be produced in the USA. However most is made in Kentucky.
– Must have a minimum of 51% corn and be aged in new, charred,
American white oak
• Tennessee Whiskey
– Must be made in Tennessee from a minimum of 51% corn
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maple charcoal

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Brandy
Wine-Based Brandies

Cognac AOP
• Location / Geography
– Atlantic coast of France, south of the Loire and north of Bordeaux
• Fermentation
– Cognac is a brandy made from white grape-based wines
(mainly Ugni Blanc)
• Distillation
– Cognac is distilled twice in copper pot stills
• Aging
– Cognac is required to have a minimum of two years aging in
French oak casks

Cognac

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Armagnac AOP
• Location / Geography
– SW France, in Gascony, one of the gastronomic capitals of France
• Fermentation
– Brandy distilled from grape-based wines (a blend of local white
grape varieties)
• Distillation
– Traditionally one distillation in a continuous still — unique to the region
• Aging
– Armagnac is required to have a minimum of two years of
aging in French oak casks

Armagnac

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Eau de Vie
A category of French brandy made with a variety of fruits.

Calvados AOP
• Location / Geography
– Normandy, France (northern France on the Atlantic Coast)
• Fermentation
– Calvados is distilled from fermented apples and pears
• Distillation
– Calvados is traditionally distilled twice in a copper pot still
– Some areas of the region use a continuous still
• Aging
– Calvados is required to have a minimum of two years of aging
in French oak casks

Calvados

Eaux de Vie de Fruits


Eaux de Vie are brandies made with any fruit apart from grapes. Translated as
“water of life,” most eaux de vie are bottled without ageing to preserve the
integrity of the fruit character.

Examples
• Framboise — Raspberry
• Kirsch — Cherry
• Poire William — Pears

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Other Spirits

Vodka
• Location / Geography
– Vodka can be made anywhere in the world but is most traditionally
associated with Eastern Europe
• Fermentation
– Traditionally vodka is a distillate of fermented cereal grains or potatoes
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range of fruits, vegetables and other plants. (If it is fermentable, it can
be made into vodka.)
• Distillation
– Vodka is distilled multiple times to achieve purity and neutrality.
– Most often a continuous still is used, however there are numerous,
well-known, high-end examples made with pot stills
• Aging
– Vodka is an unaged, clear spirit. There are several barrel-aged vodkas
on the market today, but they are exceptions to the traditional style

Gin
• Location / Geography
– Gin can be made anywhere in the world, but its origins are Dutch. The
popularity of gin and its most well-known examples are from Great
Britain, crafted in the London Dry Gin style.
• Fermentation
– Traditionally, gin is a neutral distillate of fermented cereal grains,
like vodka
• Botanicals
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Other traditional botanicals include lemon, lime and bitter orange
peel, anise, angelica root, orris root, licorice root, cinnamon, cassia
bark and many more.
• Distillation
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and is then redistilled
• Aging
– Gin is predominatnly an unaged, clear spirit, but a few barrel-aged
gins are available

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Tequila
• Location / Geography
– A protected appellation centered around the province of Jalisco, Mexico
• Fermentation
– Tequila is produced from the fermented juice of the cooked
piña (pineapple), the heart of the blue agave plant (Agave tequiliana)
• Distillation
– Can be performed either in a traditional pot still or by the
continuous method
• Aging
– Tequila has aging designations on the label based on time in
oak and bottle
– Silver / Blanco Bottled immediately after distillation
– Reposado Tequila aged 60 days to one year in oak casks
– Añejo Aged from 1-3 years in cask

Mezcal
• Location / Geography
– A protected appellation mainly around Oaxaca, Mexico but other
provinces are included
• Fermentation
– Mezcal is the distilled spirit produced from fermented agave
• Distillation
– Can be performed either in a traditional pot still or by the
continuous method
• Aging
– Blanco or unaged is the most traditional style of Mezcal, however,
barrel aged versions with the same label designations as Tequila
can be found

Rum
• Location / Geography
– Although rum is now produced internationally, the style originated
in the Caribbean in the 17th century, and spread to Central and
South America
• Fermentation
– Rum is a distilled spirit produced from fermented sugar cane
or molasses (a by-product of processing sugar cane into sugar)
• Distillation
– Depending on the tradition, style and brand, rum can be made
with a continuous still to achieve neutrality or with a pot still to
retain intensity of the base ingredient
• Aging
– Light Rum
– Little to no aging and bottled straight from the still
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to remove any color
– Dark Rum
– Higher-end examples are aged for an extended time in oak

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Apéritifs and Digestifs

Apéritifs
• Served before the meal to stimulate the appetite

Digestifs
• Served after the meal to help stimulate digestion. Examples include bitters
or Italian Amaro.

Liqueurs and Cordials

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variety of ways. Below is a chart for your reference of well-known brands and
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Herb and Cream-


Nut-based Fruit-Based based Whisk(e)y
Liqueurs Liqueurs Liqueurs Liqueurs Other

Bénédictine Orange Bailey’s Drambuie (OGHUÁRZHU


B&B Triple Sec Glayva Saint Germain
Chartreuse Cointreau Irish Mist
Crème de Menthe Grand Marnier Ginger
Frangelico Canton
Apricot (pit)
Anise Amaretto Coffee
Anisette Kahlúa
Galliano Peaches
Ouzo Southern Comfort
Sambuca

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Spirits
Quiz Questions

What spirit is the term “Reposado” used for describing aging?


a. Rum
b. Tequila
c. Vodka
d. Gin

Flavoring a neutral spirt with botanicals such as juniper berries


and lemon peel can be found in?
a. Tequila
b. Mezcal
c. Gin
d. Cognac

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a. Juniper
b. Coffee
c. Peach pit
d. Anise

Apples and pears are the primary fruits of what spirit?


a. Cognac
b. Armagnac
c. Calvados
d. Rum

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a. Bourbon
b. Scotch Whisky
c. Canadian Whisky
d. Irish Whiskey

What is the base-ingredient of rum?


a. Sugar cane or molasses
b. Barley
c. Potatoes
d. Agave

Cognac and Armagnac have this in common.


a. Oak aged, wine-based spirits
b. Apple and pear-based spirits
c. Light colored, sugar-cane based spirits
d. Made from a minimum of 51% corn

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Cocktails

Take what you have learned from this section and research or list classic
cocktails that use the following spirits and liqueurs.
(This exercise is for your personal reference for future study only.)

Vodka

Gin

Cognac

Tequila

Scotch Whisky

Bourbon

Kahlúa

Crème de Menthe

Campari

Triple Sec

Drambuie

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Service and Hospitality
Service and Hospitality

Service Standards
Mastery of beverage service requires a combination of theoretical knowledge, a
trained palate, universal vocabulary, gracious carriage, respectful salesmanship
and sound service mechanics. The Court of Master Sommeliers has established
the following Service Standards as a basis to evaluate candidates in CMS
examinations. The mechanics listed herein should be the foundation upon which
one provides world-class hospitality in a restaurant situation. Reading the table’s
needs, understanding guest expectations and utilizing sound sales strategies to
provide a memorable dining experience remains the ultimate goal.
The CMS recognizes that its Service Standards are formal and not appropriate
for many restaurant settings. Nevertheless, candidates must be able to display
mastery of highly demanding and exacting formal dining room skills to succeed
in CMS examinations.

Professional Appearance
• Pressed and cleaned professional attire including comfortable, safe shoes
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clean, no excessive perfumes or odors
• No dress or accessory should draw excessive attention to one’s
own person

Required Sommelier Tools


• 2 bottle openers
• 2 pens
• 1 pad of paper
• 2 odorless lighters or matches

Mise-En-Place — Pre-Service Set Up


• Wine lists are clean, correct, current and easy to read
• Glassware is clean, spotless and free of odor
• Glasses are polished using a source of steam — with clean linen
• Serviettes or side towels are made of cotton or similar material that
does not repel water
• Serviettes are folded and prepared before service
• Under-liners are to be cleaned and polished before service
• Other service items such as service trays, ice buckets, stands and
decanters should clean, polished and ready for service
• Glass stemware is the only item to touch the tablecloth —
bottles, decanters and corks are to be placed on an under-liner
• Glassware and other service items should be brought to the table on
a tray lined with a napkin
• Wine opening tools are organized before service
• Wines are stored in an organized fashion
• Wines are stored and served at the correct temperature — various
methods of ensuring proper service temperature exist including ice
buckets and decanters

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Standard Service
These standards apply to all types of wine:
• Beverage service is always performed on the right side of the guest
• The wine list is presented and assistance is offered
• The sommelier is prepared to offer active and appropriate
recommendations — sales skills are an essential element of proper service
• The sommelier is prepared to answer questions on vintages, style and
character of wine, food compatibility and quality
• The order is taken from the host’s right and its name and vintage is
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the wine
• The glassware is to be placed from the right of the guest on to the table
in a consistent manner
• Placement starts with either the host or the person to the host’s left and
continues clockwise without regard to gender
• Space permitting, under-liners for the bottle, cork and any decanters are
placed to the right and/or in front of the host
• The sommelier presents the bottle and repeats its name and vintage to
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• The bottle is presented with a serviette held in the sommelier’s hand
or on the forearm
• Serviettes are either held in hand or placed on the forearm during all
service
• Serviettes are NEVER placed in pockets or on the shoulder
• The foil is cut at the second or lower lip to prevent the wine from dripping
behind the foil and contaminating future pours
• The foil is placed in the sommelier’s pocket and the top of the cork is
wiped with a clean serviette
• The sommelier inserts a corkscrew or similar tool to remove the cork
• The cork is removed with minimal bottle movement and as quietly
as possible
• The top of the bottle is wiped with a clean serviette and the cork is
presented to the right of the host on an under-liner
• The sommelier holds the bottle with the right hand, label facing the host
and pours the host a 1 – 1.5 ounce taste
• The sommelier steps back and waits for the host’s approval
• After approval, the sommelier serves the wine moving to the left
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served last regardless of gender — if there is a guest of honor, that person
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• In parties of eight or more it is acceptable to pour everyone in a clockwise
manner regardless of gender
• The bottle is wiped with a clean serviette after each pour to prevent drips
• The bottle is placed on an under-liner or in an ice bucket within reach
of the host — If an ice bucket is used, it should be placed so as not to
hinder movement around the table
• The sommelier asks to remove the cork

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Glassware Placement
• Glassware is the appropriate size and shape for each wine
• Glass stemware is placed to the right of the guest and is keyed off the
knife in a consistent manner
• Multiple glasses can be placed in a line, diagonal, diamond or cluster
depending on the table space
• It is important that glass placement is consistent among all guests
• If a second bottle of the same wine is ordered, bring the host a fresh
glass to taste
– The sommelier should be prepared to replace all the glasses if
requested
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then cleared after service of the new bottle
• When possible, glasses for additional new wine orders are placed to the
right of any previous glasses so that the sommelier is always pouring the
glass to the right and not over the existing stemware

Sparkling Wine Service


1st Method Present the bottle in the air and open in the air
2nd Method Present the bottle in the air and open in a bucket and stand
3rd Method Present the bottle in the air and open in the air at a gueridon
or side station
• Prepare glassware, ice bucket, stand and two serviettes
• Make sure the bottle is properly chilled
– Fill bucket with water and ice so bottle can easily move in and out
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– Position bucket to the right and within reach of the host but also
so as to not interfere with service or guest movement
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lined tray
• Position the cork and bottle under-liners to the host’s right
• Place the ice bucket with stand to the host’s right with a clean
serviette over the top (or in the bucket’s handle if appropriate)
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the order
• Cut the foil cleanly at the bottom of the cage with the blade of a
corkscrew — using the tab is allowed but not preferred
• Remove the foil and place in the sommelier’s pocket
• Place a clean serviette over the cage with the sommelier’s thumb or
hand over the cork
• Maintain control at all times — always point the bottle away
from the guests
• Untwist the wire cage and loosen for removal – always keep the hand or
thumb over the cork
• Firm up your grip on the cork and twist the bottle (not the cork) while
holding at a 45-degree angle – this is done in the air or against the inside
of the bucket but never against the body
• Keeping the bottle at the 45-degree angle, release the cork as quietly as
possible until the initial rush of CO2 dissipates
• Remove the cage from the cork and place in the sommelier’s pocket
• Place the cork on the under-liner to the host’s right
• Wipe the lip of the bottle thoroughly before serving
• Hold the bottle with the right hand or by the bottom of the bottle
(not the punt) as in still wine service
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• Face the label toward the host and pour a 1-1.5 ounce taste, use
serviette to prevent drips
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• Wait for the host’s approval


• Once the host approves the wine, pour for the guests in standard order
(see Standard Service above)
• Fill glasses evenly (up to 3/4 full), one glass at a time with a maximum of
two pours per glass
• After serving the host, place the bottle either in the ice bucket or on the
table according to the host’s preference
– 1st Method — place the bottle in the ice bucket to the host’s right
within their reach
– 2nd Method — place the bottle on an under-liner on the table
within reach of the host
• Ask the host for permission to remove the cork and bottle under-liner
if it is not utilized

White Wine Service


1st Method Open the bottle in hand and return to an ice bucket to the
host’s right or an under-liner on the table to the host’s right
2nd Method Open the bottle in an ice bucket to the host’s right and
return to the bucket after serving
3rd Method Open the bottle on an under-liner on the guest’s table or a
side station, then place the bottle in the ice bucket or on an under-liner on
the table to the host’s right
4th Method Open the bottle on a gueridon next to, or close by, the table
preferably to the host’s right. After serving, place the wine in an ice bucket
with stand next to the table to the host’s right
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the stemware

Young Red Wine Service


1st Method Open the bottle in hand, then place on an under-liner on the
table to the host’s right
2nd Method Open the bottle on an under-liner on the guest’s table or at
a side station, then place the bottle on an under-liner on the table to the
host’s right
3rd Method Open the bottle on a gueridon next to, or close by, the table
preferably to the host’s right, then place the bottle on an under-liner on the
table to the host’s right
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the stemware

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Service and Hospitality

Old Red Wine Service


• A gueridon or room service cart is used for decanting. All materials are to
be placed on it before moving to tableside.

Items needed are


• Clean decanter
• Matches or odorless lighter
• Three serviettes
• Three under-liners for the cork, bottle and decanter
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• Cork removal tools
• Decanting basket

• Place appropriate glassware for each guest from a lined tray


• Under-liners for the cork, bottle and decanter may be placed from the
lined tray at this time or later from the gueridon
• Line the decanting basket with a clean serviette and bring it to the cellar
• Place the bottle in the basket carefully so as not to disturb the sediment
• Carry the bottle carefully to the gueridon (before or after the gueridon
is tableside depending on the situation)
• If bottle has not been stored label up, place it in the decanting basket as is
• Light the candle away from the table whenever possible
• Roll the gueridon to the table, preferably to the host’s right
• Gently bring the bottle in the decanting basket from the gueridon and
present to the host
– If the bottle was not stored label up, present the bottle as is with
explanation, decant and then present the label
• Return the bottle to the gueridon and position it for cork removal
• If the angle of the decanting basket is too low, prop it up with an under-
liner or serviette
• Remove the foil as cleanly possible at the second lip
– Removal of the whole foil is acceptable but not preferred
– If the entire foil is to be removed, the guest should be informed
• Carefully remove the cork with whatever tool is necessary to complete
the task
• Wipe the lip of the bottle with a clean serviette a second time
• Carefully remove the bottle from the basket and slowly pour into the
decanter in one smooth movement
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shoulder of the bottle
– Do not look away from the bottle while decanting
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the bottle
– Avoid touching the bottle to the decanter
• Wipe any drips on the bottle with a clean serviette
• Place the bottle and cork on under-liners with the label of the bottle
facing the host
• Pour the host a 1-1.5 ounce taste from the decanter - wait for approval
and inquire if the wine can be served
• Serve guests in the standard manner
• Wipe the decanter with a serviette after each pour to avoid drips
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the host
• Ask the host if they would like the cork removed
• Ask the host if they would like the bottle removed or left on the table
• Remove any unused under-liners
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Screwcap Closures
• Present the bottle in the standard manner
• Remove the screw cap as quietly as possible and place in the
sommelier’s pocket
• The screw cap is not presented
• Wipe the lip of the bottle with a clean serviette
• Pour a taste for the host and continue with standard service

Synthetic Corks
• Synthetic corks are to be treated in the same manner as natural corks in
all service procedures

Cordial, Port and Brandy Service


• A gueridon or tray is used for the sales and service of after dinner drinks
• All materials are to be placed on it before moving to tableside

Items needed are


• Measuring jiggers
• Lined service tray
• Beverage selections
• Appropriate selection of glassware
• Three serviettes

• Offer assistance in selection


• Make recommendations and answer questions on beverage styles, types,
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as necessary
• After the guest has made a selection, pour and serve the selection
• A gueridon or tray is used for the sales and service of after dinner drinks

1st Method On the gueridon, measure the proper amount with a


jigger and pour into the appropriate glass
• Place the beverage on a lined tray and present to the guest from the right
2nd Method On a lined tray, bring the appropriate glassware, the
bottle and clean serviette to the table
• Position the glassware to the right of the guest and then serve the
proper amount of the beverage

Storage
• Wines must be stored correctly if they are to show their best
• All wines should be cellared at a constant temperature
• A range of 50-60 degrees is ideal for long-term storage
• Store wines in an organized and accessible manner
• Store wines away from unpleasant odors
• Store wines away from insect and rodent pests that can damage labels,
corks and boxes
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 ‡ 6WRUHVSLULWVDQGIRUWLÀHGZLQHVVWDQGLQJXS
• Avoid storing wine: in a direct source of light, near source of vibration,
overly damp conditions or upright for over a few weeks
 ‡ $YRLGH[FHVVLYHKHDWRUH[WUHPHWHPSHUDWXUHÁXFWXDWLRQ

250
Service and Hospitality

Purchasing Older Wines


• Inquire as to the provenance — or history of ownership — of the wine
• Inquire as to how the bottles were stored
• Inquire when the bottle was shipped from the winery’s cellar
• Inquire as to how many times the bottle has been sold or shipped
• Inspect the bottles for label damage, leakage and ullage

Suggested Serving Temperatures


These are guidelines, wine styles and consumer preference will ultimately dictate
actual service temperatures.

)RUH[DPVWDQGDUGVZHKDYHGHÀQHGWKHIROORZLQJ

Mineral Water 42° – 50° / 5.5c – 10c

Sweet White Wine 42° – 50° / 5.5c – 10c

Dry Sherry and Dry Madeira 48° – 55° / 9c – 13c

Champagne and Sparkling Wine 42° – 50° / 5.5c – 10c

Light-Bodied White Wine 42° – 50° / 5.5c – 10c

Dry Rosé 45° – 55° / 7c – 13c

Full-Bodied White Wine 50 – 59° F / 10c – 15c

Light-Bodied Red Wine 50 – 59° F / 10c – 15c

Medium-Bodied Red Wine 55° – 62° F / 13c – 17c

Full-Bodied Red Wine 58° – 65° F / 14.5c – 18c

Tawny Port and Sweet Sherry 55° – 62° F / 13c – 17c

Sweet Madeira and Vintage Port 55° – 62° F / 13c – 17c

Draught and Bottled Domestic and Specialty Lager 40 – 45° / 4.5c – 7c


(Bulk Lagers, Pilsner etc.)

Specialty Ale 45 – 50° / 7c – 10c

(Belgian Pale Ale, Wheat, APA, IPA Cream, Abbey etc.)

English Style Ale 50 – 55° / 10c – 13c

Cask-Conditioned Ale Cellar Temp 50 – 55° / 10c – 13c

Porter and Stout 50 – 55° / 10c – 13c

Belgian Dubbel 50 – 55° / 10c – 13c

Lambic Ale 45 – 50° / 7c – 10c

251
master
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sommeliers
Americas

Demeanor of the Professional Sommelier


The Attitude of the Sommelier
 ‡ ,WLVLPSHUDWLYHIRUDVRPPHOLHUWRGLVSOD\DTXLHWO\FRQÀGHQWEXWQRW
arrogant, attitude and to demonstrate superlative hospitality throughout
beverage service
• It is important for sommeliers to put themselves in the role of a server;
  QRMRERUWDVNRQWKHÁRRULVEHQHDWKWKHUROHRIDVRPPHOLHUKHRUVKH
does whatever needs to be done in the moment to take care of the guest
• The essence of hospitality is making guests feel welcome and comfortable
whether or not they are partaking of beverages
• The sommelier is an integral part of a team providing the experience
of superlative hospitality for the guest. The sommelier should be aware of
all aspects of service ongoing in the dining room.

Vendors
• Always treat and communicate with vendors (i.e., parties such as
distributors, importers, brokers and winemakers) respectfully and
responsibly; no profanity and no abusive language or treatment should
ever occur
• The supplier is an essential part of the team that supports the experience
of hospitality for the guest
 ‡ 8VHWKHYHQGRU·VWLPHLQDQHIÀFLHQWDQGSURIHVVLRQDOPDQQHUE\
communicating your needs clearly, honoring appointments and
answering or returning e-mails and phone calls
• The hospitality world is ever-changing and today’s colleague or vendor
could potentially become tomorrow’s employer or vice versa

Colleagues
• Integrate into the service team and provide help whenever and however
needed. A good service team member does not let another team
member fail.
• The sommelier is in a high visibility position and is a service leader who
sets the tone of the overall service experience in a dining room

Team Education
• Share knowledge and service acumen with team members; educate with
an inclusive spirit
• Avoid intimidating or alienating guests and co-workers with esoteric wine
information
• Strive to simplify beverage knowledge without dumbing it down; teach
others in an easy to understand way. Improving the overall competence
of each team member will result in increased guest satisfaction and sales.

Tableside Demeanor
• SMILE. Be friendly, respectful, engaging, and professional in a genuine
and authentic manner
• Attention should ALWAYS be on the guest and serving the guest,
never drawn to the sommelier
• Respond to guest compliments with brief thanks and appreciation
• Utilize your considerable knowledge as appropriate

252
Service and Hospitality

Establishing Guest Rapport


• Approach guests with the intent of understanding their priorities, wants
  DQGQHHGVORRNIRURSSRUWXQLWLHVWRIXOÀOODQGH[FHHGWKHLUH[SHFWDWLRQV
• Pay close attention to guest response, speaking manner and body
language; adjust your manner and behavior accordingly
• Assess to what degree assistance is required and desired

General Points
 ‡ %HÁXHQWLQ\RXUUHVWDXUDQW·VRYHUDOOEHYHUDJHSURJUDPIRRGPHQX
and operation policies
 ‡ %HDEOHWRSURYLGHEULHIEXWDFFXUDWHGHVFULSWRUV DURPDÁDYRUDQG
structure) of all beverages without overwhelming the guest with
unnecessary verbiage. Read the guest and supply the appropriate amount
of information.
• DO NOT MAKE THINGS UP: If you do not know the answer to a guest’s
question, offer to get the answer as soon as possible

Communication
• Maintain eye contact with guests as appropriate
• Be an active listener. Clarify anything the guest has communicated,
  HVSHFLDOO\ZKHQFRQÀUPLQJWKHRUGHU
• Discreetly determine if the host has a budget in mind; if not, offer several
selections at different price points
• When in doubt, undersell; honor the guest’s trust with regard to price
point and perceived value
• Learn and remember guest’s preferences
• Guest relationships are built over time

Dealing With Problems


• Remember, “The guest is always right”
• Guest perception is your reality
• The only “justice” is the resolution of the problem in the guest’s mind;
“fairness” does NOT matter
• Make an honest and authentic effort to make the situation right

Suggested Steps for Problem Resolution


1. Recognize and acknowledge there is a problem
2. Engage the guest, ask them to express themselves
3. Listen actively, authentically and completely
4. Ask the guest about their expectations of how the issue can be
addressed, i.e., “How can I make this right?” “What can I do?”
“What is the best way to take care of this?”
5. Decide what can be done, based on your understanding of the guest’s
expectations, and the business policies of your establishment
6. Know where your range of authority begins and ends. Contact other
key staff members when appropriate and necessary.

253
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6SHFLÀF3UREOHPV

Guest Rejecting a Glass or Bottle of Wine


• Immediately apologize and remove the glassware and bottle
• Away from the table, discreetly determine the condition of the wine
  ² ,IWKHZLQHLVÁDZHGRIIHUDQRWKHUERWWOHRIWKHVDPHZLQH
– If the wine is sound, offer the wine list to make another selection
• Above all, never put the guest in the position of being wrong

Spilling Wine on the Guest or the Table


• Apologize and take immediate action to mitigate any spillage and
possible staining
• Assure the guest that the restaurant will pay for any necessary dry
cleaning
• Immediately reseat guest at another table if possible
• If another table is not available, temporarily move guests to the bar
and reset original table

Wrong Bottle or Price on a Check


 ‡ 7KHVHDUHGLIÀFXOWVFHQDULRVWKDWFDQEHFKDOOHQJLQJWRUHVROYH%ULQJLQ
upper management to help resolve the issue
• Apologize for any misunderstanding and politely suggest that the guest
pay for the bottle they believed to have ordered
• If the guest refuses to pay for the wine, bring in the maître d’ or manager
to help resolve the situation
• Be as diplomatic and understanding as possible, and realize the potential
ill will the situation could create for the restaurant

Complaints on List or By the Glass Pricing


• Acknowledge the customer’s opinions and tactfully state the restaurant’s
policies on pricing

254
Deductive Tasting Journal
Deductive Tasting Journal

CMS Deductive Tasting Language Chart

255
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Wine Flight 1 - Wine 1

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

256
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 1 — Wine 1

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

257
master
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sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 1 - Wine 2

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

258
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 1 — Wine 2

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

259
master
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sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 1 - Wine 3

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

260
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 1 — Wine 3

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

261
master
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sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 1 - Wine 4

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

262
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 1 — Wine 4

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

263
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 2 - Wine 1

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

264
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 2 — Wine 1

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

265
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 2 - Wine 2

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

266
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 2 — Wine 2

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

267
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 2 - Wine 3

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

268
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 2 — Wine 3

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

269
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 2 - Wine 4

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

270
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 2 — Wine 4

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

271
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 3 - Wine 1

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

272
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 3 — Wine 1

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

273
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 3 - Wine 2

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

274
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 3 — Wine 2

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

275
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 3 - Wine 3

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

276
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 3 — Wine 3

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

277
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 3 - Wine 4

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

278
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 3 — Wine 4

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

279
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 4 - Wine 1

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

280
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 4 — Wine 1

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

281
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 4 - Wine 2

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

282
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 4 — Wine 2

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

283
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 4 - Wine 3

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

284
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 4 — Wine 3

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

285
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 4 - Wine 4

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

286
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 4 — Wine 4

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

287
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 5 - Wine 1

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

288
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 5 — Wine 1

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

289
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 5 - Wine 2

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

290
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 5 — Wine 2

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

291
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 5 - Wine 3

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

292
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 5 — Wine 3

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

293
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 5 - Wine 4

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

294
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 5 — Wine 4

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

295
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 6 - Wine 1

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

296
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 6 — Wine 1

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

297
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 6 - Wine 2

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

298
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 6 — Wine 2

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

299
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 6 - Wine 3

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

300
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 6 — Wine 3

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

301
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Wine Flight 6 - Wine 4

Sight

Clarity / Visible Sediment Clear, Hazy, Turbid

Concentration Pale, Medium, Deep

Color White: Water White, Straw, Yellow, Gold


Red: Purple, Ruby, Red, Garnet

Secondary Colors White: Silver, Green, Copper


Red: Ruby, Garnet, Orange, Brown, Blue

Rim Variation Yes / No

Extract / Staining (Red Wines) None, Light, Medium, Heavy

Tearing Light, Medium, Heavy

Gas Evidence Yes / No

Nose
Clean / Faulty TCA, H2S, Volatile Acidity, Ethyl Acetate, Brettanomyces, Oxidation, Other

Intensity Delicate, Moderate, Powerful

Age Assessment Youthful, Developing, Vinous

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pit, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

302
Deductive Tasting Journal Wine Flight 6 — Wine 4

Palate
Sweetness )VUL+Y`+Y`6Ɉ+Y`4LKP\T:^LL[:^LL[3\ZJPV\ZS`:^LL[

Fruit White: Citrus, Apple/Pear, Stone/Pitted, Tropical, Melon


Red: Red, Black, Blue

Fruit Character Ripe, Fresh, Tart, Baked, Stewed, Dried, Desiccated, Bruised, Jammy

Non-Fruit Floral, Vegetal, Herbal, Spice, Animal, Barn, Petrol, Fermentation

Earth Forest Floor, Compost, Mushrooms, Potting Soil

Mineral Wet Stone, Limestone, Chalk, Slate, Flint

Wood None, Old vs New, Large vs Small, French vs American

Phenolic / Bitter (White Wine) Yes / No

Tannin (Red Wine) 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Acid 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Alcohol 3V^4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Body Light, Medium, Full

Texture Creamy, Round, Lean, Other Textures

Balance Does any element dominate?

Length / Finish :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK3VUN

Complexity :OVY[4LK4LKP\T4LK/PNO

Initial Conclusion
Possible Grape Varieties

Old World / New World

Climate Cool, Moderate, Warm

Possible Countries

Age Range `YZ`YZ`YZ`YZ

Final Conclusion
Grape Variety / Blend

Country of Origin

Region / Appellation

Quality / Regional Hierarchy Grand / Premier Cru, Reserva / Gran Reserva etc.

Vintage

303
master
court of

sommeliers
Americas

Contributors
Melissa Monosoff, MS
Michael Franz — Editorial
Fernando Beteta, MS — Maps
Scott Carney, MS
Eric Entrikin, MS
Shayn Bjornholm, MS
Thomas Burke, MS
Braham Callahan, MS
Will Costello, MS
Fred Dexheimer, MS
Jack Mason, MS
Michael Meager, MS
Jim Rollston, MS
Matt Stamp, MS
James Tidwell, MS

Photo Contributors
Jeff Bramwell jeffbramwell.com
Brian Cronin, MS
Peter Granoff, MS
Geoff Kruth, MS
Lynmar Estate
Melissa Monosoff, MS
Napa Valley Vintners
Courtney Perry
WOSA

©All Rights Reserved 2017 Court of Master Sommeliers – Americas

Design: Brent Combs Design


304
master
court of
www.mastersommeliers.org
sommeliers
Americas