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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA SABAH

COURSE
KA43403 ADVANCE ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

TITLE
SOLAR PANEL MINI PROJECT

DATE OF SUBMISSION
23th MAY 2017

PREPARED TO
DR HARIMI DJAMILA

PREPARED BY

FARAHAYNI YAHYA BK 1311 0111

LEE SHYH KHAI BK 1311 0171

LIM YING YUAN BK 1311 0184


Contents

Page
List of Contents i

List of Tables iii

List of Figures iv

Chapter 1:
To describe the location under investigation, sketch of the
selected residential building and estimate the monthly and yearly
energy consumption in the house

1.1 Overview of the Location 1

1.2 Energy Consumption and Estimated Cost of the Household 3


Appliances

Chapter 2:
To compare the actual electrical usage and cost with the detailed
estimated electrical usage and cost of the selected house.

2.1 Energy Consumption Difference for Different Type of Appliance 7

Chapter 3:
To compare the actual energy consumption when using normal
electrical appliances with energy consumption from energy
saving electrical appliances

3.1 Comparison between the Normal and Energy Saving Electrical 9


Appliances

i
Chapter 4:
To estimate the generated carbon dioxide produced from the
electrical usage

4.1 Estimation of Carbon Footprint 10

Chapter 5:
To propose a complete design for the solar panel as well as its’
installing location

5.1 Solar Panel Design

5.1.1 Types of System 11

5.1.2 Type of Design 12

5.2 Design Procedure

5.2.1 Optimum Tilt for Solar Panel 14

5.2.2 Impact of Tilting Solar Panels on Solar Irradiance 15

5.2.3 Positioning of Solar Panel 16

5.2.4 Estimation of Energy Generated by Solar Panel 17

5.2.5 Estimate of Required Power Capacity of Solar Panel 17

5.2.6 Temperature Impact on the Solar Performance in Kota 18


Kinabalu

Chapter 6: 20
Conclusion and Recommendations

References 21

ii
LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Page

1.1 Energy Consumption using Common Household Appliances 3

1.2 Energy Consumption using Energy Saving Appliances 4

1.3 Tariff of Electric Bill Based On Current Tariff Provided by SESB 5

2.1 Energy Consumption Difference for Different Type of Appliance 7

3.1 Energy Difference due to Different Appliances Used 9

4.1 Estimated Carbon Footprint Emitted 10

5.1 ET- M572185 Model of Solar Panel 13

5.2 Plan View of House Roof 16

iii
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Page

1.1 Plan View of House Studied 1

1.2 Roof Plan View 2

2.3 Structural Damage on RC Element in San Felice sul Panaro, 20


Italy

5.1 ET- M572185 Model of Solar Panel 28

3.2 Location of Ranau Earthquake in 2015 30

3.3 Location and Displacement between UMS and Ranau 29

3.4 Location and Displacement between UMS and KKM Seismic 31


Station

3.5 Location and Displacement between KKM Seismic Station and 31


Ranau

3.6 Structural Plan View of FKJ “Block A” Building 34

iv
1. To describe the location under investigation, sketch of the selected residential
building and estimate the monthly and yearly energy consumption in the house.

1.1 Overview of the Location

The location of the study subject is a terrace house which located at Putatan, Kota
Kinabalu. There are 5 person staying in the house, where two of them are office
workers, two of them are retired residents and a student. Figure 1.1 shows the plan
view of the house while Figure 1.2 illustrated the roof detailing of the house.

The roof of the house was designed as pitch roof with 6 from the horizontal
base. This is to allow the rain water to flow through the roof easily with minimum wind
effects on the structure.

Figure 1.1 Plan View of House Studied

1
Figure 1.2 Roof Plan View

2
1.2 Energy Consumption of the Household Appliances

Table 1.1 tabulated the energy consumption of the common household appliances that
used in the studied object in single day. Meanwhile Table 1.2 showed the energy
consumption per day if the studied object was using the energy saving household
appliances.

Table 1.1 Energy Consumption using Common Household Appliances


Usage Time Daily Energy
Appliances Brand Watt (W)
(hr) Consumption (kWh)
Air-conditioner Panasonic 2800 4 11.20
Ceiling fan Panasonic 65 x 3 12 2.34
units
TV Samsung 169 4 0.68
Speaker Samsung 25 4 0.10
Iron Panasonic 3250 0.25 0.81
Washing machine Panasonic 500 1 0.50
Fridge Panasonic 160 24 3.84
Kettle Elba 3250 0.25 0.81
Water heater Panasonic 4500 1 4.50
Rice cooker Panasonic 3250 1 3.25
Hair dryer Panasonic 1500 0.5 0.75
Ceiling light 18-watt 18 x 8 8 1.15
light bulb units
Laptop ASUS 100 4 0.40
Total energy consumption per day 30.33

3
Table 1.2 Energy Consumption using Energy Saving Appliances
Usage Time Daily Energy
Appliances Brand Watt (W)
(hr) Consumption (kWh)
Air-conditioner Panasonic 1470 4 5.88
Ceiling fan Panasonic 25 x 3 12 0.90
units
TV Samsung 28 4 0.11
Speaker Samsung 5x2 4 0.04
units
Iron HANFONG 150 0.25 0.04
Washing machine Panasonic 115 1 0.12
Fridge Panasonic 48 24 1.15
Kettle Prestige 900 0.25 0.23
Water heater Panasonic 3600 1 3.60
Rice cooker Panasonic 660 1 0.66
Hair dryer Panasonic 850 0.5 0.43
Ceiling light Philips LED 7x8 8 0.45
light bulb units
Laptop ASUS 50 4 0.20
Total energy consumption per day 13.79

4
The following steps shows the calculation for the monthly and yearly energy
consumption in the house based on the standard tariff provided by SESB. The
difference of using the common appliances and energy saving appliances are shown
clearly in the following calculation.

Calculation for monthly tariff consumption for common appliances


Monthly energy consumption = 30.33 kWh x 30 days
= 909.9 kWh

Table 1.3 Tariff of Electric Bill Based On Current Tariff Provided by SESB
Tariff Category Rates (RM/kWh)
For the first 100 kWh (1-100 kWh) per month 0.175
For the next 100 kWh (101-200 kWh) per month 0.185
For the next 100 kWh (201-300 kWh) per month 0.330
For the next 200 kWh (301-500 kWh) per month 0.445
For the next kWh (501 kWh onwards) per month 0.450

For the first 100 kWh (1-100 kWh) per month = 100 x RM 0.175
= RM 17.50
For the next 100 kWh (101-200 kWh) per month = 100 x RM 0.185
= RM 18.50
For the next 100 kWh (201-300 kWh) per month = 100 x RM 0.330
= RM 33.00
For the next 200 kWh (301-500 kWh) per month = 200 x RM 0.445
= RM 89.00
For the next kWh (501 kWh onwards) per month = 410 x RM 0.450
= RM 184.50

Total estimated bill = RM (17.50 + 18.50 + 33.00 + 89.00 + 184.50)


= RM 342.50
Annual energy consumption = 872.4 kWh x 12 months
= 10,919 kWh
Annual cost = RM 342.50 x 12 months
= RM 4,110.00

5
Calculation for monthly tariff consumption for energy saving appliances
Monthly energy consumption = 13.79 kWh x 30 days
= 413.7 kWh

For the first 100 kWh (1-100 kWh) per month = 100 x RM 0.175
= RM 17.50
For the next 100 kWh (101-200 kWh) per month = 100 x RM 0.185
= RM 18.50
For the next 100 kWh (201-300 kWh) per month = 100 x RM 0.330
= RM 33.00
For the next 144 kWh (301-414 kWh) per month = 144 x RM 0.445
= RM 64.08

Total estimated bill = RM (17.50 + 18.50 + 33.00 + 64.08)


= RM 133.08
Annual energy consumption = 413.7 kWh x 12 months
= 4,964.4 kWh
Annual cost = RM 133.08 x 12 months
= RM 1596.96

Energy consumption difference = (30.33 – 13.79)/30.33 x 100 %


= 54.53 %
Cost difference = (342.50 – 133.08)/342.50 x 100 %
= 61.14 %
Cost difference between actual cost and estimated cost
= (342.50 – 326.79)/324.50 x 100 %
= 4.58 %

6
2. To compare the actual electrical usage and cost with the detailed estimated
electrical usage and cost of the selected house.

2.1 Energy Consumption Difference for Different Type of Appliance

Based on the energy consumption calculated, using energy saving electrical appliances
was estimated to decrease the energy usage approximately 55 %, which is 16.54 kWh
per day and decrease the bills nearly 62 %, which is RM 209.42 per month.

Table 2.1 Energy Consumption Difference for Different Type of Appliance


Energy Consumption Energy Consumption
Appliances using Common using Energy Saving
Appliances(kWh) Appliances (kWh)
Air-conditioner 11.20 5.88
Ceiling fan 2.34 0.90
TV 0.68 0.11
Speaker 0.10 0.04
Iron 0.81 0.04
Washing machine 0.50 0.12
Fridge 3.84 1.15
Kettle 0.81 0.23
Water heater 4.50 3.60
Rice cooker 3.25 0.66
Hair dryer 0.75 0.43
Ceiling light 1.15 0.45
Laptop 0.40 0.20

The difference of energy consumed is clearly shown in Table 2.1 where the
highest energy user included air-conditioner, ceiling fan, fridge and rice cooker. This
huge difference shown in the bill is mainly due to the high power appliances such as
air-conditioner or rice cooker and the frequent used appliances such as fridge or ceiling
fan. In this matter, the appliances that contributed the highest cost in the bills are air-
conditioner and rice cooker due to the high power usage. Huge difference of energy

7
consumption was shown when energy saving appliance was adopted even the time
usage was short.

Meanwhile, the appliances such as ceiling fan and fridge also contributed a lot
in saving the electric bill. This is mainly due to the frequent usage of those appliances.
In this regards, a small amount of energy saved when using the energy saving
appliance will results in huge amount in the end of the month due to the large quantity
of time multiplier.

The actual electrical bill cost was RM 326.79 on March of 2017, while the
estimated cost is RM 342.50. Therefore, the difference is about 4.6 %.

8
3. To compare the actual energy consumption when using normal electrical
appliances with energy consumption from energy saving electrical appliances.

3.1 Comparison between the Normal and Energy Saving Electrical Appliances

The comparison of the energy consumption when using normal electrical appliances
with energy consumption from energy saving appliances was shown in Table 2.2. The
comparison was done base on daily basis.

Table 3.1 Energy Difference due to Different Appliances Used


Energy
Appliances Difference
(kWh)
Air-conditioner 5.32
Ceiling fan 1.44
TV 0.57
Speaker 0.06
Iron 0.77
Washing machine 0.38
Fridge 2.69
Kettle 0.58
Water heater 0.90
Rice cooker 2.59
Hair dryer 0.32
Ceiling light 0.70
Laptop 0.20

9
4. To estimate the generated carbon dioxide produced from the electrical usage.

4.1 Estimation of Carbon Footprint

The generated carbon dioxide produced from the electrical usage was done based on
the principal of the carbon footprint calculator. The results was shown in Table 1.4.

Table 4.1 Estimated Carbon Footprint Emitted


Electricity Used Total number of Household carbon footprint
(kWh) household (metrics tons)
Monthly 909.90 5 0.639
Yearly 10919.90 5 7.700

Based on Table 1.4, the estimated electricity used per month is 909.9 kWh with a total
of 5 household produces a carbon footprint of 0.639 metric tons. In addition, as for
yearly basis, the household produced a total of 7.7 metric tons of carbon footprint.

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5. To propose a complete design for the solar panel as well as its installing location.

5.1 Solar Panel Design

5.1.1 Types of Systems

Grid-tie systems would be used to design a solar photovoltaic system for


residential buildings. This is mainly because grid-tie systems have more advantages
than an off- grid system. Grid tied systems are also rooftop systems which primarily
designed to supply the generated power to the grid and also power the load. Moreover,
these systems will generate power during a power failure as the system works in
conjunction with either a battery backup or diesel generator to support the load even
during a power failure (Meena, R. S., 2014). However, for off grid systems, the system
does not work with the grid and is designed to work only with a battery backup or
diesel generator.

In addition, when the grid tie systems have extra generated electricity, it would
be channelled into the utility grid to be reused (Rex, 2009). Besides that, grid-tie
systems allows saving of more money with net metering. This happens through better
efficiency rates, net metering, plus lower equipment and installation costs. The solar
panels often also generate more electricity than of consuming. Hence, grid-tied solar
systems generally cheaper and simpler to install as well as the better choice.

Advantages of grid-tied solar system included:


 As it does not require battery banks and other standalone components, it
is relatively cheaper than off-grid or hybrid systems.
 It facilitates the usage of net metering. Any extra electricity that are produced
can be sold back to the utility. This means that by the end of the month, it is
only required to pay for the net kWh electricity used.

Meanwhile, the disadvantages of grid-tied solar system are:


 Since the system do not have a battery bank, it can’t store electricity. This
poses a problem if during the night, the grid is down, there will not have any
electricity.
 Utility companies charge monthly fees

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5.1.2 Type of Design

Basically, crystalline solar panels can be divided into two which is mono-
crystalline and poly-crystalline solar panels. The efficiencies for monocrystalline silicon
are found to be significantly higher than polycrystalline silicon. A study showed that
the power losses varied depending on the type of the solar cell. The average loss of
power due to temperature rise is 8% for monocrystalline silicon, and 9% for the
polycrystalline silicon (Chaichan, M. T., 2016).

Advantages of monocrystalline solar panel include:


• Longevity
• Highest efficiency
• Space - efficient
• Lower installation cost
• Tend to be more efficient in warm weather
• Generate more energy per square meter

Disadvantages of monocrystalline solar panel are:


• Fragile
• High initial cost
• If covered with dirt or snow, the entire system is affected

Therefore, the type of solar panel chosen is a solar panel with a specifications
of 185 W which are made of monocrystalline silicon cells from Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu.
It was chosen because it has the highest efficiency of 17.3% compared to the other
type of solar panel. Moreover, it has a lower optimum operating current of 5.090 A
which makes it safer to operate. Besides that, it also have the most number of solar
cells of 72 cells that can increase the efficiency of the solar panel and the output power
of the solar panel. The weight of the solar panels also is as an important factor on the
selection of solar panel because lighter weight poses a smaller load on the roof. The
cost of the solar panel is RM1492.99 or $345.00 which is expensive but in the long run
it will profit the user as it can reduce the energy consumption from utility grid and
hence having a cheaper electricity bills.

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Table 5.1 ET- M572185 Model of Solar Panel
Peak Power 185 W
Type of Cells Monocrystalline Silicon
Number of Cells 72 cells
Dimensions 1580 x 808 x 50 mm
Cell Efficiency 17.3 %
Optimum Operating Voltage 36.3 V
Optimum Operating Current 5.090 A
Voltage temperature coefficient - 0.397 %/K
Current temperature coefficient + 0.06 %/K
Power temperature coefficient - 0.549 %/K
Weight 15.5 kg
Temperature range 44 oC ± 2 oC

Source: http://www.solarpower-mart.com/solar_panel

Figure 5.1 ET- M572185 Model of Solar Panel

Advantages of solar panel model are:


• Manufactured in an ISO 9001:2000 certified plant
• High efficiency, high safety, high reliability
• Output power tolerance of +/-5%
• 25-year limited warranty on power output, 5- year limited warranty on
materials and workmanship
• Generate more energy per square meter

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• Equipped weatherproof junction box, flawless operation in wet weather
and marine applications
• Resilient to harsh weather conditions
• Optimal panel performance

Disadvantages of solar panel model:


• Cost
• Large size of solar panel
• Low temperature range

5.2 Design Procedure

5.2.1 Optimum Tilt for Solar Panel

The optimum tilt angle for solar panel as according to Qiu and Riffat (2003) has
suggested the tilt angle of the solar collector set within the optimum tilt angle of 90° minus
latitude. It was found that this tilt angle of solar collector is acceptable in practice since it
results in the relative error of solar energy gain below 1.5%.

DMS latitude longitude coordinates for Kota Kinabalu are: 5°58'29.64"N,


116°4'20.64"E. Thus, the optimum tilt for solar panel is:

90° - Latitude = Optimum fixed year-round setting


90° - 5.9749 = 84.03°

84.03° is the best angle to compromise, generating the electricity through solar energy at
year round.

5.2.2 Impact of Tilting Solar Panels on Solar Irradiance

Table 5.2 shows the solar irradiance value for Kota Kinabalu when the solar panel
facing East South East (67.5o from South). In addition, the most efficient way to obtain
the highest solar irradiance value is by putting the solar panel on the flat surface.

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Since the optimum tilt angle of Kota Kinabalu is approximately 84°, some
adjustment might be needed in order to obtain the maximum solar irradiance. However,
the roof pitch angle of the house is 6°, which results in 84° of tilt angle. This tilt angle
is the same as the optimum tilt angle for Kota Kinabalu area, therefore no adjustment
of angle is needed.

According to Table 5.2, the maximum value of solar irradiance for Kota Kinabalu
area at optimum tilt angle of 84° is on March with 5.50 kWh/m2/day, while the
minimum value is on the August with 4.41 kWh/m2/day.

Table 5.2 Solar Irradiance Value for Kota Kinabalu (kWh/m2/day)


Angle Jan Feb Mac Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
1) Vertical
(90o)

3.10 2.76 2.02 1.79 2.25 2.34 2.19 1.83 1.57 2.2 2.69 2.95

2) Flat Surface

5.06 5.71 6.35 6.36 5.68 5.24 5.10 5.09 5.24 4.97 4.70 4.60

2) Optimal
Year Round
(84o)

4.88 5.28 5.50 5.42 5.05 4.73 4.56 4.41 4.43 4.45 4.44 4.46

84
3) Adjusted
throughout
the Year

0.00 5.28 5.50 5.58 5.04 4.73 4.54 4.49 4.43 4.47 0.00 4.52

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4) Best Winter
Performance

4.88 5.28 5.50 5.42 5.05 4.73 4.56 4.41 4.43 4.45 4.44 4.46

5) Best
Summer
Performance

4.60 5.13 5.60 5.58 5.04 4.67 4.53 4.48 4.58 4.42 4.24 4.19

5.2.3 Positioning of Solar Panel

Solar Panel

Figure 5.2 Plan View of House Roof

Based on Figure 5.2, it can be seen that the house roof is facing two directions,
which are, West-North and South-East with an inclination roof angle of 15o from the
horizontal line. The installation of the solar panel will be on the South-East direction.

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Since the roof angle is slightly less than the optimum tilt for the solar panel,
which is 0.59o, thus the installation of the solar panel needed not any angle adjustment.

5.2.4 Estimation of Energy Generated by Solar Panel

The following formula was adopted to determine the amount of energy generated by
a solar panel:

Solar Irradiance x Panel Wattage = Watt-hours per day

The following calculation was conducted based on the solar panel power of 185
watt and the solar panel angle of 84°, which mounted on the rooftop. According to
Table 5.2, the highest irradiance value is on March with value of 5.50 kWh/m2/day,
while the lowest irradiance value is on August with 4.41 kWh/m2/day. The following
calculation showed the estimated energy generated by the solar panel for both months.

Table 5.3 Power Generated per day by Solar Panel in March and August
Optimal Year Round (84o) March August

5.50 x 185 W = 1017.50 4.41 x 185 W = 815.85


Wh/day Wh/day

84

5.2.5 Estimate of Required Power Capacity of Solar Panel

Several aspects was considered to determine the actual capacity of the solar panel.
For instance, the peculiarities of the site, the location of the site, the angle of solar
panel, and the obstacles that potentially blocking the sunlight from reaching the solar
panel.

In order to estimate the system required to work in the worst and best month,
the total number of watt-hour per day was divided by the solar irradiance.

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Table 5.4 Estimated System Required to Work on March and August
Optimal Year Round (84o) On March, the At optimum tilt, the solar
required energy: panel tends to generate
30.33/5.50 = 5.51 kW 5.51 kW for March.
On August, the At optimum tilt, the solar
required energy: panel tends to generate

84 30.33/4.41 = 6.88 kW 6.88 kW for August.

5.2.6 Temperature Impact on the Solar Performance in Kota Kinabalu

Table 5.1 tabulated the average air temperature for each month of year 2016 in Kota
Kinabalu. In addition, the estimated solar panel temperature and the impact on the
performance on the solar array was shown in Table 5.1. The impact performance for
the solar panel was based on the power temperature coefficient while the estimated
solar panel temperature was obtained by multiplying 1.4 to the average temperature
in each month.

As shown in Table 5.1, the temperature range for the solar panel to work
efficiently is 44 oC while the power temperature coefficient is - 0.549 %/K. There are
only minor impact on the performance of solar panel since the estimated solar panel
temperature is lower than 44 oC at the month of January, February, March and
December. Meanwhile, the greatest impact on the solar performance is on the month
of May, which is –12.4 %.

According to the performance impact shown in Table 5.2, the efficiency of solar
panel might drop 21 watt per day on May in the worst scenario.

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Table 5.5 Solar Temperature Impact on Solar Performance in Kota
Kinabalu in 2016
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Average monthly
32 32 32 33 34 33 33 33 33 33 33 32
temperature (C)
Estimated solar
panel temperature
44.8 44.8 44.8 46.2 47.6 46.2 46.2 46.2 46.2 46.2 46.2 44.8
for roof-mounted
(C)
Performance
-10.8 -10.8 -10.8 -11.6 -12.4 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -11.6 -10.8
impact (%)

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6.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

In conclusion, the implementation of solar panel was proven that able to reduce the
carbon footprint emission. As an extra credit to solar panel, it also tends to save the
cost of owner in long term from the electric bills. Therefore, besides of using electric
saving appliances, implementation of solar panel would be another alternative to save
the mother Earth.

As to prove the above statement, solar panel tends to reduce the carbon
footprint emission up to 7.7 metric tonnes for a residential unit house that lives with 5
residents. This can be achieve by simply installing a solar panel with 6.4 m x 4.0 m
dimension. In conclusion, the geographical advantage in Kota Kinabalu that tends to
receive the solar radiance constantly and consistently is suitable to implement the solar
panel to each residential housing area.

As the recommendation, the government should encourage this practice


among the citizen. For instance, in term of policy, government should provide subsidise
or reduce the tax on the pricing of solar panel. By reducing the high initial cost of
installation of solar panel, most of the family tend to consider the installation of solar
panel to their houses.

In addition, government should suggest the implementation of solar panels at


government offices and facilities such as school. Instead of providing subsidise to the
schools and government offices, the related authorities should consider the
implementation of solar panel to these area. Therefore government tends to save more
money in long term and tends to achieve the goal of producing a greener country.

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