Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 127

Centre for Distance Education

SNDT Women’s University

Mumbai- 49

M.A. – I

Part- I

(W.e.f. 2013-14)

(New Course 80 Credits)

Semester- I

Course Name: Economics of Gender and Development

Course Code: 506107

(English Medium)

1
Course Preparation Team

 Content Writers:

Dr.Vibhuti Patel

 Content Editors:

Dr. Vibhuti Patel

 I/C Director :

Dr. Arundhati Chavan

 Coordinator:

Mr. Mangesh Kadam


(Asst. Professor-cum-Asst. Director)

 Course Coordinator :

Dr. Falguni B. Vahanwala

 Instructional Designer

Ms. Minal M. Kawale

@Centre for Distance Education, S.N.D.T Women’s University.

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form by mimeograph or
any other means without written permission from centre for Distance Education, S.N.D.T
Women’s University. Publishing year 2016.

Syllabus
2
Unit Course Content Marks
Unit 1 1.Introduction to gender studies:

Importance of Women’s Studies


Concepts- ‘Sex’ Versus ‘Gender’, Oppression and Exploitation
Socialisation
Social Construction , Deconstruction , Patriarchy, Trends in
Feminism, Gender Based Division of labour
Economic Basis and Functioning of Patriarchy and Matrilineal
societies, Structures and systems
Gender and the Process of Economic Development: Feminist
Criticism of Development Indices and WID-WAD-GAD,
Human Development Approach, Gender and Development 17
Indices- Mainstreaming Gender into-Development Policies,
Gender Planning Techniques and Gender Sensitive Governance,
Paradigm Shifts from ‘women’s Wellbeing’ to ‘Women’s
Empowerment’- Addressing Practical Gender Needs and Strategic
Gender Needs of Women

Unit 2 2.Women: Demcgraphic Aspacts:

Age structure, Mortality rates and Sex ratio.


Cause of Declining Sex Ratios and Fertility Rates in LDCs with
Special Reference to India
Theories and Measurement of Fertility and Its Control.
Gender and Population Control Policy with Special Reference to
India.
Reproductive Rights 17
Women, Health and Nutrition
Economic Status of Women- Work Participation Rate of Women

Unit 3 3.women in Decision Making:

Factors Affecting Decision-making by Women


Role of Voluntary Organizations, Self-help Group-Women’s
Leadership in Micro Finance
Review of Legislation for Women’s Entitlement s, Protection of
Property Rights and social Security.
Schemes for Safety-net for women.
Social structure and Social Security of Women-Entitlements, Access
to Control over Economic Resources, Ensuring Economic
Independence and Risk Coverage.
Power of Decision-Making at Household Levels, Class and
Community Levels- Role of Kinship in Allocation of Domestic and
Social Resources
Economic Status of women and its Effect on work Participation Rate, 17
Income Level, Health and Education in Developing Countries and
India.
Democratic decentralization and Women’s Empowerment in India

3
Unit 4 4.Conceptualization of Women’s Work:

Concept and Analysis of Women’s Work-Paid and Unpaid Work-


valuation of Productive and Unproductive Work Visible and Invisible
Works: Visibility of Women in Statistic and Indicators- Economically
Productive and Socially Productive Work
Economics Status, Private Property and Participation of Women in
Pre-industrial and Industrial societies, Women’s Contribution to
National Income
Women and Labour Market-Factors Affecting Women’s Entry in
Labour Market-Supply and Demand of Women’s Labour in the
Developed and Developing Countries
Work participation of women in agriculture and non-agriculture
activities (with reference to India) – Work Efficiency and Women 16
Women in the Informal Sector, Small Scale and Cottage Industries
Women in the Organised and Service Sector
Wage Differentials in Female Activities-Determinants of Wage
Differentials: Gender.
Education, Skill, Productivity, Efficiency, Opportunities.
Structures of Wages Across Regions and Economic Sectors.

Unit 5 5.women Technology and Environment

Impact Of Technological Development And Modernization On


Women’s Work Participation
Industrial Technologies and women
Agricultural Technologies-Mechanisation, High Yielding Varieties- 17
Green Revolution
Horticulture and Floriculture
Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development
Poultry Development
Women In Sericulture
Women in the Fisheries
Female Activities and Ecological and Environmental Concerns- The
Two Way Relationships
Role of New Technologies for Helping women
Provision of Information and training for Simple Harvesting of
Economic Services

Unit 6 6.Social Security and Social Protection for Women

Social Security of Women


Entitlements, Ensuring Economic Independence and Risk Coverage
Access to Credit and Insurance Markets
Role of Voluntary Organizations and SHGs in Providing Social
Security
Labour Market Biases and Gender Discrimination
Effectiveness of Collective Bargaining
Review of Legislation for women’s Entitlements
Protection of Property Rights and Social Security
Scheme For Safety Net For Women 16
Need For Women Workers Union
Affirmative Action for women And Improvement in Their Economic
And Social Status

4
INDEX

Chapter 1 Introduction to Gender Studies...........................................................10

Chapter 2 Women: Demographic Aspects............................................................19

Chapter 3 Women and Decision Making...............................................................39

Chapter 4 Conceptualization of Work..................................................................51

Chapter -5 Women and Labour Markets..............................................................64

Chapter 6 Women, Technology and Environment................................................76

Chapter 7 Social Security and Social Protection For Women................................87

Chapter 8 Gender Planning, Development Policies and Governance...............................98

AN APPROACH NOTE

Analytical tools provided by Gender Economics (GE) are extremely useful to deal with
socoi-economic and legal issues concerning women’s work life and family life marriage,

5
divorce, custody of children, guardianship right, alimony, maintenance, property rights of
mother, sister, daughter, legally wedded wives and her child/ children, co-wives and their
children, keep and their children and the issues concerning adoption. GE has a special
significance the subsistence economy which uses the kinship networks, institutions of
polygamy and polyandry for concentration and centralization of wealth and capital by
either the patriarchs or the matriarchs. Domestic animals, women and clidren are the main
assets in the subsistence sector where collection of fuel, fodder, water are important
components of daily life over and above agrarian chores, live-stock rearing and kitchen
gardening.
GE has drawn heavily from all mainstream disciplines and innumerable social movements
of the last three decades. GE provides insights to examine budgets of Government
Organisations (GOs) and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) from the point of view of
gender justice. Priority areas being women’s education, health and nutrition, skill
development, accounts, financial and commercial viability , legal standing, asset and
corpus building. GE contextualizes day to day survival struggles of women in the family ,
in the households, in the community and in the micro, meco and macro economy with the
perspective of power relations which control women and girl children’s sexuality, fertility
and labour
To explain this concept, I would like to give some examples from popular culture:
Control of women’s sexuality
A) Dress code which, restricts mobility of women and girls, does not allow her to do
those chores which require flexible body movements, reduces her efficiency and
employability in non-conventional occupations.
B) “Tool” as a phallic symbol, not being allowed to be used by menstruating women as
it is supposed to have contaminating influence. Hostility towards women who ride bicycles,
drive cars and scooters, operate machines and use ploughs for farming, wheels forming,
wheels for pottery, saw for carpentry.
C) Women being treated as repository of custom and tradition and cultural practies,
dedicated as devdasis , jogtis and forced to undergo series of masochistic fasting,
scarification and self infliction of pain which make them unemployable and perpetually
dependant on the patriarchs. They enjoy only subversive power of a comfort women that
too is mediated by men, as they don’t have any legal rights. In the commercial context,
the same happen to women beneficiary of Maître-Karar (friendship contract) and Seva-
karar
(Service contract).
D) Need for male escorts, bodyguards for dainty, sickly and weak women who see
their identity as anorexic women. Billion-dollar beauty business thrives by controlling
young women so they are incapable of using their body for manual chores. Here,
women’s insecurity about their looks is used by the cosmetic industry.
E) Women eating last, the least and the left over. Nourishing and balanced diet as a
male prerogative. Daughters and brides kepts on starvation diet. Food secures middle-
aged women as honorary men.

Inference of A,B,C,D and E –Declining sex ratio- As per 2001 census (933 women per
1000 men), high mortality and morbidity rates.

Control of women’s fertility:

a. Women being treated as male-child producing machine. Customary practice of


female infanticide and neglect and abandonment of girl child, scientific techniques de of sex
determination tests used for female foeticide, pre-conception elimination of female embryo
with the help of sex-preselection techniques.

6
b. Population policies targeting women for unsafe contraceptives and dignity of
married and unmarried girls and.

c. Laws on prostitution and pealising and persecuting women victims of sexploitation


running a parallel economy of as 200 billion rupees.

d. Social boycott of unwed mothers. Illegitimate children being stigmatized by society


and deprived of economic, social and educational opportunities. They are further
marginalized in the economy, which is undergoing massive structural adjustments and
instability. Facilities like identity card, ration card and other legal documents which are a
must for citizenship rights are not provided to them.
e. Inference of A,B,C and D, can be named as brothel model of economic
development which thrives on unpaid and invisiblised labour of women. It perpetuates the
vicious circle of child marriage, child prostitution and child labour (CP , CM and CL). Supre-
exploitation of female headed household and domestic workers get sanctity in this model.
Women have to shoulder this added burden along with the burden of the vicious circle of
poverty, over-population and unemployment.
Control of women’s labour:

A) Use of women in the economy for the occupations which, are extensions of
housework, i.e. 3 Cs (cooking, cleaning and caring). Only 6 % of women are in the
organized sectror which guarantees protection of labour legislation and ERA (Equal
Remuneration Act). 94 % of women are in the informal sector which does not guarantee
job-security, regular income and personal safety.
B) Demonisation of highly qualified, efficiency plus and career women. Which hunting
of intellectually independent and verbally articulate women works, employees, technicians
and decision-makers.
C) Sexual harassment as an occupational hazard to crush the confidence of women
and to keep them in the state of perpetual terrorization, humiliation and intimidation.

Inference of A,B and C, can be limited opportunities for women and ghettoization of
women in non-challenging, routinized and low-status job know as “women prone
industreis” in the official discourse. Most of the economics activities done by majority of
women are non-marked and reward for labour does not reflect the value of their labour .
In such situation to gauge economic worth of their work Time Use studies are most
effective tools to identify their opportunity costs.

Within this framework, now , we will examine efforts at empowerment of women by 550
feminist economics who are functioning in 31 countries under the banner of International
Association of Feminist Economics to provide DAWN (Development Alternatives with
Women).

a. Visibility of women in statistics and data system- For effective execution of


macro policies such as National Perspective plan for women, Maharashtra State women’s
policy , we need an accurate data-base,area studies and time allocation studies, studies on
energy expenditure and food consumption patterns among women of different
communities public utility services such as safe transport, public urinals, women’s room in
the office. Gender economists have done pioneering work to understand demographic
profile of women and sex-ratio. Formulation of gender aware data system on literacy,
education level, employment and earnings, health and well-being helps proper planning
and policy making for empowerment of women. Inter –district, Inter-state and cross
country comparisons of women’s empowerment are obtained from Gender related

7
Development Index (GDI). GDI owes its origin to its precursor, the HDI (Human
Development Index), three main components of which are per capita income, educational
attainment and life-expectancy which is a proxy for health attainment. Gender disparities
attainment and measured keeping these three indicators into consideration. “An additional
measure, gender empowerment measure (GEM) has been formulated to take into account
aspects relating to economic participation and decision-making by women. The indicators
used in GEM are share in parliamentary seats and an index that includes share in
administrative and managerial jobs and share in professional and technical posts.” (K.
Seeta Prabhu, PC Sarkar and A. Radha. This exercise is done with a philosophical
understanding that without engendering, human development is endangered.
(UNDP,1995)
b. Economic Profile Of special needs population- Female headed households
(Divorced, deserted, widowed, separated women), home based workers in the family
enterprise, self-employed women, and women entrepreneurs.
c. Analysis of nature of occupational diversification among women, industrial
classification- Implications of office automation, computerization, flexi-time , job-sharing,
tele working, and part time work.
d. Effect of structural adjustment on Market segmentation- segmented factor
market affects self-employed women directly when they want to buy raw material and
other service. Segmented labour-market has direct bearing on the daily grind of women
works in the informal sector. Segmented product market makes unorganized women
workers and women’s collectives without networking insecure and vulnerable as sellers.
e. Economic basis of customary laws and the family laws : When the
customary laws get codified, we must be vigilant about the fact that women’s interests
are not sacrificed. Women’s land rights and property rights need special mention at the
time of codification of personal laws. Except for Andhra Pradesh and the North Eastern
states, women have lost their customary land right due to Land Act.
f. In mega development projects, which displace the native population, care must
be taken to see to it that women get equal share in monetary compensation, land-rights
and right to shelter. The same to the social and natural disaster management
programmes.
g. Political Economy of GET RICH QUICK formula in the name of dowry, sati
(widow burning), Bhootali (witch hunting) for land grab, or to deprive women of their
legitimate property rights should be examined with a consideration for avoiding violence
against women.
h. Women’s Empowerment by Men Decision Makers- In a situation where
women’s agency is virtually non-existent, the benevolent patriarch wedded to the cause of
Women’s empowerment become project coordinators. Guidelines for Utilisation of
Constituency Development Funds of Members of Parliament and Members of Legislative
Assembly and Area Development Funds of corporators for women’s education,
employment, training, capacity building are drawn by Gender economists
WID-WAD-GAD:
There has been a coexistence of three approaches for women’s development. WID-
Women in Development model explains the reasons for women’s being treated as
beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at the margin of the economy, consumer and an
auxiliary labour force to be utilized in the crisis period and eased out the moment men are
ready for take over. The discourse revolved around the economic growth paradigm. WAD-
Women and Development model integrates womenin the development work as active
change agents. Affirmative action by the state and pro-active approach by the civil
society through NGOs and women’s groups are advocated by these models for
empowerment of women against the forces of patriarchal class society. NGOs-voluntary
8
organisations implementing this approach have become powerful force during 1990s. GAD
– Gender and Development model is based on an understanding of gender relations and
empowers the weak (he or she). Gender is socially constructed and gender relations are
power relations. Here power is an important analytical category. Explicit measure of
gender inequalities sex-ratio, literacy rates, health and nutrition indicators, wage
differentials, ownership of land and property. “The implicit relations are those embedded
in relations of power andin hierarchies and are more difficult to measure. Located in the
household, in custom, religion, and culture, these intra-household inequalities result in
unequal distribution of power, control over resources and decision-making , dependence
rather than self-reliance and unfair, unequal distribution of work, drudgery and even food.
“ (Asha Kapur Mehta, 1996) Super women who are able to look after the interests of each
and every stake group are survivors in this model. In the Indian context, gender relations
are determined by the complex interplay of power relations based on class, caste,
ethnicity and religion.

Reference

 Amarja Nerulkar and Vibhuti Patel: Women and Development, Text Book for MA
Part 1 &2, Department of Distance Education, SNDT Women’s University, 1995
 Asha Kapur Mehta “Recasting Indices for Developing Countries- A Gender
Empowerment measure”, Economic and Political Weekly, October 26, 1996. WS
80-WS86.
 Devki Jain: “Valuting woman’s Work: Time as a Measu Devere”, Economics and
Political Weekly, voluntary XXXI, no 43, October 26,1996,WS-46-WS 57.
 K.Seeta Prabhu,P.C. Sarkar and A. Radha “Gender Related Development Index for
Indian States – Methodological Issues”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XXXI,
No. 43, October, 26, 1996, pp. WS 72 – WS79.
 Krishnaraj, Maithreyi Women and Development of Sociology, SNDT Women’s
University, Bombay, 1988.
 Krishnaraj, Maithreyi (ED) : “Women in the Data Systems”, Research Centre for
Women’s Studies, SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai, 1991.
 Mukul Mukherjee “Towards Gender – Aware Data Systems – Indian Experience”,
Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XXXI, No. 43, October,26, 1996.

Chapter 1 Introduction to Gender Studies

Contents

1.1 Importance of Women’s Studies


1.2 Concepts in Gender Economics
1.3 Gender and the Process of Economics Development
1.4 Economic Basis and Functioning of Patriarchy and Matrilineal Societies, structures
and systems
1.5 Market, Mobility and Women
9
1.6 Gender bias in Theories of Value, Distribution and population
1.7 Feminist Criticism of Development Indices and WID – WAD – GAD
1.8 Visibility of Women in Statistics and Indicators
1.9 Neoclassical versus Institutional Approach
1.10 Development Debate – Human Development Approach
1.11 Exercise
1.12 References
Dear Learners,

Welcome to the study of this paper on gender and development. After reading the
approach note you are now aware the key features of this paper.

In this lesson we introduced you to world view, scope, analytical vision, scope, analytical
vision, intellectual tools theoretical foundation and concept of Gender Studies. It will show
the importance and relevance of Gender Studies in the Contemporary reality. It persuades
you do adopt an interdisciplinary in approach to understand, analyse and solve women’s
concerns.We wish you all the best for study of this paper.

1.0 Objectives

At the end of this unit, you should be able to :


 Explain the need of gender studies and gender economics;
 Describe epistemological aspects of Women’s studies;
 Discuss concepts in gender economics;
 Show gender biases in the mainstream economic thinking;
 Critique conventional understanding of development;
 Put forward gender aware analysis of patriarchy;
 Provide gender sensitive approach to development debate.

1.1 Importance Of Women’s Studies

What is ‘Women’s Studies’ ?

Women’s Studies as an academic discipline is a science concerned about women’s equality


with man and the development of women. It provides an analytical tool, a worldview to
understand the status of women and an alternative view point to existing knowledge
construction. It is interdisciplinary in perspective. It is a partisan discipline,i.e. it is pro-
women; at the same time, not anti-men. It emphasizes the need for providing a material
basis for women’s independence and autonomy. Important objectives of women’s studies
are as follows :
 To facilitate the process of understanding, recognizing and giving due importance
to the contributions made by women and men.
 To examine the reasons for subordination of women and for male domination.
 To empower women to attain gender justice and an effective role in all decision –
making processes.
 To evolve development alternatives with women.
 To ensure visibility of women as change agents for the enhancement of the status
of women.
 To identify and understand roots of inequality that result in invisibility,
marginalization and exclusion of women from the intellectual world.
 To support social action aimed at equality, development, peace, education, health
and employment of women.
10
1.2 Concepts in Gender Economics

‘Sex’ Versus ‘Gender’

Sex is a biological term and gender refers to the sex of the individual after socialization.
Sex refers to biological difference between men and women. Gender is a social construct
that defines social relationship between men and women. Women belong to the feminine
gender because during the process of growing up, certain culturally constructed feminine
traits are inculcated into them, right from the birth.
Oppression and Exploitation

Any form dehumanization and degradation, violence and injustice, terrorization and
humiliation, intimidation and threat, subordination and discrimination is considered as
‘OPPRESSION’, while ‘Exploitation’ has an economic connotation. In a Marxian sense, it is
an extraction of ‘surplus labour’ (the generates profit) over and above ‘necessary labour’
that an individual does for his/her subsistence.
Socialization

Socialization is defined as the process through which the self acquires the rules, social
recipes, conceptions of appropriate conduct and knowledge that allows them to act in their
socio-cultural-political world. it is a mechanism of cultural transmission. Gender
socialization means the process by which the individual is taught to internalize socially
determined values of appropriate masculine traits and feminine traits.
Social Construction

It is the process by which men and women are moulded into the culture of the group and
thereby become accepted members of the group/community/society and measure up to
their expectations.
Deconstruction and Reconstruction

They are the analytical tools to examine individuals unfolding capacity to complex forms of
behaviour and direct those capacities to now ethos/values to create new personalities. In
gender economics, these analytical tools are used to bring a change from ‘gender biased’
or ‘gender neutral’ attitude to ‘gender aware’ and ‘gender sensitive’ attitude.

Patriarchy
Patriarchy is an institution that perpetuates male domination and female subordination. It
sustains power relations that discriminate against girls and women in the households and
in the economy. It attributes ‘private’ realm to women and ‘public’ domain to men. Pillars
of patriarchy are family, kinship network state, religion and media – PANCH
MAHABHOOTA. In a patriarchal society, the line of inheritance passes from father to son
known as Patrilineage. The patriarchal order is Patrilocal i.e after marriage, the bride is
expected to go to the groom’s residence.

Matriarchy
Matriarchal institutions are mother centered. In this system, the line of inheritance is from
mother to daughter, known as Matrilineage. After marriage, groom goes to brides house
termed as Matrilocal.

Trends in Feminism

11
a. Liberal Feminists – Those who focus on the constitutional guarantees of equal
treatments of men and women are known as liberal feminist.
b. Marxist Feminists – Those who locate women’s subordination in a class
contradictions are known to be Marxist feminists.
c. Radical Feminists consider ‘patriarchy’ as main culprit for women’s woes.
d. Socialist Feminists believe that women’s predicaments are determined by the
complex interplay of class, caste, race, religion, ethnicity with patriarchy. Hence the need
for deconstructing patriarchy in a different socio-cultural, geo-political and historical
contexts.
e. Psyco Analytical Feminists focus on individual journeys of women to arrive at
mental make up and internalization of values by the people concerned. They critique Freud
for its misogyny but also acknowledge Freud’s analysis of childhood experiences playing
important role in the rest of the life.
f. Post Modern Feminists contest hegemony of meta theories and dominant
discourses and bring to the fore the voice of the subjugated oppressed and marginalized.
They emphasis ‘reeentering’ from the mainstream.
g. Eco – Feminists believe that women’s role in the subsistence economy is crucial
for the survival of the humankind. Women have symbiotic relationship with mother-
nature. Male dominated development models are violent towards mother earth and
women.
h. Black Feminists – Race is the central reality for the black feminists though they
also challenge the patriarchal/ male domination.
i. Womanist – Womanism is a contribution of Afro American feminists who believe
that in spite of barbaric experiences of slavery, subjugation and horror the black culture
celebrations have survived due to women’s resilience. There is a need to promote this
celebrations/cultural legacies thro’ heritage of oral histories, legend, grandmothers stories.
They believe that the non-while and coloured women must be proud of HERSTORY instead
of aping the white, consumerist, oppressive male culture.

Gender Based Division of labour has existed in all societies for thousands of years. In
India, it is based on the ideology of male dominance, caste and social norms of ‘purity and
pollution. It is also based upon the notion that women are physically weaker than men and
are not suited for physically arduous tasks. Women’s biological tasks of monthly
menstruation and pregnancy, confined them to subsistence economy such as lowly paid
agricultural work, handicrafts and also household work.

1.3. Gender and The Process of Economic Development

The incorporation of subsistence economies into ‘modern’ market economies has brought
into question the traditional gender-based division of labour as an organizing principle in
the rural and urban sector because of the basic injustice it perpetuates. Women end up
doing the least skilled work and are underpaid or are expected to contribute to survival
needs of the family without any corresponding benefits. Esther Boserup in her pioneering
work brought to fore African women’s crucial contribution towards food security and
explained the political economy of polygamy in Africa that allowed men to concentrate and
centralize economic resources thro unpaid and backbreaking labour of women and children
in the subsistence economy that did not have much animal resources for cultivation of
land.

12
1.4. Economic Basis and Functioning of Patriarchy and Matrilineal
Societies, Structures and Systems

Patriarchy thrives on control of women’s sexuality, fertility and labour for male hegemony
over economic resources. Analytical tools provided by Gender Economics (GE) are
extremely useful to deal with the socio-economic and legal issues concerning marriage,
divorce, custody of children guardianship rights, alimony, maintenance, property rights of
mother, sister, daughter, legally wedded wives and her child/ children, co-wives and their
children, keeps and their children and the issues concerning adoption. GE has a special
significance in the subsistence economy, which uses the kinship networks, institutions of
polygamy and polyandry for concentration and centralization of wealth and capital by
either the patriarchs or the matriarchs. Domestic animals, women and children are the
main assets in the subsistence sector where collection of fuel, fodder, water are important
components of daily life over and above agrarian chores, live-stock rearing and kitchen
gardening.

GE has drawn heavily from all mainstream disciplines and innumerable social movements
of the last three decades. GE provides insights to examine budgets of Government
Organizations (GOs) and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) from the point of view of
gender justice. Priority areas being women’s education, health and nutrition, skill
development accounts, financial and commercial viability, legal standing, asset and corpus
building. GE contextualizes day to day survival struggles of women in the family, in the
households, in the community and in the micro, meso and macro economy with the
perspective of power relations which control women and girl children’s sexuality, fertility
and labour.
To explain this concept, I would like to give some examples from popular culture :

Control of Women’s Sexuality


A) Dress code which, restricts mobility of women and girls, does not allow her to do
those chores which require flexible body movements, reduces her efficiency and
employability in non-conventional occupations.
B) ‘’Tools”as a phalik symbol not being allowed to be used by menstruating women as
it is supposed to have contaminating influence. Hostility towards women who ride bicycles
driver cars and scooters, operate machines and use ploughs for farmingwheeks for
pottery, saw for carpenrry.
C) Women being treatad as respository of custom and tradition and cultural practices,
dedicated as devdasis, jogtis and forced to undergo series of masochistic fasting,
scarification and self infliction of pain which make them unemployable and perpectually
dependant on the patriarchs. They enjoy only subversive power of a comfort woman that
too, is mediated by men, as they don’t have any legal rights. In the commercial context,
the same happens to women beneficiary of Maitri – Karar (friendship Contract) and Seva-
Karar (Service Contract).
D) Need for male escorts, bodyguards for dainty, sickly and weak women who see
their identity as anorexic women. Billion- dollar beauty business thrives by controlling
young women so that they are incapable of using their body for manual chores. Here,
women’s insecurity about their looks is used by the cosmetic industry.
E) Women eating last, the least and the left over. Nourishing and balanced diet as a
male prerogative. Daughters and brides kept on starvation diet. Food secures middle-aged

13
women as honorary men.Inference of A, B, C, D and E – Declining sex ratio – As per 2001
census (933 women per 100 men). High mortality and morbidity rates.

Control of Women’s Fertility :


D) Women being treated as male-child producing machine. Customary practices of
female infanticide and neglect and abandonment of girl child, scientific techniques of
sex determination tests used for female foeticide, pre-conception elimination of female
embryo with the help of sex-preselection techniques.
E) Population policies targeting women for unsafe contraceptives and harmful
hormone based contraceptive researches, which violate bodily integrity and dignity of
married and unmarried girls and women.
F) Laws on prostitution penalizing and persecuting women victims of sexploitation
running a parallel economy of as much as 200 billion rupees.
G) Social boycott of unwed mothers. Illegitimate children being stigmatized by society
and are deprived of economic, social and educational opportunities. They are further
marginalized in the economy, which is undergoing massive structural adjustments and
instability. Facilities like identity card, ration card and other legal documents which are a
must for citizenship rights are not provided to them.
Inference of A, B, C and D, can be named as brother model of economic development
which thrives on unpaid and invisiblised labour of women. It perpetuates the vicious circle
of Child marriage, child prostitution and child labour (CP, CM AND CL). Super-exploitation
of female headed household and domestic workers get sanctity in this model. Women have
to shoulder this added burden along with the burden of the vicious circle of poverty, over-
population and unemployment.
Control of Women’s Labour:

D) Use of women in the economy for the occupations which, are extensions of housework,
i. 3 Cs (cooking, cleaning and caring). Only 6 % of women are in the organised sector
which guarantees protection of labour legislation and ERA (Eqral remuneration Act). 94%
of women are in the informal sector which does not guarantee job-security, regular
income and personal safety.
E) Demonisation of highly qualified, efficiency plus and career women. Witch hunting of
intellectually independent and verbally articulate women workers, employees, technicians
and decision-makers.

F] Sexual harassment as an occupational hazard to crush the confidence of women and to


keep them in the state of perpetual terrorization, humiliation and intimidation.

Inference of A, B and C, can be limited opportunities for women and ghettoisation of


women in non-challenging, routinised and low-status jobs known as “women prone
industries” in the official discourse. Most of the economic activities done by majority of
women are non-marketed and non-monetised and reward for labour does not reflect the
value of their labour. In such a situation to gauge economic worth of their work. Time Use
studies are the most effective tools to identify their opportunity costs.

1.5 Market, Mobility and Women

Globalization induced mobility of women has posed new problems for women in the labour
market. Hence, efforts at empowerment of women by 550 feminist economists who are
functioning in 31 countries under the banner of International Association of Feminist

14
Economics to provide DAWN (Development Alternatives with Women) gain tremendous
importance in the contemporary context. According to them, the most pressing issues are
as follows :
i) Economic Profile of special needs population – Female headed households
(Divorced, deserted, widowed, separated women), home based workers, women workers
in the family enterprise, self-employed women, and women entrepreneurs.
j) Analysis of nature of occupational diversification among women, industrial
classification. Implications of office automation, computerization, flexi-time, job-sharing,
tele working, and part time work.
k) Effects of structural adjustment on Market segmentation – segmented factor
market affects self-employed women directly when they want to buy raw material and
other services. Segmented labour-market has direct bearing on the daily grind of women
workers in the informal sector. Segmented product market makes unorganized women
workers and women’s collectives without networking insecure and vulnerable as sellers.
l) Economic basis of customary laws and the family laws : When the customary
laws get codified, we must be vigilant about the fact that women’s interests are not
sacrificed. Women’s land rights and property rights need special mention at the time of
codification of personal laws. Except for Andhra Pradesh and the North Eastern states,
women have lost their customary land rights due to Land Reform Act.
m) In mega development projects, which displace the native population, care must
be taken to see to it that women get equal share in monetary compensation, land-rights
and right to shelter. The same applies to the social and natural disaster management
progrannes.
n) Political Economy of GET RICH QUICK formula in the name of dowry, sati
(widow burning), Bhootali (witch hunting) for land grab, house-grab or to deprive women
of their legitimate property rights should be examined with a consideration for avoiding
violence against women.
o) Women’s Empowerment by Men Decision Makers – In a situation where
women’s agency is virtually non-existent, the benevolent patriarch wedded to the cause of
Women’s empowerment become project coordinators. Guidelines for Utilisation of
Constituency Development Funds of Members of Parliament and Members of Legislative
Assembly and Area Development Fund of corporators for women’s education, employment,
training capacity building are drawn by Gender economists.

1.6 Gender Bias in Theories of Value, Distribution and Population

Has been a major bone of contention. Neoclassical analysis based on law of marginal
utility in consumer analysis, marginal cost in the product pricing and marginal productivity
have come under severe scrutiny. In the area of home economics, Nobel Laureate Gary
Backer’s model of ‘competing interests’ in distribution of resources in the households and
higher ‘opportunity cost’ of men as ‘bread-earner’ and women as ‘home-maker’ is
criticized by women’s studies scholars as sexist and statusquo-ist. Amartya Kumar Sen
and Martha Nassbaum have put forward a concept of ‘cooperative conflict’ in the theory of
distribution. Feminist Reading of Economic Laws : Marginal Productivity Theory and Laws
of Maximisation form basic tenets of Gender Economics. The feminists economists also
believe in engendering micro and macro economics.

15
1.7 Feminist Criticism of Development Indices and Wid-Wad-Gad

Conventional indicators of development such as modernization, technological


development, Mechanization, automation, urbanization, industrialization are critiqued by
women’s studies as they have bypassed and marginalized women. They have provided
three approaches to understand women’s role in the micro-macro and macro economy.
There has been a coexistence of three approaches for women’s development. WID-
Women in Development model explains the reasons for women being treated as
beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them, in the margin of the economy, consumer and
an auxiliary labour force to be utilized in the crisis period and eased out the moment men
are ready for take over. The discourse revolved around the economic growth paradigm.
WAD- Women and Development model integrates women in the development work as
active change agents. Affirmative action by the state and pro-active approach by the civil
society through NGOs and women’s groups are advocated by these models for
empowerment of women against the forces of patriarchal class society. NGOs-voluntary
organizations implementing this approach have become powerful force during 1990s. GAD
– Gender and Development model is based on an understanding of gender relations and
empowers the weak (he or she). Gender is socially constructed and gender relations are
power relations. Here power is an important analytical category. Explicit measures of
gender inequalities are sex-ratio, literacy rates, health and nutrition indicators, wage
differentials, ownership of land and property. “The implicit relations are those embedded
in relations of power and in hierarchies and are more difficult to measure. Located in the
household, in custom, religion, and culture, these intra-household inequalities result in
unequal distribution of power, control over resources and decision-making, dependence
rather than self-reliance and unfair, unequal distribution of work, drudgery and even
food.” (Asha Kapur Mehta) Super women who are able to look after the interests of each
and every stake group are survivors in this model. In the Indian context, gender relations
are determined by the complex interplay of power relations based on class, ethnicity and
religion.

1.8 Visibility of Women in Statistics and Indicators

For effective execution of macro policies such as National Perspective Plan for Women,
Maharashtra State Women’s Policy, we need an accurate data-base, area studies and time
allocation studies, studies on energy expenditure and food consumption patterns among
women of different communities, public utility services such as safe transport, public
urinals, women’s room in the office. Gender economists have done pioneering work to
understand demographic profile of women and sex-ratio. Formulation of gender aware
data system on literacy, education level, employment and earnings, health and well-being
helps proper planning and policy making for empowerment of women. Inter – district,
Inter-state and Cross country comparisons of women’s empowerment are obtained from
Gender related Development Index (GDI). GDI owes its origin to its precursor, the HDI
(Human Development Index), three main components of which are per capita income ,
educational attainment and life-expectancy which is a proxy for health attainment. Gender
disparities are measured keeping these three indicators into consideration. “An additional
measure, gender empowerment measure (GEM) has been formulated to take into account
aspects relating to economic participation and decision-making by women. The indicators
used in GEM are share in income, share in parliamentary seats and an index that includes

16
share in administrative and managerial jobs and share in professional and technical
posts.” (K. Seeta Prabhu, P.C. Sarkar and A. Radha). This exercise is done with a
philosophical understanding that without engendering, human development is endangered.
(UNDP, 1995)

1.9 Neoclassical Versus institutional approach

Neoclassical approach of consumer’s rationality (Maximisation of utility) and producers


rationality (Maximisation of profit) has come under massive attack from the women’s
studies scholars as they find it a historical, simplistic and gender – neutral. Its philosophy
of Laissez Faire Does not acknowledge the unequal power relations determined by
colonialism, neo-colonialism and segmentation in the labour, factor and product markets
based on caste, class, ethnicity, race, religion, age and gender. As against this institutional
approach is found more realistic and hence appropriate as takes into consideration
historical, socio-cultural, geographical and political dynamics in economic analysis.

1.10 Development Debate- Human Development Approach

Current development debate has resulted into generation of Meaningful Indicators of


Women and Development Comparative data of 130 countries regarding gender-related
development index (GDI) reveals that gender-equality does not depend entirely on the
income level of society. The human development approach which focuses on demographic,
health, educational and human rights profiles have revealed that there is an urgent need
to reexamine this approach by conducting participatory action research and rapid rural
appraisal not by social scientists alone, but in collaboration with other professionals such
as scientists, doctors – occupational health and safety experts, engineers and lawyers who
believe that like them, citizens from subsistence sector also have right to enjoy fruits of
modern science and technology in terms of food security, safe transport, clean
environment, secure housing and healthy life. India ranks 103 rd in GDI and 104 th in the
HDI as, the Indian women enjoy nearly 1/5th of the total earned income, life expectancy of
60.4 years and 35.2% adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary and tertiary
Gross enrollment ratio (GER) of 45.8. While their male counterparts enjoy 4/5 th of the
earned income, life expectancy of 60.3 years, 63.7% adult literacy rate and combined
primary, secondary and tertiary GER of 63.8. HDI for India is 0.398 and GDI for India is
0.401. There is a gender gap of 0.003. (Human Development Report, UNDP, OUP,
Bombay, 1995, p.33.) As compared to their male counterparts women in India have
higher life expectancy because women from the middle and upper classes live in a secure
environment, produce one or two children and control food (kitchen) of the household.

1.11Exercise

1. Describe important concepts in gender economics.


2. What are the reasons for criticism of conventional indicators of development?
What are the approaches towards Women and Development debate?
3. Write short notes on :
17
A. Relevance of women’s studies.
B. Visibility of Women in Statistics and Indicators
C. Economic Basis of Functioning of Patriarchy
D. Paid and Unpaid Work of Women.

1.12 References:

 Amarja Nerulkar and Vibhuti Patel: Women and Development, Text Book for M A
Part I & 2, Department of Distance Education, SNDT Women’s University, 1995.
 Asha Kapur Mehta “Recasting Indices for Developing Countries- A Gender
Empowerment Measure”, Economic and Political Weekly, October 26, 1996. WS 80 –
WS86.
 Devki Jain : “Valuing Women’s Work: Time as a Measure”, Economic and Political
Weekly, vol. XXXI, no 43, October 26, 1996, WS-46-WS 57.
 Vibhuti Patel (2002) Women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications,
New Delhi.

Chapter 2 Women: Demographic Aspects

Contents

2.1 Age structure, Mortality rates and Sex ratio


2.2 Causes of Declining Sex Ratios and Fertility Rates in LDCs with Special Reference to
India
2.3 Theories and Measurement of Fertility and Its Control

2.4 Gender and Population Control Policy with Special Reference to India.
2.5 Reproductive Rights

2.6 Women and Nutrition


2.7 Women and Health

2.8 Women and Education


2.9 Economic Status of women

2.10 Work Participation Rate of women


2.11 Exercise

2.12 References

18
2.0 Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Explain demographic features of women in India

• Describe health, educational and work profile of women.

• Age Structure, Morality Rates And Sex Ratio

2.1 Age structure, Mortality Rates and Sex Ratio

Table: 1
Current Population of India 1,065,070,607 (July 2004 est.)

Population Density of India 324 persons per square kilometer


Age structure

0 to 14 years 31.7% (male 173,869,856; female 164,003,915)


15 to 64 years 63.5% (male 349,785,804; female 326,289,402)

65 years and over 4.8% (male 25,885,725; female 25,235,905) (2004 estimate)

Median age
Total 24.4 years

Male 24.4 years


Female 24.4 years (2004 est.)

Population growth rate 1.44% (2004 est.)


Birth rate 22.8 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Death rate 8.38 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)


Net migration rate -0.07 migrant (s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate


Total 57.92 deaths/1,000 live births

Female 57.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)


Male 58.52 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth


Total population 63.99 years

Male 63.25 years


Female 64.77 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate 2.85 children born/woman (2004 est.)

19
HIV / AIDS
Adult prevalence rate0.8% (2001 est.)

People living with HIV/AIDS 3.97 million (2001 est.)


Deaths because of HIV/AIDS 310,000 (2001 est.)

As Table 1 reveals India’s population in 2004 was 106.5 crores. 32% of India’s total
population is composed of children below the age of 14 years. Nearby 5% of the total
population is composed of senior citizens.

Table- 2 Demographic Profiles per 2001 census

Population of India 102.7 crores

Males 53.1 crores

Females 49.6 crores

Deficit of women in 2001 3.5 crores

Sex ratio (no. of women per 1000 men) 933

Source: Census of India, 2001

In 0-45 age-groups, there is deficit of women. Social discrimination against women results
into systematic neglect of women’s health, from womb to tomb. Female infanticide and
female foeticide are widely practiced in BIMARU (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and
Uttar Pradesh) and DEMARU (Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat) states. As
per 2001 census, there were only 933 women per 1000 men and there was a deficit of 3.5
crore women. Sex ration is the most favourable to women is Kerala. But, in Kerala also, in
the 0-6 age group the sex ratio was 963, as per 2001 census. Total 0-6 age-group
population of Kerala was 36.5 lakhs. Out of this 18.6 lakhs were male babies and infants
and 17.9 lakhs were female babies and infants. Thus, 79760 female babies and infants
were missing in 2001 in Kerala. This masculanisation of sex ration is as a result of
selective abortion of female foetuses after the use of ultra-sound techniques to determine
sex of the foetus.2

Table 3: Causes of Maternal Deaths In 1993 In Rural India

Direct Obstetric Causes Percentage

Haemorrhage 22.6

Abortion 11.7

Infection 12.5

Obstructed Labour 5.5

Eclampsia (Blood Pressure) 12.8


20
Other Direct Causes 14.6

Indirect Obstetric Causes

Anaemia 20.3

Source: Registrar General, India

As girls under 5 years of age, women face neglect of medical care and education, sexual
abuse and physical violence. As adolescent and adult women in the reproductive age-
group, they face early marriage early pregnancy, sexual violence, domestic violence,
dowry harassment, infertility, if they fail to produce son, then face desertion, witch hunt.
The end result is a high
_________________
1
Ashish Bose; “Without My Daughter- Killing Fields of the Mind". ”he Times of India, 25-4-
2001.
2
Mridual Eapen and Praveena Kodoth: Demystifying the “High Status” of Women in
Kerala, An Attempt to Understand the contradictions in Social Development, Centre for
development Studies, Kerala, 2001.
maternal mortality. Causes of maternal deaths in our country are haemorrhage, abortion,
infection, obstructed labour, eclampsia (blood pressure during pregnancy), sepsis, and
anaemia.

Table-4 Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)

States Maternal Deaths Per 100000 Births

Andhra Pradesh 436

Assam 534

Bihar 470

Gujarat 389

Haryana 436

Himachal Pradesh 456

Karnataka 450

Kerala 87

Madhya Pradesh 711

Maharashtra 336

Orissa 738

21
Punjab 369

Rajasthan 550

Tamil Nadu 376

Uttar Pradesh 624

West Bengal 389

All India 453

Source: UNICEF, 1995.


Escalating number of cases of domestic violence, dowry deaths and bride burning has
motivated Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC) run K.B. Bhabha Municipal General
Hospital to collaborate with an NGO, CEHAT to launch to project Dilaasa (means
reassurance) to provide social and psychological support to women facing domestic
violence. On March 8, 2002, the process will begin to replicate this model in all BMC run
hospitals in the Greater Bombay.

2.2 Causes of Declining Sex Ratios and Fertility Rates in LDCs with
Special Reference to India

Table-5 Sex Ratio of different States of India

State Sex Ratio- Females per 1000 males

India 933

Andaman & Nicobar Islands 846

Andhra Pradesh 978

Arunachal Pradesh 901

Assam 932

Bihar 921

Chandigarh 773

Chhattisgarh 990

Dadra & Nagar Haveli 811

Daman & Diu 709

Delhi 821

Goa 960

Gujarat 921

22
Haryana 861

Himachal Pradesh 970

Jammu & Kashmir 900

Jharkhand 941

Karnataka 964

Kerala 1058

Lakshadweep 947

Madhya Pradesh 920

Maharashtra 922

Manipur 978

Meghalaya 975

Mizoram 938

Nagaland 909

Orissa 972

Pondicherry 1001

Punjab 857

Rajasthan 922

Sikkim 875

Tamil Nadu 986

Tripura 950

Uttar Pradesh 898

Uttaranchal 964

West Bengal 934

Source: Census of India, 2001

As a result of sex-determination and sex-preselection tests, sex ration of the child


population has declined to 927 girls for 1000 boys. Sixty lakh female infants and girls are
“missing” due to sex-selective abortion of female foetuses and pre-conception rejection of
daughters.

Table- 6 Population In The Age Group 0 to 6 Years In 2001, India

Infants And Children-All 15.8 Crores


23
Male Infants And Children 8.2 Crores

Female Infants And Children 7.6 Crores

Deficit Of Female Infants And Girls 6 Lakhs

Sex Ratio Of Child Population 927

Source: Census of India, 2001.

Sex ratio (number of women per 1000 men) of Greater Bombay has reduced from 791 in
1991 to 774 in 2001 in spite of rise in its literacy rate.

Table- 7 Population of Greater Bombay-2001

Year 1991 2001

Population 99 Lakhs 1 Crore 19 Lakhs

Sex-Ratio 791 774

Literacy Rate 84 87

Source: Census of India, 2001

To stop female infanticide, the Tamilnadu government introduced ‘Cradle Baby Scheme’
urging parents to leave their unwanted baby girls at cradles provided in hospitals, primary
health centres and orphanages and encouraging them back if they changed their minds. 3
Negative attitude towards women’s health is the major reason for high levels of perinatal
mortality and morbidity including low birth weight babies.4
_____________________
3
Lalitha Sridhar (Women’s Features Service): India: Killing in Cradle, POPULI- The UNFPA
magazine, Vol.28. No, 2, September, 2001, pp. 10-12.
4
S. Wal and Ruchi Mishra: Encyclopedia of Health, Nutrition and Family Welfare, Volume
1, Health and Family Welfare in Developing Countries, Sarup and Sons, New Delhi, 2000.
PP. 254-255.
Vicious Cycles and Poor Women

The vicious cycles of poverty generates the vicious cycle of ill health. For mother, poverty
leads to low intake of food and nutrients, which results in under-nutrition and repeated
insults from nutrition related diseases and infections, which affect them in terms of
stunted development and growth faltering, hence they have small body size as adults,
which impairs productivity; as a result they have low earning capacity. The end of result is
POVERTY. For a girl child, poverty gives only three options- child labour, child marriage
and child prostitution. Poverty coupled with control over women’s sexuality, fertility and
labour is manifested in neglect and discrimination of a girl child, she remains a
malnourished girl, early marriage makes her pregnant, she is an impoverished mother
who produces low birth weight baby, 5 if the baby is female, she faces discrimination,
repeated pregnancies/deliveries to get son results in maternal mortality i.e. DEATH. 6

24
Miserable profile of reproductive health of Indian women is due to octopus clutches of
early marriage and pregnancy, high prevalence of reproductive tract infection, ignorance,
high infant mortality rate, no control over fertility and sexuality, anaemia, no control over
contraception and repeated pregnancies. As per UNICEF, in 1995, there were 453
maternal deaths per 100000 births in India. Nutritional needs of lactating mothers demand
urgent attention.

Violence and Health Issues of Women Over the Life Cycle

As unborn children, they face covert violence in terms of sex-selection and overt violence
in terms of female foeticide after the use of amniocentesis, chorion villai biopsy,
sonography, ultrasound, imaging techniques. 7 IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) clinics for assisted
reproduction are approached by infertile couples to produce sons. Doctors are advertising
aggressively, “Invest Rs.500 now, save Rs. 50000 later i.e. if you get rid of your daughter
now, you will not have to spend money on dowry.

2.3 Theories and Measurement of Fertility and its Control

Demographic transition theory has focused economic explanations of the phenomenon of


fertility within marriage. Most research ignores the role of nuptiality: timing of marriage
and the rate of childbearing after marriage are influenced by different factors Traditional
societies view of children:
• source of labour

• investment for parental support in old age

• insurance against an uncertain environment

• enhance physical security of family

______________________________
5
K. Rameshwar Sharma: When the Baby Weighs Low- On Low Birth Weight and How to
Remedy it’, Health Action, Vol. 14, No. 12, December 2001, pp. 18-19.
6
ARROW for Change, Women’s Gender Perspectives in Health Policies and Programmes,
Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Vol. 7, No 1, 2001.
7
Vibhuti Patel “Girl Child: An Endangered Species?” in Viney Kripal (ed) The Girl Child in
20th Century Indian Literature, sterling Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1992. p. 9.

Modernization of societies changes the economics of childbearing so that larger


numbers of children are seen as disadvantageous, so fertility decline is rational and
lagged:
• shift from familial modes of production reduces the utility of child labor (transition
from corporate kinship systems to extended, then nuclear families)
• mass education reduces availability of children for labor

• new forms of investment and insurance developed for families

Explanations of Marital Fertility Decline

Coale’s preconditions for (European) marital fertility decline:

25
• fertility is a conscious choice

• effective techniques of fertility reduction must be known and available

• reduced fertility must be perceived to be advantageous

• “Classical” Transition Theory (Thompson, Davis, Notestein)

Fertility declined with urbanization and the undermining of traditional values supporting
high fertility

• “Demand” Theory/Chicago School Approach/New Home Economics (Becker)


(1960s) branch of consumer choice theory, idea of (mother’s) time as valuable commodity

• Combination of economic decision-making with social and biological constraints


(Easterlin)

Consider factors which influence supply of children: morality and marriage as well as
demand factors. Dominance of economic factors remains in theories of population.

• Cultural and Normative context of reproduction

When morality falls, ideal and beliefs which supported high fertility decline

• Attempts to unite economic and sociological explanations: Caldwell’s


Intergenerational Wealth Flows

Pre-transitional societies have transfer of wealth from children to parents, reversal of the
flow of transmission of child-centered nuclear family

• Diffusion of Innovations Theory

Concerned with how new reproductive technologies and forms of behaviour spread in a
population
Demand theories are refuted on the following grounds:

• Conscious exercise of birth control absent in traditional societies

• Absence does not simply children possess high economic value

• Timing of transition influenced by cultural factors (parents education, religion) not


economic factors

• Speed and pervasive nature of transition suggest role of diffusion of ideas rather
than micro-economic forces

• Declines in parents demand for children as indicated by fertility preferences do no


precede transition.

2.4 Gender and population control policy with special reference to


India

Population Control Policies


There is a serious need to examine Population policies and Global funding from the
perspective of statisation of Medical Market and Marketisation of the nation states in the
context of newly emerging culture of daily changes of sponsors. Financial economists have
reigned supreme to generate moment-to-moment existence among population so that
they can get an unending supply of cannon fodder for the NRT experimentation. Budgetary

26
provision on health has a hidden agenda of NRT. The victims are not given scientific
details and by labelling them as parasites and beneficiaries, their consent is not sought. So
many families have been broken. It has burdened women with backbreaking miseries. The
nation states have been coached to implement the use of NRT in Secrecy- in line with the
programmes executed by G8 in Thailand, Indonesia and Bangladesh. To achieve
population stabilisation, 2.1% growth rate of population and NRR- net reproduction rate of
1(i.e. mother should be replaced by 1 daughter only) are envisaged. These have inherent
sexist bias because it desires birth of 1 daughter and 1.1 sons. Those who support sex-
determination (SD) and sex-preselection (SP) view these tests as helpful to achieve NRRI.
This will further widen the gap between number of girls and number of boys in to achieve
NRR1. This will further widen the gap between number of girls and number of boys in the
country. As it is 100 million women have been missing due to femicide (female infanticide,
ill treatment and discrimination leading to higher mortality rate among women/girls in the
first three quarters of 19th century, and in the last quarter of 19 th century due to misuse of
SD and SP) over a period of 1901 to 2001.
Contraceptive Research Treating women’s Bodies as Testing Ground

Invasive birth control techniques entered India along with PL 480 wheat in the late sixties
support by USAID. During the emergency rule (1975-1977) forced male sterilisation
programmes created political crisis for the ruling Congress. In the post emergency period
to this date, women have been targeted for population control programmes. Hormonal
pills (Estrogen-Projestone combinations), injectible contraceptives (Depo-Provera-Depot
Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, Net En- Nortesteeone Enenthate) and anti-fertility vaccine
have been foisted on Indian women’s bodies without any concern for collateral damage in
terms of thyroid, migraine, chest pain, giddiness, upsetting of regular cycle of woman’s
body. Research by the scientists and doctors of women’s group have shown 78 side effects
of these hormone-based contraceptives. Though there was extreme secrecy surrounding
their clinical trials, women’s groups struggled to gather data and highlighted instances of
abuse of health hazardous contraceptives. Pressure from, women’s groups prevented Depo
Provera and Net En from being included in the family planning programme for more than a
decade. It also forced IDRC-International Development Research Council, Canada to stop
funding the anti-fertility vaccine being developed by the National Institute of Immunology,
India.

Latest in the list and still more harmful is Quinacrine as a contraceptive, which is being
supplied through private routes without the permission of the drug controller or the
approval of the Indian Council of Medical Research. To impart knowledge about its side
effects, women’s groups have to reach out to the public through posters, pamphlets and
leaflets.
• Reproduction Rights

Restrictions on the right reproduce results in unnecessary and extremely harmful policies,
such as forced sterilization or abortion in India and China, or enforced childbearing in Nazi
Germany and Romania. In these cases, procreative liberty had to be curtailed to avoid
catastrophe is dubious, if not absurd. To avoid such illegitimate interferences with
procreative liberty, we should regard the right reproduce as absolute. With this
understanding the International Convention on Population and Development (1994)
ensured paradigm shift from ‘Reproductive Control’ to ‘Reproductive Rights’. World Bank
raised a slogan “Education and development of women are the best contraceptive”. The
UN declared, “Women’s reproductive rights are human rights.”

27
As women are perceived as mothers, not as individuals in their own right, they are
covered under MCH (mother and child programme). Even MCH does not cover majority of
Indian women. Only 49.2% of total pregnant women received antenatal check-up by
health professionals. Health workers visited only 21% of pregnant women. Tetanus toxoid
coverage of pregnant women was 53.8% and Anaemia prophylaxis coverage among
pregnant women was 50.5%.8 Majority of Indian women are left with no choice than to
deliver at home.9Every 5000 population has an auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) with
responsibility to attend childbirth. Only negligible parts of home-births are attended by
ATMs.10 Institutional deliveries constituted only 22% of total deliveries at the national
level. Urban areas were better covered: 55 percent as against a very megre 18% in rural
areas.11
__________________
8
International Institute of Population Sciences, Bombay, 1995.
9
Kalyani Menon Sen and A.K. Shivakumar: Women in India- How Free? How Equal?
Report commissioned by the United Nations Resident Coordinator in India, New Delhi,
2001. p. 37.
10
Shyam Ashtekar: Health and Health Care Systems- Observations From China,
Philippines and Thailand & Reflections on India, Bharat Vaidyak Sanstha, Nasik, p.128.
11
Registrar General of India, 1997.
New Reproductive Technologies (NRTs) and Women

NRTs perform 4 types of functions. In Vitro Fertilisation and subsequent embryo transfer,
GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer), ZIFT and cloning assist reproduction. 12
Contraceptive Technologies prevent conception and birth. Amniocentesis, chorion villai
Biopsy, niddling, ultrasound are used for prenatal diagnosis. 13 Foetal cells are collected by
the technique of amniocentesis and CVB. Gene technologies play crucial role through
genetic manipulation of animal and plant kingdoms. 14 Genomics is “the science of
improving the human population through controlled breeding, encompasses the
elimination of disease, disorder, or undesirable traits, on the one hand, and genetic
enhancement on the other. It is pursed by nations through state policies and
programmes.”15

• Women and Nutrition

Balanced diet containing carbohydrate, protein, vitamins and minerals make a healthy
body and healthy mind. Only 10% of women are fortunate to have the privilege of
nutritious diet. Majority of women in our country work more than men and for longer
period but eat less, the last and the left over of poor quality of food. Their energy
expenditure is not compensated by intake of diet as it is inadequate and lacks in nutrition.
India has the highest prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in the world. 87% of pregnant
women, about 68% in the reproductive age group and about 60-70% of adolescent girls in
our country are anaemic.16This is the major reason for high level of morbidity among
Indian women. The Government Organisations (GOs) and Non-Government Organisations
(NGOs) need to make a concerted effort to provide iron rich and vitamin C rich low-cost
and locally available food to women through active nutrition education and change in
dietary habits.
• Women and Health

28
World Health Organisation has defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and
social well-being” which is necessary for leading a productive and fruitful life. Health is a
basic human right/women’s right. Attainment and maintenance of good health depends on
women’s access to nutritious food, appropriate medicine to treat illnesses, clean water,
safe housing, pollution free environment and health services. Thus, women’s health is
determined by the forces working at homes, work places, society and the state.

According to Dr. Amartya Kumar Sen, “Burden of hardship falls disproportionately on


women” due to seven types of inequality- mortality (due to gender bias in health care and
nutrition).
____________________
12
Tarala D. Nandedkar and Medha S. Rajadhyaksha: Brave New Generation. Vistas in
Biotechnology. CSIR. Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, 1955.
13
Vibhuti Patel: Sex Selection, in Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women- Global
Women’s Issues and Knowledge, Vol. 4, 2000. Pp. 1818-1819.
14
Jyotsana Agnihotri Gupta: New Reproductive Technologies- Women’s Health and
Autonomy, Freedom or Dependency? Indo Dutch Studies in Development Alternative- 25,
Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2000.
15
Chee Heng Leng “Genomics and Health: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications for

Developing Countries”, Issues in Medical Ethics, Bombay, Vol. X, No.1, Jan.- March, 2002,
pp.146-149.
16
Institute of Health Management- Prevent Anaemia Now, Pachod, Maharashtra, 2002.
natality (sex selective abortion and female infanticide), basic facility (education and skill
development), special opportunity (higher education and professional training),
employment (promotion) and ownership (home, land and property).17

Pollution of air and water, noise pollution and chemicalisation of environment affect
everybody. Scarcity of fuel-wood, fodder, water and herbs as a result of deforestation has
taken heavy toll of women’s health. Rural and tribal women have to walk for miles for
these basic survival needs of human beings and domestic animals. Floods create deaths,
destruction and epidemics. Desertification in the western India has accentuated women’s
survival struggles, as they have to depend on adhoc public works programmes. Global
warming has resulted in resurgence of older epidemics such as cholera, typhoid, malaria,
dengue, and haemorrhagic fever. Burgeoning sex-trade have made 2 million sex-worker
potential carriers of HIV, STD, AIDS. Moreover, women in prostitution may suffer from
T.B., other STDs, malnutrition, malaria and skin diseases. 18At present, there is an
evidence of rising HIV rates among young married women who are infected by their
husbands. Data from 7 cities in India of ante- natal clinics reveals that HIV-AIDS
prevalence rates among pregnant women are 2% to 3.5% in Mumbai and 1% in
Hyderabad, Bangalore and Chennai.19

Modern lifestyle and environment has increased breast and uterine 20 cancer among Indian
women. Techniques meant for detecting cancer (e.g. self-examination of breast and pap-
smere) are rarely used by women. As a result, detection of cancer and its treatment at
earlier stage becomes impossible.

All types of fruits are cornered by liquor industry and alcoholism is aggressively promoted
among the toiling poor. As a result. Men don’t contribute for daily necessity of the

29
households. Women have to shoulder major burden of household expenditure. Use of bio-
fuels-wood, dung, crop residue resulting into indoor air-pollution takes away the lives of
lakh women annually.21

2.8 Women and Education

Five decades of independent India have generated different patterns of male and female
literacy due to different priorities of different state governments and different cultural
legacies determining women’s autonomy and control of movements. As per Economic
Survey, 2000-2001 of the Government of India, in the 53th Round of National Sample
Survey Organisation, 50% of Indian women were found literate in 1997. Kerala scores the
first rank in female literacy, thanks to the active collaboration of voluntary organisations
such as Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP) and Library Movement, university
supported National Service Scheme (NSS), the state government

____________________
17
Amartya Sen: “Many Faces of Gender Inequality”, an inauguration Lecture for New
Redcliff Institute at Harward University, 24-4-2001.
18
Gracy Fernandes and Cecily Stewart Ray: Raids Rescue, Rehabilitation, The Story of
Mumbai Brothel Raids- of 1996-2000, The College of Social Work, Nirmala Niketan,
Mumbai, 1991.p.78.
19
Sameera Khan: “The Indian Women: confronting HIV/AIDS”, SANKALP, The Newsletter
of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative in India, Nov.- Dec. 2001.p.7.
20
S. Wal and Ruchi Mishra; op. cit., pp.27-30.
21
Sarla Gopalan and Mira Shiva: National Profile on Women’s Health and Development,
Voluntary Health Association of India and World Health Organisation, Delhi, 2000, p213.
supported Literacy Mission and an efficient private and KSRTC (Kerala State Road
Transport Corporation) supported transport, over and above railways and waterways used
for transporting the students at extremely reasonable rates. Sex segregation, caste
hostilities and unsafe transport have resulted into tremendous restrictions on women’s
mobility in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh which keeps 75% of the
female population illiterate. Alcoholism among men resulting into domestic violence in the
urban working class areas and rural and tribal areas actively promoted by the economic
and political vested interests has been a single major impediment in the literacy
programmes in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa,
Punjab and Tamil Nadu22. It is sad to notice conspiracy of silence concerning violence
against women (in the domestic arena, while going to and returning from school, in
classroom situations and in the school-college-university campuses) in all discourses about
women’s education in India.

Table- 8: Literacy Rate, 2001

State Total Male Female

Andhra Pradesh 61 71 51

Assam 64 72 56

30
Bihar 48 60 34

Gujarat 70 81 59

Haryana 69 79 56

Karnataka 67 76 57

Kerala 91 94 88

Madhya Pradesh 64 77 50

Maharashtra 77 86 68

Orissa 64 76 51

Punjab 70 76 64

Rajasthan 61 76 44

Tamil Nadu 73 82 65

Uttar Pradesh 57 70 43

West Bengal 69 78 60

All India 65 76 54

Source: Final Population Total of 200 Census, Series 1, paper no. 2 of 2002. The Registrar
General of India.

Ethnic tension in Assam and paucity of funding for educational purpose in West Bengal
prevent literacy missions to be successful. Against such hostile forces, women teachers
are expected to achieve the targets of universal literacy.
As per the world Development Report23 62% adult women and 35% adult men in India are
illiterate. This fact is alarming because the social fabric which provided the family-based
safety-net, is getting

________________
22
power dynamics operating at the levels of state politic, police bootleggers-underworld
nexus, rural-urban networking for promotion of country liquor are succinctly portrayed in a
film by Shabnam Virmani- Anti Arrek Movement, copy of video-cassette available with
Vacha Women’s Library, Bombay. Trafficking of narcotic drugs is patronised by more
powerful lobbies.
23
World Development Report, World Bank, 1997, p.226
eroded and the day to day governance of society cannot be handled without literacy and
systematic paper-work
In primary and upper primary school levels, discrepancy in the school attendance between
girls and boys rate is quite sharp. Less number of schools, violent discrimination against
girls from the poor economic background, unsafe journey in the overcrowded state
transport are some of the factors preventing girls from rural areas to attend schools.

31
Though fear of teenage pregnancy has been one of the major stumbling blocks in the way
of teenage girls’ education, none of the mainstream research organisations have
highlighted this fact. Only participatory action researches conducted by women’s
organisations have focused on this aspect24.

Need for Multifaceted Approach in the context of Unevenness in Different states:


We need to learn a lot from the 19 th century social reform movement to effectively
manage literacy mission with the help of the state apparatus and progressive sections of
the civil society. In the official documents one hardly finds legitimization of difficulties
faced by women animators, anganwadi and balwadi workers in the Northern parts of India
where they are increasingly facing backlash of violence by statuesquoist forces in BIMARU
states. In these areas, if more men from different caste, ethnic and religious backgrounds
are involved in the literacy programmes, it will be easier to negotiate women’s concerns
with the patriarchal forces (here I would like to clarify that both, women and men are
carriers of patriarchal hostility against women’s education). One of the reasons for the
success of the literacy mission in Kerala and Maharashtra has been active involvement of
male animators and male decision makers from different caste backgrounds who have
been able to convince the caste and community Panchayats to support women’s
education. They have been able to discuss prevalent stereotypes against the educated
women i.e. “Education makes girls hostile to manual work, arrogant, disrespectful towards
elders, uncontrollable, unruly and irresponsible towards domestic responsibilities (cooking,
cleaning and caring).”
In the middle level literacy areas, vocational training programmes under TRYSEM and
Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) have been introduced for women. “Although 1887 it is
throughout the country also enroll women, to improve their access, 132 separate women’s
it is were established along with 98 separate women’s wings in the general ITIs25. But
these vocationally trained women are not given any training in crisis management,
assertiveness and self-defense. Women technicians’ cooperatives with regular meetings
for discussion of their day-to-day problems should be formed.

_______________________________________
24
Fatima Burnad: Teen-age Pregnancy and Unsafe Abortion in Rural Tamilnadu, Women
and Health Camp. Rural Women’s Liberation Organisation, Arkonam, 1986.
Manisha Gupte, Sunita Bandewar and Hemlata Pisal: Abortion Need of Women in India- A
case Study of Rural Maharashtra, Reproductive Abortion: Unfinished Business, No. 9, May,
1997, pp77-86.

Verbal presentations of women delegates from Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Muslim women from Ahmedabad (Gujarat) in the IV
National Conference of Women’s Movement in India in Calicut, Dec. 1990.
Sunita Bandewar: A Note on ABOPTION: CAUSE FOR CONCERN IN INDIA-EVEN 25 YEARS
AFTER ITS LEGISLATION, Paper presented at Sixth National Conference on Women’s
Movements at Ranchi, Dec. 1997.
25
Gender and Poverty in India, a World Bank country study, The World Bank, Washington,
1992, p. 106.

Which are the factors responsible for the success of Mahila Samakya (Programme for
education for women’s equality) in Karnataka, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh 26. The most
important factor for its popularity is its persuasive approach and democratic handing of

32
the programme, both horizontally and vertically. Women animators working in the
community are at ease with the managerial cadre due to relationship of mutual respect
and all women employees are provided secure environment and personal safety by the
government apparatus (top down) and the beneficiaries (bottom up). These factors seem
to be missing in the Women and Development Programmes (WDP) in Rajasthan 27. There is
insecurity all around- among the animators and among the beneficiaries.

In the high literacy areas, there is a need to identify potential women decision-makers and
efforts should be made to groom them to fulfil the tasks of social development.

Highly educated women who can complete in the global market should be provided the
gender-just and secure environment to realise their full potential. Deskilling is the major
casualty with the Indian educated Women Patriarchs of, both Government Organisations
(GOs) and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) systematically encourage deskilling of
highly qualified women by making them do monotonous, routine chores, which could have
been easily done by moderately educated and skilled persons. This has prevented
professional women from taking decision-making roles, which demand abilities for critical
evaluation, immediate response to unfolding realities and strategic thinking.

Section of women which is either hostile towards classroom teaching or can’t learn from
the teacher either individually or in the classes can be reached out only through television,
video-films or radio and wall papers, charts. Married women fall in this category. One-to-
one teaching is a luxury, which can be afforded by, the economically secure individuals
and institutions.

2.9 Economic Status of Women

According to UN estimates, in 1970 India had 60 million economically active women and in
1990 the number had risen to 76 million. Out of the total workforce of women, 2% are
administrative and managerial workers, 11% are clerks, sales and service workers, 15%
are industrial and transport workers and 31% are agricultural and hunting workers. In
predominantly tribal states like Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur, the
WPR of women is higher but the quality of employment, in terms of wages or income from
self-employment and work-condition, is deplorable.
_____________________
26
for more details on these programmes, see Maitreyi Das: The Women’s Development
Programme in Rajasthan-A Case Study in Group Formation for Women’s Development,
Chapter-X- Mahila Samakhya and Group Formation for Education. Policy Research Working
Papers- Women in Development, The World Bank, 1992.
27
I arrived at this understanding after listening to verbal presentations of women
employees of the WDP (Rajasthan) during National Conferences of Women’s Movement in
India, in Patna (1988) and Calicut, 1990. Discussions with women animators of Mahila
Samakhya in Karnataka, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh in Calicut, Surat and Ahmedabad
between 1990 and 1994 corroborated the same.
Women in the Unorganised Sector:

94% of the total women workers are in the ‘informal’ (dependent) sector. The economic
reforms reinforce the trend of informalisation and flexibalisation for the female workforce.
The formation of ‘flexible’ labour force is the key concept of NEP. A shift from a
stable/organised labour force to a flexible workforce has meant hiring women on a part-
33
time basis and the substitution of highly paid male labour by cheap female labour. The
NEP provides congenial state support for the large corporate houses that are closing down
their big city units and using ancillaries that employ rural and tribal girls (without
responsibilities for families and children) on a piece-rate basis. In the name of increase in
‘efficiency’ and ‘productivity’ of labour, home-based work by women and girls get easily
legitimised.

In the name of increasing marginal efficiency of financial capital, there have been attacks
on women’s access to credit, extension services and input subsidies. The same concern for
efficiency and the proper management of public funds, however, was not to be seen when
it came to stock market speculators. The banks that were indicated in the country’s
biggest financial scam, talked of increasing their interest rates, to the detriment of self-
employment women who are dependent on loans. This had affected the small businesses
of self-employment poor women. To continue their business, these women now have to
approach private money-lenders who charge compound rate of interest.

The liberalisation of the economy has not liberated working women. The elimination of
7000 licences, the scrapping of MRTP limits and the reduction in customs duty on capital
goods have given free grazing grounds for foreign capital. Following the liberalisation of
the economy, the right to fish in Indian waters has been given to several foreign firms,
including Union Carbide. As a result, 50,000 fisher-folk families have lost their jobs. Food
processing industries with foreign collaboration are being established.

Use of women in the informal sector of electronics, diamond, garment manufacture and
pharmaceutical industries has increased. Here again, the underlying reality is disturbing.
With globalisation of production and the introduction of assembly-line production, research
and management is being controlled by the first world, while strenuous, monotonous,
‘unskilled’ or ‘semi-skilled’ work is being done by third world women. Commenting of this
situation, the UN Report, Third World Women: 1970-90 states, “The informal sector is by
no means a panacea for women. It is far less secure than formal sector work and it
generally pays less than the minimum wage.”

Employment Profile in the Public Sector:


The NEP has declared 200 public sector units ‘economically unviable’ and ‘sick’.
Consequently millions of workers have lost their jobs disinvestments in public sector units,
closures and retrenchment rendered 6.6 million workers (7% to 9% of them women)
unemployed, within a year of the introduction of SAP, according to the Annual Survey of
Industries, 1991. 50% of the factory employees who were supported by the National
Textile Corporation are now unemployed. New job opportunities are provided by the
information technologies. The Information Technology (IT) profession has created an army
of teleworkers.
In the rural areas, some state like Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have generated
massive employment in the IT sector which provide services in the fields of telemedicine,
literacy programme and science education.

In the last decade, new recruitment in railways, banks and insurance companies has
virtually stopped. Following the SAP, the GOI has declared 4 lakh workers as surplus in the
nationalised banks. Out of 900,000 bank employees in India, 20% are women. Plans for
retrenchment in the Indian Railways, announced by the GOI, has made thousands of
women typists, telephone operators, and clerks’ jobless. The post and telegraph
department has declared 200,000 workers as ‘excess’. The women-dominated profession

34
of nursing has been greatly affected by the SAP. Recruitment of nurses in the public
hospitals of Maharashtra has decreased by 15%. Vacancies are not filled because of
budgetary cuts in public health expenditure. Nursing was an occupation that had
experienced virtually full-employment in India. This is now changing. One of the largest
government hospitals in Bombay, the J.J. Hospital, has not filled 217 vacant staff-nurse
posts. In the Employment State Insurance Scheme (ESIS) hospitals, 500 nurses have
been declared surplus. Consequently, the workload of employed nurses has increased
tremendously. According to the nursing council, the nurse: patient ratio 1:4 but in these
changed circumstances nurses work at a ratio of 1:15. Though there are 5 sanctioned
beds per nurses, because of staff shortage they end up caring for 40-50 patients.

Reduction in educational funds by the government has created job-redundancy in the


teaching profession, where women constitute 22.8% of teachers. Encouragement to the
private sector in the education has eroded the rights provided by the labour laws, as
private institutions hire teachers on a contract basis and often terminate employment
before staff becomes legally entitled to a permanent post.
In the organised sector of the overall economy and in private enterprise the growth rate of
employment during 1980-1990 was 2% and 1.5% respectively. Now it has been reduced
to 0.60%.

Employment Profile in Agriculture:


The employment elasticity of output in agricultural has reduced to 0.64%. Reduction of
subsidy and credit in agriculture has affected small and marginal farmers negatively.
Unemployment and underemployment in the rural areas have gained serious proportion
because, in the NEP, schemes for rural development and rural industrialisation have not
been given any importance. (Dholakia,1992). As per Economic Survey 2000-2001
budgetary allocation under several employment schemes has to absorb the backlog of the
unemployed and the new additions to the labour force.

There has already been a major shift in the cropping pattern from subsistence production
like rice, millet, corn, wheat to cash-crop production such as fruit, mushrooms, flowers
and vegetables. This process has affected women’s employment in the agrarian sector.
Several studies have shown that a shift from subsistence to cash-crop production
invariably leads to women being the first to lose their jobs. As a result of shrinking self-
employment prospects for women, the large majority of them join the rural and urban
reserve army of labour. In rural India, 31% of total female population is employed as per
2001 census.

Opening up of market since 1-4-2000 for 729 new commodities (240 are agrarian
products including rice, meat, milk powder, fruits) that can be imported unrestrictedly
have resulted in enormous tragedies resulting into suicides and starvation deaths among
farmers and weavers. Prices of rubber, cotton, coconut, coffee, cardamom, pepper,
tomatoes, sugarcane and potatoes have crashed. Urban poor women in Kerala and
Karnataka are fighting desperate struggles against imports of these items to express their
solidarity with their rural and tribal sisters.

Urban Unemployment

35
Between 1980 and 1990, the number of persons registered as unemployed in the
Employment Exchange Bureaus of country doubled. At present, India has 34 million
registered unemployed and every year it increases by 12% to 13%. The number of women
profession workers, such as executives, decision-makers in government departments,
lawyers, doctors and engineers has increased and will continue to increase, but their
strength in the overall economy is miniscule.

Recent Debates on the Part-time work for Women


The government finds it difficult to dismiss permanent staff in public sector enterprises, as
they are well organised, vocal, articulate and visible. To create an ideological justification
for segmentation in the labour market on the grounds of gender relations, a debate on the
issue of part-time work for women employees has begun. The argument in favour of it is
that the women workers/ employees shoulder the burden of domestic duties as well as
office-work, so a reduction of working hours will give them some relief. The majority of
employed women have refused this offer feeling it will deprive them of promotion and
responsible assignments, as well as providing a weapon to discriminate against women, by
projecting women as “supplementary earners”. Moreover, often the most strenuous part of
work is commuting back and forth, and whether a person works part-time or full-time, the
same amount of time and energy is spent commuting. The argument in favour of part-
time work for women does not question the existing gender-based division of labour in the
family. It throws the whole burden of child-care and housework on the individual woman.
The long-standing demand for the socialisation of family functions to be supported by the
state is also negated here. The women’s movement in India has suggested that the best
way to reduce the double burden for women is to inculcate the ethos of housework shared
between both male and female members of family, the provision of cheap and safe eating
facilities, child-care centres that provide both custodial care and developmental inputs for
children, and better transport facilities, etc.

2.10 Work Participation Rate of Women

The 2001 census showed the work participation rate (WPR) of women as 23%. For the
rural women the WPR is 27% and for the urban women it is 10%. Compared to the 1971
and 1981 censuses, this rise in WPR is considerable.

Table-9
Year Female Work Participation Rate
(WPR)
1911 33.73
1961 27.96
1971 11.86
1981 14.44
1991 22.63
2001 23.00
Source: Census of India, 2001

A sectoral profile shows that most women workers in rural areas are in occupations such
as weaving, handicraft, tailoring, forestry, sale of fish, silk and poultry farming. In urban
areas, the majority of women workers are either in the construction sector or in the
nursing and teaching professions, working either on a contract-basis or self-employed. The
rise of work participation rate is not a sign of empowerment but a sign of sheer
helplessness and economic distress. Subcontracting, home-based production, family
36
labour system, and the payment of wages on a piece-rate basis, are jobs earmarked for
women. According to the 1991 census, 19% of the total female workforce constitutes
unpaid family labour. Even in a state like Kerala, only 17% of the women are gainfully
employed.

2.11 Exercise

• Give a demographic profile of women in India.


• What are the factors affecting continuously declining sex ratio in India?
• Describe work participation and sectoral contribution of working women in India.
• Write short note on:
• Reproductive Rights of Women
• Women and Education
• Women and Health
• Economic Status of Women

2.12 References:

• Amartya Kumar Sen (2001) “Many Faces of Gender Inequality”, New Redcliff
Institute at Harvard University.
• K. Srinivasan and A Shroff (1988). India: Towards Population and Development
Goals, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
• Martha Nussbaum, and Amartya Sen (eds.) (1999) The Quality of Life, Oxford
University Press, Delhi.
• Rekha Wazir (2000). The Gender Gap in Basic Education: EGOs as Change Agents,
Safe Publications, New Delhi.
• Sarala Gopalan and Mira Shiva (2000) National Profile on Women, Health and
Development, Country Profile-India, Voluntary Health Association of India and world
Health Organisation, Delhi.
• T. P. Schultz, (1988) “Education Investments and Returns”, in Chenery, H. B. and
T. N. Srinivasan, The Handbook of Development Economics, North Holland, New York.
• Vibhuti Patel (2002) Women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications,
Delhi.

Chapter 3 Women and Decision Making

37
Contents

3.1 Factors Affecting Decision-making by Women

3.2 Role of Voluntary Organizations, Self-help Groups


3.3 Review of Legislation for Women’s Entitlements, Protection of Property Rights and
Social Security
3.4 Schemes for Safety-net for Women

3.5 Social Structure and Social Security of Women-Entitlements, Access to Control over
Economic Resources, Ensuring Economic Independence and Risk Coverage.

3.6 Power of Decision-Making at Household Levels, Class and Community level


3.7 Economic Status of women and its Effect on work Participation Rate, Income Level,
Health and Education in Developing Countries and India.
3.8 Role of Kinship in Allocation of Domestic and Social Resources

3.9 Exercise
3.10 References

3.0 Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

• explain to factors responsible for women's decision making power in the family and
public life;

• discuss women's entitlements, property rights;

• debate on women's access and control over economic resources;

• highlight the relationship between women's economic status and women's work-
participation, health and education Contents.

3.1 Factors Affecting Decision-Making by Women

Poverty, lack of access to basic resources, lack of access to political party lists, low
salaries, and discrimination in the workplace are considered as root causes of women's
under-representation in economic and political decision-making. If women have to be
concerned with survival, there is little time left for assuming positions of leadership and
economic power. Recognition of women's unpaid work and the need for sharing of family
and household responsibilities, along with training in non-traditional skills, are key factors
to help explain why so few women worldwide have actual decision-making power in the
households, community and economy.

3.2 Role of Voluntary Organizations, Self-Help Groups

Women's participation in preventive diplomacy and negotiations at the peace table were
considered to be essential to achieving peace and development and for diverting military
expenditures for peaceful purposes. It was suggested that decision-making processes,

38
involving both women and men, including in situations of intrastate conflict, could help to
create a more peaceful approach.

The importance of creating national machineries, inter-ministerial bodies, national


committees and women's bureaus to ensure women's equal participation in all aspects of
decision-making, with adequate levels of staffing and funding, and located at the center of
political power, was cited as critical. In addition, the mainstreaming of gender issues in
institutions was noted as another means to promote the advancement of women in
decision-making. The need for effective monitoring mechanisms was emphasized, with
time-bound targets and measurable indicators to evaluate progress.
In keeping women in power, greater harmonization between professional work and family
responsibilities for both men and women was considered essential. Greater sharing of
parental and household responsibilities between women and men was deemed to be
paramount. Recognition of women's unpaid work, need for flexible working hours and
sharing of family responsibilities with men, and the need for women to participate in
decision-making at the household level, were also cited.
The importance of education and training to enable women to have greater control over
their lives was emphasized. Training women candidates in the conduct of electoral
campaigns and fund raising had proved to be important for effecting the election of
women to public office. Once in office, women often need training in parliamentary
procedures and budgetary matters. Leadership training was considered essential for
women at all levels.
The revision of education curricula and textbooks remains an important means of
eliminating gender-based stereotypes. Attitudinal change was considered to be especially
important at the earliest stages of life when boys and girls have not yet internalized sex
stereotypes. The role of the media in perpetuating sex stereotypes and the need to ensure
a positive view of women and portrayal of girls in non-traditional roles (wore) noted.
Continued stereotyping of women and their negative portrayal as sex objects on television
and in films undermines the struggle for women's equality. The value of stimulating public
debate on the diverse role of women particularly in public life and in the family was
emphasized. Despite the growing presence of professional women in the media, decisions
about editorial content and production issues are still largely controlled by men.
An urgent need was identified for case studies on "women making a difference" and for
the creation of a database to monitor women's participation in government, corporation,
political parties, trade unions, international organizations and the military.

Women need to seek greater partnership with men to build coalitions and strengthen
alliances to advocate for women's political empowerment and representation. Women
leaders and older women and men represent a valuable resource for mentoring young
women as future leaders. National and regional women's parliamentary caucuses should
also include women from the private sector and the civil service.
International organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations and women
parliamentarians should join efforts to support the development of women leaders through
training, so as to facilitate their entry into the political arena. An enabling environment
should be established for women's full participation and equal representation in power and
decision-making.

39
3.3 Review of Legislation for Women's Entitlements, Protection of
Property Rights and Social Security.

In 1994, the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments brought 10 lakh women as elected
representatives in the local self-governmental bodies due to reservation of seats for
women in the village councils, tehsil councils and district councils as well as municipal
councils and corporations. Eleven years of governance has made them confident to deal
with public economics, area development agenda and gender audit of budgets. Quotas and
targets in jobs, legislature and political parties are suggested as necessary to accelerate
the equal representation of women in all areas of governance. Looking at the controversial
nature of quotas, it should be seen only as a temporary solution. Those who oppose
affirmative action by the state in favour of women believe that women should still enter
into power-structures strictly on the basis of competition, laissez faire in the labour, factor
and product markets.
To put forward women's economic agenda, their leaders need to have agenda setting
power. Electoral reform, specifically in the adoption of proportional representation in place
of plurality systems, is a possible means for increasing the percentage of women in
parliaments. The bill on 33% reservation of seats in the parliaments has already been
introduced. For past two decades, the issue has remained extremely controversial. Those
who support the bill suggest that there should be no less than 30-40% and no more than
60-70% of either sex in decision-making positions.

Women Empowerment Policy, 2001 of Government of India can be effective only when its
principles and programmes get translated into a plan of action.

*For implementation of the plan, there has to be an efficient resource management by


elected representatives and motivated civil servants, sincere financial commitments for
women's schemes & programmes and consistent monitoring by women's bodies within the
state apparatus and civil society.

3.4 Schemes for Safety-Net for Women

The tenth five year plan has demanded that each and every ministry of the state and
union governments are bound to channelise 30% of funds/ benefits from development
sector to Women. Recommendations for Employment

A policy for women's employment has to include strategies for challenging the sexual
division of labour and gender ideology inside as well as outside the workplace.

Policies for access-include access to employment, education, training, credit etc.


1. Policies to improve the quality of employment, including her position in the
household.
2. Policies to preserve employment and to protect material and human resources and
assets.
A. Proper Implementation of Laws, Schemes28

1. The existing labour legislation, i.e. the Industrial Disputes Act, the Factories Act,
the E.S.I.S. Act and the Minimum Wages Act, should not be withdrawn but strengthened
to cover all workers29.

40
2. Some mechanism is required to evaluate the value of work under ERA.
3. Minimum wages need to be strictly implemented with ward level committees of
workers.
4. Employment Guarantee Scheme- The central and state government has to ensure
macro policies that will absorb workers in labour intensive units and occupations. The
Employment Guarantee Scheme needs to be expanded and improved for urban workers.
The focus of such employment schemes can be on building infrastructure, slum
development and housing. The National Renewal Fund should be extended to cover the
unorganised sector and a substantial part should go into the retraining of workers. 30
B. Law Reform31

i. Maternity Benefit for ALL working Mothers irrespective of the number of employees.
Crèches should be provided for children of all workers and not merely women workers
irrespective of the number of employees. There could be a common fund for each
industry.

ii. Family Leave: The minimum paid maternity leave period to be applicable to ALL
working mothers irrespective of the necessary length of continuous service or the number
of employees, irrespective whether married or un married and whether the child is natural
born or adopted. Birth or adoptive fathers of a new child entitled to paid paternity leave on
the birth or adoption of a child Employees to have a right to take time off to care for
children, disabled or sick dependents. The options available include: unpaid leave with
automatic re-entry to an equivalent post in terms of grade, type of work etc., Part time
working, Temporary re-arrangement of working pattern, Flexi-time Request Right
available to working parents with young children (below 5 years of age or employees who
have a right to care for disabled or sick dependents. The request can cover: the employee
will have a right to return to work following availing of any of the above leave. The staff
member must undertake in writing to return to work. No employee will suffer a detriment,
be unfairly dismissed or be discriminated against for a reason connected, with pregnancy,
childbirth, maternity, paternity, adoption, dependent care leave or the right to request
flexible working, or time off to take care for a dependent. There shall be no loss of
seniority, sick leave entitlements and incremental progression.32

iii. The Sexual Harassment Of Women At The Workplace (Prevention and Redressal)
Bill, 2004. The Bill provides for the prevention and redressal of sexual harassment of
women at workplaces, or arising during and out of the course of their employment and
matters connected

______________________________
28
Bajpai Asha, Women's Rights at workplace, TISS, 1997.
29
Nandita Shah & Nandita Gandhi, Aakshara aksharacentre@vsnl.com
30
Maithreyi Krishnaraj
31
Bajpai Asha
32
Bajpai Asha, Recommendations given to the UGC Standing Committee for University and
College Teachers
thereto, in keeping with the principles of equality, freedom, life and liberty as enshrined in
the? Constitution of India and as upheld by the Supreme Court in Vishakha vs. State of
Rajasthan {1997(9) SCC.323} and as reflected in the Convention on the Elimination of all
41
forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) which has been ratified by the
Government of India.

Scenario in post- Vishakha guidelines period:


Sophia Centre for Women's Studies and Development study shows that awareness and
implemeation of the Supreme Court's guidelines is very low and there is need to spread
awareness on the same. Study of Samhita (Kolkata) throwing light on the processual
dimensions of Bhanvari Devi Case has alarmed the state and civil society of the enormity
and gravity of the menace called SHW.33 Recently The Times Foundations organized a
workshop for the corporate world on SHW. Testimonies of several participants of the
workshop revealed that SHW is prevalent even in the companies where the victims are
highly educated and have considerable economic leverage. Similar views have been
expressed in the business journals. (Business Today, 1-9-2002)

To address Sexual harassment in the informal and small-scale industries, free trade zones,
special economic zones, the labour departments may be directed to set up complaints
committees and give them publicity or it could be made mandatory for every industrial
estate and export zone to have its governing body set up a grievance cell for complaints.

This will require co-operation between women’s group, official bodies, trade unions and
employers Women’s group can play an active role in disseminating information about
sexual harassment and redressal procedures in industrial zones and estates. They can also
raise the issue of the definition of skills and equal pay for comparable work so as to tackle
gender inequality at the workplace. The Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prevention) Act
must be enacted by the nation states to provide a remedy within the criminal justice
system. This is to provide for prevention of sexual harassment of women employees that
is work related.34

iv. Legal Protection for Informal Sector


Legal protection has to be given to the informal sector worker in the form of regular
employment, notice period, compensatory pay or some form of unemployment insurance.
It has been a long-standing demand of the representatives of the informal sector workers,
trade unions and NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) that workers should be
registered as daily or piece rated workers with an identity card. This single act would
provide information on the number of irregular workers and access to them for welfare
measures. Social welfare for the informal sector workers can be implement the workers
through existing government infrastructure and tripartite boards. 35
C. Needs of Women Workers in the Informal Sector:

___________________________
33
SCWSD & ICHRL: Sexual Harassment at Workplace, Working Paper Series, 1:1, Sophia
Centre for Women’s Studies and Development, 2003
34
Bajpal Asha, Sexual Harassment – An Organizational Challenge, Management Review
35
ibid
Recognition as workers, Supplementary development programs, vocational training for
skill up gradation, Provision for maternity benefit and post natal medical facilities,
Protection against domestic violence and sexual harassment, Family benefits, Medical
reimbursements, Retirement benefits (old age pension), Insurance Schemes and policies,

42
Compulsory savings schemes, Micro finance schemes and interest free loans, Legal
guidance and awareness

D. Emphasis on Education and Skills


A clear emphasis needs to be given to education, type of education of poor and especially
of women. Women's access to employment is limited (amongst other reasons) because of
lack of education and skills. The central and state government has a free education policy
for girls but there is no follow up on the number of dropouts. Girls usually drop out from
the high school. Special attention and incentives should be given to girls and parents for
them to return to school.
E. Capacity Building and Training

Extra allocations of funds will be necessary for typing up the training institutions with job
placement organisations or industries. Trainings for jobs have to be combined with
additional inputs around building other life-skills towards critical awareness about women's
status, improvement in negotiating skills and programs around building and maintaining
women's assets including savings.
F. Social Audits

International consumer and workers groups have attempted social audits at the firm level
to ensure worker's rights. They have to be made mandatory not only for export firms but
for all production units.
G. Self Help Group Movement

Self Help Groups are organisations of women from the downtrodden section of the society
that empower the women to be self-reliant through capacity and confidence building and
by making micro-credit available and accessible to women. The SHG movement has
taught women the value of saving and the strength of working as a group.

Some of the problems faced by the movement are37:


• Weak groups being formed.

• Delay in Gradation of groups by banks.

• Subsidy seekers have ruined the programme.

• Implementation by raw NGOs- need for their training.

• Regarding bank credit to 'defaulters'

• Insensitivity of bankers

• Delays in release of money by District Rural Development Authorities

_______________________________________
36
Stree Mukti Sanghatana, 2004.
37
Rupa Mistry (2004), MAVIM, Mumbai.
• Group activity does not take place

• All members may not take up economic activities


38
Recommendations for strengthening the SHGs:

43
• Groups should be only formed by NGOs or Women Development Corporations with
the requisite knowledge and ethos of SHG development and micro-credit movement.

• Once an NGO is selected, the nurturing grants should be released every quarter to
it, after reviewing training milestones, group savings and internal lending data and not on
the basis of bank gradation. NGOs should receive nurturing grants for at least five years,
during which they should support the group.

• A state level agency should be appointed to train NGOs and also be permitted to
appoint their own NGOs to implement the programme in addition to implementation
through its field workers.
• SHG groups are not broken up by the banks insistence to drop the member who is
a defaulter or whose family member is a defaulter of the bank.
• Along with initiatives improving the programme delivery mechanism, bankers need
to be trained and sensitised every three months, because of the high turnover of bankers
in rural areas and the ignorance of bankers coming from urban postings to the needs of
rural areas.
• NGO release should not be made contingent to the group taking up economic
activities. NGOs should be evaluated in the basis of group capacity building and training.
• This SHG movement is now at the crossroads and is poised for expansion and the
problems need to be addressed immediately.
H. Property and Land Rights

There is much gender bias in our property laws. Everything appears equal on paper and
that is where it ends.

Recommendations
• Testamentary powers that deny the daughters their property rights should be
restricted.
• Allow daughters full right of residence in the parental dwelling houses.

• Women must be given 'the right to residence' hence putting private household
property in the joint names of partners. A care however has to be taken that wherever
women have property in their name, men did not appropriate under the pretext of
property being in joint name. 39

A women on being abused in her matrimonial home has little choice but to endure it. Her
natal household is usually unwilling to have her back for fear of the social stigma attached
to single women. These and other considerations restrict a women's reliance on her
parents' households in

____________________________
38
ibid
39
Vibhuti Patel, WDC, Mumbai University E mail-
times of potentially dangerous marital relations. Bill on Matrimonial property has been
drafted that needs to be passed. The matrimonial property bill will give her rights.
I. Budget Auditing and Planning

44
The Budget is an important tool in the hands of state for affirmative action for
improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in the development
process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men and women as well as
between the rich and the poor. Hence, the budgetary policies need to keep into
considerations the gender dynamics operating in the economy and in the civil society.
There is a need to highlight participatory approaches to pro-poor budgeting, green
budgeting, local and global implications of pro-poor and pro-women budgeting, alternative
macro scenario emerging out of alternative budgets and inter-linkages between gender-
sensitive budgeting and women's empowerment. Serious examining of budgets calls for
greater transparency at the level of international economics to local processes of
empowerment.40
Women's Component Plan to assure at least 30% of funds/benefits from all development
sectors flow to women. The Component Plan approach should be executed with a
mandated approach of convergence of services at all levels of governance, through inter-
sectoral committees of all Ministries/ Departments at the Centre and the States with
specific responsibility given to the local self-government bodies and Municipalities to
administer at the grassroots level

3.5 Social Structure and Social Security

Social Structure and Social Security of Women Entitlements, Access to Control Over
Economic Resources, Ensuring Economic Independence And Risk Coverage

Affirmative Action for social security by the state, employees and SHGs need to consider
the following points:

• Women can be empowered by providing economic rights at workplace, throughthe


SHG movement and through giving property rights and land reforms to ensure land rights
to women.
• Women in order to empower themselves must be familiar with banking operations
like opening and managing their own accounts. Women should be issued bills in their
names.41

• Women with income below taxable limit should be exempted from paying stamp
duties. Tax benefits be extended to women who were only earners in a household. This
would be a part of affirmative action for women42.
__________________________________
40
Patel, Vibhuti (2003) "Gender Audit of Budgets", Working Paper, Department of
Economics, Mumbai University. E mail- vibhuti@vsnl.net
41
Anantram, Sharayu and Vibhuti Patel (2004) "Report of Round Table on Women
Empowerment Policy", Urdhva Mula, Sophia Centre for Women's Studies and
Development, Mumbai, Vol.2, No. 2, pp. 103-139.
42
ibid

• No aspect of economic life is gender neutral. Therefore, every ministry at the


Centre and State levels must have a women's division and it should be involved in all
decision-making processes like planning, budgeting, implementing and monitoring.

45
• Women and child development department must be separated. This would help
break the stereotype that women alone were responsible for children.

• And above all, there is a need to provide training and capacity building workshops
for decision-makers in the government structures, village councils, parliamentarians and
audio-visual media43

3.6 Power of Decision-Making At Household Levels, Class and


Community Level

Women's self-organization only can ensure power of decision-making at household, Class


and Community Levels. During 1970s and 1980s the women's movement highlighted
marginalisation of women from the economy. The efforts of women activists were directed
in agitation and propaganda for women's rights, street fighting against escalating violence
against assertive women and team building to counter sexual harassment at work place.
In the 1990, the women's movement is demanding its legitimate place within the
mainstream with its own agenda of empowerment of women with partnership with men
(Maratha Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover, 1995). It has been able to identify its allies in
all sections of society. Its horizontal and vertical networking has created congenial
atmosphere to execute development agenda with the help of effective use of information
technology, communication channels, modern managerial practices and efficient law and
order machinery. The most difficult areas have been providing educational opportunities
for the poverty groups, low- cost housing, environmental and occupational safety and
human rights concerns. Development thinkers and workers need safety nets to operate
without pressure from the local bullies and vested interests. Bullies of each and every
communities are increasingly taking advantage of development workers/
teachers/academicians because they non-hierarchical in their functioning and also because
they are no commercial minded in their day-to-day affairs. When individual women
activists sense threat/pressure in advance, they do change their accommodation and jobs.
This is another from of sati. The state, political parties and beneficiaries of women's
groups too have duty to ensure democratic and multicultural atmosphere within which the
women activists can take judicious and gender-just decisions about allocation of
developmental resources and development funding for construction of schools, community
centres, sport-clubs, libraries and reading rooms, low cost hospitals and low cost housing
for the poverty groups leading settled life.

_____________________________
43
ibid

3.7 Economic Status of Women

Economic Status of Women and its Effect on Work Participation Rate, Income Level, Health
And Education in Developing Countries and India
Important issues for Global and local level Advocacy:

a. Strengthening of Food Security and Right to Food Top down and bottom up
initiatives to stop malnutrition and starvation deaths created by stabilization programmes
resulting into withdrawal of state from food security commitments.

46
b. Public Health issues must be highlighted thro' a national network, People's Health
Assembly. The Nation States should follow the UN mandate of 5% of the GDP for
budgetary allocation on the public health.
c. No to dumping of unsafe contraceptives for coloured and poor women.

d. Ban sex-selective abortions of female foetuses in South Asia and China.


e. State Support for Women's Education not only at the primary school level but also
at the secondary and high school level. Forum for Child Care has demanded that one room
of the school should be converted into crèche so that girls who have to look after their
younger sibling can also join the schools. More budgetary allocation and actual funding for
girls education.

f. Free Legal Aid and People's Court: Justice and Peace Commission, a network of
community organisations working in Mumbai provides free legal aid to poor women to deal
with marital disputes, diyorce, maintenance, custody of children, alimony, property, right
to stay in the parental or matrimonial homes.

g. Housing Rights are the most important. The NGOs have demanded that in all
housing societies and state supported housing schemes, 10% houses should be reserved
for female-headed households.
h. Sanitation, Public toilets: There is an urgent need to take up the issues of urban
sanitation in terms of higher budgetary provision from the state and municipal funding.
i. Safety nets for women in the subsistence sector of the economy in terms of loans,
infrastructure, storage and transport and state subsidy and support price for agriculture,
animal husbandry, dairy development, horticulture and floriculture.

j. Environmental Issues: Natural resources, being humankind's common heritage,


must be preserved for the use of actual and future generation with the perspective each
human being has an access to water, air, energy, etc. according to her or his needs.
Commercialisation and privatisation of these resources must be stopped. Biological
diversity (flora, fauna, forests, ecosystems) must be preserved and indigenous women's
collective wisdom must be recognised, respected and valued.

k. Occupational Health- Women scavengers and recycling workers under extremely


hazardous circumstances. They should be given masks, hand gloves, gum- boots and free
and quality medical care.
l. Crèches: the state, employers and trade unions should provide more day care
centres for the children of working mothers in the community an near the workplace.
m. Implementation of Labour standards: Erosion of labour standards as a result of
globalisation should be fought tooth and nail. Let the nation states compete to give better
wages and work-conditions to the workers.

n. Global Code Against Commodification of Women's Body as a spare-part for sale,


pornography and obscene portrayal of Women in Media: Universal standards for decent
portrayal of women in media must be evolved.
o. Community Oriented Media: Social action groups need to interact closely with the
mainstream media, and also generate their alternate media to highlight women's right to
dignified life.

47
Let us be realistic and accept the fact that Globalisation is a Fate accompli. Then let us
make concerned efforts so that globalisation has human face. This can happen only
through the global solidarity and sisterhood of the toiling women all over the globe. We
have to think globally and act locally to make all decision-making bodies accept that
women's rights to survive are the human rights.

3.8 Role of Kinship in Allocation of Domestic and Social Resources

Kinship networks play predominant role in determining age, gender, location-based


division of rights and responsibilities, autonomy and control, restrictions and liberties
allocated to women. Hence, to change the mindset of communities become a major task
to enhance decision-making power of women though investments in social infrastructures
such as education, skill development, public health and sanitation, environmental and
occupational safety.

3.9 Exercise

• Which are the factors affecting decision making by women?

• In what way decision making can influence women’s education, economic


independence, health and well-being?

• What roles kinship networks, community leader, political structures and affirmative
actions by the state influence decision-making in favour of women?

• Do you support reservation of seats for women in the jobs and governance (local
self-government bodies, parliament and all apex bodies of decision making)?

• What type of social security measures can make decision makers sensitive to
women’s agenda?

3.10 References:

 Devaki Jain (2000) The Vocabulary of Women’s Politics, Fredrich Ebert Stiftung,
Delhi.

 Irene Tinker (Ed.) (1990) Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development,
Oxford University Press, New York.

48
 Naila Kabeer and R. Subramanian (eds.) (1999). Institutions, Relations and
Outcomes, Kali for Women, New Delhi.

 Vibhuti Patel (2002) women’s Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications,
Delhi.

49
Chapter 4 Conceptualization of Work

Contents

4.1 Concept and Analysis of Women's Work-Paid and Unpaid Work

4.2 Valuation of Productive and Unproductive Work


4.3 Visible and Invisible Works

4.4 Economically Productive and Socially Productive Work.


4.5 Economic Status, Private Property and Participation of Women In Pre-Industrial And
Industrial Societies
4.6 Women's Contribution to National Income

4.7 Exercise

4.0 Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:


• Analyse women's household work and value attached to it;

• Explain methods of valuing women's work;

• Establish relationship between economically productive and socially productive


work;
• Highlight participation of women in pre-industrial and industrial societies

• Discuss the contribution of women to National Income

Before we start the discussion on the women and work, let us read this poem

Housewife
The housewife (2)
If the women's husband is asked
What does his wife do
The answer is
"My wife does not work."
Then
Who bears this world in her womb?
Who gives birth to the farmers, the workers?
Who cooks, washes, cleans and fills water?
Looks after the child and fills water?
Whose labour gives men leisure for liquor, tobacco and card session?
Whose labour gives men their strength to go to work?

50
Who labours without being noticed?
Mutely working, without being paid,
Without being appreciated ever--------
-Amrita Pritam

4.1 Concept and Analysis of Women's Work-Paid and Unpaid Work

• Women constitute 1/ of the world's population, 2/3 of the world's work force but
get 1/10th of the world's income and 1% of the world's Wealth-United Nations.
• As per 2001 Census, 23% of women are in the work force. 94% of all working
women are in the informal sector.
Women all around the world have been doing paid, underpaid and largely unpaid work in
homes, factories, fields, forests and mines. Over and above Cs-cooking, cleaning and
caring, large number of women do activities such as collection of fuel, fodder and water,
animal husbandry, kitchen gardening, raising poultry that augment family resources. It
women would not this work, these goods would have to be purchased from the market.

Our census defines work as an activity done by a person that brings remuneration,
income, payment, salary, wages and honorarium. All able bodied persons in the age group
of 15-59 are part of the labour force. According to Census, those who are employed for
183 days in a year for 8 hours per day are Main workers. Those who get paid work for 4
hours a day for continuously 186 days a year are considered to be marginal workers. The
rest are classified as non-workers.

4.2 Valuation of Productive and Unproductive Work

The debate about the economic and social function of housework and its relation to
women's oppression is an old one that has been a feature of both the first and second
wave women's movements in the US, Britain and Europe. In both eras, the underlying
issue is how to handle the public/private split of capitalist societies in which women's
reproductive functions have either limited their work to the home or created a "second
shift" problem of unpaid housework and childcare as well as waged work. In the first
wave, located as it was in the Victorian period where the dominant ideology for middle and
upper class women was purity, piety and domesticity (also called the "cult of true
womanhood"), the debate centered on whether to keep housework in the private sphere
yet make it more scientific and efficient (Beecher 1841; Richards 1915), or whether to
"socialize" it by bringing it into the public sphere, as socialist Charlotte Perkins Gilman
advocated (1898).
In the US, the "public housekeeping" aspect of the Progressive movement of the 1980s
through early 1900s advocated that women bring the positive values associated with
motherhood into the public sphere- by obtaining the vote, cleaning out corruption in
politics, creating settlement houses to educate and support immigrants, and forming the
women's peace movement, etc. (cf. Jane Addams 1914). Disagreements about whether to
downplay or valorize the distinctive function and skills in motherhood as work for which
women are naturally superior, or to see motherhood as restricting women's chances for
economic independence and equality with men in the public sphere, were also evident in

51
debates between Ellen Keys (1909, 1914) and Gilman. Keys represented the difference
side, that women are superior humans because of mothering; while Gilman and Goldman
took the equality side of the debate, that is, that women are restricted, and made socially
unequal to men, by unpaid housework and mothering [3].

4.3 Visible and Invisible Works

Women's household work is invisible as it is performed inside four wall o their house and
their work is not recognized and remunerated. Invisibility of women's household work is
the outcome of definition of work in Economics that defines 'work' as any type of physical
and mental activity undertaken in anticipation of economic returns. Women's household
work remains invisible as it is ignored in estimating national income. National income is
defined as the sum total of all production. 'Production' is defined as the creation of utility-
Form utility, place utility, time utility and service utility. Women are continuously
producing one or more of these utilities. Yet, it is not included in the national income.
Production by women in the household has 'use value' but not 'exchange value' as it is not
traded in the market. Women's production in the household is ignored as there is no price
tag attached to it.

4.4 Economically Productive and Socially Productive Work

In the second wave movement, theorists can be grouped by their theory of how
housework oppresses women. Typically, liberal feminists critique housework because it is
unpaid. This makes women dependent on men and devalued, since their work is outside
the meaningful sphere of public economic production (Friedan 1963). Marxist feminist
theorists see this as per of the problem, but some go further to maintain that housework
is part of a household feudal mode of production of goods for use that persists under
capitalism and gives men feudal powers over women's work (Benston 1969, Fox 1980).
Other Marxist feminists argue that women's housework is part of the social reproduction of
capitalism (Federici 1975, 2005; Malos 1975; Vogel 1995). That the necessary work of
reproducing the working class is unpaid allows more profits to capitalists. It is the sexual
division of labor in productive and reproductive work that makes woman unequal to men
and allow capitalists to exploit women's unpaid labor. Some even make this analysis the
basis for a demand for wages for housework (Dalla Costa 1974; Federici 1975). More
recently, Federici has done an analysis of the transition to capitalism in Europe. She
argues that it was the emerging capitalist class need to control working class reproduction,
to eliminated working class women's control over biological reproduction, and to assure
their unpaid reproductive work in the home by restricting abortions, that fueled the
campaign against witches during this period (federici 2004).
One of the philosophical problems raised by the housework debate is how to draw the line
between work and play or leisure activity when the activity is not paid: is a mother playing
with her baby working or engaged in play? If the former, then her hours in such activity
may be compared with those of her husband or partner to see if there is an exploitation
relation present, for example, if his total hours of productive and reproductive work for the
family are less than hers (cf. Delphy 1984). But to the extent that childrearing counts as
leisure activity, as play, as activity held to be intrinsically valuable (Ferguson 2004), no
exploitation is involved. Perhaps childrearing and other caring activity is both work and
play, but only that portion which is necessary for the psychological growth of the child and

52
the worker(s) counts as work. If so, who determines when that line is crossed? Since non-
market activity does not have a clear criterion to distinguish work from non-work, nor
necessary from non-necessary social labor, an arbitrary element seems to creep in the
make standards of fairness difficult to apply to gendered household bargains between men
and women dividing up waged and non-waged work (Barrett 1980).

4.5 Economic Status, Private Property and Participation of Women


in Pre-Industrial and Industrial Societies

Both the changing historical relations between human work and nature, and the relations
of humans to each other in the production and distribution of goods to meet material
needs construct human nature differently in different historical periods,: nomadic humans
are different than agrarian or industrial humans. Marxism as a philosophy of history and
social change highlights the social relations of work in different economic modes of
production in its analysis of social inequalities and exploitation, including relations of
domination such as racism and sexism. Withir, capitalism, the system they most analyzed,
the logic of profit drives the bourgeois class into developing the productive forces of land,
labor and capital by expanding, markets, turning land into a commodity and forcing the
working classes from feudal and independent agrarian production into wage labor. Marx
and Engels argue that turning all labor into a commodity to be bought and sold not only
alienates workers by taking the power of production away from them, it also collectivizes
workers into factories and mass assembly lines. This provides the opportunity for workers
to unite against the capitalists and to demand the collectivization of property, i.e.,
socialism, or communism.

According to Engels's famous analysis of women's situation in the history of different


economic modes production in The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State
(1942), women are originally equal to, if not more powerful than, men in communal forms
of production with matrilineal family organizations. Women lose power when private
property comes into existence as a mode of production. Men's control of private property,
and the ability thereby to generate a surplus, changes the family form to a patriarchal one
where women, and often slaves, become the property of the father and husband.
The rise of capitalism, in separating the family household from commodity production,
further solidifies this control of men over women in the family when the letter become
economic dependents of the former in the male breadwinner-female housewife nuclear
family form. Importantly, capitalism also created the possibility of women's liberation from
family-based patriarchy by creating possibilities for women to work in wage labor and
become economically independent of husbands and fathers. Engels stresses, however,
that because of the problem of unpaid housework, a private task allocated to women in
the sexual division of labor of capitalism, full women's liberation can only be achieved with
the development of socialism and the socialization of housework and childrearing in social
services provided by the state. For this reason, most contemporary Marxists have argued
that women's liberation requires feminists to join the working class struggle against
capitalism (Cliff 1984)
Many Marxist-feminists thinkers, prominent among them sociologists and anthropologists,
have done cross-cultural and historical studies of earlier forms of kinship and economy and
the role of the sexual of gender division of labor in supporting or undermining women's
social power (cf. Reed 1973, Leacock 1972, Rosaldo and Lamphere 1974). They have also
attempted to assess the world economic development of capitalism as a contradictory
53
force for the liberation of women (Saffioti 1978) and to argue that universal women's
liberation requires attention to the worse off: poor women workers in poor post-colonial
countries (Sen & Grown 1987). Other feminist anthropogists have argued that other
variables in addition to women's role in production are key to understanding women's
social status and power (Sanday 1981; Leghorn and Parker 1981). Yet other feminist
economic historians have done historical studies of the ways that race, class and ethnicity
have situated women differently in relation to production, for example in the history of the
United States (Davis 1983; Amott and Matthaei 199). Finally some Marxist-feminist have
argued that women's work in biological and social reproduction is a necessary element of
all modes of production and one often ignored by Marxist economists (Benston 1969;
Vogel 1995).
Work Efficiency and Women

Ideological bias of considering men's activities as productive and women's activity as


unproductive helps relegate women's work as inefficient. During last 3 decades,
researches on work efficiency have proved that if proper training and skills are imparyed
to women. Women surpass men in efficiency as they concentrate on work, don't take
break from work to smoke, chit-chat or drink alcohol.
The Public/Private Split and Its Implications

Liberal, Marxist and radical feminists have all characterized women as doubly alienated in
capitalism because of the public/private split that relegates their work as mothers and
house workers to the home, and psychologically denies them full personhood, citizenship
and human rights. Nothing that women workers on average only have about 70% of the
average salary of men in the contemporary U.S., feminists have claimed this is because
women's work, tied stereotypically to housework and hence thought unskilled is
undervalued, whether it is cleaning or rote service work, or nurturing work thought to be
connected to natural maternal motivations and aptitudes. Hence some feminists have
organized in campaigns for "comparable worth" to raise women's wages to the same as
men's involving comparable skills.

Many radical feminists maintain that women's work is part of a separate patriarchal mode
of reproduction that underlies all economic systems of production and in which men exploit
women's reproductive labor pioneered in combining this radical feminist assumption with a
perspectival Marxist theory of knowledge to argue that one's relation to the work of
production and reproduction gave each gender and each social class a different way of
knowing the social totality. Women's work, they argued, ties them to nature and human
needs in a different way than men's work does, which creates the possibility of a less
alienated and more comprehensive understanding of the workings of the social totality.
Collins argues further that the racial division of labor, institutional racism and different
family structures put African American women in yet a different epistemic relation to
society than white and other women. Writing in a post-modernist re-articulation of this
feminist standpoint theory, Donna Haraway argues that the breakdown of the
nature/culture distinction because of scientific technology and its alteration of the human
body makes us into "cyborgs." Hence our perspectives are so intersectional that they
cannot be unified simply by a common relation to work. What is required for a feminist
politics is not a situated identify politics, whether of gender and/or race and/or class, but
an affinity politics based on alliances and coalitions that combine epistemic perspectives.
Like these radical feminists, some socialist-feminists have tried to develop a "dual system"
theory. This involves theorizing a separate system of work relations that organizes and
54
directs human sexuality, nurturance, affection and biological reproduction. Rather than
seeing this as an unchanging universal base for patriarchy, however they have argued that
this system, thought of as the "sex/gender system" (Rubin 1975; Hartmann 1978,
1981a,b), thought of as the "sex/affective production" (Ferguson 1989, 1991); Ferguson
and Folbre 1981) has different historical modes, just as Marx argued that economies do.
Rubin argues that sex/gender systems have been based in different kinship arrangements,
most of which have supported the exchange of women by men in marriage, and hence
have supported male domination and compulsory heterosexuality. She is hopeful that
since capitalism shifted the organization of the economy from kinship to commodity
production, the power of fathers and husbands over daughters and wives, and the ability
to enforce heterosexuality, will continue to decline, and women's increasing ability to be
economically independent will lead to women's liberation and equality with men.

With a different historical twist, Hartmann argues that a historical bargain was cemented
between capitalist and working class male patriarchs to shore up patriarchal privileges that
were weakened by the entrance of women into wage labor in the 19th century by the
creation of the "family wage" to allow men sufficient wages to support a non-wage-earning
wife and children at home (1981a). While Ferguson and Folbre (1981) agree that there is
no inevitable fit between capitalism and patriarchy, they argue that there are conflicts,
and that the family wage bargain has broken down at present. Indeed, both Ferguson and
Smart (1984) argue that welfare state capitalism and the persistent sexual division of
wage labor in which work coded as women's is paid less than men's with less job security
are ways that a "public patriarchy" has replaced different systems of family patriarchy that
were operating in early and pre-capitalist societies. Walby (1990) has a similar analysis,
but to her the connection between forms of capitalism and forms of patriarchy is more
functional and less accidental than it appears to Ferguson and Smart. [It would be helpful
to briefly explain how Walby sees it as functional. Added paragraph below:]

Walby argues that there two different basic forms of patriarchy which emerge in response
to the tensions between capitalist economies and patriarchal household economies:
private and public patriarchy. Private patriarchy as a form is marked by excluding women
from economic and political power while public patriarchy works by segregating women.
There is a semi-automatic re-adjustment of the dual systems when the older private
father patriarchy based on the patriarchal family is broken down due to the pressures of
early industrial capitalism. The family wage and women's second class citizenship that
marked that initial re-adjustment are then functionally replaced by a public form of
patriarchy, the patriarchal welfare state, where women enter the wage labor force
permanently but in segregated less well paid jobs. But Ferguson (1989,1991), Smart
(1984) and Folbre (1994) suggest that although the patriarchal control of fathers and
husbands over wife and children as economic assets has been diminished in advanced
capitalism, there is always a dialectical and contradictory tension between patriarchy and
capitalism in which both advances and retreats for women's equality as citizens and in
work relations are constantly occurring in the new form of public patriarchy. Thus, the new
"marriage" of patriarchal capitalism operates to relegate women to unpaid or lesser paid
caring labor, whether in the household or in wage labor, thus keeping women by and large
unequal to men. This especially notable in the rise of poor single-mother-headed families.
However, as it forces more and more women into wage labor, women are given
opportunities for some independence from men and the possibility to challenge male
dominance and sex segregation in all spheres of social life. Examples are the rise of the
first and second wave women's movements and consequent gains in civil rights for
women.
55
Psychological Theories of Women and Work
The socialist-feminist idea that there are two interlocking systems that structure gender
and the economy, and thus are jointly responsible for male domination, has been
developed in a psychological direction by the psychoanalytic school of feminist theorists.
Particularly relevant to the question of women and work are the theories of Mitchell (1972,
1974), Kuhn and Wolpe (1978), Chodorow (1978, 1979, 1982) and Ruddick (1989).
Mothering, or, taking care of babies and small children, as a type of work done
overwhelmingly by women, socializes women and men to have different identities,
personalities and skills. In her first work (1972), Mitchell argues that women's different
relations to productive work, reproduction, socialization of children and sexuality in
patriarchy give her lesser economic and psychological power in relation to men. In a
Freudian vein. Mitchell later argues (1974) that women learn that they are not fully
symbolic subjects because compulsory heterosexuality and the incest taboo bar them from
meeting either the desire of their mother or any other woman. Chodorow, also reading
Freud from a feminist perspective, suggests that women's predominance in mothering
work is the basis for the learned gender distinction between women and men. The sexual
division of infant care gives boys, who must learn their masculine identity by separating
from their mother and the feminine, a motive for deprecating, as well as dominating,
women. Ruddick from a more Aristotelian perspective suggests that it is the skills and
virtues required in the practice of mothering work which not only socially construct
feminine gender differently from men's, but could ground an alternative vision for peace
and resolving human conflicts, if a peace movement were led by women.

Ferguson argues that the "sex/affective" work of mothering and wifely nurturing is
exploitative of women: women give more nurturance and satisfaction (including sexual
satisfaction) to men and children than they receive, and do much more of the work of
providing these important human goods (cf. also Bartky 1990). The gendered division of
labor has both economic and psychological consequences, since women's caring labor
creates women less capable of or motivated to separate from others, and hence less likely
to protest such gender exploitation (Ferguson 1989, 1991). Folbre argues by contrast that
it is only because women's bargaining power is less than men's because of the power
relations involved in the gender division of labor and property that women acquiesce to
such inequality (Folbre 1982). Ferguson argues that gendered exploitation in a system of
meeting human needs suggests that women can be seen as a "sex class" (or gender class)
which cuts across economic class lines (1979, 1989, 1991). This line of thought is also
developed by Christine Deplhy (1984), Monique Witting (1980) and Luco Irigaray (1975)
On the other side of the debate, Brenner (2000) argues that women are not uniformly
exploited by men across economic class lines: indeed, for working class women their
unpaid work as housewives serves the working class as a whole, because the whole class
benefits when its daily and future reproduction needs are met by women's nurturing and
childcare work. They argue further that middle and upper class women's economic
privileges will inevitably lead them to betray working class women in any cross-class
alliance that is not explicitly anti-capitalist. Hochchild (2000) and hooks (2000) point out
that career women tend to pay working class women to do the second shift work in the
home so they can avoid that extra work, and they have an interest in keeping such wages,
e.g., for house cleaning and nannies, as low as possible to keep the surplus for
themselves. Kollias (1981) argues further that working class women are in a stronger
political position to work effectively for women's liberation than middle class women, while
McKenny (1981) argues that profession women have to overcome myths of

56
professionalism that keep them feeling superior to working class women and hence unable
to learn from or work with them for social change.

Ethical Theories of Women's Caring Work


Several authors have explored the ethical implications of the sexual division of labor in
which it is primarily women who do caring labor. Nancy Fraser (1997) and Susan Moller
Okin (1989) formulate ethical arguments to maintain that a just model of society would
have to re-structure work relations so that the unpaid and underpaid caring labor now
done primarily by women would be given a status equivalent to (other) wage labor by
various means. In her council socialist vision, Ferguson (1989, 1991) argues that an ideal
society would require both women and men to do the hitherto private unpaid work of
caring or "sex/affective labor." For example, such work would be shared by men, either in
the family and/or provided by the state where appropriate (as for elders and children's
childcare) and compensated fairly by family allowances (for those, women or men, doing
the major share of housework), and by higher pay for caring wage work (such as daycare
workers, nurses, and teachers).
Carol Gilligan (1982) claims that women and girls tend to use a different form of ethical
reasoning - she terms this the "ethics of care" - than men and boys who use an ethics of
justice. Some have argued that this different ethical approach is due to women's caring
sensibilities that have been developed by the sexual division of labor (Ruddick 1989).
Interesting, the debate between feminist theorists of justice, e.g., Fraser and Okin, and
ethics of care feminists such as Gilligan and Ruddick, is less about substance than a meta-
ethical dispute as to whether ethics should concern principles or judgments in particular
cases. All of these theorists seem to have ideal visions of society which dovetail: all would
support the elimination of the sexual division of labor so that both men and women could
become equally sensitized to particular other through caring work.
Modernist Vs. Postmodernist Feminist Theory

Useful anthologies of the first stage of second wave socialist feminist writings which
include discussions of women, class and work from psychological as well as sociological
and economic perspectives are Eisenstein (1979), Hansen and Philipson (1990), Hennessy
and Ingraham (1997), and Holmstrom (2002). Jaggar (1983) wrote perhaps the first
philosophy text explaining the categories of liberal, radical, Marxist and socialist-feminist
thought and defending a socialist-feminist theory of male domination based on the notion
of women's alienated labor. Others such as Jaggar and Rothenberg (1978), Tuana and
Tong (1995) and Hermann an Stewart (1993) include classic socialist feminist analyses in
their collections, inviting comparisons of the authors to others grouped under the
categories of liberal, radical, psychoanalytic, Marxist, postmodern, postcolonial and
multicultural feminisms.
Various post-modern critiques of these earlier feminist schools of thought such as post-
colonialism as well as deconstruction and post-structuralism challenge the over-
generalizations and economic reductionism of many of those constructing feminist theories
that fall under the early categories of liberal, radical, Marxist or socialist-feminism (cf.
Nicholson 1991; Fraser and Nicholson 1991; hooks 1984, 2000; Anzaldua and Moraga,
eds. 1981). Others argue that part of the problem is the master narratives of liberalism or
Marxism, the first of which sees all domination relations due to traditional hierarchies and
undermined by capitalism, thus ignoring the independent effectively of racism (Josephs
1981); and the second of which ties all domination relations to the structure of
contemporary capitalism and ignores the non-capitalist economics contexts in which many
57
women work, even within so-called capitalist economies, such as housework and voluntary
community work (Gibson-Graham 1996).

In spite of the "pomo" critiques, there are some powerful thinkers within this tendency
who have not completely rejected a more general starting point of analysis based on
women, class and work. For example, Spivak (1988), Mohanty (1997), Carby (1997) and
Hennessy (1993,2000) are creating and re-articulating forms of Marxist and socialist-
feminism less susceptible to charges of over-generalization and reductionism, and more
compatible with close contextual analysis of the power relations of gender and class as
they relate to work. They can be grouped loosely with a tendency called materialist
feminism that incorporates some of the methods of deconstruction and post-structuralism
(Hennessy 1993; Landry and MacLean 1993; and the online paper by Ferguson in the
Other Internet Resources section).

Race, Class and Intersectional Feminist Analyses


Many in the contemporary feminist theory debate are interests in developing concrete
"intersectional" or "integrative feminists" analyse of particular issues which try to give
equal weight to gender, race, class and sexuality in a global context without defining
themselves by the categories, such as liberal, radical or materialist, of the earlier feminist
debate categories (cf. work by Davis 1983; Brewer 1995; Crenshaw 1997; Stanlie and
James 1997; Anzaldua; hooks 1984, 2000). Nonetheless strong emphasis on issues of
race and ethnicity can be found in their work on women, class and work. For example.
Brewer shows that whiter and African-American working class women are divided by race
in the workforce, and that even changes in the occupational structure historically tend to
maintain this racial division of labor. Hooks argues that women of color and some radical
feminists were more sensitive to class and race issues than those, primarily white,
feminists whom she labels "reformist feminists" (hooks 2000).
Presupposed in the general theoretical debated concerning the relations between gender,
social and economic class, and work are usually definitions of each of these categories that
some thinkers would argue are problematic. For example, Tokarczyk and Fay have an
excellent anthology on working class women in the academy (1993) in which various
contributors discuss the ambiguous positions in which they find themselves by coming
form poor family backgrounds and becoming academics. One problem is whether they are
still members of the working class in so doing, and if not, whether they are betraying their
families of origin by a rise to middle class status. Another is, whether they have the same
status in the academy, as workers, thinkers and women, as those men or women whose
families of origin were middle class or above. Rita Mae Brown wrote an early article on
this, arguing that education and academic status did not automatically change a working
class woman's identity, which is based not just on one's relation to production, but one's
behaviour, basic assumptions about life, and experiences in childhood (Brown 1974).
Tokarczyk and Fay acknowledge that the definition of "class" is vague in the U.S. Rather
than provide a standard philosophical definition in terms of necessary and sufficient
conditions for membership in the working class, they provide a cluster of characteristics
and examples of jobs, such as physically demanding, repetitive and dangerous jobs, jobs
that lack autonomy and are generally paid badly. Examples of working class jobs they give
are cleaning women, waitresses, lumberjacks, janitors and police officers. They then
define their term "working class women academics" to include women whose parents had
jobs such as these and are in the first generation in their family to attend college
(Tokarczyk and Fay: 5). They challenge those that would argue that family origin can be
overcome by the present position one has in the social division of labor: simply performing
58
a professional job and earning a salary does not eradicate the class identity formed in
one's "family class" (cf. Ferguson 1979).

To theorize the problematic relation of women to social class, Ferguson (1979, 1989,
1991) argues that there are at least three different variables- an individual's work, family
of origin, and present household economic unit - which relate an individual to a specific
socio-economic class. For example, a woman may work on two levels: as a day care
worker (working class), but also as a member of a household where she does the
housework and mothering/child care, while her husband is a wealthy contractor (petit
bourgeois, small capitalist class). If in addition her family of origin is professional middle
class (because, say, her parents were college educated academics), the woman may be
seen and see herself as either working class or middle class, depending on whether she
and others emphasize her present relations of wage work (her individual economic class,
which in this case is working class), her household income (middle class) or her family of
origin (middle class).

Sylvia Walby deals with this ambiguity of economic class as applying to women as unpaid
houseworkers by claiming against Delphy (1984) that the relevant economic sex classes
are those who are housewives vs. those who are husbands benefiting from such work, not
those of all women and men, whether or not they do or receive housework services
(Walby 1990). Ferguson, however, sides with Delphy in putting all women into "sex class",
since all women, since trained into the gender roles of patriarchal wife and motherhood,
are potentially those whose unpaid housework can be so exploited. But seeing herself as a
member of a fourth class category, "sex class," and hence, in patriarchal capitalist system,
seeing herself exploited as a woman worker in her wage work and unpaid second shift
housework[4], is thus not a given but an achieved social identity. Such an identity is
usually formed, through political organizing and coalitions with other women at her place
of employment, in her home and her community. In this sense the concept of sex class is
exactly analogous to the concept of a feminist epistemological standpoint: not a given
identity or perspective, but one that achievable under the right conditions.

Realizing the importance of this disjuncture between economic class and sex class for
women, Maxine Molyneux (1984) argues in a often cited article that there are no
"women's interests" in the abstract that can unify women in political struggle. Instead, she
theorizes that women have both "practical gender interests" and "strategic gender
interests," Practical gender interests are those that women develop because of the sexual
division of labor, which makes them responsible for the nurturant work of sustaining the
physical and psychological well-being of children, partners and relatives through caring
labor. Such practical gender interests, because they tie a women's conception of her own
interests as a woman to those of her family, support women's popular movements for
food, water, child and health care, even defense against state violence, which ally them
with the economic class interests of their family. Strategic gender interests, on the
contrary, may ally women across otherwise divided economic class interests, since they
are those, like rights against physical male violence and reproductive rights, which women
have as a sex class to eliminate male domination.

Molyneux used for distinctions between practical and strategic gender interests to
distinguish between the popular women's movement in Nicaragua based on demands for
economic justice for workers and farmers against the owning classes, demands such as
education, health and maternity care, clean water, food and housing, and the feminist
movement which emphasized the fight for legal abortion, fathers' obligation to pay child
support to single mothers, and rights against rape and domestic violence. She and others
59
have used this distinction between practical and strategic gender interests to characterize
the tension between popular women's movements and feminist movements in Latin
America (Molyneux 2001; Alvarez 1998; Foweraker 1998).
A similar distinction between different types of women's interests was developed further
as a critique of interest group paradigms of politics by Anna Jonasdottir (1988, 1994).
Jonasdottir argues that women have a common formal interest in votes for women,
women's political caucuses, gender parity demands, and other mechanisms which allow
women a way to develop a collective political voice, even though their content interests,
that is, their specific needs and priorities, may vary by race and economic class, among
others. Her distinctions, and those of Molyneux have been changed slightly - practical vs.
Strategic gender needs, rather than interests - to compare and contrast different
paradigms of economic development by World Bank feminist theorist Carolyn Moser
(1993). Most recently the Jonasdottir distinctions have been used by Mohanty (1997) to
defend and maintain, in spite of postmodernists' emphasis or intersectional differences,
that commonalities in women's gendered work can create a cross-class-base for
demanding a collective political voice for women: a transnational feminism which creates a
demand for women's political representation, developing the platform of women's human
rights as women and as workers. Nonetheless, the tension between women's economic
class-based interests or needs and their visionary/strategic gender interests or needs is
still always present, and must therefore always be negotiated concretely by popular
movements for social justice involving women's issues.
Another approach to the problematic nature of socio-economic class as it relates to women
are empirical studies which show how class distinctions are still important for women in
their daily lives as a way to compare and contrast themselves with other women and men,
even if they do not use the concepts of "working class," "professional class" or "capitalist
class". Many have pointed out that the concept of class itself is mystified in the U.S.
context, but that nonetheless class distinctions still operate because of different structural
economic constraints, which act on some differently from others. The Ehrenreichs (1979),
in a classic article, argue that this mystification is due to the emergence of a professional-
managerial class that has some interests in common with the capitalist class and some
with the working class. Whatever its causes, there are empirical studies which show that
class distinctions still operate between women, albeit in an indirect way. Barbara
Ehrenreich (2001), by adopting the material life conditions of a poor woman, did an
empirical study of the women working for minimum wages and found their issues to be
quite different from and ignored by middle and upper-class women. Diane Reay (2004)
does an empirical study of women from manual labor family backgrounds and their
relation to the schooling of their children, and discovers that they use a discourse that
acknowledges class differences of educational access and career possibilities, even though
it does not specifically define these by class per se. Similarly, Julie Bettie (2000) does an
impressive discourse analysis of the way that Latina high school students create their own
class distinctions through concepts as "chicas," "cholas" and "trash" to refer to themselves
and their peers. These categories pick out girls as having middle class, working class or
poor aspirations by performance indicators such as dress, speech, territorial hang-outs
and school achievement, while never mentioning "class" by name. Women's experiences of
growing up working class are presented in the anthology edited by Tea (2003).
Theoretical and empirical debates about the relation of women to class and work, and the
implications of these relations for theories of male domination and women's oppression as
well as for other systems of social domination, continue to be important sources of

60
theories and investigations of gender identities, roles and powers in the field of women
and gender studies, as well as in history, sociology, anthropology and economics. They
also have important implications for epistemology, metaphysics and political theory in the
discipline of philosophy, and consequently other disciplines in humanities and the social
sciences.

Gender at work: Few situations & attitudes:

The family picture is on HIS desk. : Ah, a solid, responsible family man.
The family picture is on HER desk. : Umm, her family will come before her career.
HIS desk is cluttered. : He's obviously a hard worker and a busy man.
SHE desk is cluttered. : She's obviously a disorganized scatterbrain.
HE is talking with his co-workers. : He must be discussing the latest deal.
SHE is talking with his co-workers. : She must be in the ladies' room.
HE's having lunch with the boss. : He's on this way up.
SHE's having lunch with the boss. : They must be having an affair.
The boss criticized HIM. : He'll improve his performance.
The boss criticized HER. : She'll be very upset.
He got an unfair deal. : Did he get angry?
SHE got an unfair deal. : Did she cry?
HE's getting married. : He'll get more settled.
SHE's getting married. : She'll get pregnant and leave.
HE's having a baby. : He'll need a raise.
SHE's having a baby. : She'll cost the company money in maternity benefits.
HE's going on a business trip. : It's good for his career.
SHE's going on a business trip. : What does her husband say?
HE's leaving for a better job. : He knows how to recognize a good opportunity.
SHE's leaving for a better job. : Women are not dependable.

4.6 Women's Contribution to National Income

One solution to this problem is simply to take to all household activity that could also be
done by waged labor (nannies, domestic servants, gardeners, chauffeurs, etc.) as work
and to figure its comparable worth by the waged labor necessary to replace it (Folbre
1982, 1983). Another is to reject altogether the attempts to base women's oppression on
social relations of work, on the grounds that such theories are overly generalizing and
ignore the discrete meanings that kinship activities have for women in different contexts
(Nicholson 1991; Fraser and Nicholson 1991: Marchand 1995). Or, one can argue that
although the line between work and leisure changes historically, those doing the activity
should have the decisive say as to whether their activity counts as work, i.e., labor
necessary to promote human welfare. The existence of second wave women's movements
critiques of the "second shift" of unpaid household activity indicates that a growing
number of women see most of it as work, not ply (cf. Hochchild 1989). Finally, one can
argue that since the human care involved in taking care of children and elders creates a
public good, it should clearly be characterized as work, and those who are caretakers,
primarily women, should be fairly compensated for it by society or the state (Ferguson and
Folbre 2000: Folbre 2000, Ferguson 2004).

61
4.7 Exercise

1. What is concept of work? What is paid and unpaid work, productive and
unproductive work? What is economically productive and socially productive work?
2. Describe Economic Status, Private Property and Participation of Women in Pre-
industrial societies.
3. Describe various theories of women's work.
4. Write short notes on
a. Women's contribution to National Income
b. Valuation of productive and unproductive work
c. Visible and invisible work

4.8 References

• Devaki Jain and Nirmala Banerjee (Ed.s) Tyranny of Household, Vikas Publishing
House, New Delhi, 1985.
• Maithreyi Krishnaraj (ed.) Visibility of Women in statistics and Indicators, Research
Centre of Women's Studies, Mumbai, 1990.
• Vibhuti Patel women's Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications, New
Delhi, 2002.
• Sardamoni, K. (Ed.) Women, Work and Society m Statistical House, Calcutta.

Chapter -5 Women and Labour Markets

Contents

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Factors Affecting Women's Entry in Labour Market
5.2 Supply and Demand for Female labour in Developed and Developing Countries
5.3 Female work participation an a agriculture and non-agricultural activities (with
reference to India)
5.4 Women in the Informal Sector, Small Scale and Cottage Industries
5.5 Women in the Organised and Service Sector
5.6 Wage Differentials in Female Activities
5.7 Determinants of Wage Differentials: Gender Education, Skill, Productivity, Efficiency,
Opportunities.
62
5.8 Structures of Wages Across Regions and Economic Sectors
5.10 Questions for Self-Study
5.11 References

5.0 Objectives

• List factors affecting women's entry in labour market;

• Explain supply and demand factors determining women's status in the labour force;

• Write profile of women's work in agriculture, non-agriculture, organized,


unorganized, self-employment sectors of the economy;
• Discuss determining of wage differentials in the economy.

5.1 Introduction

"Women carry a disproportionately greater burden of work than men and since women are
responsible for a greater share of non-SNA (system of National Accounts) work in the care
economy, they enter labour market already overburdened with work." Report of Gender
Diagnosis and Budgeting in India of National Institute of Public Finance, New Delhi
Conventional understanding has been that women are last to be hired at the time of
economic expansion and first to be fired at the time of economic crisis. Women become
major victims of rationalisation, mechanisation and automation. When structural changes
take place, women are not selected for skill up-gradation, if they didn’t assert collectively.
But, new international division of labour has changed this dynamics as the focus is on
induction of young, moderately educated girls who would do minute and monotonous with
concentration and dexterity. e.g. pharmaceuticals, computers, electronic, garments.

5.2 Factors affecting Women's entry in Labour Market

Changes in age-structure, urbanisation, level & nature of economic development,


infrastructure, government policies, labour laws, nature of work, structure of family,
culture & tradition affecting autonomy and control, fertility levels and childbearing
practices, nature of housework, women's property rights, education; age at marriage,
migration, access to technology.

Table Labour Force in 1995 in India

Worker age group Average Annual Growth Labour Force Participation rate
rate of the Labour Force in 1995
15-64

Male Female 1965-1995 1995-2025 Age Group Age Group 10-19


15-64

Male Fem Male Fem

26 Crores 8.4 Crores 2.1% 1.6% 90% 31% 30% 16%

Source: World Development Report, 1995.

63
Nearly 1/3 of Indian women and 1/6 of Indian girls are a part of the labour force. In the
low productivity segments of the economy, the choices before the girls have been child-
marriage, child-prostitution or child-labour (CM, CP and CL). Grooming of girls in different
parts of the country determines whether they would be part of the SS side of the CM, CP
or CL or grow as empowered women. Studies on this process from the political economy
perspective are handful but they throw light on the areas of active intervention by the
state, civil society and the social movements. National Campaign Against Child Labour has
carved out phase-wise programme of rehabilitation of child-labour and integrating them
into the formal/ non-formal educational institutions. Homes for street-children have been
established in the cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Bombay, Ahmedabad, and Calcutta. Public
interest litigation cases against inhuman conditions in the rescue homes, by social
organisations have forced the iron wall of secrecy fall. Employers with modern outlook
have realised that without healthy and educated\skilled labour-force, they can't attain high
productivity. But, in spite of this awareness, condition of girl child labour is deplorable. In
match industry in Shivkashi, out of 45000 children, 90% are girls. 44 Highest numbers of
girl-children are sold either as child-brides or as bonded labourers or as child-sex workers
in the drought-prone areas.45 Brutalisation of girl-victims of CM-CP-CL is more pronounced
because their male counterparts have to face control of their labour and sexuality while
girl children have to bear multiple burdens of control of sexuality, fertility and labour and
consequences of teenage pregnancy are faced by girls alone. Sociological studies
examining material basis of this phenomenon have helped to sensitize the professional
bodies to make the state intervention more effective.46

__________________________________
44
Neera Burra Born to Work-, Child Labour 1 n India, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1997.
45
Girl Child- A Status Report, UNICEF, SAARC Decade for a Girl Child (1990-2000 A.D.),
Delhi.
46
Jean D'cunha Prostitution Joint Women's Programme, Delhi, 1990.

Table 2 Work Participation Rate, Enrolment and Discontinuation Of Girls Education in Rural India

STATES WPR Enrolment Discontinuation

Kerala 0.5 98.0 2.0

Himachal Pradesh 0.6 90.0 2.2

Uttar Pradesh 0.8 53.4 5.6

North East Region 1.0 76.3 4.1

Rajasthan 1.1 41.9 6.6

Bihar 1.2 51.2 4.1

Haryana 2.3 72.3 4.6

West Bengal 2.3 65.1 6.5

Punjab 3.0 84.4 6.1

64
Madhya Pradesh 4.1 55.8 9.0

Orissa 4.2 63.4 9.3

Gujarat 5.0 74.5 9.5

Maharashtra 5.8 82 8.4

Tamil Nadu 7.5 84.3 14.8

Karnataka 7.8 75.1 9.1

Andhra Pradesh 10.3 73.8 12.1

Rural India 3.5 64.8 7.6

Source: NCAER, 1994. Taken from Seminar no. 464, April 1998.
The above table reveals that the enrolment ratio is much lower in the BIMARU states,
which are known as the lowest literacy (for women and girls) states. States known for
child prostitution, right from the colonial days to the present, have been Himachal
Pradesh, Rajasthan Gujarat (tribal belt), West Bengal and North Eastern states. Orissa,
Kerala (Malabar region) and Goa. Percentage of Girl-children involved in the agrarian and
non-agrarian economic activities has been above 5% in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu,
Karnataka an Andhra Pradesh. In the segments of the economy where the adult
population enjoys food-security and better quality of life as well as commitment towards
women's development, the girl children can easily avoid the vicious circle of CM-CP-CL.
Girls from the female headed household (i.e. households which are headed by unmarried,
divorced, widowed and deserted women) are the most vulnerable in this regards. 47 In the
last two decades of women's movement, they have been empowered through collective
efforts of the women's movement.

______________________________
47
(a). Pradeep Kumar Panda: "Female Headship, Poverty and Child Welfare- A Study of
Rural Orissa", Economic and Political Weekly, October 25, 1997, WS- 73
(b) John Hoddinott and Lawrence Haddad "Does Female Income Share Influence
Household Expenditures? Evidence from Cote D' Ivoire," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and
Statistics, Vol. 57, No.1, 1995, pp. 305-9049.

Table 3 Work Participation Rate, 1991

Total Workers Main Workers Marginal Workers

Total 38 34.2 3.3

Male 52 51 0.6

Female 22.3 16 6.2

Rural 40 36 4.3

Male 53 52 0.7

65
Female 27 19 8.0

Urban 30 30 0.7

Male 49 49 0.4

Female 9 8 1.0

Source: Tata service Limited, Department of Economics and Statistics, 1995, p 46.
In the 1980s women constituted 14-17% of the total work force, within a decade, it has
risen to 22%. Due to globalisation, work participation of women and young girls have
increased drastically in the industrial sector. Recruitment of women in the electronic,
garment, diamond-gems and jewelry, dairy, food processing, horticulture and floriculture
sectors have multiplied. Availability of home-based work for women has opened more
avenues for women of all class backgrounds to use their abilities, skills and education
more productively. Home-based work ensures flexitime, secured environment and freedom
from travelling to the mass of women with domestic responsibilities such as child-care,
nursing of the old, sick and disabled members of the family.

5.3 Supply and Demand for Female Labour in Developed and


Developing Countries

Today, women worldwide are better educated and hold more high-level professional jobs
than ever before. Yet they rarely break through the so-called "glass ceiling" which
separates them from top-level management and professions (ILO, 1997). Despite recent
progress, the glass ceiling remains relatively intact. Women hold less than 5 per cent of
the top jobs in corporations. Even when they manage to rise to the top, female executives
nearly always earn less than men. The higher the position, the more glaring is the gender
gap. Moreover, the old contention that there is an insufficient number of qualified women
to fill more top jobs is out of date. Though gender differences still exist in terms of choice
of profession, women are increasingly taking up scientific and technological fields of study.
With few exceptions, such as engineering, women are approaching men in educational
attainment in most fields.
In many industrialized countries, education has played an important role in providing
women with access to better and higher-level jobs. Women have graduated in large
numbers in medicine, law, accountancy and business studies, areas which have previously
been dominated by male students. Growing employment opportunities and employers'
willingness to recruit women have stimulated demand for courses in those areas. Although
women still earn less than men for every level of educational qualification in most
countries, the wage gap for more highly educated women is much smaller (ILO, 1998, p.
145). Improvement in pay scales that women workers have achieved in recent years, at
least in some European countries and the United States, has resulted in part from changes
in the pattern of occupational segregation, as women have been recruited at higher levels.
Educational attainment also appears to have helped women to maintain continuity of
employment. One of the major risks that women face is the loss of occupational status
when they withdraw from the labour market to have children or attend to other family
responsibilities. Female employees in higher-level jobs in large organizations, especially in
the public sector when "equal opportunity" policies often exist, are much more likely to be
66
able to draw on various defensive measures to help them retain their position in the labour
market. However, the risk of occupational downgrading following an absence from the job
market is compounded if job training relies on informal work experience instead of
recognized transferable skills. Indeed, under-representation of women in training systems
- such as workplace-based training, lifelong learning, training programmes for the
unemployed, training for new technology- might actually be reinforcing occupational
segregation by sex (ILP, 1998, chap. 6).
The proportion of women has increased in administrative and managerial work, but the
nature of women's career paths blocks their progress to top positions. At lower
management levels, women are typically placed in non-strategic sectors and in personnel
and administrative positions, rather than in professional and line management jobs leading
to the top. Often, such initial disadvantages are compounded by exclusion from networks,
both formal and informal, which are so essential for advancement within enterprises.
Women are seldom found in product development and corporate finance, and thus there is
need for an explicit gender mainstreaming strategy to advance women in these areas.
Participation in decision-making proves to be one of the most resistant areas for gender
equality.

5.4 Female Work Participation in a Agriculture and Non-Agricultural


Activities (With Reference to India)

Economic states that historically there has been a U-shaped relationship between women's
labour force participation (WLFP) and Economic Development. For very poor countries,
WLFP is high and women work mainly in the farm or non-farm family enterprises.
Development initially moves women out of the labour force because of rise in male market
opportunities and prejudice against blue collar work. With further development, with high
rate of women's education, WLFP once rises in while collar jobs.

Table- Distribution of Women across Industrial Categories-4

Industry %

Community, social & personnel services 55.6


sectors

Manufacturing 21.4

Agriculture & Allied Occupation 9.8

Finance, insurance, real estate & business 4.9

Factories 14

Mines 6

Plantation 51

67
5.5 Women in The Informal Sector, Small Scale and Cottage
Industries

94% of women workers are in the informal sector. There is pronounced declining trend in
the importance of the self-employed women in both, rural and urban areas. Erosion of
credit/loan facilities due to structural adjustment programme is a major reason for women
being weeded out of the market. Safety net of social sector budget is also weak. Women
workers in the informal sector are governed by the law of jungle/
Though certain activities might lend themselves more readily to "inforamlization", no
intrinsic set of characteristics - other than responsiveness to economic opportunity and the
fluidity of its border - denies what informal activities are. Since 1972, when the term was
first officially used by the ILO, there has been considerable debate on the definition and
characteristics of the informal sector. The official international definition includes (a)
unregistered enterprises below a certain size; (b) paid and unpaid workers in informal
enterprises; (c) casual workers without fixed employers. Standards for enterprises to be
considered informal, such as maximum number fixed employers. Standards for enterprises
to be considered informal, such as maximum number of paid workers and whether
domestic servants and the agricultural sector are included in the informal sector, vary
between countries. Also, in any given country, the legal and regulatory framework defines
what is a registered/formal or an unregistered/informal enterprise.
Considered a defining features of underdevelopment in the 1960s and 1970s, the informal
sector was expected to wither away with economic growth. Contrary to those expectations
however, throughout much of the developing world it has become the locus of
employment growth since the 1980s. In an environment where austerity policies are
dictated by structural adjustment programmes, by changing forms of production and by
increased competition, the formal sector simply has failed to generate sufficient
employment for the growing labour force. As the informal sector has grown in size, it has
progressively become harder to associate the dichotomy between formal and informal
sectors with that between traditional and modern.

On the one hand, the informal sector works as a huge "labour sponge" which mops up the
labour force excess in the formal sector (ILO, 1991). Many of the informal sector
establishments, owned mostly by self-employed producers with little capital, technology or
skills, follows a subsistence logic. Lacking access to organized markets, credit formal
education and training institutions, and public services and amenities, such enterprises
provide very low and irregular incomes and employment (Tokman, 1990). On the other
hand, with its resurgency in the altered conditions of the 1980s, the informal sector has
also become a part of economic restructuring, providing both flexibility and an opportunity
to lower costs for formal sector establishments (Sassen, 1998). Far from being archaic, it
has become an integral part of the formal sector.

Given the extensive heterogeneity of the informal sector, it is possible to delineate three
distinct types of informal activity in terms of their level of productivity and the nature of
their linkage to the formal economy. The first type is the "own-account" production of the
self-employed urban and rural poor. Their level of productivity is very low and links to the
formal economy are, if any, marginal. The second type includes relatively more production
workers engaged in wage-labour in a capitalistic setting with close links to the formal
sector. It is common for this part of the informal sector to subcontract to the formal
sector, enabling the latter to lower costs and acquire flexibility in the face of demand
68
volatility. Also within this group are financially hard-pressed firms, for whom operating
informally is a means of survival. Finally, the third type is constituted by independent
professionals providing highly priced, customized services and products to satisfy the
demands of the swiftly expanding, high-income population.

Partly because they are under-represented in the formal sector, women comprise the
majority of informal sector workers in most countries, especially in the first two segments.
Informal activities in the first segment generate little value added, and incomes are so
meagre that almost no savings materialize which are worth reinvesting to improve
productivity or enlarge the scale of operation. They are a means of subsistence livelihood,
rather than a form of entrepreneurial activity, and need rather than profit is the
motivating factor (Joshi, 1997). With few marketable skills to their credit, women from
poor households flock into this type of informal activities to generate whatever level of
income they possibly can. They operate in a highly competitive environment characterized
by ease of entry and exit, high rates of both start-up and failure, and for many, relatively
short life cycles of economic activity. A large number of women also work at home,
performing piece-rate work for manufacturing enterprises. This is more likely to fall under
the second type of informal activities, where the increased demand for contingent female
labour is associated with the restructuring of production and technological changes
discussed above (Pollack and Judisman, 1997).
In many countries, national regulatory frameworks have been biased in favour of big
business and public-sector enterprises. Small firms have often resorted to illegality to
survive (De Soto, 1986). Barriers to entering full legality can take many forms and may
rest in different elements of the work process; the status of labour, the conditions of work
or the form of management (Castells and others, 1989). Even though some excessive
bureaucratic requirements can rightly be blamed for setting up unnecessary barriers,
government regulations are required to protect the general interests of the community.
Thus, it might not always be easy to strike the right balance between regulatory measures
that are essential for public health and safety, and those that erect unnecessary obstacles
for the operation of informal sector units. The dilemma is to design a policy stance in
favour of a dynamic informal sector capable of generating more jobs, higher incomes, but
one that is also supportive of better conditions and more widespread protection for those
attempting to earn a livelihood in it.

Of particular concern is, of course, the widespread non-compliance with labour legislation
and basic labour standards within the informal sector. The precarious existence of the
informal enterprises and the difficult nature of labour organization in this sector (see. box
III.1) are the ultimate sources of the problem. Until such enterprises are able to operate in
a more stable environment not much progress on this score can be expected (ILO, 1991).
Moreover, the recent erosion in standards of protection for formal-sector workers has only
made it more difficult to improve working conditions in the informal sector.

5.6 Women in The organised and Service Sector

Women constitute only 14% of the total employment in the organized sector. It is
concentrated in Maharashtra, Delhi, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Tamilnadu. In the
urban areas, FEAR is tertiary sector has increased, from 37.6% in 1983 to 52.9% in 1999.
(Economic Survey, 2002, GOI). Here, women workers and employees get relatively better
wages, standard working hours, and the protection of labour laws. Women employees,
workers and officers in the public sector enterprises constitute the largest segment of the
69
organized sector employment. But dur to rationalization, automation and mechanization,
women in the organized sector are also encouraged to opt for voluntary retirement.

5.7 Wage Differentials in Female activities

Female-male pay differentials (or the so-called "gender wage gap") can be an important
indicator of women's disadvantaged position in labour markets. In economies of all types,
women typically earn two thirds of male incomes on average Moreover, only a part of this
gap in earnings can be explained by differences in educational attainment and job
experience between women and men which suggest that discrimination on the basis of sex
could be widespread.
There is mixed evidence about whether or where the gender gap has shown a tendency to
diminish with women's increased participation in paid work. In some industrialized
countries, such as the United States of America, the gap appears to have narrowed. In
others, such as Japan, it has widened. Similarly, in developing economies, trends vary.
Women's wages, relative to men's, seem to have risen slightly in some developing
countries, such as EI Salvador and Sri Lanka, while in other developing countries or areas,
such as Hong Kong SAR, Myanmar, Singapore and Taiwan Province of China, the wage gap
has widened. Also, it is not clear if or to what extent this modest change reflects the
general improvements in women's level of education relative to men's). There have been
improvements in women's educational attainments relative to men in all regions, with
improvements in the ratio of female to male years of education achieved first (between
1960 and 1975) in the high-performing Asian countries, and later (1970 onwards, from a
high base) in Latin America and (from 1975 onwards, from a very low base) in South Asia.

Even though the evidence is sparse, trade expansion and liberalization with FDI flows are
likely to affect gender wage gaps in two ways: (a) through differential impact on the
demand for female and male labour; and (b) through increase in bargaining power relative
to organized workers in industries that are directly affected by the export of capital. FDI
flows might be expected do drive up the wages of women workers because they tend to
stimulate demand for female labour. By contrast, the increased ability of businesses to
relocate all or some segments of their production across national borders puts a downward
pressure on the wages of workers in the affected industries. The little existing research
suggests that the latter effect has been stronger.
Evidence shows that the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) -
and concomitant threat of moving offshore - helped manufacturing employers in the
United States of America to successfully resist the demands for wage increases. Likewise,
FDIs by MNCs tend to move away from the newly industrialized economies, where wages
and working conditions have improved, to less developed countries such as India,
Mauritius, Sri Lanka, and more recently Bangladesh, China and Viet Nam. Women's wages
relative to men's might thus be unlikely to rise if women are more heavily concentrated
than men in industries where capital is "footloose" (i.e., where the threat by businesses to
move offshore is highly credible). Indeed, that is likely to be the case in many low-wage
sites in developing countries which attract FDI. Not surprisingly, wage differentials are
especially marked in those developing countries or areas which pursue export-led
industrialization or have EPZs. The divergent trend in the gender wage gap in Taiwan
Province of China and the Republic of Korea might also be instructive. The gender wage
gap has been steadily widening in the former since 1981, while marginally narrowing in
the latter. In Taiwan Province of China, capital is more "footloose" than in the Republic of
70
Korea. There is considerably less inward and outward FDI in the Republic of Korea in
comparison with Taiwan Province of China (Seguino, Forthcoming).

By contrast, in some developed economies, such as the United States, the forces of
globalization appear to have adversely affected men's wages more than women's. Over
the last two decades, trade liberalization and capital mobility have eroded well-paying
blue-collar wages in concentrated industries where men were the well-entrenched insiders.
Increased international competition, which reduces the bargaining power of male workers
in such industries, may be one explanation for the decreasing gender wage gap. Three
quarters of the decreases in the wage gap in the United States since late 1970s is
estimated to stem from the decline in male real wages (Lawrence and Bernstein, 1994). At
least in some countries, the narrowing of the gender wage gap reflects in part a
"downward harmonization" between men and women.

Other factors could also have influenced gender wage differentials over the past decades.
As discussed in detail below, there have been significant changes in the patterns of
occupational segregation by sex around the world. Although women still earn less than
men at every level of education, increasing numbers of women in higher-level jobs,
especially in developed countries, have effectively improved women's aggregate labour-
market income relative to men. Other important factors, depending on the region and the
country, have been the following: the type of wage settlement (female-male pay
differentials tend to be lower in countries with centralized collective bargaining); The
earnings gap is relatively small in Australia, Germany, Norway and Sweden, countries
where there is centralized collective bargaining which emphasizes egalitarian wage policies
in general. In Canada and the United States, the earnings gap is relatively larger because
wage bargaining is decentralized, market-oriented and enterprise-level (Lim, 1996;
Kucera, 1998) the size of enterprise (within the same country, large enterprises tend to
pay higher wages to and are more likely to hire women); technological change; the
pattern of industrial development; and societal values about gender inequality.

5.8 Determinants of Wage Differentials: Gender Education, Skill,


Productivity, Efficiency, Opportunities

Nature of wage differentials (WD)-for identical tasks women are paid less. And women are
confined to relatively inferior tasks, casual work. Women employees get differential
opportunities, differential treatment and differential treatment.

Causes of WD are gender gaps in education, skills, opportunities due to patriarchal


attitudes and myths about women's inferiority. Absence of affirmative action by the stat
and trade unions also perpetuate wage differentials.
Effects of WD are subordination of women in the workplace, family, community and public
lite, son preference, man is treated as "bread winner" and Head of the Household (HOH).
Despite the rapid and global increase in female paid employment in recent years,
occupational segregation by sex remains a worldwide phenomenon Not always adverse for
women, it can be and important indicator of women's disadvantaged position in labour
markets. Indeed, higher levels of occupational segregation are generally associated with
poorer labour-market conditions for women: lower pay, lower status, and more limited
career opportunities, among others. It can also be a source of labour market rigidity and
thus economic inefficiency.

71
Women are more likely to be working in "men's job" than the opposite. But, as a rule,
women are employed in a narrower range of occupations than men. Male-dominated, non-
agricultural occupations are over seven times as numerous as female-dominated
occupations. They dominate in clerical and secretarial jobs and in low-end service
occupations (as shop assistants, waitresses, maids, hairdressers, dressmakers), and as
professionals they are most likely to be teachers or nurses. These "female occupations"
generally pay less and have lesser status and advancement prospects.
A distinction is usually made between two different forms of occupational segregation.
One, called "horizontal segregation", refers to the distribution of men and women across
occupations (e.g., women as maids and men as truck drivers); while the other, termed
"vertical segregation", refers to the distribution of men and women in the job hierarchy in
terms of status within an occupation (e.g. production workers versus production
supervisors). Neither form of occupational segregation correlates well with the level of
socio-economic development across countries. Both vary by region, however, which
suggests that social, historical and cultural factors might be important in determining the
extent of occupational segregation by sex. In his work on occupational segregation by sex,
Anker (1998) distinguishes five "regions": OECD countries, transition economies, the
Middle East and North Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and other developing countries and
areas.
The level of horizontal segregation is lowest in the Asia and Pacific and highest in the
Middle East/North Africa. It is also relatively high in other developing regions, while of
average magnitude in the OECD and transition economies in Eastern Europe. There are
also large and significant differences in occupational segregation by sex across OECD sub
regions. North America has the lowest level, while Scandinavia as a sub-region has the
highest. The reason for the high level of segregation in the latter seems to be related to
the way in which the welfare state developed in Scandinavia, where the comprehensive
monetization of the "care economy" gas created occupations that have remained "female"
(Anker and Melkas, 1998, p. 9). Vertical segregation, by contrast, is higher in Asia and the
Pacific than in other parts of the world. Export-led industrial development has apparently
openly up many industrial occupations to women (thereby significantly reducing horizontal
segregation) - without, however, decreasing gender inequalities within occupations in
terms of pay, authority and career advancement possibilities (vertical segregation).

In the past two decades, the horizontal form of occupational segregation by sex has fallen
considerably around the world. It appears to have fallen the most in countries where it
was relatively high, and to have remained unchanged in countries where it was relatively
low. The greatest sustained fall has occurred in several small developing and a few OECD
countries. The rest of the OECD and transition countries, as well as large East Asian,
Middle Eastern and North African countries, seem to have experienced little change, while
in China and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China there have been increases.
In countries and regions where it have decreased, the reason is integration of men and
women within occupations, rather than a shift in the occupational structure of
employment. The expansion of "feminine" occupations has apparently been sufficient to
absorb the marked increase in the female non-agricultural labour force. As the number of
women entering the non-agricultural labour force has risen, many women have taken up
jobs that were traditionally "men's", thereby reducing the occupational segregation by sex.
Occupational segregation by sex is often justified on the grounds that women have specific
attributes which make them more suitable than men for particular types of work. It is
argued that traditionally "female" occupations involve caring types of work, manual
72
dexterity and experience at typical household activities, all of which women are expected
to possess. Similarly, subservience and docility, the other characteristics commonly
associated with female workers, are thought to shape gender employment patterns.

5.9 Structures of Wages across Regions and Economic Sectors

Women's work and wage structure can be categorized into seven sub-divisions.
1. wage and salaried employment
2. Self-employment outside the household for profit
3. Self employment in cultivation and household industry for profit
4. Self employment in cultivation for own consumption
5. Subsistence activities in allied sectors like diary, poultry, fishing
6. Collection of fuel, fodder, water, forest produce for sale as well as self consumption
7. Food production, preservation, domestic work for market and non-market
purposes.
Wage structure is skewed in favour of organized/statutory sector, male workers and
industrialized countries, public sector offers better wage rates than the private sector. As
compared to agrarian sector, wage rates in industrial sector are better. In comparison with
rural areas, urban areas ensure better wages.

5.10 Exercise

1. Describes the factors (SS & DD) affecting women's entry in the labour market.
2. Give a profile of female work participation in agricultural and non-agricultural
activities.
3. "There is feminisation of workforce in the Indian economy." Explain the statement
with the help of data and examples.
4. What are the determinates of wage differentials in different regions and across
economic sectors?
5. Write short notes on
a. Women in informal sector
b. Impact of market segmentation on women
c. Wage structure
d. Determinant so wage Differentials

5.11 References

• D. Dwyer and J. Bruce (eds.). (1988). A Home Divided: Women and Income in the
Third World, Standard University Press, Stanford
• Government of India (1974). Towards Equality - Report of the Committee on the
Status of Women in India, Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Education and Social
Welfare, New Delhi.
73
• ILO (1978). Women's Participation in the Economic Activity of Asian Countries, ILO,
Geneva.
• Jhabwala, R. and R.K. Subramanya (eds.). (2000). The Unorganized Sector: Work
Security and Social Protection, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
• Mira Seth. (2000). Women and Development: The Indian Experiences, Sage
Publications, New Delhi.
• MHRD, Government of India, (1987). Shram Shakti: Report of the National
Commission on Self-Employed Women and Women Workers in the Informal Sector,
Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi.
• S. Nararismhan (1999). Empowering Women: An Alternative Strategy from Rural
India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
• T.S. Papola and A.N. Sharma (eds.) (1999). Gender and Employment in India,
Vikas, New Delhi.

Chapter 6 Women, Technology and Environment

Contents

6.1 Impact of Technological Development and Modernisation on Women's Work


Participation

6.2 Industrial Technologies and Women

6.3 Agricultural Technologies-Machanisation, High Yielding Varieties-Green Revolution

6.4 Horticulture and Floriculture

6.6 Poultry Development

6.7 Women in Sericulture

6.8 Women in the Fisheries

6.9 Female Activities and Ecological and Environmental Concerns-The Two Way
Relationships

6.10 Role of New Technology for Helping Women

6.11 Provision of Information and Training for Simple Harvesting of Economic Services

6.12 Exercise

6.0 Objective

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:


• Assess the wide range of technologies impacting women;

74
• Examine differential impact of technology on women;

• Describe symbiotic relationship between environment and women;

• Highlight Role of New Technologies for Helping women;

• Emphasize information and training for women about technology.

6.1 Impact of Technological Development and Modernisation on


Women's Work Participation

Technological Development and modernization have by and large resulted into


retrenchment of women are not offered skill training to cope with new technologies. Only
in the information technology, women are getting entry as computer operators, call Centre
employees and tele-workers. Globalisation has brought fast changes in technologies and
environment. The important role played by women in electronics, information technology
and food processing and agro industry and textiles has been crucial to the development of
these sectors. They would be given comprehensive support in terms of labour legislation,
social security and other support services to participate in various industrial sectors.

The Impact of Globalisation on Women Workers in India


Women of the third world are seen as the most flexible of the World's labour force. The
lower supply price of these women provides a material basis for the induction of poor
working-class women into export industries such as electronics, garments, sports goods,
toys and agro-industries.48 Researches conducted under an Indo-Dutch Programme in the
eighties revealed that in many of the poorer countries, "Women are rigorously socialised
to work uncomplainingly, under patriarchal control, at nay allotted task however dull,
laborious, physically harmful or badly paid it may be. There are large numbers of poor and
desperately needy women in many countries looking for work within the narrow confines
of a socially imposed, inequitable demand of labour and strict taboos on mobility. These
women have become ideal workers for this kind of international division of labour." In the
newly expanding export-oriented industries, the production of leather goods, toys, food-
products, garments, diamond and jewellery, piece-rate female labour is employed,
working form sweatshops or from home. In a similar way, the women of ethnic minorities-
South Asians, Afro-Caribbeans, Puerto Ricans and Mexicans living in the industrialised
countries have been used as cheap labour by the world capitalism since the early 1980s.
They face triple oppression as they are subjected to race and colour prejudices as well as
class exploitation. In India, Dalit women have shouldered the heaviest burden of
imperialist globalisation in terms of deprivation of daily necessities and increased labour
intensity without rise in real income.

The relationship between the formal sector and the decentralised sector is a dependent
relationship where the formal sector has control over capital and markets and the
'informal' sector works as an ancillary. In India, 96% of women work in the decentralised
sector, which has a high degree of labour redundancy and obsolescence. These women
have less control over their work and no chance for upward mobility because of
temporary, routine and monotonous work. In the agrarian sector, the cash crops - fruits,
mushrooms, flowers and vegetables, are replacing the traditional subsistence crops where
women had important role to play. This process has also intensified immiserisation of
women workers in rural areas and has created tremendous food-shortages.

75
6.2 Industrial Technologies and Women

Women have been weeded out of traditional manufacturing sector that constitute textile,
jute, small scale industries due to introduction of semi-automated and automated
machines. Industrial Training Institutes of the Government give women training only in
tailoring and screen printing. The Southern states have started recruiting women to handle
new industrial technologies because of shortage male labour as a result of male migration
to the gulf countries. All industrial technologies are designed keeping into consideration an
average height and body of men. Sharamshakti report had demanded that women workers
must be given technical training to handle new machineries so that they can get gainful
employment in all industrial categories.

______________________________
48
Patel (2003) "Impact of Economic Globalisation on Women", Presented at World Social
Forum Seminar on "Women for Just, Sustainable and Caring Trade" on 20-1-2004.
Reservation of seats for girls and women in engineering college is a welcome move in this
direction.
Urban Unemployment: At present, India has 34 million registered unemployed and every
year it increases by 12% to 13%. The number of women professional workers, such as
executives, decision-makers in government departments, lawyers, doctors and engineers
has increased and will continue to increase, but their strength in the overall economy is
miniscule.

Industrial disasters such as Bhopal gas tragedy, pollution of air, water bodies and land
generated by hazardous industries such as plastic, synthetic fiber, chemicals, and
fertilizers have invited attention to environmental safety and occupational issues. Uses of
nuclear technology, impact of radiation on women's reproductive abilities, carcinogenic
and mutagenic impact of mercury poisoning are the major controversial issues of the
contemporary reality.

6.3 Agricultural Technologies-Machanisation, High Yielding


Varieties-Green Revolution

Due to introduction of agricultural technologies-Mechanisation, High Yielding Varieties-


Green Revolution women have been eased out of agricultural tasks in Punjab and
Haryana.
Employment Profile in Agriculture: The employment elasticity of output in agriculture has
reduced to 0.64%. Reduction of subsidy and credit in agriculture has affected small and
marginal farmers negatively. Unemployment and underemployment in the rural areas
have gained serious proportion because, in the NEP, schemes for rural development and
rural industrialisation have not been given any importance. As per Economic Survey 2000-
2001 budgetary allocation under several employment schemes has to absorb the backlog
of the unemployed and the new additions to the labour force.

There has already been a major shift in the cropping pattern from subsistence production
like rice, millet, corn, wheat to cash-crop production such as fruit, mushrooms, flowers
and vegetables. This process has affected women's employment in the agrarian sector.
Several studies have shown that a shift from subsistence to cash crop production

76
invariably leads to women being the first to lose their jobs. As a result of shrinking self-
employment prospects for women, the large majority of them join the rural and urban
reserve army of labour. In rural India, 31% of total female population is employed as per
2001 census.

Opening up of market since 1-4-2000 for 729 new commodities (240 are agrarian
products including rice, meat, milk powder, fruits) that can be imported unrestrictedly
have resulted in enormous tragedies resulting into suicides and starvation deaths among
farmers and weavers. Prices of rubber, cotton, coconut, coffee, cardamom, pepper,
tomatoes, sugarcane and potatoes have crashed. Urban poor women in Kerala and
Karnataka are fighting desperate struggles against imports of these items to express their
solidarity with their rural and tribal sisters.

6.4 Horticulture and Floriculture

Expansion of internal and external markets for horticultural and floricultural products have
encouraged many farmers to use their and for fruit and flower cultivation. Introduction
biotechnology, food, fruit and flower preservation and processing technologies has given
boost to women entrepreneurs getting into this field.

In view of the critical role of women in the agriculture and allied sectors, as
producers, concentered efforts will be made to ensure that benefits of training, extension
and various programmes will reach them in proportion to their numbers. The programmes
for training women in soil conservation, social forestry, dairy development and other
occupations allied to agriculture like horticulture, livestock including small animal
husbandry, poultry, fisheries etc. will be expanded to benefit women workers in the
agriculture sector.

6.5 Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development

Self help groups of women are encouraging rural women to consider animal husbandry
and dairy development as commercially viable proposition. In the beginning of this sector,
women were made to do only drudgery prone tasks such as collection of water and fodder,
bathing and milking animals. Men controlled sale of milk and dairy products. Men
squandered money and did not contribute to family's needs. Now, due to pressure of
women's movement, women have managed to get decision-making power and control
over finances generated from these activities. Banking and credit facilities are also
targeting women beneficiaries through SGSY (Samagra Gram Svarojgar Yojana of GoI).
Success of Amul dairy cooperative has enthused all state governments to introduce
modern methods of animal husbandry to achieve white revolution-milk revolution.

6.6 Poultry Development

Government departments as well as the voluntary organisations are encouraging women


to start poultry, which is highly labour intensive job. Women have to look after feeding of
chics, observe hatching, carefully collect eggs, clean the area littered with the chic
droppings. It Chics fall ill, it can result into loss of business. In this area also, women need
scientific training. As women don't own shops, large storage space or automobile
transporting eggs and chicken, they have to depend on men for sale. Thus, in spite of
putting in back-braking labour, women don't get cash in their Lands.
77
6.7 Women in Sericulture

During last 20 years, rural women in most of the Indian states are getting roped in
sericulture-cultivation of mulberry, handling silk-warm eggs, monitoring day and night
different stages of growth of silk-warms, silk-processing, weaving. Women in sericulture
need training in scientific methods of silk and acquaintance modern technologies. Women
have to cultivate silk-warms in their own living space. They should be given separate
space/workshops for sericulture. Women's cooperative ventures in sericulture must be
provided government support so that they have not to depend on agents. Market for silk
products has expanded as variety of pure and synthetic-mix silk is in circulation. The
fashion industry has also given boost to silk production. But women workers in sericulture
have hardly benefited from the same.

6.8 WOMEN IN THE FISHERIES

Women in fisheries have had major setback during last three decades. Concentration and
centralization of economic resources in the hands of men in fisheries have rendered
women fish vendors paupers in these sectors. Giant multinationals control rights for fish
harvesting. They have trawlers, modern technologies for catching fish, fish preservation
and processing and transporting fish to local as well as global markets. Young unmarried
girls are recruited to join the army of migrant labour force that is employed in the free
trade zones for prone and fish processing. They are made to work for 12 hours for paltry
wages. Women participation in the fisher-folks union has declined and their spokespersons
have been silenced. Lack of technological know-how, limited credit facilities and absence
of social security have gone against women fisher folks.

6.9 Female activities and Ecological and Environmental Concerns-


The two way Relationships

Environment and Forest Development has been the crucial concern for sustainable
development.

Women are employed in wasteland development, social forestry and desert development
programmes on a large scale. In these areas the budget has been cut by 23.5% .
Smokeless 'chullas' have been enthusiastically promoted among rural and urban poor
women because they are less harmful to women's health. The Government’s budget for
funding this project has reduced by 18.5%.
The most ironic impact of the SAP is on the environment and forest development. In last
few years, the environment has become one of the most debated political issues. At the
Rio Summit, government organisations (GOs) and non-government organisations (NGOs)
from India made their presence felt by making passionate presentations. In reality,
however, there has been an overall budgetary cut of 18% for the environment and forest
development.
In the context of a wood-fuel crisis, alternate energy resources like biogas and solar
energy equipment gain major importance. The government, however, has reduced the
budget for these alternate energy sources by 26.3% and 25.4% respectively. Further
funds allocated for research on alternate energy resources have been reduced by 26.3%.
On the one hand, a resource "crunch" is created where environmentally regenerative
78
programmes are concerned, while on the other hand, millions of rupees are made
available for controversial mega projects like the Sardar Sarovar, Dabhol Power Plant and
Narmada Dam. The Morse Committee, noted environmentalists, most of the NGOs outside
Gujarat, within India and internationally, have criticized the projects that are supported by
the World Bank. This is because they will harm 240,000 people and create major
environmental problems.

Displacement in the Name of Development


The most disturbing aspect is the very space to live and work in withdrawn from
the urban poor in favour of parking spaces and flyovers. Throughout the 20th century, the
urban poor women have been employed in food, beverage, tobacco, textiles, and
wood/bamboo/cane and ceramics industries. Here too, they have been targets for
retrenchment and forced to join the unorganised sector. Women are squeezed out of the
marketing, vending spaces because global traders have made local labour and skill
obsolete.

Gender audits of mega developmental schemes and programmes have been extremely
useful to seal the leakages that dis-empower women and bring to the fore women's
component in terms of employment, educational opportunities, skill development,
entitlement and assets ownership.

Capital driven G has perpetrated tremendous human miseries by resorting to forced


eviction of poor people from their dwelling place and work place. While commenting on the
forced eviction to accommodate mega projects, the UN Committee on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights, Sixteenth Session, 1997 stated:

"Women and other vulnerable individuals and groups suffer disproportionately from the
practice of forced eviction. Women in all groups are especially vulnerable given the extent
of statutory and other forms of discrimination which often apply in relation to property
rights (including home ownership) or rights of access to property or accommodation, and
their particular vulnerability to acts of violence and sexual abuse when they are rendered
homeless."

Displaced Population due to Natural as well as man-made disasters:


Women, the greatest victims of natural disasters suchas floods, earthquakes and social
disasters such as caste, communal, ethnic conflicts and war and economic disasters in the
name of development (building 350 flyovers in Mumbai, mega plants, shopping plazas
displacing people) need rehabilitation in terms of proper housing, civic amenities, safe
transport and work.

GATT's pressure to amend the Indian Patent Act that is based on process patenting will
make essential drugs very expensive. Poor women will find it impossible to avail
themselves of medical facilities. Finally, ten case-studies based on the experiences of
Botswana, Brazil, Chile, Ghana, Jamaica, Peru, Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka and
Zimbabwe suggest that unless the governments ensured compensatory policies in terms of
public works, nutritional support, public education alongside the SAP, women suffered the
most.
ICE policy i.e. Information, communication and entertainment in favour of economic
reforms has nothing to offer the common women except deprivation, degradation and
dehumanisaiton. Free-play of market forces unleashed by the economic reforms have
made majority of Indian women more vulnerable in the factor, labour and product
markets. The Government of India appointed 2nd National Labour Commission (NLC) in
79
2000 to focus on five aspects- review of law, social security, umbrella legislations for the
unorganised sector, impact of globalisation on Women workers and child labour and
healthcare. Its recommendations serve the interest of economic reforms that benefit world
capital, MNCs and TNCs.

Energy and Environment policy


In the 1980s, governments and development agencies became much more aware of the
need to consider gender issues in their environmental and natural resource management
programmes. This led to changes in project design and implementation. Eco-feminists
have played crucial role in evolution of new gender-sensitive approach among the policy
markers.49 But in actual practice the economic vested interests have reigned supreme.

Gender Audits of Water policy


Gender economists have critiqued the watershed management and rainwater harvesting
programmes that focuses solely on water-utilisation for agriculture and industry. As mass
of rural and urban poor women have to spend many hours and devote for drinking water
and water for household consumption.
Policy makers first came to appreciate that women ‘play an essential role in the
management of natural resources, including soil, water, forests and energy.... and often
have a profound traditional and contemporary knowledge of the natural world around
them.'50 The exclusion of women from environmental projects - through outright neglect or
belief in the gender neutrality of projects - would thus be a recipe for project failure.

Subsequently, donor agencies came to see women as especially vulnerable: 'their


responsibilities as day-to-day environmental managers............. make women both
victims of and contributors to the natural environment's degradation and pollution.'
On the other hand, gradually, awareness grew of many grassroots success stories of
women fighting to conserve local resources - such as greening of deserts in Rajasthan,
Appiko in Karnataka, Chipko in Tehri Garhwal and Junagarh in Gujarat, Narmada Bachao
Andolan in M.P., Maharashtra and Gujarat.
New Reproductive Technologies (NRTs) and Women

NRTs perform 4 types of functions. In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) and subsequent embryo
transfer, GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer), ZIFT and cloning assist reprouduction. 51
Contraceptive Technologies prevent conception and birth. Amniocentesis, chorion villai
Biopsy, niddling, ultrasound and imaging are used for prenatal diagnosis. 52 Foetal cells are
collected by the technique of amniocentesis and CVB. Gene technologies play crucial role
through genetic manipulation of animal and plant kingdoms. 53 Genomics is "the science of
improving the human population through controlled breeding encompasses the elimination
of disease, disorder, or undesirable traits, on the one hand, and genetic enhancement on
the other. It is pursued by nations through state policies and programmes." 54
_________________
49
Vandana Shiva Staying Alive- Women, Ecology and Development, Zed Books, London,
U.K., 1988.
50
World Development Report, World Bank, Oxford University Press, N. Y. 1991.
51
Nandedkar, Tarala D. and Medha S. Rajadhyaksha (1995): Brave New Generation,
Vistas in Biotechnology, CSIR, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, Delhi.

80
52
Patel, Vibhuti (2000): Sex Selection, In Routledge International Encyclopedia of
Women- Global Women's Issues and Knowledge, Vol.4, pp.1818-1819.
53
Agnihotri Gupta, Jyotsana (2000) New Reproductive Technologies- Women's Health and
Autonomy, Freedom or Dependency? Indo Dutch Studies in Development Alternatives-25,
Sage Publications, New Delhi....
54
Heng Leng, Chee (2002) "Genomics and Health: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications
for Developing Countries", Issues in Medical Ethics, Bombay, Vol.X, No. 1, Jan.-March,
pp.146-149.

It is important examine scientific, social, judicial, ethical, economic and health


consequences of the NRTs. NRTs have made women's bodies site for scientific
experimentations.
New Reproductive Technologies in the neo-colonial context of the third world economies
and the unequal division of labour between the first and the third world economies have
created a bizarre scenario and cut throat competition among body chasers, clone chasers,
intellect chasers and supporters of femicide. There are mainly three aspects to NRT
-assisted reproduction, genetic or pre-natal diagnosis and prevention of conception and
birth. It is important to understand the interaction among NRT developers, providers,
users, non-users, potential users, policy makers, and representative of international
organisations.
Assisted Reproduction

The focus of assisted reproduction experts is on the healthy women who are forced to
menstruate at any age backed by hazardous hormones and steroids. The processual
dimensions involve- Use of counsellors, technodocs and researchers to know the details of
personal life of women to delegitimise victim's experience. Utter disregard for women's
pain, carcinogenic and mutagenic implications, vaginal warts, extreme back pain, arthritis,
sclerosis, heavy bleeding, growth of hair on face, nose, chin, cheeks, joint pain associated
with uterine contractions for production of egg-cells are dismissed as Mood-Swings.
Network between stake groups has only one goal-impregnating women for embryo
production which in the technodocs' language is assisted reproduction. Embryos and
foetuses are used for cure of Parkinson’s disease among influential and wealthy aging
patriarchs. Side- effects on women's health are totally ignored. Growth of moustache,
deformation of teeth and dietary requirements are totally ignored.

Selective Elimination of Female Foetuses and Selection of Male at a Preconception Stage


Rapid advances in the field of new reproductive technologies has "created a situation
where there has been a breakdown of the moral consensus" 55 with respect to medical
ethics and gender justice. Techno-docs refuse the see larger contexts, future implications
and gender implications.
Sharp remark of the Member Secretary of Maharashtra State Commission for Women
represents the concerns of women's rights organisations in these words, 'The attempt at
legitimising the vetoing of female life even before it appears, is worse than the earlier
abortion related violence in the womb, precisely because it is so sanitised and relies on
seemingly sane arguments against the policing of 'human rights' in a democracy in the
intensely personal matter of procreation. This needs to be resisted at all cost."56
Population Control Policies

81
There is a serious need to examine Population policies and Global funding from the
perspective of statisation of Medical Market and marketisation of the nation states in the
context of newly emerging culture of daily changes of sponsors. Financial economists have
reigned supreme to generate moment-to-movement existence among population so that
they can get an unending supply of cannon fodder for the NRT experimentation. Budgetary
provision on health has a

_______________________
55
Rupsa, Malik (2003) " 'Negative Choice' Sex Determination and Sex Selective Abortion in
India", Urdhva Mula, Sobpia Centre for Women's Studies Development, Mumbai, Vol 2, No.
1, May.
56
Thekkekara, T.F (2001) "On the Road to Extinction", The Indian Express, December 5.
hidden agenda of NRT. The victims are not given scientific details and by labeling them as
parasites and beneficiaries, their consent is not sought. It has burdened women with
backbreaking miseries. The nation states have been in coached to implement the use of
NRT in Secrecy -in line with the programmes executed by G8 in Thailand, Indonesia,
Philippines and Bangladesh. To achieve population stablisation, 2.1% growth rate of
population and NRR -net reproduction rate of 1(i.e. mother should be replaced by 1
daughter only) are envisaged. These have inherent sexist bias because it desires birth of
1 daughter and 1.1 sons. Those who support sex-determination (SD) and sex-preselection
(SP) view these tests as helpful to achieve NRRI. This will further widen the gap between
number of girls and number of boys in the country. As it is 100 million women have been
missing due to femicide (female infanticide, ill treatment and discrimination leading to
higher mortality rate among women/girls in the first three quarters of 19th century and in
the last quarter of 19th century due to misuse of SD and SP) over a period of 1901 to
2001.
Gendered Power-relations and NRT

Search for "perfect" baby through genetic screening, ante natal sex determination tests,
pre-implantation diagnosis, commercialisation of sperm and /or egg donation,
commercialisation of motherhood and hormonal contraceptives raise many socio-legal and
ethical questions.

Division of labour among women to control women's sexuality, fertility and labour by
utilising homophobia and pitting women of different race, religions, age and looks to suit
the interest of NRT will serve the interest of patriarchy, medical mafia, pharmaceutical
industries, scientists, and technodocs at the cost of vulnerable human beings as raw
material. If the NGOs don't want to get criminalised, they must dissociate from NRTs and
divert the funding for public health, library, education, skill building, employment
generation as a long term investment and channelise their energies towards formation of
self-help groups.

It is important to understand that reproduction has an individual and a social dimension.


While examining birth control practices, an individual is a unit of analysis. While examining
the population control policies we have to analyse pros & cons of NRTs, national
governments, population control organisations, multinational pharmaceutical industries,
public and private funded bodies, medical researches and health workers who shape
women's "choices"- women's autonomy or control at micro and macro levels. Thus choices
are not made in vacuum. NRT as a choice for some women (educated career women) can
become coercion for others (powerless and less articulate women). Hence it is important
82
to be vigilant about power relations determined by race, age, class and gender while
examining implications of NRT on different stake groups.

Informed consent and medical malpractice


Power relations in the medical market favour the technodocs and the clients are not given
full details of the line of treatment and its consequences. Respect for diversity, adoption of
child/children is a far simpler and more humane solution than subjecting women to
undergo infertility treatment. Obsession about creation of designer baby boys has made
development agenda subsidiary.

6.10 Role of New Technology for Helping Women

New technologies in terms of kitchen and household appliances have reduced middle and
upper class women's drudgery, drastically reduced time for cooking, cleaning and caring.
Introduction of computers, office automation has reduced manual administrative chores.
Internet has eased communication. Many internet savvy women get assignments without
running from pillar to post. Mobile revolution ahs made women more secure as they can
coordinate their work and home lives more efficiently and also with a sense of security.
New range of easily manageable automobiles-two wheelers and four wheelers have
encouraged women with purchasing power to own vehicles so they they can remain mobile
even during late night and early morning. Women entrepreneurs are reaping best harvests
from new technologies of video-conferencing, tele-conferencing, e-commerce, ATM and
credit cards. Self Help Groups of Women and Rural Women Bank are using smart cards for
financial transactions.

6.11 Provision of Information and Training for Simple Harvesting of


Economic Services

There is a need to start information kiosk for women in rural and urban centers. Industrial
training centers must provide opportunities to women to deal with all traditional and
modern technologies. Department of Science and Technology must target school and
college girls for advanced scientific training in core and applied sector. Women
entrepreneurs must be given orientation to new technologies by the government as well
as entrepreneurship development associations. Information, Education and
Communication (IEC) policy in the area of modern technologies and scientific development
must have strong gender component in its design and implementation. Global, national,
regional and local level information about job opportunities, career advancement and
training opportunities must be announced in print and electronic media. Training women in
modern technology should be looked at as an investment rather than as expenditure.

6.12 Exercise

1. Describe impact of technological development and modernization on women's work


participation in agriculture, rural-urban and cottage industries.

83
2. Illustrate two-way relationship between technology with and environment concerns.
3. What is the role of new technologies for helping women?

4. How has food preservation and food processing industry contributed for women's
development keeping into considerations interests of women as consumers and producers?

5. Write short notes on:


a. Women and Technology

b. Women and Environment


c. Technology- A boon or a bane for women?

d. Women and agricultural technologies

6.13 References

• National Perspective Plan for women, GoI, Delhi, 1988.

• Sarla Gopalan and Mira Shiva National Profile of Women, Health and Development,
WHO & VHAI, Delhi, 2000.

• Shramshkati Report, GoI, Delhi, 1988.

• S. Venkateswaran Environment, Development and the Gender Gap, Sage


Publications, New Delhi, 1955
• Vandana Shiva Staying Alive- Women, Ecology and Development, Zed Books,
London, U.K., 1988.
• Vibhuti Patel Women Challenges of the New Millenuim, Gyan Publications, Delhi,
2002.

84
Chapter 7 Social Security and Social Protection For
Women

Content

7.1 Meaning of Social Security and Social Security of Women

7.2 Entitlements, Ensuring Economic Independence and Risk Coverage

7.3 Access to Credit and Insurance Markets

7.4 Role of Voluntary Organisations And SHGs in Providing Social Security

7.5 Labour Market Biases and Gender Discrimination

7.6 Effectiveness of Collective Bargaining

7.7 Review of Legislations for Women's Entitlements

7.8 Protection of Property Rights and Social Security

7.9 Schemes for Safety Net for Women

7.10 Need for Women Workers' Union

7.11 Affirmative Action for Women and Improvement in Their Economic and Social Status

7.12 Exercise

7.13 References

7.0 Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:


• Describe social security measures provided to women as affirmative action to
improve women's economic and social status;
• Explain women's entitlements- economic independence, risk coverage, access to
credit;
• Highlight role of voluntary sector- SHGs and NGOs for social security of women;

• Examine biases in labour markets that perpetuate gender discrimination;

• Evaluate role of collective bargaining and women workers' trade union.

7.1 Meaning of Social Security and Social Security of Women

What Is Social Security (Ss)?

85
"The protection which society provides for its members, through a series of public
measures, against the economic and social distress that otherwise would be caused by
stoppage or substantial reduction in earnings resulting from sickness, maternity,
employment injury, unemployment, invalidly, old age and death, the provision of medical
care and provision of subsidies for families with children.: ILO, 1989.
The nation-states are supposed to make policy choices and prescriptions on the basis of
this definition.
This definition is found inadequate for developing country as it assumes that most persons
are generally in a state of employment from which they can earn enough to meet their
basic needs. For example, omission of food security.

Alternative Definitions:
• Social Security represents a guarantee, by the whole community to all its
members, of the maintenance of their standard of living or at least of tolerable living
conditions by means of redistribution of income based on national solidarity.

• Social Security means the support provided to the individual by the society to
enable him/her to attain a reasonable standard of living, and to protect the same from
falling due to the occurrence of any contingency.
• Any kind of collective measures or activities designed to ensure that members of
society meet their basic needs (such as adequate nutrition, shelter, health care and clean
water supply), as well as being protected from contingencies (such as illness, disability,
death, unemployment and old age), to enable them to maintain a standard of living
consistent with social norms.

Social Security For Women


Social security for women has three major aspects. The first is 'Protective' aspect of
preventing decline in living standards. Second is 'Promotive' aspects of enhancing normal
living conditions and the third one is requirements of 'income maintenance' & 'income
support'. Social security measures are implemented through affirmative action by the
state, the community/NGOs/SHGs and employers.

In India, Constitutional provisions to ensure social security are


Article 38-state to promote Social Security thro' all institutes of national life

Article 41-Effective provision for securing right to work, education & public assistance in
case of unemployment, old age, sickness & disablement + other cases of underserved
wants
Article 42-just & humane condition of work, maternity relief

Article 47-raising the level of nutrition & standard of living, improvement in public health

7.2Entitlements, Ensuring Economic Independence and Risk


Coverage

Three important components of concept of Social Security for women are:

1. promotional component that aims at improving endowments, exchange


entitlements, real incomes and social consumption

86
2. Preventive component that seeks to avert deprivation in more specific ways
3. Protective component that ensures relief against deprivation

Social security measures look after overall needs- employment, sustainable income,
ownership of assets, food, health care, child care, maternity care, old age support,
housing and other locally-defined needs (transport, water, skills). Economic security &
Social security is directly linked with social security because Economic security is a primary
means by which people are able to obtain social security. Social security is a means to
increase & maintain productivity.

In the women Empowerment Policy, 2001 of GoI, there is a separate section on Social
Empowerment of Women that aims to ensure social security for women in terms of:

Education
1. Equal access to education for women and girls will be ensured. Special measures will be
taken to eliminate discrimination, universalize education, eradicate illiteracy, create a
gender-sensitive educational system, increase enrolment and retention rates of girls and
improve the quality of education to facilitate life-long learning as well as development of
occupation/vocation/technical skills by women. Reducing the gender gap in secondary and
higher education would be a focus area. Sectoral time targets in existing policies will be
achieved, with a special focus on girls and women, particularly those belonging to weaker
sections including the Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes/ Other Backward Classes/
Minorities. Gender sensitive curricula would be developed at all levels of educational
system in order to address sex stereotyping as one of the causes of gender discrimination.
Health

2. A holistic approach to women's health which includes both nutrition and health services
will be adopted and special attention will be given to the needs of women and the girl at
all stages of the life cycle. The reduction of infant mortality and maternal mortality, which
are sensitive indicators of human development, is a priority concern. This policy, reiterates
the national demographic goals for Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Rate
(MMR) set out in the National Population Policy 2000. Women should have access to
comprehensive, affordable and quality health care. Measures will be adopted that take into
account the reproductive rights of women to enable them to exercise informed choices,
their vulnerability to sexual and health problems together with endemic, infectious and
communicable diseases such as malaria, TB, and water borne diseases as well as
hypertension and cardio-pulmonary diseases. The social, developmental and health
consequences of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases will be tackled from a
gender perspective.
To effectively meet problems of infant and maternal mortality, and early marriage the
availability of good and accurate data at micro level on deaths, birth and marriage is
required. Strict implementation of registration of birth and deaths would be ensured and
registration of marriages would be made compulsory.
In accordance with the commitment of the National Population Policy (2000) to population
stabilization, this Policy recognizes the critical need of men and women to have access to
safe, effective and affordable methods of family planning of their choice and the need to
suitably address the issues of early marriages and spacing of children. Interventions such
as spread of education, compulsory registration of marriage and special programmes like
BSY should impact on delaying the age of marriage so that by 2010 child marriage are
eliminated.
87
Nutrition
In view of the high risk of malnutrition and disease that women face at all three critical
stages viz., infancy and childhood, adolescent and reproductive phase, focused attention
would be paid to meeting the nutritional needs of women at all stages of the life cycle.
This is also important in view of the critical link between the health of adolescent girls,
pregnant and lactating women with the health of infant and young children. Special efforts
will be made to tackle the problem of macro and micro nutrient deficiencies especially
amongst pregnant and lactating women as it leads to various diseases and disabilities.

Intra-household discrimination in nutritional matters vis-a-vis girls and women will be


sought to be ended through appropriate strategies. Widespread use of nutrition education
would be made to address the issues of intra-household imbalances in nutrition and the
special needs of pregnant and lactating women. Women's participation will also be ensured
in the planning, superintendence and delivery of the system.
Drinking Water and Sanitation

Special attention will be given to the needs of women in the provision of safe drinking
water, sewage disposal, toilet facilities and sanitation within accessible reach of
households, especially in rural areas and urban slums. Women's participation will be
ensured in the planning, delivery and maintenance of such services.

Housing and Shelter


Women's perspective will be included in housing policies, planning of housing colonies and
provision of shelter both in rural and urban areas. Special attention will be given for
providing adequate and safe housing and accommodation for women including single
women, heads of households, working women, students, apprentices and trainees.
Environment

Women will be involved and their perspectives reflected in the policies and programmes
for environment, conservation and restoration. Considering the impact of environmental
factors on their livelihoods, women's participation will be ensured in the impact of
environment and control of environmental degradation. The vast majority of rural women
still depends on the locally available non-commercial sources of energy such as animal
dung, crop waste and fuel wood. In order to ensure the efficient use of these energy
resources in an environmental friendly manner, the Policy will aim at promoting the
programmes of non-conventional energy resources. Women, will be involved in spreading
the use of solar energy, biogas, smokeless chullahs and other rural application so as to
have a visible impact of these measures in influencing eco system and in changing the life
styles of rural women.
Science and Technology

Programmes will be strengthened to bring about a greater involvement of women in


science and technology. These will include measures to motivate girls to take up science
and technology for higher education and also ensure that development projects with
scientific and technical inputs involve women fully. Efforts to develop a scientific temper
and awareness will also be stepped up. Special measures would be taken for their trairing
in areas where they have special skills like communication and information technology.
Efforts to develop appropriate technologies suited to women's needs as well as to reduce
their drudgery will be given a special focus too.

Women in Difficult Circumstances


88
In recognition of the diversity of women's situations and in acknowledgement of the needs
of specially disadvantaged groups, measures and programmes will be undertaken to
provide them with special assistance. These groups include women in extreme poverty,
destitute women, women in conflict situations, women affected by natural calamities,
women in less developed regions, the disabled widows, elderly women, single women in
difficult circumstances, women heading households, those displaced from employment,
migrants, women who are victims of marital violence, deserted women and prostitutes etc.

7.3 Access to Credit and insurance Markets

Who will finance & administer Social security programmes? Has always been a difficult
question. Historically, there have been three methods of managing social security
programmes.
1. Schemes in which employers alone are responsible.

2. Contributory Social Security Schemes-employers, workers & government


3. Social Assistance Schemes supported by Government.

After the post 1991 period marked by economic reforms, the state and employers
payments for social security benefits have reduced drastically as you can see in the figures
below. Privatisation of social security has created a situation where 77% of social security
schemes are financed by people themselves.

Financing of Social security schemes, 1995


Govt. Expenditure on Health-20%

Insurance & employer payments- 3%


Payment by people themselves- 77%

The key to protecting marginalized women workers is to create a variety of social agencies
that work together. Social security for women in informal sector has been major concern
for Second Global Labour Forum. Community organizations, micro-credit movements, self
help groups and non-government organisations are playing major role in evolving
innovative methods of making credit and insurance markets accessible to mass of middle
class and poor women.

7.4 Role of Voluntary Organisations and SHGs in Providing Social


Security

The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) was founded in 1972 as a trade union
representing self-employed women vegetable vendors, home based garment workers, and
service providers (such as rag-pickers) in the western Indian state of Gujarat. It has since
taken on the additional roles of bank, co-operative marketing agency, service provider,
educator, and advocate for changes in government policy. "Our strategy is to pursue
women's rights through unionism, and development through co-operatives," explained
Director of SEWA.
When SEWA was formed, the women it represents were desperately poor (despite working
grueling 18 hour days) in part because they were more vulnerable to exploitation and
lacked the protection of social security and minimum wage laws. SEWA organized these

89
women despite many obstacles - including the fact they had no identifiable employer to go
on strike against.

Soon, another aspect of these women's plight became evident: their lack of capital. Unable
to secure loans form commercial banks, many women had been forced to borrow from
money lenders at interest rates as high as 3,000% annually. (SEWA, by contrast, charges
the market rate of 17% on its loans). Women lacking the capital necessary to buy their
own equipment were also trapped in a cycle of indebtedness: rental of a sewing machine,
for example, typically eats up most of a garment worker's earnings.

Today, there are indications that SEWA has helped some women escape from poverty. The
SEWA Bank has opened 125,000 saving accounts and granted 30,000 loans, many of
which have helped the borrowers to increase their productivity and income. SEWA director
cites the case of one women who installed a tile floor in her home and now sews more
because her sewing machine no longer wobbles. Another client, who replaced a leaky roof,
began to sell more of a snack she makes because she was able to keep the food drier.

SEWA became a marketing co-operative after its union's successful against merchants who
were gouging quilt-makers. These merchants had agreed to raise the wholesale price for
quilts - which sold for 8 rupees in the market - from one-half rupee to one-and-a-half
rupees, but they refused to trade with women who had been active in the union. As a
result, these women needed an agency to help them market their own goods.
Political action is another element of SEWA's multi-pronged approach. In one case, SEWA
successfully lobbied to secure the tenure of women vendors on city streets. In a second
case, it provided the Prime Minister of India with a five minute video synopsis of a report
on self-employed women, which he had been too busy to read.
SEWA has also popularized insurance schemes for women in informal sector. Mandeshi
Mahila Sangh, Maan headed by Chtena Galla had involved thousands of women in rural
women's banks and has issued coded smart cards that can't be used by their male family
members. Sakti in Bangalore has formed hundreds of SHGs in rural Bangalore district to
ensure social security and social protection thro' micro-credit movement.

Voluntary organizations provide voice to the voiceless women with regard to


implementation of statutory provision, guaranteeing state stipulated minimum wages and
implementation of Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, Environmental issues such as
provision of fuel, fodder, water, use of common land and waste land by mass of poor/Dalit
women, land rights of agrarian and tribal women and fight against deforestation caused by
wood traders/contractors in collusion with forest officials.

Public education/awareness generation regarding social security is done by only


community organizations. Print and electronic media should take lead in this direction.

7.5 Labour Market Biases and Gender Discrimination

Gender biases in Labour market don't allow women to enter Primary Sector is
characterised by steady and preferred jobs, high wage, opportunity for advancement,
good working condition, stability of employment and a role in the organisational structure.
Majority of women are segregated in Secondary Sector is characterised by temporary,
self-terminating and unattractive jobs and irregular work-habits. STIGMATISED GROUPS
are crowded into this sector with low pay, no chances for upward career prospects, low

90
security of employment and bad working conditions. Hence, women have flatter wage
earning profile.

Hence, men and women with similar levels of education & skills get differential wages.
Women face job discrimination in pre-entry phase & wage discrimination in post entry
phase. Women are the first to be fired and the last to be hired. Institutions like extended
family, caste and village nexus play an important role in migration and recruitment.

7.6 Effectiveness of Collective Bargaining

Government of India instituted Beedi Welfare Fund that charges cess of 50 paise per 1000
bidis has a fund of Rs. 300 million due to pressure from SEWA and Belgaum Beedi workers
Association.

There has been declining participation of women in the male dominated Trade Unions as
women's concerns are neglected by them and also due to inter-union rivalry- violence, use
of abusive language and rent seeking behaviour of union leaders, hostility or family
members regarding union.

Progressive unions have formed women's cells/ caucuses to deal with women-specific
problems. Women employees oppose patriarchal structure of trade unions, prejudice of
male leaders who treat women as an auxiliary labour force that can be hired last at the
time of economic expansion & fired first at the time of economic recession and high male
unemployment, division of labour within unions that appoints men as leaders and women
as supporters, unsuitable time & place of union meetings. In women's unions such as
SEWA, women's role in collective bargaining is prominent & we see reflection of women's
aspirations and demands in the character of demands. Communal and casteist biases
within T.U are questioned by women in Workers Education Programmes.
Major limitations of the trade unions have been their lack of concern for girl child workers,
evils of dowry and pre-birth elimination of girls and violence against women, sexual
harassment at workplace.

7.7 Review of Legislations for Women's Entitlements

India has a history of three decades legislation for women's entitlements. Equal remuneration Act,
1976 ensures equal opportunity, equal treatment and equal wages for women. Important laws
affecting women's lives are

Workmen's Compensation The Minimum Wages Act, The Factories Act, 1948
Act, 1932. 1948

Maternity Benefits Act,' 61 Plantation Labour Act,' 51 Bidi & Cigar Workers Act,' 96

The Contract Labour Act,' 70 Bonded Labour Act, 1976 Equal Remuneration Act,' 76

Migrant Workers' Act, 76 Child Labour (P&R) Act, Legal Services Act, 1987
1986

Strict enforcement of all relevant legal provisions and speedy redressal of grievances must
be ensured, with a special focus on violence and gender related atrocities.

91
Measures to prevent and punish sexual harassment at the place of work, protection, for
women workers in the organized/unorganized sector and strict enforcement of relevant
laws such as Equal Remuneration Act and Minimum Wages Act must be undertaken.
Crimes Against women, their incidence, prevention, investigation, detection and
prosecution will be regularly reviewed at all Crime Review fora and Conference at the
Central, State and District levels. Recognised, local, voluntary organizations must be
authorized to lodge Complaints and facilitate registration, investigations and legal
proceedings related to violence and atrocities against girls and women.

Women's Cells in Police Stations, Encourage Women Police Stations Family Courts, Mahila
Courts, Counselling Centers, Legal Aid Centers and Nyaya Panchayats must be
strengthened and expanded to eliminate violence and atrocities against women.
Widespread dissemination of information on all aspects of legal rights, human rights and
other entitlements of women, through specially designed legal literacy programmes and
rights information programmes must be done.

Tribal women's groups are demanding that for forest dwellers, a comprehensive Minor
Forest Produce Workers Act which regulates their work condition and provides social
security and accident compensation to the forest workers.
International Labour Organisation has demanded from the nation states that Convention
183 concerning maternity protection be ratified soon as possible. ILO has also demanded
comprehensive laws regarding

• Standardisation of work hours

• Child labour prevention

• Occupational health and Safety

• Compensation for displaced population

• Human rights of ethnic minorities- wages &safety

• Economic activities for women refugees

• Visibility of Women in Statistic and Indicators

7.8 Protection of Property Rights and Social Security

Protection of women's property rights within family laws (which are different for women
from different religious groups) has come to the fore due to women filing public interest
litigations in lower, high and supreme courts of India. Several state governments have
enacted laws ensuring land rights to peasant women. Property rights of female headed
households (single, widow, separated, divorced and deserted women) demand special
attention. Domestic violence prevention Act, 2005 guarantee women's right to stay in
matrimonial and parental home. In social and natural disaster management programmes,
in rehabilitation schemes land, house, equipments, animals, loans and other goods must
be given in joint name of women and men. In case of female headed households, the
rehab package should bear the title of women.

92
7.9 Schemes for Safety Net for Women

Social security measures for labour have become irrelevant in India after the
implementation of economic reforms. The first part of the decade of reforms has not given
the required focus on this problem, through amounts have been set apart in every budget.
There is a decline in the allocations made for social security in general and labour in
particular. The second half showed increased allocation, but the amounts were found to be
insufficient. As human face of economic reforms began to be slowly seen as severely
adverse to labour, with losing of jobs, fall in employment, low allocation (in percentages)
to socia! security of labour, women's groups and gender economists have registered
protest.

7.10 Need for Women Workers' Union

In an economy facing fast paced and volatile changes, women workers union can provide
been guarantee for social security. Organisations such as SEWA (India) and Annapurna
(Mumbai) have provided safety net to deal with Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) &
uncertainties created by economic globalization. Women's associations have highlighted
the following demands:

• Food security, safe and cheap transport

• Multicultural Outlook to counter casterism, communalism, ethnicism and racism

• Formation of Special Interest Groups- young working mothers, study circles, career
guidance, therapeutic sessions. Circulation library, speak out centers and cultural
activities.
• Special buses and trains for working women

• Part time work, Flexi time

• Maternity benefits and day care centers

• Occupational health & Safety

• Women's cooperatives, Self employed women

• Female headed households

• Working women's hostels at district/tehshil levels.

7.11 Affirmative Action for Women and Improvement in their


Economic and Social Status

Women Empowerment policy, 2001 of Government of India has declared that the provision
of support services for women, like child care facilities, including crèches at work places
and educational institutions, homes for the aged and the disabled will be expanded and
improved to create an enabling environment and to ensure their full cooperation in social,
political and economic life. Women-friendly personnel policies will also be drawn up to
encourage women in participate effectively in the developmental process.

The policy has also stated that the important role played by women in electronic,
information technology and food processing and agro industry and textiles has been

93
crucial to the development of these sectors. They would be given comprehensive support
in terms of labour legislation, social security and other support services to participate in
various industrial sectors.
The state policy for empowerment of women support job reservation for women,
preferential treatment to women's Self Help Groups (SHGs), on third representation of
women in all decision making bodies, mandatory formation of grievance cells by the
employers to combat sexual harassment at workplace- any covert or overt sexual
behaviour, lewd remarks, physical advances against & women employee by her male
colleague/ boss as a punishable offence.
The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble,
Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not
only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive
discrimination in favour of women.
Within the framework of a democratic policy, our laws, development policies, Plants and
programmes have aimed at women's advancement in different spheres. From the Fifth
Five Year Plan (1974-1978) onwards has been a marked shift in the approach to women's
issues from welfare to development. In recent years, the empowerment of women has
been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. The National
Commission for Women was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1990 to safeguard the rights
and legal entitlements of women. The 73rd and 74th. Amendments (1993) to the
Constitution of India have provided for reservation of seats in the local bodies of
Panchayats and Municipalities for women, laying a strong foundation for their participation
in decision making at the local levels.
India has also ratified various international conventions and human rights instruments
committing to secure equal rights of women. Key among them is the ratification of the
Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in
1993.
The Mexico Plan of Action (1975), the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies (1985), the
Beijing Declaration as well as the Platform for Action (1995) and the Outcome Document
adopted by the UNGA Session on Gender Equality and Development & Peace for the 21st
century, titled "Further actions and initiatives to implement the Beijing Declaration and the
Platform for Action" have been unreservedly endorsed by India for appropriate follow up.

The women's movement and a wide-spread network of non-Government Organisations


which have strong grass-roots presence and deep insight into women's concerns have
contributed in inspiring initiatives for the Social Security and Social Protection of women.
Social organisations are filing public interest litigations and using Right to Information Act,
2005 for making financial allocations by the government for social security and social
protection for women realized.

7.12 Exercise

1. Explain social security and social protection for women.

94
2. What are the roles of voluntary organizations, NGOs, SHGs in providing social
security, women's entitlements ensuring economic independence and risk coverage?

3. How can the state, community groups and women counter labour market biases
and gender discrimination?

4. Review legislations for women's entitlements, protection of property rights and


social security.

5. Write short notes on:


a. Schemes for safety net for women
b. Need for female labour union
c. Affirmative action for women and improvement in their economic and social status.
d. Labour market biases and gender discrimination smart

7.13 References

• Renana Jhabwala and R.K. Subramanya (Ed.s) The unorganised Sector: Work,
Social Security and Social Protection, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 2000.
• Women Empowerment Policy, 2001, Government of India, 2001.

• Women Networking, Invisible Hands, DRTC, St. Pius College, Mumbai, 2004.

Chapter 8 Gender Planning, Development Policies and


Governance

Contents

8.1 Gender and Development Indices

8.2 Mainstreaming Gender into Development Policies.

8.3 Gender Planning Techniques

8.4 Gender Sensitive Governance

8.5 Paradigm Shifts from 'Women’s Wellbeing' to 'Women's Empowerment'.

8.6 Democratic Decentralization and Women's Empowerment in India

8.7 Exercise

8.8 References
95
8.0 Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

• Explain gender and development indices;

• Describe gender planning techniques;

• Discuss gender sensitive governance and decentralization and women's


empowerment in India.

8.1 Gender and Development Indices

Conventional indicators of DEVELOPMENT are economic growth, rise in national & per
capita income and GDP, rapid pace of urbansation, high mobility of labour & capital,
expansion of industrial base, agrarian growth and growth of foreign trade.

This thinking has been challenged by gender economists as these indicators have not
taken into consideration just distribution of resources, opportunities and material
wellbeing to majority of human beings, especially women.
Women in Development approachsignifies awareness about marginalisation of women in
society in general and in the economy in particular. Towards Equality Report, Government
of India published in 1974 and The UN Charter on Equality, Development and Peace
adopted in 1975 were influenced by this approach.
Women & Development approach that believes in integration of women in the mainstream
through Education, health and economic development of women is a guiding force for
National Perspective Plan (1988-2000), GOI.

Gender & Development approach is committed to bending the existing power structure in
favour of women thru' empowerment of women in the apex bodies of decision making.
Convention on Elimination of (All Forms of) Discrimination Against women (CEDAW)
espouses this approach.

Meaningful Indicators of Women and Development


Comparative data of 130 countries regarding gender-related development index (GDI)
reveals that gender-equality does not depend entirely on the income level of society. The
human development approach which focuses on demographic, health, educational and
human rights profiles have revealed that there is an urgent need to reexamine this
approach by conducting participatory action research and rapid rural appraisal not by
social scientists alone, but in collaboration with other professionals such scientists,
doctors-occupational health and safety experts, engineers and lawyers who believe that
like them, citizens from subsistence sector also have right to enjoy fruits of modern
science and technology in terms of food security, safe transport, clean environment,
secure housing and healthy life. India ranks 103rd in GDI and 104th in the HDIas, the
Indian women enjoy nearly 1/5th of the total earned income, life expectancy of 60.4 years
and 35.2% adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary and tertiary Gross
enrollment ratio (GER) of 45.8. While their male counterparts enjoy 4/5th of the earned
income, life expectancy of 60.3 years, 63.7% adult literacy rate and combined primary,

96
secondary and tertiary GER of 63.8. HDI for India is 0.398 and GDI for India is 0.401.
There is a gender gap of 0.003.1 As compared to their male counterparts, women in India
have higher life expectancy because women from the middle and upper classes live in a
secure environment, produce one or two children and control food (kitchen) of the
household.

8.2 Mainstreaming Gender into Development Policies

The concept of gender mainstreaming has gained tremendous popularity among the
development economists, social scientists, policy makers and practitioners in the new
millennium. It is perceived as crucial from the point of view of equity and efficiency.
Increasingly the scholars and the decision-makers in the government as well non-
government organisations are accepting that gender-bias is not only harmful and costly for
women, but it is equally harmful to the children and the households. If women were given
equal opportunities, equal treatment and equal remuneration/ equal share in property, it
would be possible for the country to have more output, more development of capacities,
more well-being and more leisure due to combined contribution of men and women. When
we do gender mainstreaming, we do not see women as beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown
at them by the system but we perceive women as active participants in the development
process and as citizens. For healthy governance,

_________________________
1
Human Development Report, UNDP, OUP, Bombay, 1995, p.33.

"We need a vision of mankind not as patients whose interests have to be looked
after, but as agents who can do effective things- both individually and jointly. We also
have to go beyond the role of human beings specifically as 'consumers' or as 'people with
need' and consider, more broadly, their general role as agents of change who can- given
opportunity- think, assess, evaluate, resolve, inspire, agitate, and through these means,
reshape the world."2

Prerequisite for gender mainstreaming is gender audit. Gender audits as an input to


engender governance must be made an integral part of all development efforts by the
state and civil society initiatives. In this section, the efforts is made to give an overview of
the policies and programmes that have deconstructed and reconstructed gender relations
in our country in the post-independence period.
Gender audit of macro policies, to show how international economics impacts the local
processes of empowerment of women, has been a major concern of feminist economists.
Gender audits of economic reforms, globalisation and structural adjustment programmes,
the Five Year Plans have been done by women's studies scholars tc identify conceptual and
operational biases in the approach, design and implications.

Gender audits of mega developmental schemes and programmes have been extremely
useful to seal the leakages that dis-empower women and bring to the fore women's
component in terms of employment, educational opportunities, skill development, skill
development, entitlement and assets ownership.

Gender audits of statistics and indicators visiblise women's contributions & stakes and
provide a realisuc picture for allocation of resources for women specific projects and
gender-neutral projects.

97
Gender audits of documents of state and central governments such as Towards Equality
(1974), Shram Shakti Report (1988), National Perspective Plan for Women (1988-2000),
State Policies for Women, Women Empowerment Policy, 2001, Amendments in the
Panchayati Raj Institutions act to grant 33% reservation of seats for women, II National
Commission of Labour (2002) and human Development Reports have sensitised the
administrators, politicians and social movements to women's needs, aspirations and
demands.
Gender audits of housing policy, water policy, energy and environment policy, population
policy, National Health Policy, disaster management policy, policy for
____________________
2
Sen, Amartya Kumar (2000) Keynote Address on 'Transition to Sustainability in the 21th
Century' at the Inter-Academy Panel called Sustainability and Freedom on International
Issues, Tokyo, Mar, 15.
financial assistance and foreign policy have helped to evolve safety nets for women's
survival and subsistence.
Gender audit of budgets provides policy framework, methodology and set of tools to assist
governments to integrate a gender perspective into the budget as the main national plan
of public expenditure. It also aims to facilitate attention to gender analysis in review of
macroeconomic performance, ministerial budget preparations, parliamentary debate, and
mainstream media coverage.

8.3 Gender Planning Techniques

Identification of Strategic and practical gender needs is very important for successful
gender planning.
Strategic gender needs Strategic Gender Needs are different in different economic
contexts and are determined by statutory provisions, affirmative action by the state, pro-
active role of the employers to enhance women's position in the economy and social
movements.
Practical gender needs Practical Gender Needs are identified keeping into consideration,
gender based division of labour of women's subordinate position in the economy. They are
a response to immediate perceived necessity, identified within a specific context. They are
practical in nature and often are concerned with inadequacies in living conditions such as
provision of fuel, water, healthcare and employment.

Techniques of rapid appraisal of the situation thro' gender lens, participatory action
research, focus group discussions and pilot studies, surveys can be useful techniques for
gender planning.
Gender Audit of the Five Year Plans of the GoI has been done by women's studies scholars
to identify conceptual and operational biases in the approach, design and implications.
It is important to understand historical evolution of gender-concerns in the planning
process in the independent India.
The First Five Year Plan (1951-1955) set up Central Social Welfare Board in 1953 to
promote welfare work through voluntary organisations, charitable trust and philanthropic
agencies. India was the first country to introduce family planning programmes during the

98
first five-year plan. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then prime minister of India who had only one
daughter was a role model and men were encouraged to take lead in birth control
practices.
The Second Five Year Plan (1956-1960) supported development of Mahila mandals for
grass roots work among women. It also introduced barrier methods of contraception for
both women and men.

The Third, Fourth and Interim Plans (1961-74) made provision for women's education,
prenatal and child health services, supplementary feeding for children, nursing and
expectant mothers. In this plan, women's health needs merged with their children's needs.
Invasive methods of contraception and reversible (IUDs) and irreversible (sterilization for
men and women) methods were promoted.
The Fifth Plan (1974-1978) marked a major shift in the approach towards women, from
welfare to development. It acknowledged the fact of marginalisation of women from the
economy and also accepted the need for special employment generation programmes for
women in the poverty groups. In terms of population policy, this period proved to be
disastrous because forcible vasectomy of men during emergency rule of 18 months
generated permanent erosion of faith in the top down and bureaucratically managed
population policy.

The Sixth Plan (1980-85) accepted women's development as a separate economic agenda.
It allotted a separate chapter to focus on women's concerns in the economic development.
The Multidisciplinary approach with three-pronged thrust on health, education and
employment. It introduced family welfare policy that targeted women for birth control.
Promotion of male methods of contraception was found politically harmful by the ruling
party. It also netted unpaid family work of women that augmented family resources due to
women's efforts of collection of fuel, fodder, water, kitchen gardening, livestock rearing
and work in the household enterprise.

The Seventh Plan (1985-1990) declared as its OBJECTIVE TO BRING WOMEN INTO THE
MAINSTREAM OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. On the front of population control, clinical
trials of long acting and hormone based oral and injectable contraceptives were targeted
to women from the marginalized communities.

The Eighth Plan (1992-1997) projected paradigm shift, from the development to
empowerment and promised to ensure flow of benefits to women in the crore sectors of
education, health and employment. Outlay for women rose from 4 crores in the 1 st plan to
Rs. 2000 crores in the 8th plan. Anti-pregnancy vaccines, E-P combinations, Depo-
Provera, Net-O-en were introduced with blessing of USAID and WHO in the form of
'Cafeteria Approach' o birth control.

The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) stated that Empowerment of women was its strategic
objective. It accepted the concept of Women's Component Plan to assure at least 30% of
funds/benefits from all development sectors flow to women. It suggested four times of
schemes and programmes that impacted women directly (1 & 2) and indirectly (3 & 4).

1. Women specific schemes where 100% of the allocation is required to be spent on


women.

2. Pro-women schemes where at least 30% of allocation and benefits flow to women.
3. Gender-neutral schemes meant for the benefit of community as a whole where
both men and women avail these benefits.

99
4. The residual state specific programmes having profound effect on women's
position/condition.

Gender audit of the budget during the 9th Plan period has revealed that the budgetary
allocation for women specific schemes has increased only in the area of family planning.
The family planning schemes got additional 700 crores in the budget.3
___________________________
3
See Chapter 5 "Budgetary Policies- A Gender Analysis" in Vibhuti Patel Women's
Challenges in the New Millenssium, Gyan Publications, New Delhi, 2002. Also, Vibhuti Patel
"Gender
The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2009) has suggested specific Strategies, policies and
programmes for Empowerment of women. They are as follows:
• Measurement of development has to go beyond achievement of GDP growth to
indicators of distributive justice and their monitoring.
• Women headed households have to be specifically targeted, identifying added
disadvantages in the rural and urban locations with reference to different parameters of
deprivation.

• Formulation of Gender Development Indicators to measure Human Development


and their use as a tool for monitoring development needs to be hastened.

• The Component Plan approach, which did not address compartmentalisation of


government functioning should be replaced with mandated approach of convergence of
services at all levels of governance, through inter-sectoral committees of all
Ministries/Departments at the Centre and the States with specific responsibility given to
the Panchayats and Municipalities to administer at the grassroots level."
The United Nations India has suggested that, "To protect the gains of the past and ensure
steady progress on indicators of social development and gender equality, and in order to
give a fresh impetus to the process of women's empowerment, the Tenth Plan needs to
take some bold policy initiatives.
• Earmarking of funds for women under all major poverty alleviation programmes
and maintenance of gender disaggregated records of implementation of all poverty
alleviation programmes.

• Mandatory registration of all assets provided under government programmes (land,


house, animals, production units) in the joint names of husband and wife.

• Intensified focus on rights education and capacity-building interventions for women


in all strategic sectors, including health and reproductive health, agriculture, natural
resource management, technology (including information technology) and legal
awareness.

• Revision of regulatory framework to allow women's collectives to access


institutional credit, obtain medium-term leases for cultivation on wastelands and common
lands, bid for contracts for collection and sale of minor forest produce and other collective
activities that will ensure household food security while regenerating the natural resource
base."
Women's groups have demanded allocations for women-specific programmes of strategic
nature to arrive at the desired goals in a shorter time span. They should target women of

100
different age groups in terms of strategic interventions to take specific notice of adolescent
girls, older women and women in difficult circumstances. Strategic gender tools like
gender audits, gender impact assessments, gender analysis and gender budgeting to
monitor implementation and impacts must

___________________________________________________________________
Budget- A Case study of India", Centre for Advanced Study in Economics, University of
Mumbai, Working Paper UDE (CAS) 7(7)/2003.
be developed. Gender audit of plans, polices and programmes of various Ministries with
pro-women allocations has to be a part and parcel of the monitoring process.
There is a need for provisions in the composite programmes under education, health and
rural development sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principal
beneficiaries and disaggregated within the total allocation. It may also be necessary to
place restrictions on their re-appropriation for other purposes.
To effectively attain population stablisation policies and plans need to empower women,
promote their reproductive rights and involve men in reproductive decision-making and
household responsibilities. Particular attention should be given to improve women's access
to quality reproductive health services, including adolescent girls to counselling on
reproductive health sexuality issues.

The strategy of organising women in self-help groups in the Ninth Plan period has paid
good dividends for expanding micro-credit. This should be extended not only for reaching
larger numbers of women but also for increasing awareness of and access to social
development, apart form encouraging a process of convergence in the delivery of services
in a decentralised set up.
It is important to empower women's organisations and citizens groups to monitor
enforcement of equal and minimum wages legislation by State governments, and the
adherence to norms in poverty alleviation programmes.

Professional Organisations including Universities should be included for undertaking


monitoring, evaluation and research studies for identifying issues requiring special
attention.
The Five Year Plans in the pre-1975 treated women as supplementary earners, while in
the post 1975 period women have been treated as active economic agents.
Gender Audit of Macro Policies as the macro-economic policies impact women's living
standards and their prospects for economic empowerment.
In 1991, at the behest of World Bank and InternationalMonitory Fund, India adopted NEP
that has intensified the processes pursued in the last decade and a half (mainly in post-
emergency period), as a result of a new international division of labour between the
advanced capitalist economies and the post-colonial economies of Asia, Africa and Latin
America. In the late 1970s, transnational and multinational corporations in the USA and
Europe realized that the best way to reduce the wage-bill and to enhance the rates of
profit, was to move industrial plants to poorer countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh,
etc. The cheap labour of 'docile', 'nimble fingered' and 'flexible' Asian women was found to
be most attractive step to enhance profit margins. This policy was given the appealing title
of 'Integration of Women in Development.' In 1993, systematic critique of this policy was
made by IAWS and women economists prevailed upon the architect of NEP, Prof. Man
Mohan Singh to make a provision of safety net for women and children.4
101
Gender Audits of Economic reforms, globalisation and structural adjustment programmes
_________________________________
4
See papers by Maithreyi Krishnaraj, Devaki Jain, Nirmala Bnerjee, etc. presented at the
XI National Conference (1993 in Mysore) of Indian Association of Women's Studies of
Effects of Structural Adjustment Programmes and New Economic Policy on Women's Work,
employment and food security.

In response to a mounting burden of debt leading to a balance of payment crisis, the


Government of India (GOI) adopted a structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1991. It
included reductions in public investment, devaluation, cutting food and fertilizers
subsidies, the reduction of budgetary provision for developmental planning, capital
intensive and 'high-tech' productive activities, economies in government expenditure, an
increase in the bank rate, insurance charges and rail tariffs. Simply put, the policy aimed
at capital, energy and import-intensive growth with the help of 4 "Ds"- devaluation,
deregulation, deflation and denationalisation.

"The new strategy of 'Integration of Women into Development' meant in most cases
getting women to work in some income-generating activities, integrating women into
market oriented production and thus integrating women into the world market economy. It
was not meant that women should expand their subsistence production and produce more
for their consumption- for their own food and their clothes. Income-generation in this
approach meant money income. Money income could be generated only if women could
produce something, which could be sold. People who could buy these products live in
western countries. This meant export-oriented production." 5

8.4 Gender Sensitive Governance

As gender economists, we must keep in mind that

 Women don't have control over resources in the subsistence sector.


 Women work for more hours & in return get comparatively less wages than their
male counterparts.
 Land reforms have taken away land rights of women as the titles were made in the
name of man.
 Girl Child labour are extremely vulnerable.

 Absence of social services for women workers increases women's plight at the time
of pregnancy, old age, illness and destitution.

For gender sensitive governance, women's participation in local self government bodies,
state legislature and parliament is the must. In the village, tehsil, district councils and in
the municipal councils and corporations, 33% Reservation of seats for women has brought
1 million women elected representatives who are expected to promote gender sensitive
governance. For effective implementation of programmes and policies and for women
friendly governance, gender sensitive budgetary allocation is a must.

Gender Audit of Budget provide policy framework, methodology and set of tools to assist
governments to integrate a gender perspective into the budget as the main national plan
of public expenditure. It also aims to facilitate attention to gender analysis in review of
macroeconomic performance, ministerial budget preparations, parliamentary debate, and

102
mainstream media coverage. It does not mean separate budgets for women but all
budgets (union, state and PRI)

__________________
5
AWRAN (1985) The Alternative Asian Report on the Impact of the UN Decade for Women,
Asian Women's Research and Action Network, Philippines.
analysed and constructed from a gender perspective, analysis of revenue and government
expenditure on women and girls as compared to men and boys. Gender audit of budgets
help governments to decide how policies need to be adjusted and reprioritized for
protecting and promoting women's rights.
Understanding the relationship between macro economic policies and the Union Budget,
state budgets and the Panchayati Raj Institutions in the context of India's economic
reforms and globalisation is a MUST as it has influenced women's lives in several ways. it
is good economic sense to make national budgets gender-sensitive, as this will enable
more effective targeting of government expenditure to women specific activities and
reduce inequitable consequences of previous fiscal policies. The Gender Budget Initiative is
a policy framework, methodology and set of tools to assist governments to integrate a
gender perspective into the budget as the main national plan of public expenditure. It also
aims to facilitate attention to gender analysis in review of macroeconomic performance,
ministerial budget preparations, parliamentary debate, and mainstream media coverage.
Budget impacts women's lives in several ways. It directly promotes women's development
through allocation of budgetary funds for women's programmes and reduces opportunities
for employment of women through budgetary cuts. So far the process of gender budgeting
has been a post-facto effort to dissect/ analyse and thus offset any undesirable gender-
specific consequences of the previous budget.

Due to consistent lobbying by the gender economists and women's groups, for the first
time, this year, the Ministry of Finance has given a mandate to all ministries to establish a
Gender budgeting Cell by January, 2005 and 18 ministries and departments are asked to
submit annual reports and performance budgets highlight budgetary allocations for
women. These budgets are expected to be placed before the parliament along with
detailed demand for grants for 2005-06.6

India's economic reforms- Structural adjustment programmes and globalisation policies


have directly increased women's unpaid work burden, thereby increased women- provided
subsidy in the economy.7 Devaluation of income for the majority of masses as a result of
new economic policy coupled with price rise, erosion of public distribution system and
reduction of services offered by the public health system have made women bear
disproportionate share of burden because in the patriarchal families women have to
shoulder responsibility of providing meals and looking after the sick family members. 8
Hence women have high stakes in preventing an increase in the proportion of indirect
taxes on essential commodities and in budgetary provisions to guarantee food security and
health care. Hence, careful study of the working of PDS and local taxonomy on food
security and impact on nutrition, health and health services of budgetary allocations is a
must.

Gender Audit of Union Budgets:


We have to examine budgetary provision for women during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003
within the matrices provided by the above mentioned policy documents. Women's status
and women's
103
__________________
6
The Indian Express, Mumbai, 12-1-2005.
7
Patel, Vibhuti (2005) India's Economic Reforms and women" in Susheela Subramanya,
Meera Chakravorty and N.S. Viswanath (Ed.s) Women in Nation Building, A
SouthernEconomist Publication, Bangalore.
8
Bhattacharya, D. (2004) Invisible Hands, Women Networking, Documentation, Research,
Training Centre, Mumbai.
bargaining power in the economy have a major bearing in the budgetary policy. "Gender
Budgeting consists of empirical exercises that focus on public policies and aim to bring out
their gender specific implications."9

Yearly analysis of the budget from the point of view of women is a must to enhance
women's economic interest and socio-political standing in the economy. Analysis of budget
from gender perspective makes us understand what are the nature, character and content
of Women's share of development cake.

Table: 1 Union Budget 2001-2002 - Allocation to programmes for Women (Rs. In Crore)

Demand Demand Name Budget 2000- Revised Budget 2001- % change


Number 2001 2001-2002 2002 over 2000-
2001
Allocation

Mahila Samakhya 10.00 9.00 11.00 10

Assistance for 5.00 2.50 4.30 -14


46 Education boarding/hostel
facilities for girl
students of
secondary school

National 160.0 10.00 10.00 -94


Programme for
Women’s
Education

Lady Harding 44.88 42.06 43.74 -3


Medical College
Welfare and
Sucheta Kriplani
Hospital

104
47 Health Reproductive and 951.0 801.0 1126.95 19
And Family Child Health
0 0
Welfare Project

Maternal Benefit 111.0 111.0 135.0 22


Scheme and Post
0 0 0
Partum Program

Sterilisation Beds 1.70 1.70 1.35 -21

48 Women ICDS 935.00 935.00 1,198.00 28


and child
Development WB assistant 180.00 140.00 220.00 22
ICDS projects

Training 35.00 20.00 40.00 14


Programme under
ICDS

9
Banerjee, N. (2002) "What is Gender Budgeting?" Public Policies from Women's
Perspective in the Indian Context, UNIFEM- United Nations Development Fund for Women,
Delhi. Website- http://www.unifem.org.in

18.50 18.30 21.95 19


2.00 1.64 1.51 -25
2.30 1.90 1.51 -34
3.21 2.97 7.54 135
1.50 1.50 2.00
27.00 21.00 25.00 -7
7.02 7.02 9.00 28
13.00 13.00 18.00 38
15.00 15.00 8.00 -47
25.00 24.70 27.00 8
13.00 11.00 18.00 38
14.51 9.77 12.84 -12
1.80 1.80 4.00 122
3.50 3.50 5.00 43
15.00 8.00 15.00 0
3.00 1.51 1.00 -67
18.00 2.21 19.50 8
6.11 3.61 19.89 226
9.05 8.47 10.15 12
85 Social 8.40 9.10 19.00 126
105
Justice &
empowerment
53 Labour & 2.00 0.70 0.01 -100
Employment
79 Tribal affairs 12.00 7.00 10.50 -13
Total 2,691.68 2,282.75 3,186.94 18.40

Source: Expenditure Budget 2001-2002, Ministry of Finance, GOI


This section is based on the study of full text of budget document of 2000-2001. In terms
of its approach, it suggests major departure from the earlier budget documents. It also
proves that if the economists interested in women's issues work seriously on the subject,
it is possible to change the focus of our budget in favour of women. Women's movement
has been demanding for past one decade that women's organizations should be consulted
before the budget is finalized. Intervention of women's organization in the pre-budget
sessions have led to the fund allocation policy for "the Women's component", in general
schemes involving various ministries.
Table 2: Union Budget 2001-2002- Allocation to Programmes with Indirect Benefits For
Women (Rs Crore)

Demand Demand Name Budget 2000- Revised Budget 2001- % Change


Number 01 2000-01 02 over 2000-01
Allocation

1: Agriculture National 55.50 114.85 -100


Watershed

Programme for 20.00 20.00 1.50 -93


development of
rainfed
agriculture, Alkali
land reclamation
and development
programme

21: Fuel wood and 31.00 18.80 22.00 -29


Environment fodder services
and Forests

25: Finance NABARD 28.76 28.76 29.00 1

38: Health Development of 17.30 16.00 21.50 24


nursing services

Assistance 6.00 3.50 4.00 -33


towards
hospitalization of
the poor

106
40: Family Free distribution 108.71 95.71 117.00 8
Welfare of conventional
contraceptives

Health guide 4.75 4.75 4.50 -5


scheme

53: Labour Beedi workers 0.30 0.30 0.35 17


welfare fund
Compensation to
families of drivers
of neavyduty
Interstate
vehicles

59: Non- Biogas 66.50 62.50 54.95 -17


Conventional programme
Energy
Integrated rural 8.00 5.00 6.65 -17
energy
programme

Biomass 37.70 18.50 18.80 -50


programme

Improved challahs 19.00 16.05 16.05 -16

65: Rural Swarnajayanti 900.00 370.00 450.00 -50


Development Gram Swarozgar
Yojna

Employment 1,170.00 1,453.00 1,440.00 23


Assurance
Scheme

Gram Samridhi 1485.00 1,345.00 1,485.00 0


Yojana Jawahar

66: Land Integrated 398.80 365.12 351.00 -12


Resources wastelands
development
project scheme
67: Drinking Accelerated Rural 1764.07 1764.07 1809.08 3
water supply water Supply 126.00 126.00 135.00 7
Rural sanitation
80: Urban Special Scheme 2.00 0.02 0.02 -99
Development For Water Supply
83: Urban Swarna Jayanti 168.00 95.03 168.00 0
Employment Shahari Rozgar
and poverty Yojana
alleviation

107
Total 6,417.39 5,923.94 6,134.55 -4

Source: Expenditure Budget 2001-2002, Ministry of Finance, GOI


It is quite encouraging to know that some of the longstanding demands of the women
economists and development organisations have been incorporated in the Union Budget
2000-2001 of our country. In his Union Budget, 2001-2002 Budget Speech, the Finance
Minister mentioned women's agenda in point number 67 and state "The year 2001 is being
observed as Women's Empowerment Year. My colleague, the Deputy chairperson of
Planning Commission is heading a Task Force to review the programme for women.
Meanwhile I propose to:

• Strengthen the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh for providing micro-credit to poor asset less
women through NGOs.

• Launch an integrated scheme for women's empowerment in 650 blocks through


women's self help groups.

• Start a new scheme for women in difficult circumstances like widows of Vrindavan,
Kashi and other places. Destitute women and other disadvantaged women groups."

Table 1 and Table 2 in the budget have given the details of allocations to programmes for
women and allocations to programmes with indirect benefits for women.

But, at the same time, we must highlight the missing points, which are crucial, for
women's day-to-day survival needs.

A case study of Budget 2001 reveals that in the section on WUALITY OF LIFE (point 17),
specific needs of women vis-a-vis health, education, drinking water, housing and roads
should be taken care of. They are as follows:
a. Health (point 18)- Special budgetary provisions for women patients (separate from
family planning budget) in the Primary health centers and public hospitals. Tax-exemption
for sanitary pads and napkins for babies' etc. is welcome. It will enhance mobility of rural
women and women from the working class background.
b. Education (point 19)- It is found that in the regions where safe and reasonably
priced public or private transport is available, women's participation in educational and
economic activities is higher. Hence, safe transport for workingwomen and school and
college-going girls should find place of prominence in the Block Development Plan. In
'Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan', 30% of budgetary provision should be made for girl's school and
women's colleges, so that parents who discontinue their daughter's education due to fear
of teenage pregnancy and male aggression are encouraged to allow their daughters to
attend schools and colleges.
c. Drinking water (point 17): Dalit and tribal women find it very difficult and at times
impossible to get water from the common taps. Common taps are in the center of the
villages. While their dwelling places are in the margin of the villages. Hence, separate taps
for Dalit and tribal women, in their hamlet should provided by the state.
d. In all housing schemes (point 21), 10% of houses should be allocated for women
headed households (WHH) i.e. widows, divorces, single unmarried women and deserted
women. In a war torn and riot ridden pockets, 30% houses should be allocated for WHH as
in these crisis prone areas percentage of WHH is around 30% of all households.

108
e. At every 2- Kilo meters, one public toilet should be provided in the urban centres.
To avoid contagious disease, Indian-style toilets should be provided.

f. Cheap and safe eating facilities in the district, tehshil and rural areas for the Dalits,
minorities and tribal population and judicious distribution of goods allocated for public
distribution system should be emphasized in the budget.
Declaration of 2001 as Women's Empowerment Year (point 23) can be meaningful only if
the programmes are targeted at children and youth through NSS, NCC, and SCOUT &
GIRLS GUIDES. At present, they are focusing only on food, fun, Aids awareness and
physical training. Comprehensive Gender studies programmes with interdisciplinary
perspectives should be organized for school and college students and youth in general.
Government controlled media should focus more on educational programmes concerning
women's issues either through documentaries or docudramas.

In a National Population Policy (point 24) a clear-cut mandate should be given that the
government resources should not be used for promotion of female foeticide and unsafe
contraceptives. Budgetary allocation for human trials of controversial biomedical
researches involving women, whether it is an anti-pregnancy vaccine, Depo-Provera, Net-
o-en should be withdrawn immediately.
In SSI (Small Scale Industries) sector (point 27), concrete plan of action for empowering
women entrepreneurs and safeguarding women workers interests should be spelt out.
Budgetary provision for occupational health and safety of women workers should be spelt
out clearly. While granting license to new establishment, an inquiry should be made about
basic amenities for women workers such as ladies room, separate toilets for women
workers/employees.
In a section on Industry and Capital market (point 31), affirmative action by the state to
protect women producers in the factor market (i.e. loan facilities, land allocation etc.) and
women employees and workers in the labour market and self employed women (who are
facing innumerable difficulties) in the product market should be mentioned with specific
details.

In a section on SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY (point 36) special policies should be envisaged
for WRD (Women Resource Development) with one module on assertiveness training and
another one on culture.
In Banking and finance (point 39), schemes for women entrepreneurs and women
industrialists should be spelt out. Especially, the terms and conditions for differential rate
of interest facilities should be mentioned the way they have mentioned the policies
concerning micro credit facilities.
In the North-East Region (point 59), in the industrial training institutes and computer
information centres, women dominated sectors such as sericulture, horticulture,
floriculture and weaving should be targeted for instruction of advanced technology.

Special budgetary provisions should be made for modernisation of labour processes in


which scheduled caste and scheduled tribes (point 60) are involved. These include better
equipment and better management of economic activities.
In plan expenditure (point 65), special consideration should be given for women specific
tasks such as collection of fuel, fodder and water. In communications, special radio and
television programmes for women in regional languages should be budgeted.

109
In the Non-Plan expenditure (point 67), in a budgetary provision for food and fertiliser
subsidies, female-headed households should be given special consideration. Labour
reducing technologies in the subsistence sector (especially rice cultivation and animal
husbandry in which women are doing the most drudgery prone tasks) should be
introduced.
Reduction of duty burden on contact lens solution is welcome, as it will help young women
and men who are working in computer industry and other tele-workers. The finance
minister should be congratulated for totally ignoring tourism industry, as the world market
is too willing to look after travel and tourism.
In conclusion, I must mention that use of gender aware language in an official document
like budget is quite heartening.
HIGHTLIGHTS OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT'S BUDGET, 2002-2003

• Increase in the Plan Allocation for the Department of Women and Child
Development by 33%.

Total Amount- Rs. 2200 crores


• 100 scholarship a year in the department of Science and Technology to women
scientists and technologists.
• National Nutrition Mission- Food grains at subsidized rate adolescent girls and
expectant & nursing mothers belonging to below poverty line families through ICDS
structure.

PROVISION OF Rs. 65000 CRORES FOR DEFENSE EXPENDITURE.

Demand number 52. Department of Women & Child Development

• Scheme "Swadhar" - shelter, food, clothing & care to the marginalized women/girls
living in difficult circumstances who are without any socio-economic support-- 13.50
crores.
• Swayamsiddha Scheme to build training capacity-0.01 crore.

• Gender Aware micro planning project for awareness generation, convergence of


delivery, holistic empowerment of women, economic empowerment--0.01 crore.

• Gender sensitization-dissemination of data/information of women's Development,


evaluation of existing programme on women and development--0.01 crore)

• "National Nutrition Mission: for Low Birth-Weight (LBW) babies and for reduction of
Infant Mortality Rates, anemia, iodine deficiency in adults etc. - 1 crore

• Self Help Groups for converging services, promoting micro enterprises--18.15


crores

DEMAND NUMBER - 86: Page - 124 (Amount in Crores)

Monitoring of Water Quality 0.50

Safety of old dams/ dams in distress 0.10

Rainwater harvesting to arrest ground 0.10


water depletion

110
National Heritage sites on Majuli Island 2.00
from river Brahmaputra

To arrest critical erosion of river Ganga 2.00

The National Institute of Public Finance and policy did gender audit of the budget 2002-03.
Its publication, "Gender Budgeting in India" reports that the budgetary allocation for
women specific schemes has increased only in the area of family planning. (Lahira,
Chakrabarty and Bhattacharya, 2002). The family planning schemes have got additional
700 crores in the present budget.

For economic services concerning women, the present budget has made provision of only
153.70 crores. For Rashtriya Mahila Kosh, the nodal agency for micro credit schemes, the
budgetary allocation has been reduced from earlier Rs. 3 crores to Rs. 1 crore. Budgetary
allocation for providing drinking water and electricity connections for marginalised sections
are inadequate. Women's groups have criticized budgetary cuts on the schemes to provide
food grains to adolescent girls as well as pregnant women and nursing mothers. Per capita
allocation funds for nutritional support for girl children through midday meal schemes
declined from Rs. 112 to Rs. 70. Per capita allocation of budgetary provision for girl's
education is only Rs. 286.

Table 3: Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development,
Demand no. 52, Demands for Grants

Items Year 2001-2002 2002-2003

Nutrition 9.45 Crores 7.92 Crores

Condensed Course for 2.00 Crores 1.80 Crores


Women's Education

Balika Samridhi Yojana 0.03 Crores _

Hostel for Working Women 7.00 Crores 13.48

Support to Training and 8.00 Crores 23.00


Employment Programme

Mahila Samridhi Yojana 7.35 Crores _

Socio Economic Programme 1.00 Crore _

Centre Social Welfare Board 27 Crores 26.90 Crores

Training cum Production 12.84 Crores 16.34 Crores


Centre

Short Staying Home 12.84 Crores 16.34 Crores


Awareness Generation
4.00 Crores 3.80 Crores
Programme

111
National Commission for 5.00 Crores 5.40Crores
Women

Swashakti Project 15 Crores 25Crores

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh 1.00 Crores 1.00Crore

Indhira Mahila Yojana 6.73 -

National Nutrition Mission _ 0.05Crore

Other Schemes 9.45 7.87Crores

Reproductive and Child 441.40 571.53 Crores


Health

Source: Annual Financial Statement of Central Government for 2002-2003 (as laid before
the Parliament on 28-2-2002), New Delhi.

There has to be coordination between launching of new schemes and the budgetary
allocation. It does not serve women's interest if the funds are not available for the alredy
launched scheme or funds are allocated for non-existing schemes as the funds will remain
unutilised. In the absence of women specific educational schemes, Rs. 160 crores
allocated for the National Programme for Women's Education remained unutilised.
Women's groups have condemned the budgetary allocation for weapons of destruction and
military expenditure as wasteful expenditure. Nearly half of the South Asian Population
has suffering as a result of auperisation. 10In this context, militarisation of the region goes
against the interest of women. Hence they have emphasized the need for peace initiatives
cutting across national boundaries the South Asia.

Budget analysis from gender perspective should be introduced and promoted in all
women's groups, educational and research institutions. Public debate on gender sensitive
budget will help the country to tilt the balance in favour of area development and peaceful
use of resources in the present atmosphere of jingoism.

_________________________
10
Mishra, N. (2001), Poverty in South Asia, Authors Press, Delhi.

GENDER AUDIT OF BUDGET 2003-4


• Proclamation of FM- "Housewives will welcome the budget." WILL THEY?

• Implications of hike in prices of light diesel oil & fertilizers on Family budget of rural
poor women will be negative.

• BPL population is 25 to 30 crores, while budget-2004 promises to cover only 50


lakh families in the Antyodaya Scheme even when 52 m tons of food-grains are rotting in
FCI godowns.
• 1% cut of interest on small savings will reduce income of Self Help Groups of
women involved in micro-credit.

112
• Privatisation and user charges for services such as health, education. Insurance
schemes will deprive women of educational opportunities and health care facilities.

Table-4: Budgetary Allocation for Women in the UNION BUDGET 2003-4

Items Allocation-2003-4 Cuts compared to 2002-3

Working Women's Hostels 9 crores 4.48 crores

Labour Social Securities 61.24 crores 30 crores

Specific schemes for Women 8 crores


workers

Maternity Benefits 22 crores

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh 1 crore 0

Handloom Sector No mention Ignored

RCH 448.57 crores 122.96 crores

Family Welfare Services 142 crores 254.50 crores

Tuberculosis & Malaria 10 crores

This budget has wiped out what the earlier two budgets promised the Indian women.
• World Bank prescription for privatisation of health services is promoted in the
budget.
• Reduction in the cost of foreign alcohol will not go in favour of women.

Women's groups have DEMANDED Separate listing of women specific items & women's
component & TRANSPARENCY in utilization of the allocated amount for women's
programmes.
Gender Budgeting Analysis Of Different States In India:

Last year, Review of Women's Studies by Economic and Political Weekly published articles
based on UNDP supported research reports on various schemes and programmes under
the state government budgets. They have shown the means adopted by different states to
finance budgets and burden of indirect taxes mostly bourn by the common citizens. 11
Though case studies of the state budget of Maharashtra. 12 Midday Meal Scheme
Tamilnadu13, Bottom-up budget by involving women elected representatives of the PRIs in
Karnataka14 and comparative analysis of development and social sector expenditures of
13 Indian states with that of West Bengal15, they have succinctly shown gender differential
impact of protective and welfare services (pension for widow and destitute women, budget
for shelter homes and rehabilitation center for women victims of violence), social services
(budgetary provision for education, health, crèche, working women's hostels, fuel, fodder,
water, housing, sanitation, nutrition-mid day meal) and regulatory services (state

113
commissions for women and women's cell in the police stations, government departments)
and awareness generation programmes.

Allocation and Expenses of Resources For Women in Panchayat Budgets:


To engender budgets at the Panchayat level, we need to analyse budgets scheme-wise,
sector wise, category-wise and year wise with their budget estimates, revised estimates
and the actual expenditure. It is also important to make thorough study of Economic
Survey published by the Government of India and State Human Development Reports,
State Policies for Women and allocation of resources in the State plans published by the
state governments that guide programmes and budgetary allocations. This exercise helps
us understand the working of macro policies in determining women's predicaments. Now,
the women's groups are demanding that each and every ministry should allocate separate
funds for women specific needs.16

Each state has a detailed list of the programmes/schemes benefiting women under 4
categories:

1. Women specific schemes where 100% of the allocation is required to be spent on


women.

2. Pro-women schemes where at least 30% of allocation and benefits flow to women.
3. Gender neutral schemes meant for the benefit of community as a whole where both
men and women avail these benefits.
____________________
11
Banerjee, N. and Roy, P. (2004) "What Does the State Do for Indian Women?" Economic
and Political Weekly, Review of Women Studies, Vol. XXXIX, No. 44, October 30-November
5, pp.4832-4837.
12
Pandey, D., Kanchi, A. and Akolkar, K.k. (2004) 'Gender Audit of Maharashtra Budget:
An Illustration of Current Methodology", Economic and Political Weekly, Review of Women
Studies, Vol. XXXIX, No. 44, October 30-November 5, pp. 4788-4791.
13
Swaminathan, P., Jeyaranajan, J., Sreenivasan, R., Jayashree, K. (2004) "Tamilnadu's
Midday Meal Scheme: Where Assumed Benefit Score Over Hard Data", Economic and
Political Weekly, Review of Women Studies, Vol. XXXIX, No. 44, October 30-November 5,
pp. 4811-4822.
14
Bhat, A., Kolhar, S., Chellappa, A. and H. Anand (2004) "Building Budgets from Below",
Economic and Political Weekly, Review of Women Studies, Vol. XXXIX, No. 44, October 30-
November 5, pp. 4803-4810.
15
Banerjee, N. and Roy, P. (2004) "What does the State Do for Indian Women?" Economic
and Political Weekly, Review of Women Studies, Vol. XXXIX, No. 44, October 30-November
5, pp. 4831-4837.
16
Kaushik, S. (2002), "Economic Empowerment of Women- Some issues", Urdhava Mula,
Mumbai, Vol.1, No.1, pp.16-29.

4. The residual state specific programmes having profound effect on women's


position/condition.

All India Institute of local Self Government, Mumbai gives details of all schemes under
these 4 categories through its publications and through its workshops and training

114
programmes. Moreover, it also teaches the elected representatives the efficient ways of
programme implementation through budgeting from below (Virmani, 2002).

Table 5: Utilisation of Funds under MPLADs (As on 31-3-2002)

State Percentage of utilisation

Nominated M. P.s 69.7

Andhra Pradesh 74.9

Arunachal Pradesh 82.0

Assam 73.0

Bihar 70.1

Goa 69.5

Gujarat 70.8

Haryana 84.6

Himachal Pradesh 74.2

Jammu & Kashmir 56.1

Karnataka 75.2

Kerala 61.8

Madhya Pradesh 78.0

Maharashtra 66.5

Manipur 84.3

Meghalaya 87.5

Mizoram 102.3

Nagaland 95.9

Orissa 59.9

Punjab 66.0

Rajasthan 78.3

Sikkim 80.7

Tamilnadu 84.8

Tripura 49.1

Uttar Pradesh 73.8


115
West Bengal 62.9

Andaman and Nicobar 87.3


Islands

Chandigarh 52.6

Dadra and Nagar Haveli 70.3

Daman & Diu 87.8

Delhi 69.6

Lakshadweep 93.8

Pondicherry 67.3

Chhattisgarh 76.7

Uttaranchal 71.3

Jharkhand 70.6

Source: Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GOI, 2002.

Problems of Utilisation of Funds Allocated for Area Development:


Rs. 2 crores allocated to each M.P. for the development of constituency as per MP local
Area development Scheme (MPLADS). The above table is quite revealing. Utilisation of
government funding is the maximum in the North-Eastern states because of strong
horizontal and vertical networking. The prosperous states depend more on the private
funding to avoid bureaucratic hassles. If poorer areas in the state don't have a highly
motivated administration ot an NGO network, then too the funding remains unutilised. In
the areas dominated by the lower middle class and the poverty groups, there are demands
for more schools, libraries, bridges, toilets, drains, tube wells, community centres and
crematorium. While in the prosperous areas, the demands are or road repairs and schools.
Private sector of the economy demands banks, hospitals and shopping plaza. The
(Members of Parliament) M.P. and M.L.A. (Members of Legislative Assembly) have to
strike balance by keeping into consideration immediate needs and long-term
considerations for the constituency.

As much as Rs. 312.51 lakh out of a total of Rs. 730 lakh allocated by the ministry of tribal
Affairs to the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited (TRIFED) which
markets minor forest produce to set up 1876 grain banks, remained unutilised in 1999-
2000 as per 20th Report of theparliamentary Committee on welfare of the SCs and Sts.
An apt Comment on this situation is "TT is ironical that even as an estimated 320 million
people in India are facing starvation, close to 65 million tonnes of food grains are rotting
in government go-downs."17
In Maharashtra, only 66.5% of fund under MPLADS is utilised. While local bodies suffer
from a chronic shortage of funds, as little as one-third of the funds released by the union
government under MPLADS remained unutilised in the state. The report of the Comptroller

116
and Auditor General (CAG) has pointed out that the union government released over Rs.
214 crore under MPLADS for the period 1997-2000, but its utilization was only around Rs.
73 crore. In some cases M.P. s did not make even a single recommendation leading to a
blockade of huge funds. For e.g. District collectors of Beed, Pune and Satara invested Rs.
5.76 crore allotted to (Members of Parliament) M.P.s of their areas in small savings
schemes to achieve their targets for 1999-2000. 18Panchayat Update is a newsletter
published by Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi. It provides valuable state-wise
information on matters related to PRI. Given below are noteworthy items for gender
budgeting, though apparently they seem gender neutral.
To check corruption and bring in transparency in the implementation of rural development
projects sponsored by the union government, the Union Rural Development ministry had
asked all District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) to keep their funds only in the
nationalised banks. It has also been made compulsory for the district rural bodies to
record complete details of expenditure incurred by them under different heads. People's
participation in monitoring the progress of implementation and the mechanism of social
audit will also be introduced as part of the new strategy to cleanse the working of the
DRDAs. (Vo. Ix, No. 3, March, 2002).
• The second State Finance Commission told the Punjab Government to allocate 4%
of net receipts from all state taxes to the panchayats and urban local bodies during the 5-
_____________________
17
Verma, P. (2002), "Stale Concept-Proposed Grain Bank Scheme. Not Any Different From
the Pilot project", Down To Earth, Vol. 11, No. 12, November 15, p.13.
18
Panchayat Update, New Delhi, Vo. IX, No. 1, January, 2002.
year period from 2001-2000 to 2005-2006. Total amount to be transferred on
this account is estimated to be Rs. 222.65 crores in 2002-2003, going up to Rs.
277.97 crores in 2005-2006. (Vol. IX, No. 3, March, 2002).

• Union minister of the State for Rural Development expressed his disappointment
regarding failure of the state government of Assam to utilise funds, 75 crores allocated for
DRDAs under Prime minister Sadak Yojana (PMSY) which is meant for construction of
roads in every gram panchayat. (Vol. Ix, No. 1, January 2002).

• In Madhya Pradesh, Balaghat Zilla Panchayat approved funds of Rs. 1.62 lakh for
constructing 90 Panchayat Ghars. (Vol. Ix, No. 1, January 2002).

• In Rajasthan, the state government is considering devolution of more funds


including untied grants to the PRIs and municipal bodies to enable them to plan for
development in accordance with their felt needs and priorities. Ongoing centrally
sponsored schemes would be integrated with the development plans prepared by the gram
panchayats. (Vol. Ix, No. 1, January 2002).
• Himachal Pradesh government released figures on rural development. The state
government advanced Rs. 76-35 crore as loan, besides a subsidy of Rs. 99.95 crore to
31815 poor families under Swarna Jayanti Gram Rozgar Yojana during the past 4 years.
Under the Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana, 1.31 crore-person days are generated and Rs.
110.79 crore was spent towards creating rural infrastructure during the same period.
While the financial assistance of Rs. 28.17 crore was provided to construct 12806 houses
under Indira Awas Yojana, a subsidy of Rs. 53.45 lakh was disturbed for construction of
395 houses under the credit-cum-subsidy rural housing scheme. A sum of Rs. 9.95 crore

117
was given as subsidy to the rural people for construction of 34364 latrine under the state's
rural sanitation and restructured central sanitation programmes. All these schemes, aimed
at poverty alleviation are implemented through panchayats. (Vol. Ix, No. 1, January,
2002)

• In Kerala, plan allocation for local bodies in Pathanmthitta district is substantially


raised. A sum of Rs. 53.60 crore has been earmarked as plan allocation for 3 tier
panchayats and municipalities. (Vol. Ix, No. 1, January 2002).
• The Supreme Court warns against diversion of SGR funds meant for upliftment for
poor to other purposes. The SC has directed the union government no to release any fund
under this head to a state until a utilisation certificate for previous allocation furnished by
it. This directive came in response to a petition, filed by PUCL, highlighting starvation
deaths in some parts of Orissa. (Vol. Ix, No. 1, January 2002).

Financial Matters and PRIs:


A recent survey of panchayats working in 19 states; conducted by the National Institute of
Rural Development, Hyderabad suggested that panchayats remain toothless because
functional and financial autonomy has not been granted to the PRIs. The study by the
Institute of Social Sciences shows that the extent of fiscal decentralisation through the
empowerment of PRIs has been very little. The report of the working group on
decentralisation appointed by the Karnataka Government has been criticised severely
because, "It betrays utter lack of trust in the people which is the keystone of decentralised
democracy."19 Case of Panchayat finances in the Gram Sabhas of Midnapur district of West
Bengal have corroborated the above-mentioned facts in terms of lack of fiscal autonomy,
neglect of girls' education, resource crunch.20 But it has played substantial role in
development of infrastructure, for example rural roads, drinking water, health, education,
irrigation and power. (Sau, 2002).
Elected representatives, officials at districts and NGOs working in the area should act as
facilitators in preparation of the plan for area development and social justice (Pal, 2002).
The UN system has supported allocation of resources for women in PRIs, right from the
beginning. "The evidence on gender and decentralisation in India thus suggests that while
women have played a positive role in addressing, or attempting to address, a range of
practical gender needs, their impact on strategic gender needs is not remarkable." (UNDP,
2002)

The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) stated that Empowerment of women was its strategic
objective. It accepted the concept of Women's Component Plan to assure at least 30% of
funds/benefits from all development sectors flow to women. The Tenth Five Year Plan
(2002-2009) has suggested specific strategies, policies and programmes for
Empowerment of women.
There is a need for provision in the composite programmes under education, health and
rural development sectors to target them specifically at girls/women as the principle
beneficiaries and disaggregated within the total allocation. It may also be necessary to
place restrictions on their re-appropriation for other purposes.
To effectively attain population stablisation, policies and plans need to empower women,
promote their reproductive rights and involve men in reproductive decision-making and
household responsibilities. Particular attention should be given to improve women's access
to quality reproductive health services, including adolescent girls to counselling on
reproductive health and sexuality issues.
118
The strategy of organising women in self-help groups in the Ninth Plan period has paid
good dividends for expanding micro-credit. This should be extended not only for reaching
larger numbers of women but also for increasing awareness of and access to social
development, apart from encouraging a process of convergence in the delivery of services
in a decentralised set up. Technical workshops on allocation and expenditure of panchayat
Budgets should be organized in November for pre-budget inputs for advocacy and lobbying
and in March, for critical evaluation of the budgetary allocations.
Budgets garner resources through the taxation policies and allocate resources to different
sections of the economy. The Budget is an important tool in the hands of state for
affirmative action for improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in
the development
___________________________
19
Bandopadhyaya, D. (2002), "Panchayats in Karnataka", Economic and political Weekly,
Vol. XXXVII, No. 35, August 31- September 6, PP. 3572-3573.
20
Sau, S. (2002), "Decentralised Financial and Physical Planning: A Study Across Gram
Panchayats and Blocks in Midnapore District of West Bengal", Department of Economics
with Rural Development, Vidyasagar University, Midnapur, West Bengal.
process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men and women as well as
between the rich and the poor (NCAS, 2003). Hence, the budgetary policies need to keep
into considerations the gender dynamics operating in the economy and in the civil society.
There is a need to highlight participatory approaches to pro-poor budgeting, bottom up
budget, child budget, SC budget, ST budget, green budgeting, local and global
implications of pro-poor and pro-women budgeting, alternative macro scenarios emerging
out of alternative budgets and inter-linkages between gender-sensitive budgeting and
women's empowerment. Serious examining of budgets calls for greater transparency at
the level of international economics to local processes of empowerment. There is a need to
provide training and capacity building workshops for decision-makers in the government
structures, gram sabhas, parliamentarians and audio-visual media

Women's groups have demanded


• Separate listing of women specific items in the budget

• No diversion of women's component funds (30% of the total) in different ministries


and departments

• Transparency about allocation and utilisation of funding

• Right of information

• Inclusion of gender economists in pre-budget workshops that should be held


around October so that their suggestions can be included

We must always remember that gender can be 'mainstreamed' only when the budgetary
allocations are made for women's projects, programmes and schemes.

Gender Audits of Statistics and Indicators visibalise women's contributions, stakes and
provide a realistic picture for allocation of resources for women specific projects and
gender-neutral projects.
Gender audits of documents of state and central governments such as Towards Equality
(1974), Shakti Report (1988), National Perspective Plan for Women (1988-2000), State

119
Policies for Women, Women Empowerment Policy, 2001, Amendments in the Panchayati
Raj Institutions act to grant 33% reservation of seats for women, II National Commission
of Labour (2002) and human Development Reports have sensitised the administrators,
politicians and social movements to women's needs, aspirations and demands.

Gender Audits of Housing Policy


Housing Rights have been major concern of the women's movement in India for over two
decades. When women's groups started providing support to women in distress, it was
relatively easier to find jobs and school-admission for children. The most difficult task was
to get an accommodation for women victims of violence, desertion, rejection from natal or
matrimonial family and chearing by their relatives.

'Do we as women, utilize space differently?'


'Can we create environments which are more gender sensitive?'

'Can we make policy makers and planners who are working at the state level understand
the politics of built environment and gender rules?'

'What are our alternatives to the existing approach adopted by Sight and Service Schemes
(SSS) and Slum Rehabilitation Schemes (SRS)?'

'What intervention can we make in the city planning which involves physical access,
economic access and social access?"

Women's Right To Housing (WRH): WRH is linked with women's right in property, land and
inheritance. As primary user of housing, women's stakes and requirements are the highest
in housing. For women, beyond shelter, housing is a place of employment, a place for
social interaction, a place for childcare and a refuge from social instability and sexual
violence.
Special Needs of Female Headed Households (WHHs)

In the peaceful areas of India, 1/10th of households are headed by divorced, deserted and
single women. In our country, in the conflict prone areas, over 30% households are
headed by women. In WHHs women shoulder main economic responsibilities including
house hunting. Even if they have money, they face hurdles while looking out for a rented
place or a house on an ownership basis. Nearly one-third of households worldwide are now
headed by women; in certain parts of Africa and Latin America, as many as 45 percent are
FHH. The households headed by women tend to be poorer than male-headed households.
United Nations Centre For Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) estimates that at least
600 million people in the cities of developing countries live in shelters that are life-or
health threatening.

Women's Rights to stay in parental and Matrimonial Homes: In the last 20 years, many
women have filed petitions in the High Courts and the Supreme Court of India demanding
wife's right to live in the matrimonial home and daughter's right to stay in the ancestral
home. As per Mitakshara laws applicable in the Hindu Code, only sons get coparcenary
rights over ancestral property as thy are consideredKarta. Lata Mittal challenged
Mitakshara laws applicable to Hindu daughters who are deprived of right to stay in the
ancestral home.
Housing and Women's Identity: Women's identity is entwined with a house but housing's
identity as a capital investment and the largest outlay in the household budget lies with
male head of the household. Whether women are or aren't property owner's their place of

120
sphere is considered to be within the house. Even, this cult of domesticity does not help
women as it perpetuates low status of women. Market economy devalues domestic work
and the mainstream planners and policy makers consider it 'non-work' and invisibalise
women's housing concerns.

Gender Bias and Housing Problems:


The gendered construct of social and economic relations within and outside the household
and deeply entrenched patriarchal attitudes in the civil society discriminate against women
in virtually every aspect of housing, be it policy development, entitlement in government
projects, control over household resources, right of inheritance and ownership and even
the construction of housing.

Emerging Issues:
There is a need to focus on housing in terms of "personal meanings" as well as
affordability, women's role and the housing industry. The state must take affirmative
action to empower women in exercising their housing rights because men as property
owners enjoy privileged position and control housing delivery system. Moreover general
subordination of women is also reflected in women's lack of representation in higher
echelons political bodies. Societal restrictions reinforce women's status as second-class
citizens. As a result, women professionals in the housing industry i.e. engineers, architects
and agents have to sub-serve the interests of male-dominated construction industry.
Gender Aware Approach:

Gender- neutral approach in housing goes against women's interest. Hence there is a need
to introduce gender aware approach in housing that takes women's strategic and practical
needs, concerns and rights into consideration. For that, we will have to sensitize all stake
groups in the housing industry i.e. land surveyors, builders, developers, designers,
financiers, mortgage bankers, lawyers, credit unions, government officers, material
suppliers, real estate brokers, appraisers, contractors, interior decorators, gardeners,
landscape architects and cooperative societies. In the language of economic, both, supply
side-production, construction management, maintenance, rehabilitation and the demand
side community groups, consumer forum and cooperative societies should be sensitized
about women's housing rights.

Gender Audit of Syllabi for Engineering, Architecture and Interior Designing: Public-private
split in the syllabi of construction related academic disciplines needs to be questioned. The
syllabus should emphasize that as a physical structure, the house is a site for multi-
tasking-house work (cooking, cleaning, caring), home-making and wage-labour for
majority of women all over the world. A house layout influences and affects gender roles
among household members and therefore mirrors change in society's concept of the
family. Designing of house should promote the ethos of shared housework by men and
women members of the household.

International Human Rights Law on Security of Tenure: A person is said to have a secure
tenure if he/she is protected from being removed arbitrarily and involuntarily from their
homes and lands. Tenure is secure if is protected by legislation rather than protected
merely through customs and traditions.

Threat to Women's Security of Tenure (WST): Circumstances and conditions that threaten
WST are

121
• Gender biased laws preventing women from owning, inheriting, purchasing,
leasing, renting, bequeathing housing, land and property.

• Judicial Interpretation of the Law: No explicit forbidding of WRH in gender-neutral


laws, still they create obstacles for WRH because of male-chauvinistic interpretation of the
gender-neutral laws. General statements are considered to be applicable to only men.
• Land and Housing Systems as they grant titles to private property to "Heads of
Households" who are often deemed to be men.
• Customary laws, Traditions, Attitudes: Many cultures and customs don't grant
women's independent existence. In several cultures women staying alone, without male
protection are punished severely due to sexist attitudes. Customary laws are not codified.
In polygamous and polyandrous communities, shared community values go against
individual women leading independent life.

Financial and Material Barriers:


Major hurdles faced by women in the housing market are due to gender-biased policies in
financing for housing, availability of services, material and infrastructure, affordability,
habitability, accessibility, location and cultural adequacy to handle political economy of
housing. Women face major difficulties in securing loans for purchases of good quality
housing. It is not easy for single women or WHH to get rental housing. Even if they
manage to get rented homes, they have to face harassment of various sorts. Unmarried
single women are perceived as threat to sexual morality. In the absence of old age homes
for women, the Plight of women senior citizens is deplorable. Many destitute women start
staying on the pavements or railway platforms.

State and Civil Society Initiatives: Progressive states have empowered women by granting
housing rights, e.g. Building societies in Sweden & England, Unions in Germany, Self help
Groups & cooperative Enterprises in Canada, Central & Latin America, Africa and Asia. The
enlightened nation states accept societal responsibility for women's housing and the rest
live it to individual women to fend for themselves
The UN on Forced Eviction

Women...and other vulnerable individuals and groups suffer disproportionately


from the practice of forced eviction. Women in all groups are especially vulnerable given
the extent of statutory and other forms of discrimination which often apply in relation to
property rights (including home ownership) or rights of access to property or
accommodation, and their particular vulnerability to acts of violence and sexual abuse
when they are rendered homeless." (UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural
Rights, Sixteenth Session, 1997).
Displaced Population

Due to Natural as well as man-made disasters: W0men victims of natural disasters such as
floods, earth-quacks and social disasters such as caste, communal, ethnic conflicts and
war should be granted special provision in the housing schemes. Disaster Management
Policy

Women's housing needs must be understood from the point of view of women's right to
dignified life. They should not face any discrimination in exercising their housing rights due
to their caste, race, age, religion and ethnicity. State and civil society initiatives must
facilitate the process of women's empowerment through guaranteeing housing rights of
women. The local self-government bodies should reserve 10% of all houses/flats/
122
industrial units/ shops in the market places for women. Schools of Architecture,
Engineering Colleges and Institutions for women. Gender sensitisation of the decision-
makers in the housing industry and the elected representatives of the mainstream political
bodies should be given top priority. For formulation of gender-sensitive policies, experts
on the subject should be inducted in the apex bodies of urban, rural and tribal housing
projects.

8.5 Paradigm Shifts from 'Womens Wellbeing' To 'Women's


Empowerment'.

In the beginning of the planning process in India, the state was treating women as a part
of weaker sections of society and was concerned about their wellbeing. With growing
awareness and acknowledgement of women's contribution in the economy, women are
treated as active economic agents for development.

The National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001 of GoI declares that
The goal of this Policy is to bring about the advancement, development, and
empowerment of women. The Policy will be widely disseminated so as to encourage active
participation of all stakeholders for achieving its goals. Specifically, the objectives of this
Policy include:
I. Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full
development of women to enable them to realize their full potential
II. The de-jure and de-facto enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom
by women on equal basis with men in all spheres-political, economic, social. cultural and
civil

III. Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and
economic life of the nation

IV. Equal access to women to health care, equality education at all levels, career and
vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety,
social security and public office etc.
V. Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination
against women
VI. Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and
involvement of both men and women.
VII. Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process.

VIII. Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl
child; and

IX. Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women's
organisations.

123
8.6 Democratic Decentralization and Women's Empowerment in
India

Increasingly the realisation has come that without engendering, development is


endangered. Gender audit of decentralisation of political governance has revealed that
elected women in Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), legislative bodies and parliament have
a positive role in addressing, or attempting to address, a range of practical gender needs
(inadequacies in living conditions such as provision of fuel, water, healthcare and
employment), their impact on strategic gender needs (affirmative action by the state, pro-
active role of the employers to enhance women's position in the economy and social
movements) is not remarkable. Women elected representatives in village, tehsil and
district councils and women corporates have made significant contribution for women's
empowerment in the last one decade.

Key indicators to address women's strategic gender needs are gender balance in decision
making bodies, for a and committees, in business and financial support, share of
expenditure devoted to women specific units, cells, departments and projects, share of
women in education, employment, health, housing, political participation and agenda
setting power-blocks.
To engender governance, there is a need to provide training and capacity building
workshops on gender audits as a tool to evolve a gender-aware policy framework for
decision-makers in the government structures, gram sabhas, legislative assembly,
parliament, judiciary and legal system, educational institutions, corporate world, financial
and funding institutions, local-national and international NGOs, human rights organisations
and audio-visual media.

8.7 Exercise

1. Examine gender planning, development policy and governance in post-


independence India.
2. How can we mainstream gender into development policies/

124
3. What role has democratic decentralization played in empowerment of women?
4. Describe the process that led to paradigm shifts from women's wellbeing to
women's empowerment.
5. Write short notes on:

a. Gender and development indices


b. Gender Planning Techniques

c. Gender sensitive governance


d. Women in PRIs

8.8 References

• Carolyn Moser Gender Planning and Development, Routledge, London, 1993.

• Vibhuti Patel Women's Challenges of the New Millennium, Gyan Publications, Delhi,
2002.
• UNDP, Decentralisation in India-Challenges and Opportunities, United Nations
Development Programme, 2001.

Bibliography

 Agarwal, B.(1994), A Field of One’s Own : Gender and Land Rights in South Asia,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
 Agarwal, B. (1986), Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes; The Wood Fule Crisis in the Third
World, Allied Publishers, Delhi.
 Agnihotri, S.B.(2000), Sex ratio in Indian population; A Fresh exploration, saga publications,
New Delhi
 Ahmed, I. (Ed) (1985), Techology and Rural Women : Conceptual and Empirical issues,
George Alien &Unwin, London.
125
 Amsden, A.H. (Ed) (1980), The Economics of Women and Work , penguin
Harmondsworth
 Baud, I.S.A (1992), Forms of production and Women’s Labour :Gender Aspects of
Industrialization in India and Mexico, Saga Publication, New Dehli
 Boserup E. (1970), Women’s Role in Economic Development, George Allen and Unwin,
London.
 Buvinic M. and M.A. Lycette (1989), ‘Women, Poverty and Development in the Third World’
in Lewis j.P. (Eds.), Strengthening the poor : What Have We Learnt, OECD.
 Carr, M., C. Maratha and R. Jhabvala (Eds.) (1997). Speaking Out :Women’s Economic
Empowernment in South Asia, Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.
 Custers, P. (1997), Capital Accumulation and Women’s Labour in Asian Economics Vistaar,
New Delhi.
 Dantwala, M.L., H. Sethi and P. Visaria (1998), Social Change Through Voluntary Action,
Sage Publications, New Delhi.
 Desai, N. and M.K. Raj. (Eds.) (1997), Women and Society in India, Research Center For
Women Studies, SNDTUniversity, Bombay.
 Dwyer, D. and J. Bruce (Eds.) P (1988), Women A Home Divided and Income in the Third
World , Standforduniversity Pres, Stanford.
 Engles, F. (1985), The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, Progress
Publications, Moscow.
 Evans, H. and C. Ungerson, (Eds.) (1983), Sexual Divisions, Patterns and Processes,
Tavistock, London.
 Government of India (1974), Towards Equality – Report of the Committee on the Status of
Women in India, Department of Social Welfare, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi.
 Gulati, S.C. (1988), Fertility in India : An Econometric Analysis of a Metropolis, Sage
Publications, New Delhi.
 Gupta, J. A. (2000), New Reproductive Technologies Women’s Health and Autonomy, Indo
Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives, Sage Publication, New Delhi.
 ILO (1978), Women’s Participation in the Economic Activity of Asian Countries, ILO,
Generva.
 International Rice Research Institute (1983), Women in Rice Farming Systems, I.R.R.E.
Press, Manila.
 Jain, D. and N. Banerjee(1985), Tyranny of the Household, Vikas Publishing House, New
Delhi.
 Jhabwala, R. and R.K. Subramanya (2000) (Eds), The Unorganized Sector : Work Security
and Social Protection, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
 Kabeer, N. (1994), Reversed Realities : Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought, Kali for
Women, New Delhi.
 Kabeer, N. and R. Subrahmaniam (Eds.) (1999), Institutions, Relations and Outcomes, Kali
for Women, New Delhi.
 Kalpagam, U. (1994), Labour and Gender : Survival in Urban India, Sage Publications, New
Delhi.
 King M. and M.A. Hill (Eds.) (1993), Women’s Education in Developing Countries : Barriers
Benefits and Politics, John Hopkins, Baltimore.
 Krishnaraj, M., R.M. Sudarshan and A. Shariff (1999), Gender, Population and Development,
Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
 Kuhn, A. and A.N. Wolpe (Eds.), (1978) Feminism and Matetrialism, Routledge and Kegan
Paul, London.
 Mazumdar, V.(1979). Symbols of Power : Studies on the Political Status of Women in India,
Allied Delhi.
 Mies, M. (1986/1998) Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale : Women in the
International Division of Labour, Zed books, London.
 Mishra S. (2000), Voluntary Action in Health and Population : The Dynamics of Social
Transition, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
 Mitra, A. (1979), Implications of Declining Sex Ratio in India’s Population, Allied, New Delhi.
 MNRD, GOI (1987), Shram Shakti : Report of the National Commission on Self – employed
Women and Women Workers in the Informal Sector, Ministry of Human Resources Development,
New Delhi.
 Narasimhan, S. (1999), Empowering Women : An Alternative Strategy from Rural India,
126
Sage Publications, New Delhi.
 Papola, T.S. and A.N. Sharma (Eds.) (1999), Gender and Employment in India, Vikas
Publishing House, New Delhi.
 Purushothaman, S. (1998). The Empowernment of Women in India : Grassroots Women’s
Networks and the State, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
 Redcliff, N. and E. Mingione, (Eds.), (1985), Beyond Employment : Househol, Gender and
Subsistence, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
 Schultz. T.P. (1998), ‘Education Investment and Returns’ in Chenery, H.B. and T.N.
Srinivasan, The Handbook of Development Economies, North Holland, New York.
 Sen, A.K. (1990), ‘Gender and cooperative Conflicts’ in Tinker (Ed), Persistent Inequalities :
Women and World Development, Oxford University Press, New York.
 Sen. G. and K. Brown (1985/1987), Development, Crises and Alternate Visions, Monthly
Review Press, New York.
 Seth, M. (2000), Women and Development : The Indian Experience, Sage Publications, New
Delhi.
 Srinivasan, K. (1998), Basic Demographic Techniques and Applications, Sage Publications,
New Delhi.
 Srinivasan K. and A. Shroff (1998), India : Towards Population and Development Goats,
Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
 Venkateswaran. S. (1995), Environment, Development and Gender Gap; Sage Publications,
New Delhi.
 Wazir, R. (2000), The Gender Gap in Basic Education : NGOs as change Agents, Sage
Publications, New Delhi.

127