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Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Seawater

Concern about pollution of the oceans has stimulated mea- The temperature and salinity of each measurement are given in
surements of the solubility of organic compounds in seawater. the table. Salinity is a standardized measure of the concentration
This table gives the solubility of several hydrocarbons in seawa- of dissolved salts, as explained in the table “Properties of Seawater”
ter. The data are derived from a review in the IUPAC Solubility in Section 14. Salinity values in the open oceans at mid-latitude
Data Series (Reference 1). typically fall between 34 and 36.
Solubility is expressed in this table as parts per million by Reference 1 gives details of the method of measurement and an
mass, i.e., indication of the reliability of the measurements.

S/ppm(mass) = 106 × w2 = 106 × m2/(m1 + m2)


Reference
where m1 and m2 are the masses of solvent (seawater) and sol-
1. Shaw, David G., and Maczynski, A., IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data
ute, respectively, under saturation conditions, and w2 is the mass
Series 81. Hydrocarbons with Water and Seawater — Revised and
fraction. Since the solubilities in this table are very low, the value Updated. Part 12. C5-C26 Hydrocarbons with Seawater, J. Phys. Chem.
of S is effectively the mass of hydrocarbon in grams per 1000 kg Ref. Data 35, 785, 2006.
of seawater.

Name Mol. Form. Salinity t/°C S/ppm (mass)


Acenaphthene C12H10 35 15 0.21
Acenaphthene C12H10 35 25 1.8
Anthracene C14H10 35 25 0.031
Benz[a]anthracene C18H12 35 25 0.0056
Benzene C6H6 34.4 0 1320
Benzene C6H6 35 25 1360
Benzo[ghi]perylene C22H12 6 25 0.00021
Benzo[a]pyrene C20H12 6 25 0.00013
Benzo[e]pyrene C20H12 30 25 0.0033
Benzo[b]triphenylene C22H14 6 25 0.027
Biphenyl C12H10 35 25 4.76
Butylbenzene C10H14 34.5 25 7.1
sec-Butylbenzene C10H14 34.5 25 12
tert-Butylbenzene C10H14 34.5 25 21
Chrysene C18H12 35 25 0.0011
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene C22H14 6 25 0.021
Dibenz[a,j]anthracene C22H14 6 25 0.010
Dodecane C12H26 35 25 0.0029
Eicosane C20H42 35 25 0.0008
Ethylbenzene C8H10 34.4 0 140
Ethylbenzene C8H10 34.4 10 129
Ethylbenzene C8H10 34.4 25 111
Fluoranthene C16H10 35 25 0.124
9H-Fluorene C13H10 35 25 1.2
Heptane C7H16 6 25 10.3
Hexacosane C26H54 35 25 0.0001
Hexadecane C16H34 35 25 0.0004
Hexane C6H14 35.3 25 7.9
Isopropylbenzene C9H12 34.5 25 43
2-Methylanthracene C15H12 35 25 0.013
Methylcyclopentane C6H12 34.5 25 29
1-Methylnaphthalene C11H10 30 25 23
1-Methylphenanthrene C15H12 35 25 0.20
Naphthalene C10H8 35 25 22.8
Nonane C9H20 6 25 0.43
Octadecane C18H38 35 25 0.0008
Pentane C5H12 34.5 25 28
Phenanthrene C14H10 34 25 0.69

5-200
Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Seawater 5-201

Name Mol. Form. Salinity t/°C S/ppm (mass)


Pyrene C16H10 35 25 0.086
Tetradecane C14H30 35 25 0.0017
Toluene C7H8 34.4 0 450
Toluene C7H8 35 25 387
1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene C9H12 34.5 25 49
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene C9H12 34.5 25 40
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene C9H12 34.5 25 31
Undecane C11H24 6 25 0.01
o-Xylene C8H10 34.5 25 130
m-Xylene C8H10 34.5 25 106
p-Xylene C8H10 34.5 25 111