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Brajbala Verma
Roll No. :- 100
Brief history of action research
What is action research?
Definitions of action research
Types of action research
Benefits of action search
Steps in action research
Process of action research
Identifying the problem
Defining and delimiting the problem
Statement of problem
Field of research work
Probable causes of the problem
Forming hypothesis
Data collection
Analysis and graphical presentation
Action plan
Follow up
"Teachers often leave a mark on their students, but they
seldom leave a mark on their profession" -(Wolfe, 1989).
A teacher is an important person in the life of data students and can help
them to become better human beings. Therefore, it becomes all the more
important for him to keep improving the teaching process and practices
for the all round development of your students. There is one such tool in
the hands of teachers about which we hear quite often in education i.e.
“action research.”
Typically, action research is undertaken in a school setting. Action
research is a collaborative activity among colleagues searching for
solutions to everyday, real problems experienced in schools, or looking
for ways to improve instruction and increase student achievement.
Practitioners are responsible for making more and more decisions in the
operations of schools, and they are being held publicly accountable for
student achievement results.
The process of action research assists educators in assessing needs,
documenting the steps of inquiry, analyzing data, and making informed
decisions that can lead to desired outcomes.
A Brief History of Action
The history of the concept of action research can be traced back to the early works
of John Dewey in the 1920s but the idea of using research in a “natural” setting can
be also linked to Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist in 1940s in the United States.
But the credit of using the action research in the education goes to Stephen Corey
and others at Teachers College of Columbia University in 1949.

Corey observed ‘the need for teachers and researchers to work together improve
the practices rather than reading about what someone else has discovered of his

Corey believed that the value of action research is in the change that occurs in
everyday practice rather than the generalization to a broader audience. He saw the
need for teachers and researchers to work together.

Definition Of Action Research

Various thinkers have tried to define the term ACTION RESEARCH. Some of the
definitions are as follows:

Action research is a three-step spiral process of (1) planning which involves

reconnaissance; (2) taking actions; and (3) fact-finding about the results of
the action. Kurt Lewin (1947)
Action research is the process by which practitioners attempt to study their
problems scientifically in order to guide, correct, and evaluate their
decisions and actions. Stephen Corey (1953)
Action research in education is study conducted by colleagues in a school
setting of the results of their activities to improve instruction. Carl
Glickman (1992)
Action research is a fancy way of saying let’s study what’s happening at our
school and decide how to make it a better place. Emily Calhoun (1994)
What is Action Research?
Action research is a process in which participants examine their own
educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of

Action research specifically refers to a disciplined inquiry done by a teacher

with the intent that the research will inform and change his or her practices
in the future.

This research is carried out within the context of the teacher’s

environment—that is, with the students and at the school in which the teacher
works—on questions that deal with educational matters at hand.

What is Not Action Research?

Action research is not what usually comes to mind when we hear the word

Action research is not a library project where we learn more about a topic
that interests us.

It is not problem-solving in the sense of trying to find out what is wrong,

but rather a quest for knowledge about how to improve.

Action research is not about doing research on or about people, or finding

all available information on a topic looking for the correct answers. It
involves people working to improve their skills, techniques, and strategies.

Action research is not about learning why we do certain things, but rather
how we can do things better. It is about how we can change our instruction
to impact students.
Steps in Action Research





Identify a problem area

Teachers often have several questions they wish to investigate; however, it is

important to limit the question to one that is meaningful and doable in the confines
of their daily work.

Defining and delimiting the problem:

Each and every word used to define the problem should be defined and made

Analyzing the probable causes of the problem:

The causes of the problem are analyzed which helps in formulating the Action
Hypothesis. There should be logical relevance between the causes and the
problems. Causes should be testable, specific, and authentic. They should be

Framing Hypothesis:
The bases for the formulation of action hypothesis are the causes of the problems.

Data collection:

The collection of data is an important step in deciding what action needs to be

taken. Multiple sources of data are used to better understand the scope of
happenings in the classroom or school. There are many vehicles for
collection of data:
journals, individual files, case studies, surveys, report cards, attendance, self-
assessment , samples of student work,, projects, performances, interviews,
questionnaires, checklists.

Analysis and Interpretation of data:

On the basis of action research conclusions are found out. Depending upon the
question, teachers may wish to use classroom data, individual data, or subgroup
data. The results arrived can, then be used by the teacher himself for bringing
improvement in his own practices.
Benefits of Action Research
Action research can be a worthwhile pursuit for educators for a number of reasons.
Good teachers are, after all, themselves students, and often look for ways to
expand upon their existing knowledge.

Focus on school issue, problem, or area of collective

It can be very helpful for teachers to pick up threads suggested in academic circles,
and weave them in to their own classroom. It is also comforting for parents, or
education administrators outside of the school, to know that a teacher is not just
blindly following what the latest study seems to suggest, but is transforming the
knowledge into something meaningful.

Form of teacher professional development

Action research projects influence thinking skills, sense of efficacy, willingness to
share and communicate, and attitudes toward the process of change. Through
action research, teachers learn about themselves, their students, their colleagues,
and can determine ways to continually improve.

Collegial interactions
Teachers are often the sole adult in a room of children, and have little or no time
scheduled for professional conversations with others. Action research in pairs or by
teams of teachers allows time to talk with others about teaching and teaching

Reflect on own practice

Opportunities for teachers to evaluate themselves in schools are often few . Action
research can serve as a chance to really take a look at one’s own teaching in a
structured manner.

Improved communications
Educators involved in action research become more flexible in their thinking and
more open to new ideas .Studies by Little suggest positive changes in patterns of
collegiality, communication, and networking.
Every Commerce teacher must have
observed that during the course of his
lesson, there are some students who do not
concentrate in the concepts being taught.
During my internship programme ,I also faced
the same kind of problem with my students.
After a deep scrutiny and conversation with the
regular commerce teacher of the school , I came to
know about some reasons of such behavior of the students.
I choosed to do my research only on one reason of distraction
or poor concentration of students . Time allotted to a particular
subject also plays an important role in building interest among
the students.
Generally, most of the students take time to fix their
concentration and attention to a particular topic or illustration of
a unit. Generally, this problem is seen in accountancy sessions.
The same problem was detected in class XI th of Kendriya
Vidyalaya, No.-3, Army Cantt, Chiloda.
A research was conducted in the class to know the reasons for
the delay and difficulty in fixing their concentration in
accountancy sessions, due to shortage of time in a single
Statement Of Problem
Students Of Class XI Commerce Of
Kendriya Vidyalaya No.3, Army cantt,
Chiloda, Gandhinagar ,
Face Difficulty In Fixing Or Setting
Concentration In Accountancy Sessions,
Especially Those Of Units Like Final Accounts ,
Single Entry System, Depreciation Accounting
And Bank Reconciliation Statements, Due To
Shortage Of Time In A Single Lecture.

Field Of Research Work

School Name: Kendriya Vidyalaya No- 3,
Army Cantt, Chiloda,
Class : 11th Commerce
Total No. Of Students : 54
No. Of Boys: 24
No. Of Girls : 30
Problem Concerning
Accountancy Teacher :
It is difficult for an accountancy teacher to teach broad
concepts of accounts in a single lecture/period. Generally,
in accountancy most of the concepts require more time to
discuss at a stretch.
For instance, while teaching finals accounts, it is very
difficult for a accountancy teacher to solve one full length
illustration of final a/cs along with adjustment in a single
lecture of 35-40 mins.
Similarly, such problems are there while solving
illustrations of units single entry system , depreciation
accounting, bank reconciliation statements etc.
In a span of 35-40 mins of a single lecture , a teacher has to :
Manage the space on blackboard.
Write with chalk on black board, which always slows
down the writing speed of the teacher.
Prepare various a/c formats / journals / statements with
diff. columns to pass necessary entries.
Calculate the values.
Write the working notes.
Provide time to students to solve the same sum.
Problem Concerning
11th Std Students
Most of the time , it happens that students take time to fix
their concentration to a particular illustration of some
particular topic/ units like : finals A/c ,single entry
system, depreciation, BRS .
In a span of 35 – 40 mins of a lecture ,a student has to :
Read out & understand the illustration properly.
Solve the sum along with the teacher.
Draw and prepare various a/c formats or statements
to solve the sum.
Do calculations simultaneously.
Write in their note books
Show the working notes.
Causes Related To Students
Feel monotonous in making so many ledgers and
Journals in a single solution.
Not willing to use scale and pencil to draw the accounts.
Don’t like to bring the text books or other reference books,
from which the sums are being taken.
Gap between two lectures of accountancy bridges gap in
the understanding and concentration of the students.
The questions in final A/cs or single entry system are too
lengthy ,so they loose interest in solving them.
Lengthy problems even after solving ,don’t tally with the
correct answer and so students lose interest in solving it again.
It becomes difficult to recap the whole question started in
previous lecture and then proceed further in the next lecture.
Using calculators is also ban in CBSE BOARD.

No seriousness in those sessions where B.ED Trainees

teach the subject.
Attend tuitions hence consider school teaching secondary.
Do not understand the content of the question itself.
Lack of self confidence, shy to answer in front of the
peers due to language problem.
Few dominant peers do not allow to concentrate.
Causes Related To Teacher

It is difficult for a teacher to bridge the lacuna if there is a

gap between two lectures.
In units like Final A/cs , teacher has to refer the whole sum
every time ,when there is a break between two consequent
lectures ,and that takes a lot of time.
Teacher has to either write or dictate the whole sum , in
case when students don’t bring the prescribed books, which
takes time a lot.

Teachers don’t teach the accountancy through the learning

by doing which makes them demoralized.

Every problem needs proper guidance which cannot be

done because of the vast syllabus.

Problems are so lengthy and after a long process when the

answer goes wrong and teachers don’t give any marks,
students get demoralized.

Subject needs complete regularity of the students, but when

not followed, the teachers to get fed up, as they have to
explain everything from the beginning.
Causes related to school

No facility for white board in class 11th , so that the writing

speed can be increased .
No provision for LCD Projector or OHPs ,so that pre
prepared material and solution of the sums to taken up can be
displayed without wasting much time.
Blackboard slows down the writing speed of the teacher ,
so more time is wasted in writing the solution on the board.
If the time table of class 11th is such that it does not allow
the A/c teacher to take 2 continuous lectures at one go.

School keeps the students busy with too many

extracurricular activities like sports, competitions, speeches
The strength of the class is so big, that they don’t get
chance to speak (generally around 55 students).
Outside disturbances distort the mental presence in class.
Framing Hypothesis
After finding the probable causes of the problem from different
prospects ,I had a conversation with the Accountancy teacher
and the discussion came out with some probable solution to
solve this problem.

If teacher uses learning by doing method rather than normal

lecture method with OHP, LCD etc., more time can be saved
and interest is generated which in turn leads to sustaining of
student’s concentration.
If proper arrangements for white board are made then the
writing speed of the teacher may increase.
If the students follow all the instructions of the teacher
properly while solving the sums.
If the class time table allows 2 or 3 continuous lectures of
accountancy to serve the purpose effectively.
If all the students bring the prescribed books ,so that no time
is wasted in dictating the sum in the class.
If teacher explains the entire concept in depth with necessary
rules, illustrations and case studies and with supporting pictures in
the beginning, a student can concentrate as understandability
If teacher has content mastery, good class management skills
their concentration is undisturbed in class.
If teacher allocates time for students to copy down the
important concepts and Rules in class, this drags their
concentration and reduces distraction.
Data collection
After hypotheticating the probable causes or reasons of the
problem and their possible solutions, now it’s time
to step into the actual scenario of the classroom.
To study the problem closely, I started
collecting their responses by talking
to them personally. I had a note of the:

Views and opinions of students regarding this issue.

Suggestions from students’ side.
Views and opinions of the accountancy teacher.
His suggestions.

In order to ensure the accuracy of students’ responses, views and

suggestions, I planned to prepare a QUESTIONNAIRE.

After collecting the responses of all the 11th class students in the
form of a questionnaire, I have channelized their responses in a
tabular form, which shows the number of ‘YES’ and ‘NO’ and
their respective percentage.
(Total number of students =54)


freq % freq %
1 Do you think one lecture of a/c in a day is not enough? 24 44 30 56
2. Can you complete a full length sum of final a/cs ,fairly 26 48 28 52
in one lecture of accountancy with your teacher?
3. Do you feel need of a white board in your classroom? 46 85 08 15
4. Do you feel that blackboard slows down the writing 50 93 04 7
speed of your teacher?
5. Do you find it difficult in revising upto what extent 44 81 10 19
you have solved the question in previous lecture?
6. Do you think that having 2 or 3 continuous lectures of 40 74 14 26
a/cs will be more useful to complete 1 or 2 sums of a
lengthy topic?
7. Do you think that teacher should use (LCD) PPTs and 48 89 06 11
(OHP) slides to save the time?
8. Do you feel boring making various a/cs and ledgers for 35 65 19 35
a single question?
9. Do you bring your accounts text daily? 25 46 29 54
10. Do you copy sum from your friend or digest? 39 72 15 28
11. Do you feel to do the sum again when it goes wrong? 20 27 34 63
12. Are you going to any private tuition? 42 78 12 22
13. Do you think that calculators should be allowed in 51 94 03 6
14. Do you think that teacher should come with the copies 49 91 05 9
of questions to be taken up, instead of carrying heavy
a/cs books daily to the school?
15. Are you not taking the teachings of B.Ed trainees 38 70 16 30
Analysis Of Collected Data

The QUESTIONNAIRE is developed on the following

important issues, with the positive responses in percentage:

Time allotted to a single lecture…….56%............Category 1

Availability of 2 or 3 continuous
lectures of accountancy……………..74%.............Category 2
Facility of white board in the
classroom.............................................85%.............Category 3
Facility of LCD Projector
or OHP.................................................89%..............Category 4

Allowing calculator…………………94%...............Category 5

Provision for books.............................91%...............Category 6

Based on the above data, a histogram is prepared.

Graphical Presentation Of
The Analyzed Data

% 85

f 70

n 60
. 50

o 44

t 26
u 20
e 10
n 9
s Category Category Category Category category category
1 2 3 4 5 6
Favour 56 74 85 89 94 91
Against 44 26 15 11 6 9
Action Plan
Action plan is an opportunity to look into the day to day
problems of the school administration, classrooms, teachers,
staff members, students and even that of an individual.
After the deep study and scrutiny of the problem and in
accordance of the collected data, an action plan is formulated.
I have designed a action plan to give solutions to the problems
concerning the time issues in an accountancy classes of 11th
standard and the resulting problems due to it.
According to me, following are the suggestions in order to
overcome this problem:

Teacher should use learning by doing method rather

than normal lecture method with OHP, LCD etc., so
that more time can be saved and interest is generated
which in turn leads to sustaining of student’s
Proper arrangements for white board should be made
so that the writing speed of the teacher may increase.
The students should follow all the instructions of the
teacher properly while solving the sums.
The class time table should allow 2 or 3 continuous
lectures of accountancy to serve the purpose
All the students should bring the prescribed books ,so
that no time is wasted in dictating the sum in the class.
Calculators should be allowed in accountancy
Teacher should bring photocopies of the sum he/she
wants to take up in class, so that the problem of carrying
the heavy books of accountancy can be solved.
The teacher should explain the entire concept in depth
with necessary rules, illustrations and case studies and with
supporting pictures in the beginning, so that a student can
concentrate as understandability increases.
The teacher should have content mastery, good class
management skills .
The teacher should provide time for students to copy
down the important concepts and rules in class,
Follow up process
Above mentioned action programme with its solution was
implemented for weeks in the school. The children are
attending the classes regularly and also are coming up with
lots of doubts.
The feedback of the students shows that now they are
comfortable with the new time table having two continuous
lectures of accountancy daily.
I spoke to the accountancy teacher after two weeks and he
gave a positive response towards the change.
Students are now more sincere in bringing their text , so that
less time is wasted in referring the illustration.
Arrangements of portable LCD PROJECTORS and OHPs
are made to make the teachers at ease.
Soon the school administration is planning to replace the
black board with the white board ,to reduce the hurdles of
the teacher and ultimately of the students too.
I hope this spirit will continue among the children all
There are many uses for action research. It is used in curriculum
development, as a strategy for professional development, as part of
pre-service and in-service programs, and in systems planning for
schools and districts. The investment of time and energy by the
participants provides a sense of ownership and connection to the
process and outcomes. When they see the value of their work as
they progress through the steps and the reflection time that is used to
discuss strategies and methods, they find that the benefits go far
beyond student achievement.

Action research will not provide all the answers to our questions
about how students learn or what educators can do to improve
practice. But action research happens at the place where these
questions arise; it happens where the real action is taking place;
and it allows for immediate action.

Lastly, I thank my teachers to give me such a chance to make

me think so critically on the small but huge problems of students
which I have never realized at my school time.
I tried my level best to give justice to this task given to me.
And I promise that in my teaching career I shall always keep on
doing such research for the betterment of my students and for
mine too.

After identifying the problem, I started to finding out the reasons

of such inconvenience to both the teacher and the students in
setting their mind for accountancy sessions in a single lecture
after a gap or break in two consequent lectures.
All the causes are bifurcated in three different categories:

Causes Related
To Students

Probable Causes Related

Causes To Teacher

Causes Related
To School