Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 42

Ecommerce'Report'

Turkey
2017

Report0partners Executed0by

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 1
Thank0you…
Thank you for downloading this report. We hope this report will help you take the next step in selling online in Turkey.

The Ecommerce Foundation is an independent non@profit organization, initiated by worldwide national ecommerce
associations, as well as online and omnichannel selling companies from industries such as retail, travel & finance. Our mission
is to foster global digital trade, as peace is the natural effect of trade. By facilitating digital commerce we hope to make the
world a slightly better place.

We especially would like to thank our Report Partners; namely Ingenico, Asendia, Ecommerce Europe, Manhattan Associates
and Salesforce. Without their support, this report would not have been created. Moreover, a great amount of gratitude is
extended to the Ecommerce Association of Turkey, etid, for its support in data collection and report promotion.

If you like our reports, please visit our report page on www.EcommerceWiki.org. On this page, you
will find a large collection of Ecommerce Country Reports for free.

Your feedback is also very much appreciated. Please contact us


at info@ecommercefoundation.org.
Jorij'Abraham
MD'Ecommerce'Foundation

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 2
A0Thank0You0to0our0Report0Partners
Ingenico is the most knowledgeable global Payment Service Provider in the world, processing international ecommerce payments for more than 600 of the
world’s most recognized ecommerce brands in the digital goods and services, travel, retail and video gaming industries, among many others. Ingenico’s
business intelligence tools, Managed Fraud Services and more than 400 payments experts help our clients elevate their payment strategies to become a
strategic asset to their companies.

Asendia is one of the world’s top three international mail, shipping and distribution organizations, delivering your packages, parcels and documents to
more than 200 destinations across the globe. Formed as a partnership between La Poste and Swiss Post in 2012, the Asendia business employs more than
1,000 people worldwide, has offices in 15 countries and a global network of delivery partners to get your package where it needs to be, when it needs to
get there.

Manhattan Associates is a technology leader in supply chain and omni@channel commerce. We unite information across the enterprise, converging front@
end sales with back@end supply chain execution. Our software, platform technology and unmatched experience help drive both top@line growth and
bottom@line profitability for our customers. Manhattan Associates designs, builds and delivers leading edge cloud and on@premises solutions so that across
the store, through your network or from your fulfilment centre, you are ready to reap the rewards of the omni@channel marketplace.

Salesforce0Commerce0Cloud0was0founded0as0Demandware in020040and0acquired0by0Salesforce0in0July02016.0A0cloud@based0ecommerce0pioneer,0our0vision0
is0to0enable0retailers0and0brands0to0break0free0of0the0shackles0of0traditional,0legacy0platforms0and0truly0focus0on0what0they do best0– deliver0great0
products0and0a0great0brand0experience0to0its0customers.0Today,0Salesforce0Commerce0Cloud’s0industry@leading0cloud0platform0is0the0digital0backbone0for0
hundreds0of0retail0brands,0and0thousands0of0commerce0web0sites0around0the0world.

Ecommerce0Europe0is0the0association0representing025,000+0companies0selling0goods0and/or0services0online0to0consumers0in0Europe.0Founded0by0leading0
national0e@commerce0associations,0Ecommerce0Europe0is0the0voice0of0the0e@commerce0sector0in0Europe.0Its0mission0is0to0stimulate0cross@border0e@
commerce0through0lobbying0for0better0or0desired0policy,0by0offering0a0European0platform0bringing0the0European0e@commerce0sector0and0other0stakeholders0
together,0and0by0providing0in@depth0research0data0about0European0markets.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 3
Table0of0Contents

5 10 19

29

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 4
Introduction0to0Turkey

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 5
Demographic0Indicators
AGE'AND'GENDER1
Area:0783,5620km2 Population0by0age0and0gender,020160
Capital:0Ankara
Currency:0Turkish0liras0(TRY) 43.2%

Female
Male
21.3%

24.7%

12.1% 16.0%

Population:'79.622.062 7.8% 8.6%


Institution:'Parliamentary'Republic
21.9% 7.6%
Internet'users:'58%
URL'country'code:'.tr
12.6% 4.3% 4.2%
Official'language:'Turkish
8.2%
4.3% 3.4%
Widely'spoken'foreign'languages:
Kurdish
0@14 15@24 25@54 55@64 65+
1Age0and0Gender.0Source:0CIA0World0Factbook;0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 6
Turkish0B2C0ecommerce0turnover0grew01.02%0in02016
TOTAL'GROSS'DOMESTIC'PRODUCT1 ECOMMERCE'SHARE'OF'GDP2
GDP0at0market0prices,020120– 2017(f) Ecommerce0turnover0share0of0GDP,020120– 2017(f)0

Year GDP'(in'million'of dollar’s) GDP'per'capita


1.58%
2017(f) $793,700 $9,826

20160 $857,430 $10,743 1.02% 1.02%


Full'version'available'at
0.87%
2015 $859,040 $10,910
0.67% www.ecommercefoundation.org/reports
0.69%

2014 $934,070 $12,022

2013 $950,330 $12,395

2012 $873,700 $11,553 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017(f)

Full'version'available'at
Total'Ecommerce Turnover'/'GDP''= Ecommerce share'of'GDP,'2017(f)3:' 1.58%
www.ecommercefoundation.org/reports
1Total0Gross0Domestic0Product.0Source:0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.0|02Ecommerce0Share0of0GDP.0Source:0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.0|03Ecommerce0Share0of0GDP.0Source:0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 7
Economic0Indicators
UNEMPLOYMENT'RATE1 INFLATION'RATE2
Percentage0of0the0total0labor0force,02012@2016 Annual0change0on0Consumer0Price0Index0(CPI),02012@2016
8.9% 8.9%
10.2% 10.8%
8.7% 9.9%
8.2% 7.7% 7.8%
7.5%

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
CONSUMER'CONFIDENCE'INDEX'(CCI)3
CCI0on0a0monthly0basis,02016
99.2
98.9 98.7
98.4
98.0
97.6 97.6 97.7
97.2 97.2 97.4
96.7

Jan@16 Feb@16 Mar@16 Apr@16 May@16 June@16 July@16 Aug@16 Sep@16 Oct@16 Nov@16 Dec@16

1Unemployment0Rate.0Source:0OECD,02016.0|02Inflation0Rate.0Source:0OECD,02016.0|03CCI.0Source:0OECD,02016.0

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 8
Turkey0ranks034th in0Logistical0Performance0Index

Logistical Performance Index1 Ease of Doing Business Index2 EdGovernment Development Index3
The LPI overall score reflects perceptions A high ease of doing business ranking The UN’s E@Government Index provides a
of a country's logistics based on, among means the regulatory environment is comparative assessment of the e@
other things, efficiency of customs more favorable for the starting and government development of UN Member
clearance process, quality of trade@ and operation of a local firm. The rankings are States. Important factors contributing to a
transport@related infrastructure and ease determined by sorting the aggregate high level of e@government development
quality of logistics services. distance to frontier scores on 10 equal are concurrent past and present
topics. investments in telecommunication, human
capital and provision of online services.

34th 69th 68th

Logistical'Performance' Ease'of'
Edgovernment'Index
Index Doing'Business'Index

1Logistical0Performance0Index.0Source:0Worldbank,02016.0|02Ease0of0Doing0Business0Index.0Source:0Worldbank,02016.0|03E@government0Development0Index.0Source:0UN,02016.0

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 9
Ecommerce0Facts0&0Figures

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 10
29%0of0the0online0population0in020160shopped0online

2013 2014 2015 2016


Total Population1 76,223,639 77,523,788 78,665,830 79,622,062
Online'Population2 35,062,874 39,537,131 42,479,548 46,977,017
Number of'edshoppers3 7,713,832 10,675,025 12,319,068 13,623,335
1Total0Population.0Source:0Ecommerce Foundation,02017.02Online0Population.0Source:0Eurostat,02017.03Number0of0e@shoppers.0Source:0Eurostat,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 11
Ecommerce0turnover0to0grow0by030.5%0in02017

B2C'ECOMMERCE'TURNOVER1 TURNOVER'GROWTH'RATE2
Total0online0sales0of0goods0and0services,0millions0of0USD,02013@20170(f) Percentage0change0in0B2C0ecommerce0turnover,02012@2017(f)

30.1% 30.5%
$12,528

19.6%
$8,745 $8,707
$8,104
$6,517 Full'version'available'at
www.ecommercefoundation.org/reports
7.3%
10.6%

@0.4%

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017(f)


2013 2014 2015 2016 20170(f)

1B2C0Ecommerce0Turnover.0Source:0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.0|02Turnover0Growth0Rate.0Source:0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.0

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 12
Throughout0Europe,0shoppers0expect0a0consistent0quality0of0retail0experience,0whether0shopping0with0the0
same0retailer0in0a0physical0store,0via0their0website0or0through0their0smartphone.0A0personalised0and0
connected0experience0across0all0channels,0as0well0as0friendly0and0well@informed0personnel,0raise0the0bar0
for0retailers.0Gaining0a0holistic0view0of0shoppers,0orders0and0inventory0is0the0essential0backbone0of0
connected0commerce.0The0challenge0is0now0for0retailers0to0bring0together0technology,0processes0and0
people0to0meet0consumers’0shopping0expectations,0
today0and0tomorrow.
Pieter&Van&den&Broecke
Managing&Director&
Benelux&and&Germany

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 13
E@Shopper0penetration0expected0to0grow011%0in02017

EdSHOPPER'PENETRATION1 EdSHOPPER'PENETRATION:'GROWTH2
Percentage0of0online0population0shopping0online,02017 Percentage0of0E@shopper0penetration0growth,02017

55% 12.44%
11.06%
10.07%
53%

51%
Full'version'available'at
www.ecommercefoundation.org/reports
49%

2014 2015 2016 2017(f) 2015 2016 2017(f)

1E@shopper0Penetration.0Source:0Ecommerce Foundation,02017.0|02Ecommerce0Penetration:0Growth.0Source:0Ecommerce Foundation,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 14
Increase0in0e@shoppers,0though0spending0less0on0average

EdSHOPPERS'AND'SPENDING2
Number0of0e@shoppers;0Average0spending0per0e@shopper,02014@2016

$418 $406
$353

13,6mn
Full'version'available'at
12,3mn
www.ecommercefoundation.org/reports
10,7mn

2014 2015 2016

1Turkey0Mobile0Monthly Payments.0Source:0IAB,0A"Global"Perspective"of"Mobile"Commerce,02016. |02E@Shoppers0and Spending.0Source:0Ecommerce Foundation,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 15
Internet0Browsers:0Chrome0is0the0leading0browser
INTERNET'BROWSERS:'DESKTOP,'20161 INTERNET'BROWSERS:'MOBILE,'20162
Internet0Browsers0used0on0Desktop0Devices,0March02016 Internet0Browsers0used0on0Mobile0Devices,0March02016

3% 4%
5% 10%
9% 1% 2%
14%

15% 57%

80%

Chrome Internet0Explorer Firefox Yandex0Browser Edge Other Chrome Android Safari Samsung0Internet Other

INTERNET'BROWSERS:'DESKTOP,'20171 INTERNET'BROWSERS:'MOBILE,'20172
Internet0Browsers0used0on0Desktop0Devices,0March02017 3% Internet0Browsers0used0on0Mobile0Devices,0March02017
4% 7% 3%
7% 2% 3%
10%

15%

65%
81%
1Internet0Browsers:0Desktop.0Source:0Statcounter,02016@2017.0|02Internet0Browsers:0Mobile.0Source:0Statcounter,02016@2017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 16
Operating0Systems:0Windows0and0Android0are0leading
OPERATING'SYSTEMS:'DESKTOP,'20161 OPERATING'SYSTEMS:'MOBILE,'20162
Operating0Systems0used0on0Desktop0Devices,0March02016 Operating0Systems0used0on0Mobile0Devices,0March02016

2% 1% 3%
16%
2%

81%
95%
Windows Unknown Linux Other Android IOS Other
OPERATING'SYSTEMS:'DESKTOP,'20171 OPERATING'SYSTEMS:'MOBILE,'20172
Operating0Systems0used0on0Desktop0Devices,0March02017 Operating0Systems0used0on0Mobile0Devices,0March02017
2% 1%
1% 18%
2%

95% 81%
1Operating0Systems:0Desktop.0Source:0Statcounter,02016@2017.0|02Operating0Systems:0Mobile.0Source:0Statcounter,02016@2017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 17
VAT0Information

VAT'OVERVIEW1
2017
VAT'overview Turkey Reduced VAT'rates Applies'to,'among'other things:'

Threshold0for0 • Certain0basic0Foodstuffs
Nil • Pharmaceutical0products
registration 8%
• Books
Standard0VAT0rate 18% • Medical0products
Reduced0VAT0rates 8%,01%,00% • Newspapers0and0magazines
1%
Periods0for0declaration Monthly,0Quarterly • Some0basic0foodstuffs

0% • Exports0of0goods0and0related0services

1Vat0Overview.0Source:0Vatlive,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 18
Ecommerce0Environment

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 19
Most0use0social0networks0on0smartphone0and0computer
CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'WEEKLY'MOBILE'DEVICE'ACTIVITIES1
Weekly0online0activities0of0Individuals0on0smartphones/computers,02017

80%
75%
71%

37% 39%
36%
30%
26%
23%
17%
11% 10%

Use0search0engines Visit0social0networks Play0games Watch0online0videos Purchase0 Look0for0product0


products/services information

How0often0do0you0use0the0following0through0your0web0browser/apps0on0a0smartphone?
How0often0do0you0use0the0following0through0your0web0browser/apps0on0a0computer?
1Consumer0Behavior:0Weekly0Mobile0Device0Activities.0Source:0Consumer0Barometer;0The0Connected0Consumer0Survey,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 20
Facebook0is0the0most0popular0social0media0platform
TOP'ONLINE'RETAILERS1 POPULAR'SOCIAL'MEDIA2
Top0100largest0web0shops0in0Turkey,02017 Share0of0social0media0users,02016@20170

Top'10'Largest'Online'Retailers 64.8%
Dogan Online

eBay

Gold0Group

IDO.com.tr
Full'version'available'at
Markafoni Group
www.ecommercefoundation.org/ 14.2%
N11.com
reports 9.5%
Pegasus0Airlines 4.0% 2.9% 1.9% 1.2%
Sahibinden.com
Facebook Twitter Youtube Pinterest Tumblr Instagram Other
THY0– Turkish Airlines

Trendyol Group

Yemeksepeti.com

1Top0Online0Retailers.0Source:0Ecommerce0Foundation,02017.0|02Popular0Social0Media.0Source:0Statcounter,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 21
Tracking&is&as&crucial&to&the&shopper&as&the&seller
What is your view on edcommerce in Europe?
European cross@border e@commerce is thriving, and is driving global growth. It was recently revealed that 6% of shoppers in Europe
shop online every day. A few things are driving this: internet speeds are improving; smartphone use is increasingly, boosting mobile
retail; and logistics networks across Europe are becoming more efficient and integrated.

How will delivery develop in Europe in the next two to three years?
European consumers are expecting more from their online buying experience. In the short term, postal companies that are B2C
distribution specialists in their respective countries will be increasingly able to offer a globally integrated network to customers.
Quality will improve, customer prices will come down and that should boost cross@border traffic across Europe. This promises to
underpin further growth in the European market.

What are the main challenges with delivery at the moment in Europe?
The biggest challenge currently facing international e@retailers is the need to grow outside their borders and drive international
expansion; to deal with the increasingly complex customs environment; and to meet customer expectations on
tracking. Timely delivery is crucial but being able to track an order’s progress and electronic notification of delivery
is equally important. So tracking of goods is no longer ‘a nice to have’, it’s a necessity.

It’s for that reason that at Asendia we offer the Fully@tracked Goods Service, which combines the convenience
and flexibility of national postal networks, with the peace of mind of full traceability. Renaud'Marlière
Chief'Marketing'&'Sales'Officer'at'Asendia

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 22
Most0research0brands0via0search0engines
CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'BRAND'RESEARCH1
Share0of0individuals0using0specified0resources0to0research0brands,02016

Search0engines 54%

Social0networks 48%

Brand/product0websites 37%

Consumer0reviews 36%

Product0comparison0websites 35%

Mobile0applications 26%

Forums 24%

Video0sites 24%

1Consumer0Behavior:0Brand0Research.0Source:0Kogital;0GWI;0Turkey0Market0Report,02016.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 23
81%0almost0always0use0retailer0information0before0buying0online
CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'PREdPURCHASE'RESEARCH1 CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'PREdPURCHASE'RESEARCH2
Individuals0using0information0from0retailer(s)…,02016* Individuals0used0price0or0product0comparison…,02016*

Individuals0used0information0from0several0retailer,0 Individuals0used0price0or0product0comparison0websites0or0
producer0or0service0provider0websites… apps…

7% 13%
12%

12%

81% 75%

Every0time0or0almost0every0time0before0buying/orderling0online
Every0time0or0almost0every0time0before0buying/ordering0online
Some0times0before0buying/ordering0online
Some0times0before0buying/ordering0online
Rarely0or0Never0before0buying/ordering0online Rarely0or0never0before0buying/ordering0online
*Percentage0of0individuals0who0ordered0goods0or0services,0over0the0internet,0
1Consumer0Behavior:0Pre@Purchase0Research.0Source:0Eurostat,02016.0|02Consumer0Behavior:0Pre@Purchase0Research.0Source:0Eurostat,02016. for0private0use,0in0the0last0year

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 24
75%0almost always use reviews0before buying online0
CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'PREdPURCHASE'RESEARCH1 CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'SOCIAL'MEDIA'IMPULSE'BUYING2
Individuals0used0customer0reviews0on0websites0or0blogs…,02016* Individuals0purchased0online0by0clicking/buying…,02016*

Individuals0used0customer0reviews0on0websites0or0blogs… Individuals0purchased0online0by0clicking/buying0
straightaway0through0an0advertisement0on0a0social0media0
website0or0app…
11%

10%
14%

75%

Every0time0or0almost0every0time0before0buying/orderling0online 90%

Some0times0before0buying/ordering0online
Did Did0not
Rarely0or0Never0before0buying/ordering0online
*Percentage0of0individuals0who0ordered0goods0or0services,0over0the0internet,0
1Consumer0Behavior:0Pre@Purchase0Research.0Source:0Eurostat,02016.0|02Consumer0Behavior:0Social0Media0Impulse0Buying.0Source:0Eurostat,02016. for0private0use,0in0the0last0year

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 25
56%0of0people0use0smartphone0to0go0online

DEVICE'USAGE:'TYPES'OF'DEVICES'USED1 CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'DEVICE'USE'FREQUENCY2
The0top0devices0used0by0individuals,0based0on0total0online0&0offline0population,02017 Frequency0of0devices0used0to0go0online,02017
56%
Others* 57%

TV 99%
28%

Tablet 25%

8%
Computer0(Desktop,0Laptop) 48%

More0often0via0 Equally0via0 More0often0via0


Mobile0phone 77% smartphone0than0 smartphone0&0 computer/tablet0than0
computer/tablet computer/tablet smartphone
*Includes:0Wearable0digital0service,0digital0device0(stream,0save/record),0eReader,0MP30player.

1Device0Usage:0Types0of0Devices0Used.0Source:0Consumer0Barometer;0The0Connected0Consumer0Survey,02017.0|02Consumer0Behavior:0Device0Use0Frequency.0Source:0Consumer0Barometer;0The0Connected0Consumer0Survey,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 26
The0ongoing0strength0of0electronic0commerce0and0industry0innovation0will0fuel0further0growth0in0
electronic0payment0volumes0in0Europe.0However,0SEPA0and0new0EU0regulations0such0as0PSD20are0set0to0
exert0a0considerable0influence0on0the0European0payments0market0over0the0next0few0years.0As0such,0
compliance0will0be0an0important0issue0for0merchants0who0want0to0take0full0advantage0of0the0opportunities0
that0the0European0market0represents.

David&Shell
VP&of&Global&Marketing

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 27
E@shoppers0spend0the0most0on0electronics0and0media
OVERVIEW:'POPULAR'PRODUCT'CATEGORIES1 CONSUMER'BEHAVIOR:'PAYMENT'METHODS'USED2
Top050product0categories,0by0ecommerce0revenue,0million0of0dollars,02016 Reported0payment0methods0by0market0share,02016

1% 1%
2%
Food0and0
$350.90
personal0care

Toys0and0
$739.50
hobby
37%

Furniture0and0
$878.20
appliance
59%
Fashion $1,033.70

Electronics0
$1,968.70
and0media
E@Wallets Bank0transfer Mobiles Credit0cards Prepaid0cards

1Overview:0Popular0Product0Categories.0Source:0Statista,02016.0|02Consumer0Behavior:0Payment0Methods0Used.0Source:0Paymentwall,02017.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 28
About0the0Report

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 29
About&the&National&Ecommerce&Reports&and&where&to&find&them…
The National Ecommerce Reports are published by the Overview reports
Ecommerce Foundation. They provide overviews of the mature • European overview report Jun. 26
and emerging markets in the field of ecommerce. • Global overview report Sep. 15

In total, the Ecommerce Foundation publishes multiple country Country reports


reports and two overview reports per year, covering the most Turkey
important ecommerce markets worldwide. China
Finland
To have a tailordmade ecommerce report made, Romania
completely based on your wishes and requirements, please Australia
contact us via info@ecommercefoundation.org. Japan
India
A0light0version0of0each0report0can0be0downloaded for'free'via:0 Brazil
www.ecommercewiki.org/Ecommerce_Foundation. USA
Canada
The0full0reports0can0be0online0purchased0via:
http://www.ecommercefoundation.org/buydreports.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 30
Definitions&related&to&the&Internet,&ecommerce&and&Online&Retailing
• Broadband access: the availability of broadband is measured by the percentage of • Edhouseholds: number of households that use the Internet for personal gain.
households that are connectable to an exchange that has been converted to
support DSL technology, to a cable network upgraded for Internet traffic, or to • Edhousehold expenditure: expenditure per household that bought goods or
other broadband technologies. It includes fixed and mobile connections (source: services in the past year.
Eurostat)
• Global Online Measurement Standard for B2C ecommerce (GOMSEC): aims to
• Crossdborder ecommerce: percentage of ecommerce purchased at foreign sites provide guidelines to measure and monitor B2C ecommerce in order to enable all
European countries to provide data with respect to the penetration of B2C
• Ease of Doing Business Index: The Ease of Doing Business Index is developed by ecommerce in a standardized way.
the World Bank, and averages the country's percentile rankings on nine topics. It is
made up of a variety of indicators, giving equal weight to each topic. The rankings • EdGovernment Index: The UN’s E@Government Index provides a comparative
for all economies are benchmarked to June 2010. The Index covers 185 countries. assessment of the e@government development of UN Member States. One of the
primary factors contributing to a high level of e@government development is
• ecommerce (or electronic commerce), a subset of edbusiness: any B2C contract on concurrent past and present investment in telecommunication, human capital and
the sale of products or services fully or partly concluded by a technique for provision of online services.
distance communication.
• Gross Merchandise Volume: the total sales facilitated by a third party, such as a
• ecommerce GDP: total amount of goods and services online divided by the total market place.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
• Edservices or electronic services: “Deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is
• Economic Freedom Index: the Index of Economic Freedom is an annual guide mediated by information technology. Such e@service includes the service element
published by The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation, Washington's of e@retailing, customer support, and service delivery.” This definition reflects three
No. 1 think tank. For over a decade, the Wall Street Journal and The Heritage main components: service providers, service receivers and the channels of service
Foundation have tracked the march of economic freedom around the world with delivery (i.e. technology). (Jennifer Rowley, Professor Information and
the influential Index of Economic Freedom. There are 5 categories, ranking from Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK)
Free (with a score between 80 and 100) to Repressed (between 40 and 49.9).
• Inactive online population: users that have access to the Internet but have not
(yet) purchased goods or services online in the past year.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 31
Definitions&related&to&the&Internet,&ecommerce&and&Online&Retailing
• Market place: online platform on which companies (and consumers) sell goods • Online expenditure: spending per user who purchased goods or services online.
and/or services.
• Online Retail (or edretail, electronic retail or retailing or even edtailing): the selling
• Logistics Performance Index (LPI): The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) measures of retail goods and services on the Internet. In the limited sense of the word,
the “logistics friendliness” of 155 countries. It helps countries identify the sectors such as online leisure travel, event tickets, downloading music or software
challenges and opportunities they face in their trade logistics performance and are not included. Online@only retail shops are often referred to as pure players.
what they can do to improve this. The Index is developed by the World Bank and is
based on a worldwide survey of operators, such as global freight forwarders and • Penetration levels: the percentage of a population using the Internet, mobile
express carriers. phones, smartphones or tablet devices.

• Mobile commerce (or mdcommerce): the ability to conduct commerce using a • Real economic growth rate: a measure of economic growth from one period to
mobile device e.g. a mobile phone, a PDA, a smartphone, a tablet or other another expressed as a percentage and adjusted for inflation. The real economic
(emerging) mobile equipment. growth rate is a measure of the rate of change that a nation's gross domestic
product (GDP) experiences from one year to another.
• Mobile subscriptions: mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to
a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access • Retail sales: the selling of mainly goods from businesses to individuals from a
to the public switched telephone network. Post@paid and prepaid subscriptions are traditional or so@called bricks@and@mortar shop.
included (source: Eurostat).
• Statcounter research method: Statcounter is a web analytics service and their
• Networked Readiness Index (NRI): The NRI measures the tendency for countries to tracking code is installed on more than three million sites globally. These sites
exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology cover various activities and geographic locations. Every month, Statcounter records
(IT). The NRI comprises three components: the environment for IT offered by a billions of page views to these sites. For each page view, they analyze the
given country or community, the readiness of the country's key stakeholders to use browser/operating system/screen resolution used and they establish if the page
IT, and the usage of IT among these stakeholders. view is from a mobile device. They calculate their Global Stats on the basis of more
than fifteen billion page views per month, by people from all over the world onto
• Online buyer (or edshopper, edbuyer): an individual who regularly bought or more than three million member sites.
ordered goods or services through the Internet.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 32
The&Global&Online&Measurement&Standard&for&B2C&Ecommerce&(GOMSEC)&standard
GOMSEC aims to provide guidelines for measuring Definition of B2C ecommerce sales Online purchases of the following items are excluded
and monitoring B2C ecommerce. As a result, all from GOMSEC:
countries worldwide are able to provide data with “Any B2C contract regarding the sale of goods • Transactions between private
respect to the penetration of B2C ecommerce in a and/or services, fully or partly concluded by a individuals/consumers (C2C), such as auctions
standardized way. All Ecommerce Foundation figures technique for distance communication.” and marketplaces, and between businesses
and estimates are based on GOMSEC, unless stated (B2B)
otherwise. Technique for distance communication: means • Online gambling and gaming
that can be used for communication regarding the • Cars and other motor vehicles
The GOMSEC reports on sales figures for the total B2C offer made by the trader and the conclusion of a • Houses and real estate
ecommerce worldwide and for each country separate contract, without the necessity of the consumer • Utilities (e.g. water, heating and electricity)
in the country profiles, based on total sales of goods and trader being in the same place at the same • Mortgages, loans, credit cards and overdrafts
and services. time. • Savings accounts, funds, stocks&shares and
bonds
These total sales of goods and services are based on Contract: a contract whereby use is made, either
the areas/sectors/classification of areas and sectors, solely or in part, of one or more techniques for B2C ecommerce therefore includes all online
as stated on the next few pages. distance communication within the framework of a transactions between businesses and consumers
system organized by the trader for the distance sale using desktop computers, laptops, tablets,
All data reported in the national currency of the of goods and/or services, up to and including the smartphones, point@of@sales and smart@wearables,
country involved is converted into euros according to moment that the contract is concluded. for instance through online shops, physical stores
the average (annual) rate of exchange as provided (“online instore”), email, QR codes, catalogs, etc. B2C
by, preferably, the European Central Bank (ECB) or Classification of B2C ecommerce ecommerce includes Value Added Tax (VAT) or other
the national bank of the particular country. The sales tax, delivery costs and apps, but excludes
reference period that is used for this was from 1 The following classification on the next few pages returns.
January to 31 December of each report year. Growth provides an overview of areas and sectors included
rates are calculated and measured by the B2C in GOMSEC.
ecommerce sales in the national currency.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 33
Global&Online&Measurement&Standard&for&B2C&ecommerce&(GOMSEC)
Media'&'Entertainment Electronics
Music0(physical,0download0&0streaming)/Spotify0based0on0new0subscriptions Consumer"Electronics Information"Technology"(IT) Household"Electronics
Video0(DVD,0Blu@ray,0downloads) Photo0equipment IT0hardware0(PCs,0laptops,000 MDA:0
Games0hardware0&0games0software tablets,0etc.) air@conditioning,00
Books0&0e@books Audio0equipment Computer0Software dishwashers,0wash00
Apps machines0and0other0
TV/video0equipment Music0instruments white0goods
New0subscriptions0newspapers0ands0magazines0(no0single0copy0sales)
Car0electronics000 USB0sticks,0DVD/CD@ SDA: equipment0for
Fashion (navigation,0audio,0 recordable,0ink0cartridges,00 personal0care,0home
Clothing Shoes"&"Personal"lifestyle etc.) computer0accessories comfort,0kitchen
Underwear0&0Upperwear Shoes appliances
Children's0wear
Swimwear0&0Sportswear Jewelry,0Bijoux,0Watches0&0others0
fashion0accessories0(e.g. sunglasses) Sports'&'Recreation
Nightwear0&0legwear Bags,0wallets,0suitcases Sports0hardware0(e.g.0soccer0shoes,0tennis0rackets)
Bicycles0&0accessories
Articles0for0camping0and0recreation
Toys
Indoor0and outdoor toys

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 34
Global&Online&Measurement&Standard&for&B2C&ecommerce&(GOMSEC)
Home'&'Garden Food/Nearfood/Health
Furniture0and0kitchens Food/Nearfood Health"&"Beauty
Floor0and0window0coverings0(e.g. curtains0and0blinds) Food0&0Beverages Personal0care0&0Hygiene0
Home0textiles Fresh0produce Baby0care
Cookware0(sets),0kettles0and0oven0equipment Packaged0consumer0goods Perfume
Table0and0kitchen0articles Detergents/household0cleaning OTC
Articles0for0cleaning,0wash0and0store Animal0feed
Decoration0 Tobacco
Lamps0and0fixtures
DIY@articles
Garden0articles Other: Products
Flowers0and0plants0(in0home) Cars components
Glasses0and0contact0lenses
Telecom Stationery
Smartphones,0mobile0phones0&0mobile0devices Pictures0and0photo0albums
Telefax0and0answering0machines Pet0supplies
Erotica
Headsets0&0Accessories0(mobile)0phones
Prepaid0cards0and0tariffs0of0new0phone0subscriptions

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 35
Global&Online&Measurement&Standard&for&B2C&ecommerce&(GOMSEC)
Insurance Travel
New"indemnity,"Life"and""Health"Insurances Package"Travel Flight"Tickets"&"Accommodations
Package0travel Flight0Tickets
Liability0insurance ANW@gap0insurance0 Health0Insurance0–
Car0insurance (insurance0for receiving0a0 Base Private transport0if0booked0through0a0 Hotel0stays
Fire0and0theft0insurance payment0in0addition0to0a00 Health0insurance0– tour0operator Apartment/bungalow/camping0site
survivor's0allowance)0 additional @>0all0of0the0above0not0booked0in0
Bike/caravan/motorbike/000 Annuity0insurance Disability0insurance0– combination0with0other0travel@parts
Scooter0insurance Pension entrepreneurs Event'Tickets
Accident0insurance Life0insurance Disability0insurance0– Tickets0for0concerts0and0festivals
Boat0insurance Funeral0insurance private Tickets0for0(movie)0theaters
Legal0assistance0insurance Endowment0insurance0 Mortgage@related0 Tickets0for0zoos0and0amusement0parks
Home0insurance based0on0savings disability0insurance Tickets0for0museums
Travel0insurance0 Endowment0insurance0 Mixed0insurance0 Tickets0for0sports0games
(continuous/annual0+0short0 based0on0investments (=endowment0
term)0 insurance0+0life0 Other: Services
Insurance0package insurance) New0subscriptions to0dating0service
Other0services

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 36
Sources&used&in&the&report
The report could only be realized by consulting a great number of valuable Publications
• CIA0World0Factbook
sources. These were available in various countries and regions in Europe and • Consumer0Barometer
around the globe. The wide variety of sources include public domain • Ecommerce0Foundation
• Eurostat
publications, blogs, websites, industry and financial specialist publications, • GWI
• IAB
regional and local news, annual reports, and press releases. • Kogital
• OECD
• Paymentwall
Sometimes the information sources are contradictory and sometimes different • Statcounter
• Statista
figures and data were given by varying sources within the same country, for • UN
example due to different definitions. In our reports we have mentioned the • Vatlive
• World0Bank
different sources, definitions and outcomes of such reports, studies and
interpretations.

The report is based on information that we consider reliable, but we cannot


vouch for it being completely accurate or complete, nor should it be relied upon
as such. Opinions expressed are our current opinions as of the date of this
report.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 37
About&the&Ecommerce&Foundation
Our History
The Ecommerce Foundation is an independent non@profit organization, initiated by worldwide national ecommerce
associations and online and omnichannel selling companies from industries such as retail, travel & finance.

Why an Ecommerce Foundation?


Our mission is to foster global digital trade as peace is the natural effect of trade. By facilitating digital commerce we hope to
make the world a slightly better place.

How does the Foundation help?


We facilitate the development of practical knowledge, insights and services for which individual institutions, retail and
ecommerce associations and B2C selling companies do not have the (financial) resources and/or capabilities. By combining
collective goals and efforts, the Ecommerce Foundation is able to realize projects which could not have been realized on an
individual basis.

What does the Ecommerce Foundation do?


The Foundation is developing and offering several services such as the Ecommerce Benchmark, the EcommerceWiki and the
National Ecommerce Reports. At the moment we are also researching if a Global Ecommerce Trustmark can be set@up to
increase worldwide consumer trust and as a result global trade.​

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 38
The&Ecommerce&Foundation&offers&several&services&to&associations&&&retailers
40+'National' Every0year0a'Cdlevel' The0Global'
Ecommerce'Reports' study'delegation' Ecommerce'Summit'&0
supporting0retailers0 travels0to0an0inspiring0 awards offer0retailers0
going0across0borders location.0Previous0trips0 insights0into0best0
include0Silicon0Valley,0 practices0from0across0
Seattle0,0NY0and0China the0world

The0Ecommerce' The0EcommerceWiki'is0 EcommerceReports


Benchmark'allows0 the0online0handbook0 curates0all0ecommerce0
online0retailers0to0 for0ecommerce0 related0research0across0
compare0&0improve0 managers0with0 the0globe0by0adding0an0
their0ecommerce0 templates,0process0 editorial0board0and0
activities descriptions,0and0more peer0review

Lectures'&' Custom'research'is0
presentations'are0 done0for0a0diverse0set0
offered0to0help0 of0topics0both0co@
members0look0into0the0 branded0as0well0white0
future0of0shopping labeled

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 39
About&the&Authors
Jorij'Abraham' Sara'Lone Johnson'Chen
Managing'Director Research'Coordinator Research'and'Marketing'
Intern
Jorij0Abraham0has0been0 Sara0Lone0recently0moved0to0
active0in0the0international0 the0Netherlands0after0 Johnson0is0an0
ecommerce0community0 graduating0with0her0Masters0 International0Business0and0
since01997.0He0was0an0 degree0in0Public0Policy0from0 Management0student0at0
Ecommerce0Manager0at0 the0University0of0California,0 The0Hague0University0of0
Bijenkorf,0TUI0and0Sanoma0 Irvine.0 Applied0Sciences.0The0
Media0and0Director0of0 internet0in0statistical0
Consulting0at0Unic. She0joins0the0Ecommerce0 analysis0has0moved0him0to0
Foundation0with0a0 the0research0department0
From020130to020170he0has0 background0in0economic0 at0the0Ecommerce0
been0Director0of0Research0 research0and0policy0analysis,0 Foundation.0
&0Advice0at0 having0previously0worked0as0a0
Thusiwinkel.org0and0 researcher0in0a0California0firm0 Johnson0works0on0national0
Ecommerce0Europe0(the0 and0interning0as0a0policy0 reports,0the0Global0report0
Dutch0and0European0 analyst0for0a0non@profit0 of02017,0and0additional0
Ecommerce0Association). organization.0 relevent0projects.

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 40
Address,&Disclaimer&&&Copyright
Address: Ecommerce Foundation
Rijksstraatweg 29
1115 AH Duivendrecht (Amsterdam)
The Netherlands
Website: www.ecommercefoundation.org
Contact: info@ecommercefoundation.org
Twitter: @Ecomfound

Disclaimer
The National Ecommerce Reports are publications by Ecommerce Foundation, which also owns the copyright for these reports.
Although the utmost care has been taken in the construction of these reports, there is always the possibility that some
information is inaccurate. No liability is accepted by Ecommerce Foundation for direct or indirect damage arising pursuant to
the use of the report.

Copyright ©
It is not allowed to use information published in this report without the Ecommerce Foundation’s prior consent. Any violation
in this regard will be charged a legal fine of € 25,000 (twenty@five thousand euros), as well as a further penalty of € 2,500 (two
thousand, five hundred euros) for every day that this non@compliance continues. However, it is allowed to use small parts of
the information published in our reports provided that proper sourcing is used (e.g. “source: www.EcommerceFoundation.org)

www.ecommercefoundation.org0 41
www.ecommercefoundation.org0 42