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WELL TESTING AND FLUID HANDLING

INDUSTRY RECOMMENDED

PRACTICE (IRP)

VOLUME 4 – 2007

SANCTIONED OCTOBER 2007

PUBLISHED OCTOBER 2007


COPYRIGHT/RIGHT TO REPRODUCE

Copyright for this Industry Recommended Practice is held by Enform, 2007. All rights
reserved. No part of this IRP may be reproduced, republished, redistributed, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted unless the user references the copyright ownership of
Enform.

DISCLAIMER

This IRP is a set of best practices and guidelines compiled by knowledgeable and
experienced industry and government personnel. It is intended to provide the operator
with advice regarding the specific topic. It was developed under the auspices of the
Drilling and Completions Committee (DACC).

The recommendations set out in this IRP are meant to allow flexibility and must be used
in conjunction with competent technical judgment. It remains the responsibility of the
user of the IRP to judge its suitability for a particular application.

If there is any inconsistency or conflict between any of the recommended practices


contained in the IRP and the applicable legislative requirement, the legislative
requirement shall prevail.

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data and
recommendations contained in the IRP. However, DACC, its subcommittees, and
individual contributors make no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection
with the publication of the contents of any IRP recommendation, and hereby disclaim
liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from the use of this IRP, or for any
violation of any legislative requirements.

AVAILABILITY

This document, as well as future revisions and additions, is available from

Enform Canada
1538 - 25 Avenue NE
Calgary, AB T2E 8Y3
Phone: (403) 250-9606
Fax: (403) 291-9408
Website: www.enform.ca
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4 FINAL Oct2007

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4.0 Scope and Contents ......................................................... i


4.0.1 Purpose ....................................................................................... i
4.0.2 Audience ..................................................................................... i
4.0.3 Scope and Limitations ................................................................... i
4.0.4 Revision Process ........................................................................... i
4.0.5 Revision History ........................................................................... ii
4.0.6 Sanction .....................................................................................iii
4.0.7 Acknowledgement ........................................................................iii
Well Testing Review Committee Members ................................................. iv
4.0.8 Copyright Permissions .................................................................. v
4.0.9 Scope......................................................................................... v
4.0.10 Introduction ................................................................................ v
4.0.11 Symbols and Abbreviations .......................................................... vi
4.0.12 Abbreviations and Definitions........................................................ vii
4.0.13 Common Terms of Reference and IRP’s For All Operations In This Volume
............................................................................................... xiii
Table 1 Flammable Limits .................................................................... xxii

Appendix I ........................................................................... xlvi


Atmospheric Fluid Scrubber Selection Guidelines ..................................... xlvi

Appendix II ........................................................................ xlvii


Pressure Rating Formula for Seamless Pipe............................................ xlvii
Table 2: Pressure Rating of Seamless Pipe.............................................. xlix

4.1 Drill Stem Testing ........................................................... 1


4.1.1 Scope......................................................................................... 1
4.1.2 Planning A Drill Stem Test ............................................................. 1
4.1.3 On-Site Pre-Test Guidelines ........................................................... 2
4.1.4 Drill Stem Testing Guidelines ......................................................... 3
4.1.5 Sour Drill Stem Test Guidelines ...................................................... 6

Appendix III............................................................................ 9
Recommended Drill Stem Testing Services Inspection Checklist .................... 9

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.2 Well Testing .................................................................. 13


4.2.1 Wellhead Control ....................................................................... 13
4.2.2 Well Testing Equipment Capacities and Pressure Ratings ................. 16
4.2.3 H2S Service Equipment Requirements ........................................... 21
4.2.4 Well Testing Equipment Material Conformance ............................... 23
4.2.5 Equipment Inspections ............................................................... 24
4.2.6 Well Testing Equipment Spacing................................................... 25
Figure 1 ............................................................................................. 28
4.2.7 Pre – Test Equipment Check And Pressure Test .............................. 28
4.2.8 Operational Safety ..................................................................... 30
4.2.9 Well Testing Workers .................................................................. 33

Appendix IV .......................................................................... 39
Lease Layout Schematics ...................................................................... 39
Sweet Wells ........................................................................................ 40
Frac Flowback with Pressure Tank Minimum Spacing Requirements ............. 40
Cold Separators Minimum Spacing Requirements ..................................... 41
Heated Test Unit Minimum Spacing Requirements .................................... 42
Sour Wells .......................................................................................... 43
Frac Flowback with Pressure Tank Minimum Spacing Requirements ............. 43
Heated Test Unit, Pressure Tank and Closed Pressure Storage Tanks Minimum
Spacing Requirements .................................................................... 44
Heated Test Unit and Pressure Tank Minimum Spacing Requirements .......... 46

Appendix V ............................................................................ 47
Production Testing Services Inspection Checklist ...................................... 47

Appendix VI .......................................................................... 53
FLARESTACK MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM FLARE RATES ..................................... 53
Gas Exit Velocity of 50.8 mm (2‖) Pipe ................................................... 54
Gas Exit Velocity of 76.2 mm (3‖) Pipe ................................................... 55
Gas Exit Velocity of 101.6 mm (4‖) Pipe .................................................. 56
Gas Exit Velocity of 152.4 mm (6‖) Pipe .................................................. 57
Gas Exit Velocity from 203.2 mm (8‖) Pipe .............................................. 58
Gas Exit Velocity from 254 mm (10‖) Pipe ............................................... 59

Appendix VII ......................................................................... 60


Hydrate Charts .................................................................................... 60

4.3 Other Flowbacks ........................................................... 63


4.3.1 Flowing to Open Top Tank ........................................................... 63
4.3.2 Pumping Or Circulating A Well To An Open Tank System ................. 65
4.3.3 Wellhead Control ....................................................................... 67
4.3.4 Location Of The Rig Pump ........................................................... 67
4.3.5 Well Killing Operations ................................................................ 67
4.3.6 Snubbing Operations .................................................................. 70
Table 2: IRP 15.3.1.5 Reserve Circulation Sand Cleanout Equipment ........................... 72
4.3.7 Well Site Workers Competency .................................................... 73

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4 FINAL Oct2007

4.4 Loading, Unloading and Transportation of Fluids .......... 75


4.4.1 Fluid Hauling Company Procedures ............................................... 75
4.4.2 Fluid Characteristics ................................................................... 76
4.4.3 Loading, Unloading and Transportation Practices ............................ 76
4.4.4 Fluid Hauling Company Worker Qualifications ................................. 80
4.4.5 Hydrocarbon Transportation: Class & Packing Group (Boiling Point, Flash
Point & Vapour Pressure) ................................................................ 81

Appendix VIII ....................................................................... 82


BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................... 82

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0 SCOPE AND CONTENTS


4.0.1 PURPOSE

The purpose of this document is to ensure that guidelines for well testing and fluid
hauling operations are in place and readily available for all personnel.

Industry Recommended Practice (IRP) 4 is intended to supplement existing standards


and regulations. It is also intended to establish guidelines in areas where none existed
previously.

4.0.2 AUDIENCE

The intended audience of this document includes oil and gas company engineers, field
consultants, well testing and fluid hauling personnel, other specialized well services
personnel, and regulatory bodies.

4.0.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

This IRP includes pertinent information about well testing, including the following:

Personnel Requirements

Drill Stem Testing

Loading, Unloading, and Transportation of Fluids

Operational Procedures

IRP 4 supplements existing standards and regulations, and provides guidelines and
recommendations where none existed previously. It also refers to other pertinent
standards where appropriate, and provides information on how to access them. A full list
of the documents referred to in this IRP plus other useful reference material is provided
in APPENDIX VIII.

4.0.4 REVISION PROCESS

Industry recommended practices (IRPs) are developed by Enform with the involvement of
both the upstream petroleum industry and relevant regulators. IRPs provide a unique
resource outside of direct regulatory intervention.

This is the second revision to IRP 4. Those who have been familiar with the first two
editions of IRP 4 should take the time to review this edition thoroughly, as it has been

October 2007 i
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

completely redeveloped to address issues brought forward since the last edition by
industry and government stakeholders.

Technical issues brought forward to the Drilling and Completions Committee (DACC) as
well as scheduled review dates can trigger a re-evaluation and review of this IRP, in
whole or in part. For details on the specific process for the creation and revision of IRPs,
visit the Enform website at www.enform.ca.

4.0.5 REVISION HISTORY

In 1988 a Well Testing and Fluid Handling Subcommittee (WTFHSC) consisting of


representatives from CAODC, CAPP, PSAC, Alberta OH&S, and the Alberta ERCB were
formed. Under the auspices of the Drilling and Completion Committee (DACC), the
WTFHSC mandate was to investigate and develop minimum recommended practices
respecting equipment, procedures and workers for the safe testing of wells and handling
of fluids. The Recommended Practice (ARP) documents were developed during well
testing and fluids handling operations at wells in Alberta; and were fully supported by the
Alberta ERCB and Alberta OH&S.

In 1999, the scope and breath of recommended practices encompasses many more
issues, companies, associations and governments. The reference to Alberta in the title of
these practices is changed to industry (IRP ) to better reflect the broader scope. Where
industry has grown to other regions of western Canada, these IRP’s continue to assist
companies in their daily operations; These IRP’s are intended to follow the user to any
site, anywhere in the world, as a minimum operating practice.

In 2005 IRP 4 needed a review and update to reflect the changes in industry and
legislation. With approval from DACC a new committee was formed to address the need
for a complete review and update of the document.

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0.6 SANCTION

The following organizations have sanctioned this document:

Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry

Alberta Energy and Utilities Board

British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission

British Columbia Workers Compensation Board (WorkSafeBC)

Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

International Intervention and Coil Tubing Association (Canada)

National Energy Board

Petroleum Services Association of Canada

4.0.7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This IRP under the auspices of the Drilling and Completions Committee (DACC), was
originally developed as an Alberta Recommended Practice (ARP) by the Well Testing and
Fluid Handling subcommittee, and subsequently updated by the Well Testing Committee
in 1999.

Acknowledgments of the following individuals is in recognition of their time and effort in


any and all of the meeting and work sessions, and acknowledgement of the corporate
entities that allowed these individuals to take time away from their busy desks to help
complete this project.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Well Testing Review Committee Members

Name Company Organization


Represented
Craig Marshall, Chair Canadian Sub-Surface Energy Services Inc PSAC

Nicole Axelson Petroleum Services Association of Canada PSAC

Frank A Barlow Conoco Phillips Canada CAPP

Glenn Berry Enseco PSAC

Dustin Brodner Petro-Canada CAPP

Lonnie Campbell (CAODC) Concord Well Servicing Ltd CAODC

Bruce Cazes BC Oil and Gas Commission

Lyle Gallant Weatherford Canada Partnership PSAC

Robert Knowles Weatherford Canada Partnership PSAC

Kevin Kostrub Alberta Energy Utilities Board

Manuel Macias Enform

Lyle Nelson Grant Production Testing Services Ltd PSAC

Greg Onushko Grant Production Testing Services Ltd PSAC

Don Pack Precision Drilling Corporation CAODC

Matthew Ritchie Enseco PSAC

Colby Ruff Alberta Energy Utilities Board

Garth Sampson Weatherford Canada Partnership PSAC

David W Smith Am-Gas Scrubbing Systems (1989) Ltd PSAC

Jack W Thacker Husky Energy Inc CAPP

Emerson Vokes Lonkar Well Testing Ltd PSAC

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4.0.8 COPYRIGHT PERMISSIONS

This IRP includes documents or excerpts of documents as follows, for which permission to
reproduce has been obtained:

Copyrighted Information Used In Permission from

Figure 1 Page 28 Safety Code Council of Alberta

4.0.9 SCOPE

The purpose of this series of IRPs is to enhance safety during well testing and fluid
handling operations of gas and oil wells.

4.1 Drill Stem Testing contains recommended practices for DST operations including: test
planning, as well as pre-test, post-test, and sour testing guidelines.

4.2 Well Testing details recommended practices for Well Testing operations, including:
equipment design and operation, worker requirements and qualifications, purging and
pressure testing, operational safety, and safety equipment.

4.3 Other Flowbacks addresses recommended practices for service rig operations
involving the flowback of fluids from the well. Matters addressed include: produced
fluids, venting, well control, equipment, procedures, and well site workers.

4.4 Loading, Unloading, and Transportation of Fluids provides recommended procedures


for the safe transfer of fluids from temporary and permanent production facility tanks to
trucks. The procedures emphasize sour fluids and high vapour pressure hydrocarbon
mixtures. The IRP also addresses transportation.

The practices described in the IRPs should be considered in conjunction with other
industry recommended practices, individual operator’s well testing and fluid handling
practices, and site specific considerations. It is recognized that other procedures and
practices as well as new technological developments may be equally effective in
promoting safety and efficiency.

4.0.10 INTRODUCTION

An integral part of the exploration and development of oil and gas resources is reservoir
evaluation. Evaluation methods with the greatest inherent environmental and safety
concerns are those which remove reservoir fluids by means of drill stem testing, well
testing or any other methods of flowback.

The avoidance of developing a combustible hydrocarbon gas/air mixture, and the safe

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

handling of highly volatile reservoir or stimulation fluids, and corrosive or toxic fluids are
of concern when evaluating a well.

The environmental, safety, and health risks associated with well testing and fluid
handling can be minimized by properly trained workers implementing prudent procedures
and using properly designed equipment.

4.0.11 SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS


AEUB Alberta Energy and Utilities Board
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials
API American Petroleum Institute
CAPP Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
CBM Coalbed Mehane
CAODC Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors
CPA Canadian Petroleum Association
CSA Canadian Standards Association
CRN Canadian Registration Number
CTU Coil Tubing Units
DACC Drilling and Completions Committee
DST Drill Stem Test
ESD Emergency Shut Down (valve)
IRP Industry Recommended Practice
JSA Job Safety Analysis
LEL Lower Explosive Limit
MAWP Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MSDS Materials Safety Data Sheet
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NORM Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material
OEL Occupational Exposure Limit
OH&S Occupational Health & Safety
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
PSV Pressure Relief Valve
PSAC Petroleum Services Association of Canada
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
SABA Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus
SCBA Self-contained Breathing Apparatus

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

SITHP Shut In Tubing Head Pressure


SICHP Shut In Casing Head Pressure
TDG Transportation of Dangerous Goods
UEL Upper Explosive Limit
WHMIS Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System

4.0.12 ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS

Adequate: For the purposes of this IRP adequate is defined as the result of
conducting a hazard assessment and mitigating risks associated with the job to be
performed.

Adequate Lighting: The visibility must be such that the worker will be able to
exit the worksite to a secure area in the event of an emergency. Flashlights, rig
lights, and vehicle lights can be considered as emergency back-up lighting.
(Waiting on IRP 23 Lease Lighting Standards adequate lighting exists when the
site is illuminated sufficiently to ensure that the worker is able to perform routine
duties safely.)

References/Links

Workers Compensation Board of British Columbia

Saskatchewan Dept of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety

NOTE: Regulations in the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan


define lighting with specific measurement criteria. This should be
referred to when operating in these provinces

NOTE: Consideration must be given to additional lighting on complex


operations.

Bleed Off: Where pressure is present in the well, or piping systems, and
separating systems and needs depressurizing is required before work can
commence.

Caution: Caution must be exercised on wells known to contain lower levels of H2S
or have harmful or toxic substances, have severe abrasives (e.g., frac
sand), have other unusual hazards, and are high pressure. The term
caution does not categorize a well outside of Sweet or Sour.

It is intended to alert owners, employers, and workers to dangers that may


exceed those of routine sweet wells and wells with minimal H2S concentration
where prescriptive equipment requirements are not provided.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Certified Pressurized Vessel: A pressurized vessel which has been constructed


following a program of quality control, designed for the application, and is
registered with the provincial agency that applies a stamp of certification on the
vessel nameplate. All vessels must have a Canadian Registration Number (CRN)
registered in all provinces of intended use.

Closed System: A closed system refers to a handling system in which the odours
or emissions from the wellbore effluent are either flared or vented to atmosphere
through an H2S scrubber, in a controlled manner.

Coiled Tubing Unit Operations: Coiled tubing units (CTU) are commonly used in
other flowbacks to recover wellbore effluent. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide or air is
used to move and lift proppant, produced sand or stimulation fluids such as acid,
chemicals or hydraulic fracture treatment fluids from the wellbore. Coiled tubing
unit operations may also be undertaken to evaluate well production capability.

Confined Space: A space which is enclosed or partially enclosed. Has limited or


restricted means for entry/exit. Is not designed or intended for continuous human
occupancy. Is or may become partially hazardous to a worker entering or that
may complicate the provision of first aid, evacuation, rescue or other emergency
response services. Refer to applicable OHS Regulations

Drilling Company: An individual or company that enters into a contract with an


owner of a wellsite to drill for oil and gas.

Drill Stem Test: A method of determining the producing potential of a formation.


This is done by removing the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid column and
allowing formation fluids or gas to flow into an evacuated or partially evacuated
drill string or production string. This allows the formation pressures to be
monitored and measured to calculate flow and depletion rates. A drill stem tester
represents the company responsible for the downhole and surface equipment used
in identifying the content and production capability of the formations to be tested.

Employer: Means a person, firm, association or body that has, in connection with
the operation of a place of employment, one or more workers in the service of the
person, firm, association or body.

Emergency Shutdown Devise Valve: It is a hydraulically or pneumatically


operated, high-pressure valve installed on the wellhead with remote or automatic
shutdowns. Its purpose is to provide a means to remotely shut in the well in an
emergency. An ESD is required on wells to be flowed having a surface pressure
greater than 1379 kPa and a H2S content greater than 1% or release of one tonne
of sulfphur per day.

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Flowback: Where pressure on a well is bled off and the well continues to flow,
and is allowed to flow to establish a rate of gas and fluid from the well.

High Vapour Pressure Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon mixtures with a Reid


vapour pressure greater than 14 kPa or an API gravity greater than 50O are
considered to be high vapour pressure hydrocarbons.

NOTE: Reid Vapour Pressure is determined in a laboratory test. API gravity


can be readily measured in the field. C1-C7 content can also be
indicative of a fluid’s flammability. Flammability increases with
increasing C1-C7 content. Fluid analyses, if available should be
reviewed. Fluid and ambient temperatures should be considered.

Inline Test: An inline test is closed when well effluents measured at the test
separator are diverted to the pipeline in some occasions fluids are produced to
storage.

Mud Can: A device used to contain fluids and direct them away from the drill pipe
when breaking connections.

Non - Certified Pressurized Vessel: A vessel that does not require certification
for use in pressure applications. The vessel must have some form of pressure
relief valve (PSV). If the tank is to be used as the primary vessel, the tank must
have been constructed under a quality control program. Construction, design, and
material specification data must be available when requested by the well owner.
Government departments may also request this data.

Caution: The vessel must be designed for its intended use.

Example: A vessel designed to operate below 103.4 kPa (15 psi) working
pressure does not require provincial certification from local jurisdictions
but is required to be constructed under a registered quality control
program in this IRP.

Occupational Exposure Limits – Worker Safety Consideration

The Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL of H2S is, eight hour OEL: 10 ppm)

In most cases when well testing, workers are in open-air environments and work
shifts longer than eight hours. Therefore planning consideration must review
situations when workers are exposed to short-term levels of H2S greater than
10ppm and longer-term levels less than 10ppm. The ceiling limits vary through
the various regulatory authorities. The two most common ceiling limits are 10
ppm and 15ppm.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Refer to your local and federal Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical
Substances for more information on exposure limits to other chemicals.

References/Links

Alberta Occupational Health and Safety Act – Chemical Hazards

Saskatchewan Occupational Health and Safety Act

Workers Compensation Board of British Columbia – OHS & Regulation

Open System: An open system refers to a handling system, such as a rig tank, in
which any gas vapours produced from fluids are vented to atmosphere in an
uncontrolled manner. This type of system requires constant monitoring to ensure
transient vapours/gas are maintained below 20% of LEL and 10 ppm H2S.

Other Flowbacks: Other flowbacks refers to operations, other than production


testing and drill stem testing, in which gas or fluids are flowed or induced to flow
from the wellbore. This includes well killing operations and the recovery of well
stimulation fluids and solids by flowing, pumping, swabbing or by the circulation of
fluids (i.e., coiled tubing.) Refer to Section 4.3 Other Flowbacks for information
specific to testing.

Owner: A person, partnership, company or group of persons who, under contract


and agreement of ownership, direct the activities of one or more employers
involved at a worksite.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Equipment designed and used to


protect workers.

Positive Pressure: Positive pressure refers to a pressure greater than


atmospheric pressure (0 kPa gauge).

Pressurized Truck Tank: A pressurized truck tank must comply with all the CSA
B620 requirements as determined by CSA B621. If the maximum allowable
working pressure (MAWP) is greater than 101.3 kPa (15 psi) then ABSA/ASME
certification is also required. The MAWP is specified on the nameplate of most
oilfield production equipment such as all transport and pressure vessel equipment.

Purge: Where a vessel, container or piping system is evacuated of its gas and/or
fluid contents and replaced with another gas and/or fluid. The general purpose of
purging is to remove explosive and/or flammable fluids and gases from a closed
piping system prior to opening the system to atmosphere or prior to entry of the
system by workers. The practice of purging usually entails replacing the
explosive/flammable contents with a product that is non-explosive/flammable or

x October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

to create an atmosphere with an acceptable Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) and


Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) for workers. Purging is also used to aid the removal
hazardous gases and fluids from vessels and piping systems prior to shipment of
equipment or transportation of fluids.

Qualified Well Testing Person: An individual who has had a minimum of three
months previous experience with a service company or well owner and
understands the concept of gas and liquid separation using pressure equipment
and flaring. Without this prior experience, the individual is considered ―in
training‖. The individual must be able to provide documented evidence, when
requested, of this experience. The individual must have all certifications required
by provincial regulatory agencies and/or listed in this IRP. Section 4.2.9 of this
IRP identifies the qualifications required for a well testing worker to handle various
levels of responsibility.

Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA): It consists of a small air cylinder


(less than 5 minutes of breathing air) and air mask intended to be carried on the
hip of a worker with the ability to connect, by hose, to numerous larger air
cylinders. This type of configuration is used for extended work periods where a
worker is exposed to an H2S or other hazardous breathing environment.

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA): It consists of an air cylinder and


mask intended to be carried on the back of the worker and has (+)(-) 30 minutes
of breathing air contained in the cylinder. This device is used for short work
periods where a worker is in an H2S or other hazardous breathing environment.
Also used for emergency situations to aid in the rescue of injured personnel.

Safety Service Company: A company that provides one or more of the


following: equipment, workers, training, and neutralising chemicals to reduce the
risk to onsite workers and equipment during various well operations.

Safety Standby Method: Where a person outside of the hazardous area


monitors the work of persons inside the hazardous area, with no other purpose
than to monitor personnel and their safety equipment, and implement rescue
procedures when necessary.

Service Company: Means a person, corporation or association who is contracted


to supply, sell, offer or expose for sale, lease, distribute or install a product or
service to another company, usually the owner of the worksite.

Shut In Tubing Head Pressure (SITHP): The pressure at surface on the tubing
in the well.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Shut In Casing Head Pressure (SICHP): The pressure at surface on the casing
in the well.

Stimulations: Stimulations are operations designed to improve well production


capability or, in the case of injection or disposal wells, to improve the ability of a
well to accept fluid. These operations may include the use of hydrocarbon and
water based fracturing fluids, acids, various chemicals, and proppants.

Swabbing: Swabbing is an operation conducted to reduce the hydrostatic


pressure of the fluid in the wellbore to initiate flow from a formation.

Swivel Joint (Chiksan): A series of short steel pipe sections that are joined by
swivel couplings. The unit functions as a flexible flow line that provides a flow
path between the control head and the floor manifold.

Test Line: A flow line from the drill stem tester's floor manifold to move fluid or
gas to flare, test separator or storage.

Stabbing Valve: A full opening safety valve that can be installed to the top of
any joint of pipe being pulled out of or inserted into the well to prevent flow up
the pipe and out to atmosphere.

Well Killing Operations: Well killing operations are operations in which well
effluent is circulated from the wellbore using a fluid of sufficient density to prevent
further influx of reservoir fluids. The process is continued until the well is
incapable of flow.

Well Testing: Well Testing is an operation where a company supplies equipment


and the continuous presence of qualified test workers for the purpose of
measuring and handling wellbore effluents through production equipment. Such
operations include, but are not limited to:

Flowing a well to production equipment or tank

Flow measurement with chokes, flow provers or other devices

Initiating flow by swabbing, coiled tubing or any such artificial lift


method

Flowing a well while drilling operations are in progress, known as


Underbalanced Drilling

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References/Links

Section IRP 4.2 Well Testing

IRP 6.0 Critical Sour Underbalanced Drilling

Worker: Means a person who is engaged in an occupation in the service of an


employer.

Underbalanced Drilling: Entails allowing a well to flow oil, gas, and formation
fluids to surface as it is being drilled as opposed to conventional or overbalanced
drilling where one of the prime considerations is in preventing hydrocarbons from
flowing during the drilling process.

References/Links

IRP 6.0 Critical Sour Underbalanced Drilling

Alberta Energy and Utilities Board Interim Directive ID94-3 and Directive 36,
Section 10, 20, 23, 24

4.0.13 COMMON TERMS OF REFERENCE AND IRP’S FOR ALL OPERATIONS


IN THIS VOLUME

4.0.13.1 Responsibilities of Owners and Service Contractors

IRP The wellsite owner is responsible for all activities on a lease. The safety
of on-site workers and environmental protection take precedence over
well testing data requirements. Owners shall maintain general health
and safety at the well site by coordinating all activities and ensuring
proper equipment, materials, and workers are provided to accomplish
the program and to satisfy all applicable regulatory requirements.

IRP The well site owner shall ensure the following breathing equipment is
provided as a minimum:

On all wells, regardless of designation, two Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus


(SCBA) must be on location at all times. (Additional SCBA may be required as per
local authorities).

When well testing wells where the H2S concentration is greater than 100
ppm, the owner must provide supplied air breathing apparatus (SABA’s)
in addition to the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). As a
minimum this package must contain an adequate air supply system

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

complete with air cylinders, manifold, work lines and egress packs
(SABA’s) and a minimum of two back packs (SCBA’s).

On simple well-servicing operations (such as rod jobs, tubing changes,


bleed-offs, plug retrieval, abandonment’s, swab cleanouts) where the
H2S concentration is greater than 10 ppm and where the venting of gas
to atmosphere is minimal and the bleed-off period is short in duration
and where more than two workers are present at the same time, an
additional two back packs would be adequate instead of a supplied air
system. (This does not apply to well testing.) Therefore a minimum of
four back packs are required on the well site. Two of the back packs
must be designated for emergency use only. The other packs are for use
by workers where breathing equipment is necessary to complete
operational tasks. Protection for the workers on the site and nearby
residents, from over-exposure to H2S, must be maintained when
considering this option.

IRP Refer to CSA standard CSA-Z94.4-02 Selection, care and use of


respiratory equipment.

IRP Where an owner representative is assigned to the site, the


representative shall be present during all operations where gas will be
vented from open tank systems. Where an owner representative is not
assigned to the site, the contractor assigned to flow the well to open
tank systems must have a supervisor present during the operation.

IRP The owner shall ensure agas detection meter is available to the site
workers and that they are properly trained in the use and operation of
the meter.

IRP The owner’s representative shall have a trained and competent person
onsite in the operation of an LEL meter. The owner’s representative
shall ensure availability of an LEL meter on all sites. (Reference IRP 7
Standards for Wellsite Supervision of Drilling, Completions and
Workovers, Alberta EUB BM 033, CAPP Flammable Environments
Guidelines and IRP 18 Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion Hazard
Management)

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

IRP The owner shall or instruct the service contracting company to:

Provide signage ordering vehicles to stop at the lease entrance on


all sites where gas is being vented to atmosphere

Ensure there are an adequate number of qualified workers on the


well site at all times to conduct operations safely

Provide fluid hauling companies with shipping documents such as a


waste manifest that describes the properties and potential hazards
associated with fluids to be transported in appropriate
Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) terms

References/Links

Transport Canada TDG Act, Sections 5, 6, 8 & 14.

Transport Canada TDG Regulations, Part 3.

Transport Canada TDG Act, Section 40(Clear language).

Ensure fluid hauling workers are oriented to site-specific procedures

Ensure sour fluids are transported during normal hours of operations


unless special arrangements and precautions have been made between
the owner and the truck operator. This may include standby workers,
equipment, and monitoring devices

Ensure appropriate safety equipment (i.e., H2S monitor, explosive


mixture monitor, and respiratory protective equipment) is available

Maintain a contingency plan including procedures for truck loading,


unloading, and transportation-related spills.

IRP The owner’s representative is responsible for conducting an on-site pre-


job equipment inspection to ensure the equipment is operational and as
ordered.

IRP Owners shall prepare a program of operations. The program should


include but not be limited to:

The purpose of the operation

Relevant well data

Identify any potential hazards

October 2007 xv
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Equipment requirements and layout having regard for pressures and


flows expected

Environmental and safety considerations, relative to on-site workers


and the public

Special procedures to be employed

Emergency contacts

Minimum worker requirements and qualifications

Test objectives

Test sequence in appropriate detail

Technical contact in case of unexpected program deviations

Emergency response plan, contacts and procedures

Shall ensure the program is available for viewing by all participating


contractors prior to job commencement.

IRP The prime contractor shall ensure that their representative is able to
provide competent and effective supervision of the operations being
carried out. The owner’s representative shall have the following:

For well site supervision of drilling completions and workovers, the


prime contractors representative must be certified in IRP 7
Standards for Wellsite Supervision of Drilling, Completions and
Workovers

First Aid Certificate

If well servicing, an appropriate blow-out prevention (BOP)


certificate

If drilling, an appropriate blow-out prevention (BOP) certificate

H2S Training and Certification for sour wells ( > 10 ppm)

Transportation of Dangerous Goods Certificate where hazardous


materials will be shipped

WHMIS training

Complete awareness of IRP 4Well Testing and Fluids Handling as


they pertain to the operation being carried out and a full

xvi October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

understanding of the hazards related to the physical properties of


the fluid being handled, prior to conducting the operation

Shall make available and be competent in the operation of


equipment used to detect hazardous or explosive mixtures

An understanding of section 8.110 of the AEUB Regulations when


hydrocarbon mixtures with a Reid vapour pressure greater than 14
kPa or with an API gravity exceeding 50 degrees, are encountered

4.0.13.2 Drilling Service Company Responsibilities

IRP The drilling service company shall ensure that all required rig workers
are available during operation and that the workers are physically
capable and have been properly trained to carry out their designated
responsibilities. The drilling service company shall ensure that the
equipment and facilities it is contracted to supply are available during
operation and it is designed for the parameters of the project. Pressure
test certification, material inspections, and sour service specifications
shall be made available when requested.

4.0.13.3 Drill Stem Testing Company Responsibilities

IRP The drill stem testing company shall ensure that the workers it provides
are available during the drill stem test, the workers are physically
capable, and have been properly trained to carry out their designated
responsibilities during the drill stem test at the worksite. The drill stem
testing company shall ensure that the equipment and facilities it is
contracted to supply are available during the drill stem test, are in good
working order and is designed for the parameters of the project.
Pressure test certification, material inspections, and sour service
specifications shall be made available when requested.

4.0.13.4 Safety Service Company Responsibilities

IRP The safety service company shall ensure that the workers it provides are
available during operations, the workers are physically capable, and
have been properly trained to carry out their designated responsibilities.
The safety service company shall ensure that the equipment it is
contracted to supply is available during the operation, is in good working
order, and is designed for the parameters of the project. The safety
service company must ensure proper equipment for respiratory
protection, H2S gas detection, breathing-air supply, determining

October 2007 xvii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

explosive limits, and neutralising chemicals is in sufficient quantities at


the worksite. Consideration should be given to having spare H2S and
LEL meter.

The safety service company must provide training of all workers on the
worksite in the specific use of this equipment as required.

4.0.13.5 Well Testing Company Responsibilities

IRP The well testing company shall ensure their employees are physically
capable to carry out their designated responsibilities during the
operation. Well testing personnel must carry certificates of training with
them. The well testing company shall ensure the equipment and
facilities it is contracted to supply are designed and suited for the
application. Pressure test certification, material inspections, and sour
service specifications shall be made available when requested.

4.0.13.6 Fluid Hauling Company Responsibilities

IRP Fluid hauling companies shall ensure the workers it provides are
available during the operations, the workers are physically capable to
carry out their designated responsibilities, and the workers carry
certificates of training with them. The fluid hauling company shall
ensure that the equipment and facilities it is contracted to supply are
available during the operation, are in good working order, and are
designed for the parameters of the project. Pressure test certification,
material inspections, and sour service specifications shall be made
available when requested.

4.0.13.7 Well Designation for Worker Safety in H2S Environments

IRP Sweet and Sourdesignations are used by industry and legislative bodies
as a reference for administrative purposes. For technical purposes
specific concentrations of hydrogen sulphide will dictate appropriate
equipment requirements to conduct a task safely, maintaining the
health and safety of the worker while ensuring the integrity of the
equipment. The well designations of this IRP are centred on hydrogen
sulphide (H2S) content, which through inhalation, is the most frequently
encountered hazardous substance by well testing workers. There may
be other substances as onerous for maintaining worker safety and must
be considered when planning work programs. Provincial Occupational
Health and Safety Acts define the exposure limits for numerous
substances. Those documents should be referred to when substances

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

other than hydrogen sulphide (H2S) are known to be present at the well
site. The well designations in this IRP are designed for worker safety
when working in hydrogen sulphide (H2S) environments.Sweet Well

10 ppm hydrogen sulphide content or less: Designated as sweet.

A well with a hydrogen sulphide (H2S) content of 0.01 moles / kilomole


(10 ppm) or less is designated as sweet.

The hazards of sweet gas to the worker, from exposure or inhalation,


are less than those imposed by sour gas and therefore require a
minimum of two SCBA’s on all wells to aid in protecting the worker.

Other requirements are detailed throughout these IRP’s. Material


specifications relative to metallurgy for equipment used to flow wells
containing zero H2S content are not as stringent as those required for
wells containing H2S.

References/Links

Section 4.2 Well Testing

NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers)

ASME B31.3

4.0.13.7.1. Sour Well

More than 10 ppm hydrogen sulphide content: Designated as sour.

Any well with a hydrogen sulphide (H2S) concentration greater than


0.01 moles/ kilomole (10ppm) is designated as sour.

Sour gas hazards relative to worker safety requires specific equipment


to protect the worker.

Prescriptive guidelines for the quantity and use of breathing equipment


to protect the worker are outlined in this IRP and other provincial
regulations.

Additionally, gas, containing H2S, is more corrosive to metals and thus,


requires precautions when selecting equipment to perform well testing
operations.

Section 4.2.3 H2S Service Equipment Requirements of this IRP provides


guidelines relating to equipment selection for use in H2S environments.

October 2007 xix


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

References/Links

Section 4.2 Well Testing

Provincial Occupation Health and Safety Acts

Alberta Chemical Hazards Regulation Sections 2 & 9

NACE MR 01-75 LATEST EDITION

ASME B31.3

4.0.13.7.2. Critical Sour Well

Critical Sour Wells are defined by appropriate Provincial Regulatory


Agencies.

They generally include all the elements of a sour well plus an amplified
concern for residents in close proximity to the well site along with
environmental issues.

In Alberta Directive 071: Emergency Preparedness and Response


Requirements for the Petroleum Industry

4.0.13.8 Metallurgy considerations for H2S environments

H2S affects the integrity of metals not designed for use in H2S
environments.

Other elements such as CO2 also have corrosive affects on metals. The
requirement for special metallurgy in equipment is not related to a sour
designation of a well.

It is related to H2S Partial Pressure and Sulphide Stress Cracking as


defined by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE).

References/Links

Section 4.2.3 H2S Service Equipment Requirements

NACE MR 01-75 LATEST EDITION specifications

xx October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0.13.9 Gas Detection Monitoring for Explosive and Flammable Limits


(Further information see IRP 18- Upstream Petroleum Fire and
Explosion Hazard Management)

IRP The owner’s site representative must be trained and competent in the
use of gas detection meters. The site representative must possess or
make available at the wellsite, a gas detection meter capable of
measuring LEL.

IRP Where the owner does not have a site representative, the owner shall
ensure a gas detection meter is available to the site workers.

IRP One person per shift must be trained and competent in the use of gas
detection meters where gas vapours will be vented to atmosphere or
there is a potential of gas vapours to be released to the atmosphere. All
users must be properly trained and competent.

IRP No worker shall enter the 50 metre safety zone around an open tank
system where gas vapours have been vented to atmosphere until
cleared to do so by the owner’s site representative or the worker who is
responsible for monitoring the area with a gas detection meter.

NOTE: Refer to Section 4.3 Other Flowbacks, for more detail on the
requirement of gas detection and flowing wells to open tank systems.

Introduction: Gas detectors have become an everyday part of equipment


requirements on an oil and gas site. There must be accurate methods of detecting
the absence or presence of various gases, so the workplace can be maintained
safe and productive.

Explosive or Flammability Limits:

The term limits of flammability or explosive limits, refers to the percentage by


volume of a fuel in a fuel/air mixture which will burn. The flammable range
spreads between the lower flammable limit and the upper flammable limit. Fuel
/air mixtures outside the flammable range will not burn or explode.

October 2007 xxi


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Flammable limits for some common flammable gases and vapours are in listed
below.

Table 1 Flammable Limits

Explosive Flash Point Vapour Ignition


Limits (% by Degrees Density Air Temp.
UEL
vol. In air) Celsius = 1.0 Degrees
LEL Celsius
Ammonia 15.0 28.0 Gas 0.58 630
Butane 1.8 9.0 Gas 2.0 410
Carbon Monoxide 12.5 74.0 Gas 0.97 570
Diesel 0.3 10.0 52 > 3.0 < 171
Ethane 3.0 12.5 Gas 1.0 472
Hydrogen Sulphide 4.0 45.0 Gas 1.19 260
Ethyl Alcohol 3.3 19.0 +13 1.59 365
Methanol 6 7.6 16c 1.1 464
Methane 5.0 15.0 Gas 0.55 538
Propane 2.2 10.0 Gas 1.5 450
Toluene 1.3 7.0 +4 3.14 535
Common Frac Oils 1.0 7.0 (less than 200
1.0)
Gasoline 1.3 8.0 3.2

NOTE: To caution about methanol vapours affecting sensors. Please refer to


your MSDS for all chemicals

A flammable gas is considered to be a gas that will burn when there is a


concentration of oxygen in the air. Flammable mixtures cannot be ignited and
continue to maintain a flame, unless the concentration of fuel is greater than the
LEL and lower than the UEL.

A methane/air mixture must contain more than 5% methane by volume for the
mixture to burn. If the mixture contains more than 15% methane by volume, it is
considered to be too rich and will not burn. The concentration must be within the
flammable range to ignite or sustain a fire.

Oxygen

The normal concentration of oxygen in ambient air is 20.9%. Abnormal


circumstances can cause this level to be increased or decreased. Oxygen
deficiency refers to abnormally low oxygen levels that can be serious and is often

xxii October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

an undetected risk to human life. Reduction of oxygen levels is usually caused by


the consumption of oxygen by some chemical reaction or combustion within a
confined area or by displacement by other gases.

Oxygen enrichment refers to abnormally high concentrations of oxygen that can


be dangerous because of its tendency to increase the flammability and
explosiveness of materials and fuels. The leaking of compressed oxygen
containers in confined areas usually causes enrichment.

For safe entry, oxygen levels must be between 19.5% and 23.0%.

Flammable and Explosive Gases

Explosions occur when a flammable mixture of gas comes into contact with a heat
source that exceeds the ignition temperature of the gas mixture. Not all
concentrations of flammable gases will explode. The Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
determines the minimum concentration of the flammable gas in air that will burn.
Concentrations below the LEL and above the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) will not
burn. Unfortunately, gas/air mixtures are seldom uniform so it is likely that if any
amount of combustible gas is detected then at some point in the system or
container, the concentration may be explosive. Flammable liquids normally have a
low flash point. This refers to the temperature at which the liquid releases vapours
at a rate sufficient to form an explosive mixture with air. Liquids with flash points
below ambient temperature will immediately release dangerous concentrations of
gas. Liquid leaks can be as hazardous as gas leaks.

Vapour Density

When monitoring for the presence of gases or vapours, it is important to


understand vapour density, which provides valuable clues as to where to locate
gas sensors. Density is a characteristic of materials and is similar to weight. For
gases and vapours, air is considered to be the standard reference and its density
is set at 1.0. Gases and vapours lighter than air have densities less than 1.0 while
those heavier than air have densities greater than 1.0.

Assuming that air currents are negligible, it can be said that gases and vapours
with densities less than 1.0, such as methane, will tend to rise from the point of
escape and subsequently disperse into the atmosphere or accumulate in spaces
under roof structures of buildings.

Heavier-than-air gases such as propane and H2S tend to fall from the point of
escape, perhaps to floor level where some mixing with air occurs thus creating
pockets of mixtures, some explosive, others not. If there are sub-floor spaces
such as drain channels, pipe and cableways, and storage pits, then these heavier

October 2007 xxiii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

than air gases tend to accumulate there. A suitable source of ignition in such
areas will surely result in explosion and fire. Refer to Flammable limits for some
common flammable gases and vapours table above.

Ignition Temperature

Ignition temperature is the temperature that will cause a combustible mixture of


gas vapour to explode or burst into flame. Various fuels mixed in a variety of
concentrations can be explosive when ignited by the presence of a spark, flame or
hot surface that exceeds the ignition temperature. Variables such as
concentrations, pressure, and temperature all have an effect on ignition
temperature.

Pyrophoric Iron Sulphides

Pyrophoric Iron Sulphides are created when rust and H2S combine in an oxygen
free environment

Pyrophoric meaning they can spontaneously ignite when exposed to oxygen.

They are created in oxygen free environments such as piping systems, reservoirs,
wellbore, and vessels where H2S has been present without oxygen.

Essentially rust (or Iron Oxide) is converted in Iron Sulphide, when these Iron
Sulphides are exposed to oxygen; an oxidation process begins that eventually
turns the iron sulphides back into iron oxide form.

This process creates an enormous amount of heat causing (in some cases) the
iron particles to illuminate and possibly glow. This is when nearby fuel sources
such as propane from a purge or other hydrocarbons can be ignited.

There is no set H2S content at which Pyrophoric Iron Sulphides will form or be
present, however there are some heavily researched indicators to the presence of
Iron Sulphides. They include

Scaling

Asphaltines

Sludge

Rust

Solids

xxiv October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

The age of a sour well, and long periods of time with equipment on sour
operations such as multizone sour completions can also be factors in determining
whether or not Iron Sulphides may be present

With an auto ignition temperature below that of room temperature, they pose a
definite hazard.

IRP A hazard assessment should be completed on iron sulphides for sour


locations. The operating company’s site representative must be present.
The above mentioned indicators should be addressed if applicable.
Previous well analysis information if applicable, or operating company
technical/physical judgment of possible Iron Sulphides should be
addressed.These hazard assessments may be able to identify a
operating company or your company’s Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide
procedures and safety guidelines. Local or federal legislation may also
be valid.

Location of Gas Sensors

Location of the gas sensor is very important. In general, lighter than air gases
requires the sensor to be positioned near the ceiling and heavier than air gases
require sensors positioned at low levels or in pits or trenches. Some things to
consider include:

Hydrogen sulphide mixed with methane in a process stream may follow


the same migration patterns as methane during a gas leak

Temperature, humidity, and air ventilation patterns

Mounting detectors close to the entrance of buildings, on the outside


wall.

Gas Detectors Measuring Percent LEL

Some gas detectors have two scales; the 100% scale measuring the % of a
flammable gas in a mixture, and the 4% scale for measuring the % of the LEL
Assume that the meter has been designed to measure hydrogen in a mixture. The
LEL of hydrogen is 4%. If a reading taken on the 100% scale indicates 10%, then
the mixture is 10% hydrogen and is above the LEL of hydrogen. If a reading on
the 4% range indicates 10%, then the mixture contains 10% of the hydrogen
necessary to produce a flammable mixture. The mixture actually contains 4% x
0.1 = 0.4% hydrogen by volume.

The equipment operator must understand the difference between measuring the
% LEL and the % of flammable gas.

October 2007 xxv


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Always consult the manufacturers operating instructions and procedures prior to


interpreting the results.

Caution:

No person shall remain in or enter into an area containing more than


20% LEL, unless it is for an emergency or rescue situation by trained
and competent individual(s)

When testing gas for LEL remember that the H2S concentration is
important relative to the safety of the worker conducting the LEL test.

The LEL of hydrogen sulphide is 4% gas by volume, which equates to


40,000 parts per million H2S.

Anytime the H2S exceeds 10 ppm special safety precautions must be


implemented.

At 40,000 ppm H2S, a worker would be immediately overcome while


testing for LEL.

These devices must not be used for continuous monitoring or for testing
H2S concentration in the gas

Preparing the Meter

Be sure to follow the directions supplied by the manufacturer of your


gas detector.

Testing the atmospheres for the safety of workers requires that the gas
detection equipment be in perfect condition, properly calibrated, and will
be operated by trained and competent people.

Some portable equipment is designed to test for a combination of any of


the following: oxygen, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, and
flammable levels.

NOTE: Refer to CAPP Flammable Environments Guideline and IRP 18- Upstream
Petroleum Fire and Explosion Hazard Management

4.0.13.10 Monitoring for Explosive Mixtures

IRP Monitoring for explosive mixtures with a suitable calibrated monitoring


device in the vicinity of potential ignition sources (e.g., pump) during
pumping/flowback operations is recommended. The monitoring device
must be calibrated using an appropriate calibration gas. The operations

xxvi October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

must be suspended or an alternate method of flowback initiated to


eliminate an explosion risk around potential ignition sources.

IRP Wind direction devices must be strategically located around the lease.

NOTE: Monitoring for explosive mixtures with a suitable device is the only
practical method of determining safe operating conditions. Judging
conditions based on sight, smell, wind directions, etc., may be very
deceiving in that explosive mixture levels can change rapidly during a
flow back situation. Portable monitoring devices are available that give
direct readout of combustible gas explosive limits. A fixed sensor could
be located in an enclosed area such as rig pump house, separator
building etc.

4.0.13.11 Calibration of Explosive Mixture Monitors

IRP Explosive mixture monitors must be calibrated regularly by a qualified


individual (see IRP 18). Monitoring devices must be calibrated using an
appropriate calibration gas. Defective devices must be replaced or
serviced prior to commencing a flow back operation where monitoring
for explosive mixture will be required. The owner’s representative must
be aware of the limitations of the monitor for the gases and fluids
expected.

NOTE: As with any safety device, the degree of dependability of a gas detector
is directly proportional to the care it receives. All explosive mixture
monitors require routine maintenance on a regular basis, which includes
cleaning the device and its sampling system, checking voltage supply to
the unit and performing regular calibrations. Some of this servicing may
require the services of a qualified technician.

4.0.13.12 Hydrates: Awareness and Handling

Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds formed, by the chemical combination of


natural gas and water, under pressure at temperatures considerably above the
freezing point of water. In the presence of free water, hydrates will form when the
temperature of the gas is below a certain temperature, called the hydrate
temperature. Hydrate formation is often confused with condensation and the
difference between the two must be clearly understood. Condensation of water
from natural gas under pressure occurs when the temperature is at or below the
dew point at that pressure. Hence, the hydrate temperature would be below and
perhaps the same as, but never above the dew point temperature. (Dew point is
the state of a system characterized by the coexistence of a vapour phase with an

October 2007 xxvii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

infinitesimal quantity of liquid phase in equilibrium. Dew point pressure is the fluid
pressure in a system at its dew point.)

While conducting tests, it becomes necessary to define, and thereby avoid,


conditions that promote the formation of hydrates. This is essential to the proper
field conduct of tests since hydrates may choke the flow string, surface lines, and
the well testing equipment. Hydrate formation in the flow string would result in a
lower value for measured wellhead pressures. In a flowrate-measuring device,
hydrate formation could result in a lower or higher gas flow rate. Excessive
hydrate formation may also completely block flowlines and surface equipment.

In summary, conditions promoting hydrate formation are:

Primary conditions:

Gas must be at or below its water dew point with free water present

Low temperature

High pressure

Secondary conditions:

High velocities

Pressure pulsations

Any type of agitation

Presence of H2S and C02

Introduction of a small hydrate crystal

High specific gas gravity

For the purpose of well testing it is convenient to divide hydrate formation into
two categories:

1) Hydrate formation due to decrease in temperature, with no sudden drop in


pressure, such as in flow string or surface lines.

2) Hydrate formation where a sudden expansion occurs and/or pressure drops


such as in flow provers, orifices, backpressure regulators, and chokes.

If ambient temperature is low enough, ice build up may occur on the inside of pipe
when left idle, after flowing, due to condensation residue left on the inside walls of
piping systems. This is not a hydrate although it could lead to the formation of a
hydrate by the introduction of a hydrate crystal to the flow stream.

xxviii October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

IRP For the awareness and prevention of hydrates:

Programs supplied by the well owner should identify potential hydrate


problems by way of bottomhole temperatures, presence of free water,
H2S and CO2 content, gas gravity, and downhole restrictions

Pre job safety meetings should reference the possibility of hydrates

Incorporate the primary and secondary conditions listed above

Provision for the injection of methanol should be planned prior to


flowing of the well

Consideration should be given to batching or injecting methanol down


the tubing and/or the annulus, if applicable, prior to flowing

Methanol should be batched or injected into the wellhead flowline before


opening the well to flow and during any future shutdown periods so as
to prevent ice build up on the inside walls of piping systems

Flowlines should be purged with a gas medium (propane/N2), where


available and when extended shut down periods are anticipated,
especially during cold weather operations

The introduction of surface heating facilities, such as line heaters, will


assist in the prevention of hydrates in surface equipment

Staging pressure drops will assist in the prevention of hydrates in


surface equipment.

Hydrate charts/tables must be available on the well site. The well test
supervisor must be trained and competent on the use of these charts
and tables.

IRP Where hydrate formation or ice build up is suspected in surface flow


lines, the lines must be proven to be clear by purging with methanol or
a warm gas or fluid before the lines are broken apart.

IRP During the pressure testing procedure and start up, all non-essential
workers must vacate the surrounding area of the testing equipment,
flow lines, and wellhead.

See Appendix VII for hydrate graphs

Caution: Hydrates travelling through pipes have a high potential for plugging,
overpressuring, or rupturing lines.

NOTE: Sour gas more readily forms a hydrate than sweet gas

October 2007 xxix


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.0.13.13 Worker Safety

IRP Before commencing any operation a pre-job safety meeting must be


held and hazard assessment performed and communicated. Suggested
topics are:

Scope of work

Procedures to be followed

Pertinent well and fluid characteristics

Responsibilities of each person involved in the operation

Emergency procedures, special hazards, and safe briefing areas

NOTE: Equipment must be routinely serviced and tested by qualified/competent


workers as per the manufacturer's specifications or regulatory
requirements. The owner’s representative is responsible to ensure an
onsite pre-job safety equipment inspection is completed (see Appendix
V Production Testing Services Inspection Checklist).

IRP All applicable federal and provincial regulations must be adhered to,
such as TDG, WHMIS and Occupational Health and Safety, and WCB.

4.0.13.14 Minimum Worker Wear Requirements

IRP A written protective clothing policy must be available onsite. The


following minimum work wear requirements must be followed:

A hardhat must be worn in the work area

Safety (steel toed) footwear must be worn in the work area

Safety goggles, safety glasses or safety prescription glasses with side


shields must be worn

Where hazardous chemicals exists, consult MSDS

Hearing protection where over exposure to noise may occur

Gloves must be worn as required, (e.g., specialty gloves for chemicals,


leather gloves for handling pipe, etc)

Un-torn, fitted clothing must be worn in the work area

Outer or covering apparel must be fire retardant where the potential for
fires exists

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Natural fibres for innerwear is preferred over synthetic fibres as


synthetic fibres do not provide adequate protection from heat related
exposure and they contribute to static electricity generation

All clothing that becomes contaminated with hazardous chemicals or


flammable fluids must be removed and replaced

Minimum safe standards for hard hats, footwear, eye wear, and ear
protection should be determined by the well testing company. The
following standards are appropriate:

Hardhats: CSA Z94.1

Footwear: CSA Z195 Grade 1

Eyewear, Goggles: CSA Z94.3

Hearing Protection: CSA Z94.2

4.0.13.15 Minimum General Safety Standards

IRP The following minimum standards must be followed:

No smoking within 50 m of potentially flammable vapours

Facial hair must not impede the sealing of respiratory equipment

Intoxicating substances and intoxicated persons are not allowed on


location

General fatigue management

Firearms are not allowed on location except for emergency ignition of


uncontrolled gases.

An adequate supply of potable water must be on location (i.e., for


drinking, and emergency washing)

Good housekeeping practice is required for all of the location

The requirements of Workplace Hazardous Material Information System


and TDG must be followed

A form of wind direction indicators must be present on location (e.g.,


windsocks, flagging tape, etc.)

An operational field phone must be present on location

A list of emergency contacts must be conspicuously posted on location

October 2007 xxxi


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

A means of transport for injured persons must be on location in


accordance with local jurisdictions

An unobstructed exit path must be available

The safety standby method must be employed for all hazardous work

A properly calibrated gas detection apparatus must be on location.


Personnel must be properly trained in the use of this apparatus

H2S determinations must be performed while wearing breathing


apparatus. A minimum of two positive pressure type apparatus must be
at location and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's
specifications and regulatory requirements

On sour well sites where the H2S concentration is greater than 10 ppm,
the owner must provide SABA’s in addition to SCBA.

When a significant volume of wellhead gas is produced, either to an


orifice device, or through a separator, notification should be given as
required by the local provincial authority.

See Section 4.0.13.18 Gas Flares

First Aid equipment and/or attendants must be supplied as specified by


the provincial OH&S authority

Appropriate fire fighting equipment must be available as determined by


the Hazard Assessment, Fire and Explosion Control Plan, and applicable
regulations.

Cold separator or pressure tank rig-up: Minimum 2 Class ABC, 9 kg

Heated Unit and flare stack or line heater, pressure tank and flare stack:
Minimum 3 Class ABC, 9 kg

Heated unit or line heater/pressure tank combination with second stage


separation or more than one item of auxiliary flow equipment: Minimum
4 Class ABC, 9 kg

Wellsite illumination must be sufficient to safely perform the job (Refer


to IRP 23 Lease Lighting Standards currently under construction)

Safety stairs (or equivalent devices that would allow a rescue at the top
of a tank other than by ladder access) are required whenever breathing
apparatus is required at the top of a tank

Fall arrest equipment and a fall protection plan must be available as


required by OH&S regulations

xxxii October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

An ESD valve must be installed on wells with more than 1379 kPa
pressure and an H2S content greater than 1% or one tone of sulphur per
day. Additional considerations for use of an ESD valve are wells that:

have harmful or toxic substances

have severe abrasives (i.e., frac sand)

have high operating pressure

have other unusual hazards.

NOTE: These points are by no means all of the general safety standards that
should be followed. The points are listed as having special relevance to
well testing. Provided that it does not contradict the well owners policy,
well testing companies may use a fixed period to orientate and train
newer employees while on the job, provided that such persons are
adequately protected by other certified workers on location.

NOTE: These points are minimum standards and contractors should determine
whether the well owner has additional standards.

4.0.13.16 Pre-Job Safety Meeting

IRP A pre-job safety meeting must be held involving all workers who will be
on location during operations. The meeting should be recorded and the
agenda should include the following:

A list of personnel on location

Responsibilities and work programs

Safety procedures, general, and specific to the job

Safety equipment location and operation

Emergency response plan

Hazard Assessment

NOTE: Holding the safety meeting prior to purging could be appropriate


depending on workers present and the time between purging and well
opening. The contractors daily shift change is considered, in part, a
safety meeting. The agenda should include a complete de-briefing of
the previous shift and the noting of any new hazards. It is appropriate
to hold interim safety meetings at any time when conditions or job

October 2007 xxxiii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

scope have changed from initial expectations. The flare permit, if


applicable, must be reviewed and conspicuously posted.

4.0.13.17 Opening a Closed Tank System after Flowing or after Purging


with a Flammable or Inert Medium

It is recognized that it is not always practical to have an inert purge medium for
all operations. Flammable purge mediums, such as propane, are successfully used
throughout the industry as long as workers follow special precautions and
procedures. An inert medium also presents its own hazard; lack of oxygen and
non-breathable. The following is meant to assist the worker in assessing the
hazards:

IRP Closed tanks must be depressurized and not be on vacuum before


opening the system. If available on site, purge the system with inert
gas. Evacuate as much fluid (and solid) as possible before opening the
system.

IRP A confined space entry permit must be completed prior to opening of a


system that allows for the entry or partial entry of a person

IRP Prior to opening a closed tank system to check its contents, a hazard
assessment must be conducted by the systems owner representative on
shift. The assessment must be documented and signed by both the
systems owner representative and, if present, the well owner
representative.

IRP The individual who completes the confined space entry permit must
have Confined Space Entry Training.

Eliminate all potential ignition sources

Remove all non-essential people from the immediate area

Ensure individuals involved in opening the closed system have proper


personal protective equipment such as fire retardant coveralls and
breathing apparatus

Where workers are preparing to enter a closed system, confined space


legislation must be followed

xxxiv October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

References/Links

Confined space legislation in the jurisdiction you are working in.

Consideration should be given to the use of purge mediums such as N2, CO2, and
water flood. The use of combination flush/vacuum pump trucks will help to clean
out the system as much as possible prior to opening for inspection.

4.0.13.18 Gas Flares

Well Test Supervisors must confirm with the operator the presence of a flare
permit or ensure that proper notification has been done, if required.

Gas flares must be designed with the following considerations:

H2S / SO2 hazards. Owners are required to define flare stack diameters
and height to prevent H2S emissions and reduce SO2 fallout, within
regulatory requirements. Flare Permits are required for Critical Sour
Wells, and when H2S content exceeds 50 mole / kilomole (5%). From 10
to 50 moles / kilomole (1 - 5%), a minimum flare stack height of 12
metres is required

Nearby combustible material. Flare stacks should be designed to prevent


combustion of vegetation

Flare stacks must be adequately anchored.

Maximum velocity of the gas from the flare stack on sweet gas and sour
wells less than 1% H2S must not exceed 331.4 metres per second.

Velocity of the gas from the flare stack on sour gas greater than 1% H2S
should not exceed 95.4 metres per second or be less tan 10.6 metres
per second.

It is recognized that velocities on sour gas above 1% H2S may exceed


95.4 m for a short term.

Flame arrestors within the flare line are not required under a manned
operation while flowing and other forms of flashback control are
acceptable. See EUB Directive 060: Upstream Petroleum Industry
Flaring, Incinerating, and Venting, Section 7.7

See Appendix VI on pipe size versus velocity graphs

NOTE: Optimal combustion and plume dispersion modelling as outlined in EUB


Directive 060 dictates velocities between 10.6 and 95.4 m/second

October 2007 xxxv


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.0.13.19 Venting Gas to Atmosphere

NOTE: Venting of gas vapours while flowing, circulating, or pumping to open


tank systems is covered in Section 4.3 Other Flowbacks.

4.0.13.20 Flare Pits

IRP Flare pits may only be used in an emergency.

4.0.13.21 H2S Scrubbers

IRP Where H2S scrubbers are used, the scrubber must be sized such that the
concentrations and volume of H2S vapour present are adequately
handled. The frequency of chemical change-out is dependent on the H2S
concentration and gas volume flowing through the scrubbing system.
Periodic checks as per suppliers’ recommendation of the vent gas and
chemical properties are required to ensure no H2S is released to
atmosphere.

Fluid pH and liquid level must be maintained at all times. It is


recommended that ammonia be changed out if the pH drops below 10.5.
It is also recommended that potassium hydroxide based fluids be
changed out when the Ph drops below 9.5

SulfatreatTM systems must have vent gas checked for the presence of
H2S

Use appropriate breathing apparatus when checking for Ph or H2S.

A Hazard Assessment must be done for all flammable gases leaving the
scrubber

See Appendix I Atmospheric Fluid Scrubber Selection Guidelines

xxxvi October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0.13.22 Produced Fluids

4.0.13.22.1. General Fluids

IRP Where fluid is produced, steps must be taken to ensure the safety of
site workers from vapours allowed to escape to atmosphere from the
fluid.

4.0.13.22.2. Fluid Properties and Characteristics

IRP The properties of any produced fluids or solids should be evaluated to:

Identify any potential hazards

Select appropriate fluid handling procedures, see MSDS on fluids

Establish criteria for shutdown when using an open tank system

Establish disposal methods

Toxic effects

Radioactive material

Environmental impact of escaped fluids

Corrosive effects

Possible degradation of elastomers

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)

4.0.13.22.3. Oils

IRP The properties of the produced oils should be evaluated for the following
hazards:

Flammability; ignition of oil, and oil vapours

Solid deposition problems (e.g., paraffin)

NOTE: There is a general relationship between flammability and the C1-C7


content of a hydrocarbon fluid. Flammability increases with C1-C7. Also
Reid vapour pressure increases with increasing C1-C7 content.

October 2007 xxxvii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.0.13.22.4. Gas

IRP The properties of the produced gases should be evaluated for the
following hazards:

Ignition of contained and escaped vapours

Solid deposition problems (e.g., sulphur)

Hydrate potential

H2S content

4.0.13.22.5. Water

IRP The properties of the produced water should be evaluated for possible
gas entrainment and ignition potential.

NOTE: If it is necessary to locate tanks next to the lease road exit, for example
on small leases or remote locations, to comply with other spacing
requirements, ensure adequate transportation for workers is available in
the event of an emergency. This transportation should be off the lease
when no other means of egress are available.

4.0.13.23 Tanks

4.0.13.23.1. Rig Tanks

IRP Where gas vapours are vented to atmosphere from an open tank
system, the tank must be a minimum of 50 metres from the wellhead
(shallow wells, coalbed methane (CBM) 35 metres from wellhead)

IRP Where a degasser is used to separate gases and liquids, it should be


located in a separate compartment of the rig tank. The degasser should
be configured such that a sufficient head of fluid in the tank is
maintained for efficient gas separation

IRP Flowback operations must be discontinued if liquid carry over from the
degasser vent line occurs, and an appropriately sized separator or
pressurized tank must be employed

NOTE: IRP 1 Critical Sour Drilling; 1.7 Mud Gas Separators, provides an
overview of degasser design factors including vent line sizing.

xxxviii October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

NOTE: See Section 4.3 Other Flowbacks for flowing to open top tanks.

4.0.13.23.2. Atmospheric Tanks (64m3 style)

IRP Atmospheric tanks are predominantly used for storage of fluids and are
not considered capable of containing pressure. Most atmospheric tanks
are designed with 7 kPa (16oz) hatches and the roof is typically
designed to shear at 14 kPa (2 psi).

IRP When producing sour fluids, atmospheric tanks must be equipped with a
suitable vapour gathering, flaring or scrubbing system to ensure that
H2S vapours are not released to atmosphere. The system may also
include a pressurized tank

IRP Fluid storage tanks require an external fluid level indicator that can be
used for level measurement.

IRP The tops/lids of atmospheric storage tanks are not designed to serve as
a work platform. Any maintenance/work required on top of these tanks
must be conducted while the tank is in a horizontal position.

4.0.13.23.3. Certified Pressurized Flowback Tanks

IRP Pressurized tanks used for flowback or storage of fluids produced from a
sour well must be manufactured under a quality program to ensure
conformance with design specifications utilizing materials meeting the
requirements of NACE MR 01-75 LATEST EDITION.

4.0.13.23.4. Non – certified Pressurized Storage Tanks

IRP If using a non-certified tank or vessel for primary separation and


storage of fluids while swabbing, flowing to establish a rate, circulating,
pumping or bleeding off rather than using a certified tank or vessel, the
non-certified tank or vessel must be constructed under a quality control
program. Construction, design, and material specification data must be
available when requested by the well owner. Government departments
may also request this data.

October 2007 xxxix


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.0.13.23.5. Other Tanks

IRP Owners must have regard for the volume of the various fluids to be
utilized and where possible, provide sufficient tank storage to provide
for a suitable retention time or provide for other measures such as
heating or agitation to allow for separation of entrained gas, prior to
transportation.

IRP Pressurized tanks or a closed system should be used for flowbacks,


storing, producing, pumping, swabbing or killing wells with high vapour
pressure hydrocarbons (see Abbreviations and Definitions).

IRP When flow testing from a sour well (>10 ppm) during servicing, drilling
or testing operations, a closed system must be used to prevent the
escape of sour gas to the atmosphere. Flowback duration, proximity to,
and notification of area residents must be considered. H2S scrubbers
must be operated within the manufacturers operating parameters and
chemical used in that scrubbing system monitored and changed
accordingly.

NOTE: Hydrometers are readily available to determine the density of


hydrocarbons to be pumped as well as fluids subsequently returned
during the flowback. EUB inspection policies regarding the handling of
sour effluents are included in EUB Directive 037 Service Rig Inspection
Manual.

IRP 2 Completing and Servicing Critical Sour Wells; 2.5 Fluids and Circulating
System, contains additional information regarding necessary fluid handling
equipment for critical sour wells. Section 2.10 Quality Programs for Pressure
Containing Equipment includes basic information regarding quality programs.

NACE MR 01-75 LATEST EDITION, Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic


Materials for Oilfield Equipment has a 350 kPa pressure limit below which the
requirements do not apply.

4.0.13.24 Location of Tanks

4.0.13.24.1. Location of Rig Tanks

IRP The rig tank(s) must be 50 metres from the wellhead and any open
flame and it is only S.E. Alberta shallow gas wells where the rig tank can
be 35 meters from the well.

xl October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0.13.24.2. Location of Atmospheric Tanks (64m3 style)

IRP Where gas vapours are anticipated, or the tank is rigged with a
venting/scrubbing system, atmospheric tank(s) must be 50 metres from
the wellhead and any open flame.

4.0.13.24.3. Location of Certified Pressurized Flowback Tanks

IRP It is recommended to place certified pressurized flowback tanks 25


metres from the wellhead even though there is no regulated distance
requirement. Where the tank is preceded by a flame arrested line
heater, the line heater and tank must be a minimum of 25 metres from
the wellhead.

4.0.13.24.4. Location of Non-certified Pressurized Storage Tanks

IRP Non-certified pressurized tanks must be 50 metres from the wellhead.


The tank must be designed for its intended use. If the tank is to be used
as the primary vessel, the tank must have been constructed under a
quality control program. Construction, design, and material specification
data must be available when requested by the well owner. Government
departments may also request this data.

4.0.13.25 Air Entrainment and Purging

4.0.13.25.1. General

IRP Owners and service contractors must understand and attempt to


eliminate or mitigate explosive hazards due to air entrainment in pipes,
vessels, and tanks, etc.

NOTE: Air entrainment explosions occur upstream of the flowline choke and
downstream of the flowline choke (usually in storage tanks). The fuel
source is the well product, or it can be the purge medium if propane or
natural gas is used to purge. Ignition sources are not always
identifiable, but possibilities include:

Flashbacks from flares

Static electricity

Friction heat (from valve operation or high velocity debris)

Localized hot spots in partially open (unbalanced) valves

October 2007 xli


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Spontaneous combustion at critical pressures and temperatures

Spontaneous combustion of compounds such as sulphides

Electrical currents from lightning and power sources (including cathodic


protection).

Air sources upstream of the choke include:

Air from dry run tubing (i.e., for under balanced perforating)

Coiled tubing unit operations using air

Swabbing, when the well goes on vacuum

Reaction productions (i.e., hydrogen peroxide washes)

Air sources downstream of the choke include:

Initial air, as the equipment arrived

Air re-introduced from the wellhead side

Air pulled into production tanks through open or leaking hatches when a
vacuum condition exists. The vacuum can be caused by fluid withdrawal
and by excessive venturi action at flare stacks when tanks are vented to
flare.

4.0.13.25.2. Purging the Well String and Wellhead

IRP Dry tubing should be displaced by N2 or CO2 or alternatively the


procedures of Section 4.0.13.26 should be employed. When dry tubing
with air is opened to the formation, a fluid cushion should be run in the
string. If the well has enough energy, the cushion can be brought back
to a tank. The returning cushion purges the tubing string. Wellhead
pressure should not be allowed to build up prior to the cushion return.

NOTE: It is recognized that it is not always practical to displace tubing air prior
to operations such as under balanced perforating or drill stem testing.

NOTE: Owners and well testing companies must assess the planned procedure
when air exists in the well string.

xlii October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0.13.25.3. Purge Mediums for Purging Surface Equipment

IRP Purging should be performed by a purge medium vapour displacing air.


Non-flammable vapours are preferred. Propane or sweet gas is
acceptable with extra precautions, recognizing that the purge medium
will create explosive mixtures before air purging is complete.

4.0.13.25.4. Pre – Purging Procedures and Checks

IRP The following pre-purging procedures and checks are required:

Production tanks should be clean

Production tanks must have hatch seals and pre-set pressure thief
hatches

All system elements must be electrically bonded to each other, with the
wellhead or ground rods as ground or common

A wellhead may be used a grounding device

4.0.13.25.5. Purge Vapour Measurement

IRP The purge vapour should be measured.

NOTE: Liquid-volume-to-vapour or mass-to-vapour conversions are allowed if


the liquid-volume or mass vaporized is measured accurately, and if it is
ensured that all of the liquid is vaporized. Numerous measurement
devices are available.

4.0.13.25.6. Purge Amounts

IRP The volume to be purged must be calculated prior to purging. For purge
mediums heavier than air, purging should be a minimum of 1.5 times
calculated volume, and purging should be from the bottom up. For
purge mediums lighter than air, purging should be a minimum of 2.5
times calculated volume, and purging should be from the top down.

NOTE: Top down purging is impractical in some situations. If bottom up


purging is employed with purge mediums lighter than air, a minimum of
five times calculated volume should be displaced. Small lines and
vessels may be purged for a number of minutes instead of rigorous

October 2007 xliii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

calculations if it is certain that the time chosen would exceed the


overpurge guidelines.

4.0.13.25.7. Purging With Wellhead Gas (Sweet or Low


Concentration of H2S)

IRP The well should be flowed slowly to the separator unit, then to the
flareline, then to downstream vessels/tanks. Downstream vessels/
tanks must be isolated and purged one at a time.

NOTE: Production tanks that will not be vented to flare do not require purging.

4.0.13.25.8. Purging Sequence

IRP Purging should be in a downstream sequence, flow line, and heater, if


present, then separator, then flare line, then to downstream vessels/
tanks. Downstream vessels/tanks must be isolated and purged one at a
time.

NOTE: The flow line would be purged from the wellhead to the separator unit, if
the vapour was introduced at the wellhead. It is also acceptable to use
the separator as a point of origin for the purge vapour. In that case,
the flow line would be purged back to the wellhead (with the line
disconnected at the wellhead).

4.0.13.25.9. Ending the Purge

IRP Where practical, oxygen meters are recommended for large


vessel/tanks, regardless of the calculated over purge. The sensing
should be performed at points other than the purge exit of the
component (in case of air bypassing instead of displacement). Oxygen
content must be such that the gas mixture is below its lower explosive
limit.

4.0.13.25.10. Intermediate Purging

IRP Vessels/tanks should be re-purged whenever air is accidentally or


operationally introduced during the test.

xliv October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.0.13.26 Opening a Well with Air in the Flow string

IRP It is recognized that, sometimes, wells are required to be opened when


there is air behind the wing valve. Owners and well testing companies
should consider some or all of the following procedures:

All non-essential workers should be removed from the test area

Manifolding should exist so that all vessels/tanks can be bypassed

It is not necessary to purge an open tank system where gas is vented to


atmosphere

It is important that the tubing be flow-purged of explosive mixtures as


soon as possible after operations such as tubing conveyed perforating.
The well should not be shut-in for buildup until the purge is completed
because pressuring up the volatile mixture increases the danger of an
in-line explosion

On sour wells, the well can initially be flowed through a choke to a by-
pass directly to a flare until the air is displaced from the tubing and the
flare is burning steadily. This will contain possible fires in open-ended
pipe. The well can then be shut-in or directed to pre-purged vessels
prior to liquids arriving at surface. An operator could also obtain
permission from the local authority for short term flow to an unlit flare
to displace air from the tubing. The flow should be sampled with an LEL
or gas detector to verify the mixture is out of the explosive limits

The wing or master valve should be balanced by downstream pressure


(N2, CO2 or H2O) prior to opening, to reduce friction and initial inrush

Where a well could go on vacuum during swabbing, a check valve must


be inserted in the flowline system. A manual valve should also be in the
system. The saver-sub should be tightened. A regulated purge vapour to
follow the swab cups back down the hole should be considered

All suspect lines/vessels/tanks must be repurged when the wellstring air


is eliminated.

NOTE: Owners should notify nearby residents before commencing operations


respecting the potential for short-term odours that may occur during
start up. This must not include H2S (see EUB directive 64 section 14)
odour emissions)

October 2007 xlv


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

APPENDIX I

Atmospheric Fluid Scrubber Selection Guidelines

xlvi October 2007


Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

APPENDIX II

Pressure Rating Formula for Seamless Pipe

The standard is ANSI/ASME B31.3, "Chemical Plant & Petroleum Refinery Piping".

From Section 304.12 (3b):

P=2SEt / D-2Yt

Where:

P – is a maximum allowable working pressure, in psi,

S – is the basic allowable stress, in psi, for a given material, as defined in ANSI /
ASME B31.3 Table A-1,

NOTE: For the common piping materials A 53 Gr. B, A106 Gr. B, A 333 Gr. 6,
A 334 Gr. 6, and API 5L Gr. B, the allowable stress below 204 Celsius
(400 Fahrenheit) is 20,000 psi

E – is the basic quality factor for longitudinal welds, as defined in ANSI / ASME
B31.3 Table A – 1B,

NOTE: For seamless pipe, forgings and fittings E = 1.00, and for electric
resistance welded pipe, E = 0.850

t – is the minimum pipe wall thickness, in inches. t = (tnominal x 0.875) - H,


where:

tnominal – is the nominal wall thickness, in inches, of the pipe as defined in


ASME B36.10M (see attached table for common pipe sizes, thicknesses and
diameters).

0.875 - represents the manufacturers allowable under tolerance of 12.5% for


seamless pipe.

H - is thread depth. For NPT threads, H = 0.07531 "up to 50.8 mm (2in) pipe ‖,
and

October 2007 xlvii


IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

H = 0.10825 "above 50.8 mm (2in) pipe‖.

D – is the outside diameter, in inches (see attached table for common pipe sizes,
thicknesses and diameters) ,

NOTE: The above calculation does not include corrosion allowance. If a


corrosion allowance is required to be added:

t – (tnominal x 0.875) – H – c, where c is the required corrosion allowance, in


inches.

Y = 0.4 Coefficient as per table (304.1.1 )

Tables – Pressure Rating Of Seamless Pipe

The attached tables do not include a corrosion allowance. In well testing, sudden
and violent erosion is certain to destroy well test pipe before corrosion. The values
for welded 4130 HRC in the following table have been rounded up to the nearest
50 psi. This table is for reference only.

xlviii October 2007


Table 2: Pressure Rating of Seamless Pipe

Welded Carbon Welded 4130 HRC 18-


NPT Threaded Carbon Steel
Steel 22 Max
Pipe Actual Nominal Nominal
Pipe
Size O.D. Wall I.D. IRP recommends max. 17.24
Schedule Limited By Rounded to nearest 50
Inches Inches Inches Inches P=2SEt / D-2Yt Mpa on threaded pipe 33mm or
API 6A Psi
larger
Psi Mpa Psi Mpa Psi Psi Mpa
½ 0.84 40 (STD) 0.109 0.622 4995 34.44 974 6.72
80 (XH) 0.147 0.546 6980 48.13 2675 18.44
160 0.187 0.466 9230 63.64 4592 31.66
XXH 0.294 0.252
16225 111.87 10480 72.26
1 1.315 40 (STD) 0.133 1.049 3810 26.27 1281 8.83
80 (XH) 0.179 0.957 5266 36.31 2602 17.94
160 0.250 0.815 7675 52.92 4780 32.96
XXH 0.358 0.599
11772 81.17 8463 58.35 (5000*)
1 1/2 1.9 40 (STD) 0.145 1.610 2822 19.46 1110 7.65
80 (XH) 0.200 1.500 3977 27.42 2191 15.10
160 0.281 1.338 5774 39.81 3869 26.67
XXH 0.400 1.100
8642 59.59 6539 45.09 (5000*)
2 2.375 40 (STD) 0.154 2.067 2377 16.39 1022 7.04 3400 23.44
80 (XH) 0.218 1.939 3433 23.67 2023 13.95 4900 33.79
160 0.344 1.689 5641 38.90 4114 28.36 8000 55.16
XXH 0.436 1.530 10450
7373 50.83 5750 39.65 (5000*) 72.05
2 1/2 2.375 40 (STD) 0.203 2.469 3182 21.94 1196 8.25 3700 25.51
80 (XH) 0.276 2.323 4428 30.53 2350 16.20 5100 35.16
160 0.375 2.125 6213 42.84 3999 27.58 (3000*) 7100 48.95
XXH 0.552 1.771 9715 66.99 7223 49.81 (3000*) 11000 75.85
XXXH 0.750 1.375 15400
14189 97.83 11319 78.04 (3000*) 106.18
3 3.5 40 (STD) 0.216 3.068 2258 15.57 940 6.48 3200 22.06
--- 0.254 2.992 2676 18.45 1338 9.22 3800 26.20
80 (XH) 0.300 2.900 3191 22.01 1827 12.60 4500 31.03
--- 0.375 2.750 4054 27.95 2646 18.24 5750 39.65
160 0.438 2.624 4801 33.10 3354 23.12 (3000*) 6800 46.89
XXH 0.600 2.300 6818 47.01 5264 36.30 (3000*) 9700 66.88
--- 0.750 2.000 8824 60.84 7160 49.37 (3000*) 12400 85.50
--- 1.000 1.500 17000
12500 86.19 10625 73.26 (3000*) 117.22
3 1/2 4 40 (STD) 0.226 3.548 2059 14.20 911 6.28 2900 20.00
80 (XH) 0.318 3.364 2946 20.32 1760 12.13 4200 28.96
--- 0.500 3.000 4795 33.06 3525 24.30 (3000*) 6800 46.89
XXH 0.636 2.728 6262 43.18 4924 33.95 (3000*) 8850 61.02
--- 0.750 2.500 7554 52.08 6155 42.44 (3000*) 10700 73.78
--- 1.000 2.000 10606 73.13 9056 62.44 (3000*) 14700 101.36
--- 1.250 1.500 18700
14000 96.53 12274 84.63 (3000*) 128.94
Welded Carbon Welded 4130 HRC 18-
NPT Threaded Carbon Steel
Steel 22 Max
Pipe Actual Nominal Nominal
Pipe
Size O.D. Wall I.D. IRP recommends max. 17.24
Schedule Limited By Rounded to nearest 50
Inches Inches Inches Inches P=2SEt / D-2Yt Mpa on threaded pipe 33mm or
API 6A Psi
larger
Psi Mpa Psi Mpa Psi Psi Mpa
4 4.5 40 (STD) 0.237 4.026 1914 13.20 897 6.18 2700 18.62
--- 0.250 4.000 2023 13.95 1002 6.91 2850 19.65
--- 0.312 3.875 2550 17.59 1509 10.40 3600 24.82
80(XH) 0.337 3.826 2766 19.07 1716 11.83 3900 26.89
--- 0.364 3.772 3001 20.69 1941 13.39 4250 29.30
120 0.438 3.624 3656 25.21 2570 17.72 5200 35.85
--- 0.500 3.500 4217 29.08 3109 21.43 (3000*) 6000 41.37
160 0.531 3.458 4502 31.04 3382 23.32 (3000*) 6400 44.13
XXH 0.674 3.152 5856 40.38 4681 32.27 (3000*) 8300 57.23
--- 0.750 3.000 6604 45.53 5397 37.21 (3000*) 9350 64.47
--- 1.000 2.500 9211 63.51 7891 54.41 (3000*) 12900 88.95
--- 1.250 2.000 12069 83.22 10621 73.23 (3000*) 16500 113.77
--- 1.500 1.500 19950
15217 104.92 13620 93.91 (3000*) 137.56
4 1/2 5 40 (STD) 0.247 4.506 1791 12.35 878 6.05 2550 17.58
--- 0.250 4.500 1813 12.50 900 6.20 2550 17.58
80(XH) 0.355 4.290 2615 18.03 1673 11.54 3700 25.51
--- 0.375 4.250 2770 19.10 1823 12.57 3900 26.89
--- 0.500 4.000 3763 25.95 2780 19.17 5350 36.89
XXH 0.710 3.580 5519 38.05 4471 30.83 (3000*) 7800 53.78
--- 0.750 3.500 5866 40.45 4805 33.13 (3000*) 8300 57.23
--- 1.000 3.000 8140 56.12 6992 48.21 (3000*) 11500 79.29
--- 1.250 2.500 10606 73.13 9360 64.54 (3000*) 14700 101.36
--- 1.500 2.000 17900
13291 91.64 11933 82.28 (3000*) 123.42
5 5.563 40 (STD) 0.258 5.047 1678 11.57 859 5.93 2400 16.55
80(XH) 0.375 4.813 2476 17.07 1633 11.26 3500 24.13
120 0.500 4.563 3357 23.15 2485 17.13 4750 32.75
160 0.625 4.313 4268 29.43 3366 23.21 (3000*) 6050 41.71
XXH 0.750 4.063 5210 35.93 4277 29.49 (3000*) 7400 51.02
--- 1.000 3.563 11900
7197 49.62 6196 42.72 (3000*) 82.05
6 6.625 0.250 6.125 1357 9.35 676 4.66 1900 13.10
0.280 6.065 1524 10.51 840 5.79 2150 14.82
0.312 6.001 1704 11.75 1015 7.00 2400 16.55
0.375 5.875 2063 14.22 1364 9.40 2900 20.00
0.432 5.761 2391 16.49 1684 11.61 3400 23.44
0.500 5.625 2789 19.23 2070 14.27 3950 27.24
0.562 5.501 3156 21.76 2428 16.74 4450 30.68
0.719 5.189 4111 28.34 3356 23.14 (3000*) 5800 39.99
0.864 4.897 5023 34.63 4243 29.25 (3000*) 7100 48.95
1.000 4.625 5907 40.73 5102 35.18 (3000*) 8350 57.57
1.125 4.375 6745 46.51 5916 40.79 (3000*) 9600 66.19
1.250 4.125 10800
7609 52.46 6754 46.57 (3000*) 74.47
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

IRP Also refer to entire Section 4.2.2.2 Pressure Rating on maximum


allowable pressure rating for line pipe

October 2007 li
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.1 DRILL STEM TESTING


4.1.1 SCOPE

Normal drilling procedures, control formation pressures and fluids through the use
of a hydrostatic head. Drill stem testing brings these formation pressures and
fluids to the surface, thereby presenting a unique set of conditions since pressure
control is then maintained by mechanical systems. Safe work guidelines, such as
those set out in this IRP, minimize the probability of either the mechanical or
human systems failing during a test, as well as establishing minimum health and
operating standards. This IRP is intended to supplement existing standards and
regulations rather than replace them, and is directed mostly towards drill stem
tests that are to be run on onshore wells.

4.1.2 PLANNING A DRILL STEM TEST

4.1.2.1 Drill Stem Test

IRP Owners shall provide a plan for all drill stem tests. This plan shall
include at least: the zones to be tested, the depths of tests, the method
of testing, the type of equipment to be used, the duration of the test,
and a reference to an emergency response plan, where applicable. The
emergency response plan shall be discussed with all employers and
workers involved with the drill stem test.

4.1.2.2 Lithological and Reservoir Information

IRP Operators shall provide litho logical and reservoir information on the
zones to be tested. This shall include potential H2S zones, possible well
problems, anticipated recovery, anticipated flow rates, H2S rates, and
anticipated pressures. This information shall be discussed with all
employers and workers involved with the drill stem test.

4.1.2.3 Qualifications

IRP Workers conducting drill stem testing operations shall have the
minimum qualifications required by legislation and the industry.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.1.3 ON-SITE PRE-TEST GUIDELINES

4.1.3.1 Pre-test Safety Meeting

IRP The worksite owner or designated representative shall hold a pre-test


safety meeting with all workers on the site who may be involved with
the drill stem test. This meeting shall review the testing plan, testing
procedures, test prognosis, operation of surface equipment, and assign
specific worker responsibilities. The pre-test safety meeting shall be
recorded, along with a record of those who attended the meeting. The
pre-test safety meeting will include a discussion of the emergency
response plan where applicable, including any revisions or
recommendations to accommodate the specific well environment.

4.1.3.2 Pre-Test Inspection

IRP The worksite owner or designated representative shall visually inspect


all equipment and facilities that may be used during the drill stem test
including:

The drilling floor and hoisting equipment

Safety equipment

Surface equipment and lines

Drill stem test tools including test head and floor manifold

Drill pipe, drill collars, drilling fluid, and additives

Blow-out prevention equipment

Fluid containment or storage equipment

The inspection shall ensure proper distances are used in placing the equipment on
the worksite.

IRP Swivel joints and flow lines upstream of the choke manifold shall be
subjected, prior to the drill stem test, to a pressure test. The lines shall
be visually inspected for leaks at both low pressures and high pressures.
The high pressure test shall be to the maximum anticipated surface
pressure. Lines downstream of the manifold should be secured to
restrict them from movement.

Reference: Safety Checklist - see Appendix V

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.1.3.3 Pre-test Training

IRP The worksite owner or designated representative shall ensure that all
workers involved with a drill stem test are properly trained in the
operation of drill stem testing equipment, safety equipment, and
personal safety equipment.

4.1.4 DRILL STEM TESTING GUIDELINES

4.1.4.1 DST Tool Retrieval during Daylight

IRP Liquids recovered during drill stem tests should be reverse circulated
from the drill pipe. Prior to reversing out, drill pipe may be pulled from
the hole until fluids are encountered at surface. Test plugs should be
utilized if liquid recovery is expected. When using test plugs, they
should be used from the very first stand pulled, then continuously
throughout trip. If reverse circulation is not possible, the trip may be
continued using test plugs and mud can with extreme caution.

IRP When testing sour wells a certified pressurized tank and flare stack
should be used to ensure efficient separation and burn of all gases. A
flare permit from the local authority may be required.

Cautions:

A pump-out-sub or downhole circulating device should be run in the test


string to reverse.

Reverse circulation requires proper disposal of the contents of the drill


string. Pump to a tank truck or a vacuum truck.

Ensure that all lines are secured so as to restrict their movement,


engines are off, and the receiving vessel is properly grounded and
vented.

Refer to Section IRP 4.1.5 if the recovery is sour.

See IRP 4.2 Well Testing and IRP 4.3 Other Flowbacks for other
information.

Extra care must be taken once the pump-out-sub has reached the rig
floor since hydrocarbons may be present below the pump-out-sub.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Reverse circulation may not always be possible if a pump-out-sub fails


to operate, or the owner chooses not to reverse circulate liquid
recoveries in order to obtain better quality formation fluid samples.

Owners may choose to reverse circulate prior to encountering fluids


depending on the fluid recovery expected. The use of telemetry for
surface readout will indicate potential fluid recovery. Monitoring the flare
through final shut-in may also show indications of fluid in the drill pipe.

4.1.4.2 DST Tool Retrieval during Darkness

IRP Drill stem tests may be conducted during darkness until liquid recovery
is encountered, if IRP 4 is followed. Special emphasis will be placed on
lighting requirements referenced to in Abbreviations and Definitions At
this point the recovery must be reverse circulated. If reverse circulation
is not possible, pulling drill pipe shall not be continued until daylight

NOTE: Extra care must be taken once the pump-out-sub has reached the rig
floor since hydrocarbons may be present below the pump-out sub.

4.1.4.3 Annulus Fluid Level

IRP The fluid level in the annulus shall be monitored at all times. Should the
packer seat fail and the level of fluid in the annulus drop, a method for
filling the hole shall be in place at all times.

NOTE: A drop in the fluid level would reduce hydrostatic pressure and could
allow zones above the packers to kick. Such a loss could be caused by a
packer seat failure or fluid loss to an upper formation.

4.1.4.4 Workers on Rig Floor

IRP All workers shall be fully aware of their responsibilities during the test
including what to do in an emergency.

IRP Clear all non-essential workers from the rig floor during the drill stem
test.

4.1.4.5 Test Line

IRP A separate drill stem test line shall be rigged up to the floor manifold
and run to the flare pit or other area to dispose of or to store the fluid.
The flare line must be adequately secured and the igniter lit prior to the

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

start of the test, if applicable. Do not use the BOP blow down line as
the test line. When testing sour wells, a certified pressurized tank and
flare stack should be used to ensure efficient separation and to burn of
all gases.

NOTE: If a hydrate or sulphur plug is suspected in the drill pipe, be very


cautious before disconnecting any of the pipe. Plugging can be
monitored best by the use of telemetry, surface readout system.
Monitoring the flare through the final shut-in may also aid in identifying
plugging.

4.1.4.6 Floor Manifold

IRP The line of flow shall be directed through a floor manifold to allow for
control and measurement of flow. The manifold shall have a pressure
rating which exceeds that of the maximum anticipated surface pressure
to be encountered. A floor manifold may also be referred to as a choke
manifold on the rig floor. The floor manifold must be secured so as to
restrict it from movement in the event of a break in the piping system.

4.1.4.7 Swivel Joints and Flexible Pipe

IRP All swivel joints and flexible pipe shall be secured with a safety cable.
The integrity of flexible piping should be ensured through pressure
testing.

4.1.4.8 Fire Prevention

IRP Non-essential electrical systems, motors and engines within 25 m of the


wellhead shall be shut down. Any essential diesel motor within 25 m of
the wellbore should be equipped with an exhaust extension and
emergency shut-off system. The rig floor and sub area shall be well
ventilated. This may include opening man-doors in pre-fabs during
winter operations.

4.1.4.9 Pipe Tally

IRP A pipe tally shall be taken while pulling out of the hole for the drill stem
test and a tally shall be taken while running the test to depth. This tally
shall be reviewed and checked by the well site owner before starting the
test.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.1.4.10 Flow Checks

IRP After completion of the drill stem test, flow checks should be done prior
to starting the test string out of the hole and should be done at
appropriate intervals while pulling out of the hole. A flow check is when
the pulling of pipe is stopped and a waiting period is used to see if there
is any inflow into the annulus. Ensure the test string is pulled slowly to
avoid a swabbing effect. Follow rigorous hole filling procedures.
Appropriate intervals for flow checks are:

After pulling the first 3-5 stands

When half way out of the hole

When the test tools are at the casing shoe

At any warning sign

When the drill collars are reached

When totally out of the hole

Flow checks should be 10-15 minutes in length, with flow temporarily


diverted to the trip tank

4.1.5 SOUR DRILL STEM TEST GUIDELINES

4.1.5.1 Safety Guidelines

IRP The safety of the worker and equipment takes precedence over any test
information to be collected. Prior to starting a sour drill stem test, it is
essential that all workers on the lease understand the dangers of H2S.
They should be fully informed of and trained in appropriate safety
procedures, including the use of safety equipment and breathing
apparatus.

IRP A safety company representative must be on-site during the testing of


any well that has the potential of producing sour gas.

Caution:

Hydrogen sulphide gas is colourless, heavier than air, and is extremely


toxic.

It is explosive when mixed with air in the range of 4.0% to 45%, and it
is soluble in fluids.

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

The principal danger to the worker is poisoning by inhalation.

Tubular and metals in an H2S environment can be very susceptible to


hydrogen embitterment and sulphide stress cracking.

4.1.5.2 Sour Drill Stem Testing Equipment

IRP A drill stem test that may encounter H2S shall have sour service surface
equipment meeting the requirements of NACE MR 01-75 latest edition,
Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield
Equipment. A certified pressurized tank and flare stack for efficient
separation and handling of sour gas or fluids must be used.

NOTE: Hydrogen embitterment and sulphide stress cracking are influenced by a


complex interaction of parameters, including:

Metal chemical composition, strength, heat treatment, and


microstructure

Type and pH of the drilling fluid

H2S concentration and total pressure

Total tensile stress

Temperature of the interval being tested

Length of time tools are exposed to H2S

Other factors

The decision on which surface equipment, downhole equipment and testing


tubular to run for a sour drill stem test should include an evaluation of the above
parameters to best combat the corrosive effects of hydrogen sulphide. The
selection of tubular is especially critical, and consideration should be given to
using sour service tubing instead of drill pipe. Numerous charts and graphs are
available to demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, conditions where drill
pipe may potentially be used safely for sour drill stem testing. An in-depth
examination of using drill pipe in a sour gas environment can be found in Section
1.2 of IRP 1 Critical Sour Drilling

4.1.5.3 Corrosion Inhibition While Sour Drill Stem Testing

IRP Inhibit water based drilling fluids by maintaining a pH above 10. Inhibit
oil based muds with the addition of commercially available scavengers.

October 2007 7
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

IRP Use a filming amine inhibitor to protect the interior of the test string
when running a sour drill stem test. If no water cushion is used, the
inhibitor should be dumped down the test string. If a water cushion is
used, mix the inhibitor with the cushion, and also put inhibitor on top of
the cushion. Both water soluble and oil soluble inhibitors are available
from safety service companies.

4.1.5.4 Limitations of Sour Drill Stem Testing

IRP Drill stem tests that produce sour fluids to surface shall be shut-in
immediately unless equipment used in the hole and at surface is
adequate for the conditions.

NOTE: A closed chamber drill stem test will prevent fluid flow at surface during
a sour test. IRP 4.2 Well Testing, provides additional recommendations
about handling sour fluids using surface well testing equipment.

4.1.5.5 Sour Hydrocarbon Recovery

IRP All sour gas shall be flared. Install a constant pilot light or ignition
device in the flare stack to ensure combustion of all gas sent to the flare
stack. Refer to Provincial Regulations regarding flaring.

IRP Sour liquid recovery shall be reversed to a certified pressurized tank


with a flare stack.

4.1.5.6 Neutralizing H2S during Trip out Hole

IRP When pulling drill stem test tools out of the hole, use a mixture of aqua-
ammonia and water to neutralize any H2S in vapour phase. Use caution
when putting the mixture down the test string. A small amount of fluid
may unload due to displacement from the ammonia. Ammonia is
available from safety service companies.

8 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

APPENDIX III

Recommended Drill Stem Testing Services Inspection Checklist

Worksite Owner Drilling Company

Lease Location and LSD Critical Sour Well(Y/N)

DST Service Company Service Company Rep

Inspected By Date 20 Time: Hrs

Yr Mo Day 24 hrs Clock

Well Activity

Mark A Check If "Adequate or Inadequate" or ' - ' If Not Applicable

(NOTE: Any Inadequate Must have an Explanation and be Corrected)

Adeq Inadeq

A. SIGNS

01 No Smoking ____ ____

02 Designated Smoking Area ____ ____

03 No Vehicles or Unauthorised Persons ____ ____

04 Danger High Pressure ____ ____

05 H2S (if required) ____ ____

B. PERSONAL SAFETY

06 Emergency Response Plan complete ____ ____

07 Pre-start up Safety Meeting ____ ____

08 Hard hats (CSA approved) ____ ____

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

09 Safety footwear ____ ____

10 Eye Protection ____ ____

11 Ear Protection ____ ____

12 First Aid supplies ____ ____

13 Certificates

a) H2S ____ ____

b) WHMIS ____ ____

c) First Aid ____ ____

d) Transportation of Dangerous Goods ____ ____

14 Fire retardant clothing ____ ____

15 Facial hair ____ ____

16 Fire Extinguishers ____ ____

17 H2S gas detector (manual) ____ ____

18 Back packs checked ____ ____

19 Air supply checked ____ ____

C. GENERAL

20 Motor kills checked ____ ____

21 Motor exhaust water manifolds operational ____ ____

22 Safety valve connection checked ____ ____

23 Control valve actuated ____ ____

24 Flowline including lead to manifold to flare line, pressure

tested ____ ____

25 B.O.P. operation tests ____ ____

26 Well kill fluid adequate ____ ____

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

27 Pumping/tripping practices observed according to

Government regulations ____ ____

28 Emergency lighting ____ ____

29 Rig floor ventilation system ____ ____

30 Equipment integrity for H2S ____ ____

31 Manifold valves set for flow ____ ____

32 Flare pit properly dug 50 m from wellbore ____ ____

33 Flare ignition system ____ ____

COMMENTS / EXPLANATIONS

NOTE:

If separation equipment and oil storage is used, refer to production testing


inspection list in Section 4.2 Well Testing.

For rig safety, refer to drilling rig inspection checklist in IRP 2.0 Completing
and Servicing Critical Sour Wells

Owner Representative Signature

Drilling Company Rep. Signature

DST Service Company Rep. Signature

October 2007 11
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.2 WELL TESTING


4.2.1 WELLHEAD CONTROL

4.2.1.1 General

IRP Well testing operations should be conducted with a wellhead installed or


with a temporary wellhead as per IRP 4.2.1.3.6 Temporary Wellheads

4.2.1.2 Standard

IRP Wellheads should be selected, designed, and manufactured in


accordance with the applicable portions of:

IRP Personnel on location should confirm compliance.

API 6A, Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment or the relevant
parts of the ASME/ANSI Series:

B16.4, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

B16.9, Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings

B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded

B16.34, Valves-Flanged, Threaded and Welded End

or

Registered Fittings as defined in the Provincial Regulatory Agency

or

IRP 5 Minimum Wellhead Requirements

or

A combination of the above, so that wellhead components meet recognized


standards.

NOTE: Auxiliary documents should be applied where applicable:

NACE MR 01-75 MR0175/ISO 15156-1 LATEST EDITION - Sulphide


Stress Cracking Resistance Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment.

October 2007 13
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

IRP 2.0 Completing and Servicing Critical Sour Wells

Provincial/federal regulations

Wellhead components must be manufactured by suppliers with an appropriate


quality program. Shop and field welding quality programs are also required to
ensure that welding meets the requirements of ASME Section IX, Welding and
Brazing Qualifications.

4.2.1.3 Wellhead Minimum Requirements

4.2.1.3.1. Pressure Rating

IRP All wellhead components must have a working pressure rating that is
equal to or greater than the maximum bottomhole pressure in the
wellbore

NOTE: In Alberta, AEUB Regulation 7.050 calls for wellhead components not to
be less than the bottom hole pressure of the producing formation for
wells with greater than 50 moles / kmol H2S (5%).

NOTE: In British Columbia (WCB Regulation 23.69(7)): when flow piping


exceeds 3500kPa (500 psi), connections must be welded, flanged or
hammer unions. If there is only a threaded connection available at the
wellhead, special precautions must be taken.

4.2.1.3.2. Master Valves

IRP Where practical, all well tests must be performed using wellheads with a
master valve. Master valves should be of the full bore, round opening
type. Wells where the H2S content of the wellbore effluent is 50
moles/kilomole (5%) or greater require two master valves. Master
valves for critical sour wells must be API 6A flanged.

NOTE: Master valves are used to allow the servicing of the wing valve and to
allow the connection of treatment lines, lubricators and other temporary
connections. Master valves are used to isolate other components, and
should not be used to initiate or shut off flow.

NOTE: On dual master valved wellheads the upper master valve must be used
as the working valve for operations

14 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.2.1.3.3. Flow Tee and Flow Cross

IRP All wells must be provided with a flow tee or cross above the master
valve, to connect wing valves to the master valve(s). Sour and critical
sour wells must be provided with an API 6A flanged flow tee. A top
connector should be considered where applicable.

4.2.1.3.4. Wing Valve

IRP A wing valve must be attached to the flow or cross tee. Sour and
critical sour wells must have API 6A flanged wing valves.

NOTE: The wing valve is used to initiate or shut off flow. The flow sequence is
always: open the lower master valve (if applicable), then the upper
master valve, then the wing valve. The shut off sequence is the
reverse.

NOTE: Consideration must be given to the use of Emergency Shutdown Valves


(ESD’s) on all wells classed as sour (above 10 ppm). In Alberta, all wells
to be flowed having a surface pressure greater than 1379 kPa and an
H2S content greater than 1% requires an ESD.

4.2.1.3.5. Pressure Testing

IRP All primary and secondary seals in the wellhead must be hydrostatically
tested upon installation. All wellhead components should be pressure
tested to a pressure that is at least equal to the bottomhole pressure of
the producing zone or 1.3 x SITHP. Check with the wellhead
manufacturer for maximum test values between the primary and
secondary seals (limited to the collapse value of the casing.)

IRP This pressure test must be documented and recorded.

NOTE: The minimum stabilization criteria is detailed in API 6A Appendix F,


which is a change rate of no more than 5% of the testing pressure per
hour (10 minute minimum) or 3500 kPa/hour (500 Psig/hour) whichever
is less.

October 2007 15
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.2.1.3.6. Temporary Wellheads

IRP Temporary wellheads used in well testing, such as drilling or servicing


Blowout Preventers, Tree Savers and Frac Heads must be designed with
control systems that are essentially as outlined in that of IRP 4.2.1.3.1
through 4.2.1.3.4.. BOP rams are not considered to be master valves
and should not be used for securing or controlling the well (except in
case of emergency).

4.2.2 WELL TESTING EQUIPMENT CAPACITIES AND PRESSURE RATINGS

4.2.2.1 Capacities

4.2.2.1.1. General

IRP Equipment flow capacities should be sized for the flow rates of the
program, and need not be sized for the maximum capacity of the well.
Flow capacities may be derived from detailed calculations, nomographs,
and experience.

IRP Pop or Pressure safety valves (PSV) and burst heads must be piped to a
system to take discharged product away from the vessel and workers in
the immediate area.

IRP On critical sour wells, PSV must be piped with a separate line to a flare
stack that has a separate line for that PSV on the flare stack. At no point
can the line pipe from the PSV be smaller than the outlet on the PSV.

IRP A hazard assessment must be completed with the client to determine


when the PSV must be piped with a separate line to a flare stack

IRP Piping downstream of the PSV must comply with ASME Section VIII Div.
I.

IRP Unrestricted access to the wellhead wing valve and master valve must
be ensured.

IRP Pressure vessels and piping systems must be protected by pressure


relief safety devices, as defined by the provincial regulatory agency
must protect pressure vessels and piping.

16 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

NOTE: Conventional pressure safety valves are designed for block- in pressure
protection and to operate without allowing the relieving pressure to rise
greater than 10% over the set pressure of the PSV. ASME Section VIII
Division 1 requirements are that the safety valve cannot be set greater
than the vessel’s Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) and
must have adequate capacity to ensure that the maximum rise of
pressure after the valve opens is limited to 10% of the MAWP.
Backpressure on a safety valve is not a function of its operation to
relieve pressure but is a function of any external produced pressures on
the outlet side of the safety valve. If this backpressure is constant then
the conventional safety valve can be cold set at a lower pressure, set to
compensate for the backpressure. If the backpressure is variable, a
pilot or balanced bellows pressure safety valve is required to maintain
constant pop pressure.

If the pressure safety valve is installed to prevent overpressure due to thermal


(fire) exposure only and there is no source of external pressure that would cause
the vessel to exceed its MAWP, a thermal relief valve can be installed. This safety
valve can be set at 110% of the vessel MAWP and pressure rise to maximum 25%
over the MAWP is allowed.

A pressure shutdown device is not an acceptable means of overpressure


protection for pressure vessels – a safety relief valve is required.

4.2.2.1.2. Separator Systems

IRP Separator capacities should be at planned operating pressures and


should be sized for all well effluent phases.

4.2.2.1.3. Heat Requirements

IRP Heat requirements address the hazards that can be encountered during
flowbacks such as (but not limited to);should consider hydrate
inhibition, CO2 content, inhibition of solid deposition, and the reduction
of solution gas and foam at the separation and liquid storage stage, and
ambient temperatures.

4.2.2.1.4. Liquid Storage

IRP The upstream system and the liquid storage stage must be designed to
reduce, eliminate or control the escape of vapours to the environment.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.2.2.2 Pressure Ratings

4.2.2.2.1. Pressure Vessels

NOTE: Refer to the Definitions section in this IRP for clarification on certified
versus non-certified vessels.

IRP Pressure vessels are defined by the Provincial Regulatory Agency. All
pressure vessels must be designed and registered to their requirements.
All certified vessels must have a CRN registered for the province where
the vessel is used. Pressure vessels or pressurized tanks used for flow
back or storage of fluids produced from a sour well must be
manufactured under a quality program to ensure conformance with
design specifications utilizing materials meeting the requirements of
NACE MR 01-750175/ISO 15156-1 LATEST EDITION.

4.2.2.2.2. Pressure Piping Appendix II

IRP ASME B31.3 Pressure Piping should be used as the design pressure
standard for pressure piping. Appendix II summarizes the maximum
allowable working pressure calculation and nominal dimensions of
common carbon and low alloy steels. Section 4.2.5 Equipment
Inspections must be considered for the inspection of all pressure
retaining equipment. Also see Section 4.2.2.2.7 Pipe and Fitting
Threading

NOTE: Table 2: Pressure Rating of Seamless Pipe in Appendix II has no


corrosion allowance. It is the well testing company’s responsibility to
ensure that piping systems are de-rated or replaced when pipe wall
thickness is reduced below 0.875 multiplied by the nominal pipe
thickness.

NOTE: In Alberta (OHS Code, Part 37 Section 783(1)): The Manufacturer’s


specifications or the certified specifications of a professional engineer
must be followed.

NOTE: In British Columbia (WCB Regulation 23.69(7)): when flow piping


exceeds 3500 kPa (500 psi), pipe terminations connections must be
welded, (flanged or hammer unions) must be either welded to OEM
specs or integral connections. If there is only a threaded connection

18 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

available at the wellhead, special precautions must be taken a hazard


assessment must be completed.

IRP All wells to be flowed having a surface pressure greater than 1379kPa
and a H2S content greater than 1% requires an ESD.

4.2.2.2.3. Flanges

IRP ASME flanges have the pressure rating defined in ASME B16.5 Pipe
Flanges and Flanged Fittings. Also refer to CSA Z245.12. Unless higher
temperatures are encountered, the nominal pressure rating is that at 38
degrees C (100 degrees F). API flanges have the pressure rating
stamped on the flange. API 6H fitting use the same class designation as
ANSI B16.5 however the pressure / temperature ratings are different.

4.2.2.2.4. Other Connections

IRP Other connections that are not defined by standards such as ASME, API,
CSA, etc. may be acceptable (e.g., hammer unions, Unibolt connections,
etc.) provided that:

The Working Pressure Temperature rating is clearly stated by the


manufacturer

The manufacturer has established the Working Pressure according to


proper engineering standards

Materials shall be as listed in ASME, API or CSA

Fabricated components shall be welded using welding procedures


qualified per ASME Section IX. Inspection and testing shall be per ASME
B31.3 normal (sweet) or severe cyclic (sour) requirements.

NOTE: In British Columbia, documentation regarding working pressure must be


available on site.

4.2.2.2.5. Flexible Piping

IRP Non-certified flexible pressure piping (e.g., swivel joints, pressure hose,
etc.) should not be used where well effluent internal pressure could
exceed 103.4 kPa (15 Psig) in well testing operations.

IRP Certified flexible pressure piping can be used where well effluent internal
pressure could exceed 103.4 kPa (15 Psig) but not the maximum

October 2007 19
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

certified pressure in well testing operations(certified to the weakest


point that can be exposed to the given pressure).

IRP Where lines of 33 mm O.D. (1" nominal) or less are normally filled with
a stable fluid (e.g., pressure gauge lines filled with methanol), flexible
lines are acceptable as long as they are rated for that fluid and do not
exceed the maximum working pressure of that line.

IRP All flexible piping must be secure at the ends in the event of connection
failure to prevent whipping of the line.

IRP Consideration should be given to the use of steel lines where flexible
piping could be subject to excessive heat such as flare stacks,
incinerators, and vapourizers. A hazard assessment must be conducted
when using flexible piping near heat producing devices.

NOTE: Refer to Section 4.3.6.4 Through Tubing Clean Outs With Snubbing
Units when 50.8 mm (2‖) hose is acceptable for pressures above 103.4
kPa (15 Psig)

4.2.2.2.6. Welding of Pipe and Fittings

IRP Pipe and fitting welding should be to the meet requirements of ASME
Section IX. Post-weld stress relieving is required for H2S service
systems (as defined in Section 4.2.3.1.2 Welding of Carbon and Low
Alloy Steels) unless special hardness control procedures as defined in
NACE MR 01-75 0175/ISO 15156-1 LATEST EDITION are observed.
Radiography to ASME B31.3 is recommended.

4.2.2.2.7. Pipe and Fitting Threading

IRP Line pipe threading should not be used above 17.24 MPa (2500 Psig),
for pipe sizes above 33 mm (1" nominal).

At a maximum, the line pipe threading ratings of API 6A shall apply, provided that
the thread depth ratings of Table 2 Pressure Rating of Seamless Pipe in Appendix
II are not exceeded.

Pipe / Fitting Size Working Pressure

To 21 mm (1/2") 68.9 MPa (10,000 psig)

20 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

27 mm (3/4") - 60 mm (2") 34.5 MPa (5,000 psig)

73 mm (2 ½ ") - 168 mm (6") 20.7 MPa (3,000 psig)

EUE Tubing Threads 34.5 MPa (5,000 psig)

Refer to the formula for pressure rating seamless pipe on Appendix II, Pressure
Rating Formula for Seamless Pipe

4.2.3 H2S SERVICE EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

4.2.3.1 Metallic Materials

4.2.3.1.1. General

IRP Metallic equipment in H2S service must be designed to prevent Sulphide


Stress Cracking (SSC). NACE MR 01-75 0175/ISO 15156-1LATEST
EDITION, Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for
Oilfield Equipment, defines the requirements as a minimum standard.
The "Sour Gas" definition outlined in NACE of an H2S environment is
encouraged (although Sour Oil and Multiphases may be used where
applicable). A H2S environment exists when the H2S partial pressure
exceeds 0.35 kPa (0.05 Psia), and the total pressure exceeds 448 kPa
(65 psia). H2S Partial Pressure = Mole Fraction H2S x Maximum
Operating Pressure.

NOTE: Owners and service companies should note that this definition of partial
pressure is not related to definitions of sour by any provincial regulatory
body and that partial pressure introduces an additional planning
consideration.

4.2.3.1.2. Welding of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels

IRP Post weld stress relieving is mandatory for low alloy steel and
mandatory for carbon steels unless a weld procedure qualification
ensures HRC 22 maximum throughout the weld. Radiography to ASME
B31.3 is recommended where applicable.

4.2.3.1.3. Exceptions-

IRP Production lines to non-certified storage tanks, flare lines and vent lines
may be exempted from complete conformance to NACE MR 01-
750175/ISO15156-1 LATEST EDITION if:

October 2007 21
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

The lines will not normally be exposed to pressures in excess of 448 kPa
(65 psia), and the lines have an adequate pressure rating for short term
abnormal service.

4.2.3.2 Elastomers

IRP Elastomers for H2S service must be chosen by a combination of


manufacturers' recommendations and industry experience, with regard
for other products in the well effluent that may degrade elastomers.

NOTE: Elastomers are not addressed by NACE MR 01-750175/ISO 15156-1


LATEST EDITION, but are required to be chosen carefully to contain well
effluents. A reference for elastomer selection is IRP 2.11 Guidelines for
Selecting Elastomeric Seals or NACE TM 0187-87 (Standard Method for
Evaluating Elastomeric Materials in Sour Gas Environments).

4.2.3.3 Internal Trims of Valves, Controllers, Ect.

IRP Valves, controllers, etc. should be examined to analyze the possibility of


H2S sulphide stress cracking (SSC) (i.e., components in tension are
generally subject to SSC, components in compression are generally
not). Secondly, the consequences of an SSC failure should be analyzed
for the item. If an SSC failure would compromise workers or
environmental safety, replacement trims should meet the requirements
of NACE MR 01-750175/ISO 15156-1, LATEST EDITION. The following
equipment items must have internal trims that meet the requirements
of NACE MR 0175/ISO 15156-101-75, LATEST EDITION, regardless:

Wellhead Emergency Shut Down Valves (ESD's)

Pressure Vessel Pressure Relief Devices

Sleeve or Disc-type Chokes.

NOTE: The internal trims of some components exposed to H2S have a much
higher possibility of compromising safety and control when they are
subject to erosive well products. These components include level
control valves, meters, and block / bypass valves. Contractors should
carefully consider the practical details of the equipment service.

22 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.2.4 WELL TESTING EQUIPMENT MATERIAL CONFORMANCE

4.2.4.1 General

IRP Equipment fabrication standards must be sufficient to ensure


conformance to Sections 4.2.2 and Section 4.2.3 (when used in sour
service)

NOTE: Per Section 4.0.13.5 Well Testing Company Responsibilities, it is the well
testing company’s responsibility to meet pressure ratings and H2S
requirements when the owner has given the proper information;
therefore, the well testing company warrants material conformance to
the owner. IRP’s 4.2.2 through 4.2.5 are minimum standards for
material identification. More rigid identification systems are
appropriate, and are sometimes specified by the owner.

4.2.4.2 Pressure Vessels

IRP The manufacturer's tag must be affixed to the pressure vessel. The
Manufacturer's Data Report shall be on file along with the latest
Provincial Regulatory Agency inspection certificate and latest pressure
safety valve record.

4.2.4.3 Pipe, Forging, and Fittings

IRP Forgings and fittings should be identifiable by API, ANSI, CSA, and
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) markings. Pipe should be
identifiable by fabrication standards, drawings, or purchase orders. Pipe
marking by low stress dies is discretionary.

4.2.4.4 Valves, Controllers Meters, Etc.

IRP Such components should be identifiable through API, ANSI, CSA, and
OEM markings, or catalogues of OEM products if such catalogues
uniquely identify and are traceable to the component.

October 2007 23
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.2.4.5 Connections (Hammer Unions, Flanges, Etc.)

IRP Such components should be identifiable through OEM markings or


catalogues of OEM products if such catalogues uniquely identify and are
traceable to the component.

IRP All 50.8 mm (2‖) unions of the following design must be identifiable
through a unique colour coded as listed below.

RAL
Union Figure Number
Colour Colour
or Name
Code

602 Red 3020


1502 Blue 5002
Guiberson / 607 White 9010

NOTE: RAL is a colour space system developed in 1927 by Reichsausschuß für


Lieferbedingungen (und Gütesicherung)—German for Commission for
Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance, nowadays called Deutsches
Institut für Gütesicherung und Kennzeichnung e.V. RAL started off with
only 40 colours, but has since expanded to cover over 1,900. That
colour system is mainly used to describe paint colours.

4.2.5 EQUIPMENT INSPECTIONS

4.2.5.1 General

IRP Well testing companies should establish a routine equipment inspection


program, structured to reject or repair service related defects and
improper field replacements. The following should be replaced or
repaired:

Components severely worn or damaged (so that they cannot safely


perform their operating function)

Welds weakened by fatigue cracking or sulphide stress cracking

Components subjected to uncontrolled field repairs

Components that compromise the pressure rating

Components that compromise the H2S service rating.

24 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.2.5.2 Inspection Guidelines

IRP Annual or regularly scheduled equipment inspection should consist of


the following:

Detailed visual internal and external inspection, where possible

Random thickness tests on pressure vessels and piping components


focused on areas most likely to erode, corrode or deteriorate

Repair / replacement of rejected components

Hydrostatic testing of each pressure component to 1.5 times maximum


working pressure

NOTE: Several inspection frequency processes are available, for example on a


calendar or usage basis. Well testing work can subject equipment to
exceptional short term corrosion and erosion, which may necessitate
additional inspection. Exceptional corrosion can be caused by acids,
solvents, high chloride content, and CO2 with H2S. Where exceptional
corrosion could be expected, programs should be modified to eliminate
as many system elements as possible (without compromising safety).

Exceptional erosion can be caused by any well debris, and is common with frac
sand returns. Programs in high erosive situations should be modified to include
elements of the following:

Reduce the rate to minimize erosion

Direct well flow to a 2-choke manifold, followed by a combination


separator / storage vessel with large cleanout openings: extra methanol
injection may be required for hydrate inhibition

Direct well flow to a solids separator or filter

Equipment should be designed, fabricated, inspected, and tested to the intended


most severe service to minimize the effects of corrosion, erosion, and stress
cracking, etc. Use of treated (cobalt cased) or coated components should be
evaluated to minimize the effects of erosion.

4.2.6 WELL TESTING EQUIPMENT SPACING

IRP The schematics of the Appendix IV Lease Layout Schematics should be


used as general guidelines to meet spacing requirements and provincial
regulations. If the spacing cannot be met, it is the owner’s responsibility

October 2007 25
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

to obtain permission from the local authority for changes. Some spacing
requirements are listed below.

NOTE: The water tank solution gas hazard should be evaluated before reducing
the distances. The appendices are intended to specify minimum spacing
and not equipment layout or piping details. IRP 4.3 Other Flowbacks
must be referenced when well testing is combined with other flow back
operations.

NOTE: refer to IRP 20 Wellsite Design Recommendations currently under


development

4.2.6.1 Equipment Spacing For Propane Tanks

IRP Distances for placement of skid mounted or free standing propane


storage vessels should not be located within 25 metres of the flare
stack. The following also shall be considered before placing this
equipment.

When in use with a vaporizer the equipment placement distance must meet the
minimum distance requirement of the local authority for open flame equipment
from the wellhead. Consideration must be given to all other potential sources of
vapour when selecting a site to position the vaporizer to prevent a fire or
explosion.

Propane tanks must not be located within any tank dyke

The vaporizer must be a minimum eight metres from the propane


storage tank(s)

The interconnecting pipe from the propane storage tanks to the


vaporizer should be hard-piped and the interconnecting material must
be manufactured to maintain integrity for short periods in a fire.

The vaporizer should be inspected and cleaned regularly by a certified


propane equipment supplier.

Filling of propane tanks above 80% capacity is not allowed

Position of supply and filling lines to be outside of high traffic areas( i.e.,
foot and vehicular)

Tarping propane vessels for use with external heat sources to vaporize
liquid propane during cold weather operations are only allowed with
equipment that has been manufactured and certified for that
application. It must also meet all equipment spacing requirements.

26 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Valved ports on the propane storage tanks should be plugged prior to


transport.

Propane tanks should have clearly visible certification labels.

Consideration should be given to the pressure safety valve (psv) on the


propane storage vessel as to the direction of discharge if triggered.

NOTE: Reference the appropriate provincial department of transport for


guidance when transporting oilfield skid mounted propane tanks with
product in the tanks.

4.2.6.2 Equipment Spacing For More Than One Certified Pressurized


Tank

IRP Where two or more certified pressurized tanks are used as either a
primary flow vessel or for storage of fluids, the tanks must be a
minimum of 25 metres from the wellhead and can be placed side-by-
side.

NOTE: Provincial jurisdictions may vary in the distance requirement. Refer to


the appropriate regulatory agency for clarification.

4.2.6.3 Equipment Spacing for Non – Certified, Non – Registered


Vessels or Pressure Tanks

IRP All non-registered non-certified vessels or pressure tanks must be at


least 50 metres from the wellhead and 50 metres from the flare stack or
any open flame and 25 m from flame arrested equipment (i.e., line
heater).

4.2.6.4 Electrical and Electronic Area Classification

IRP The following diagrams are from the Code for Electrical Installations at
Oil and Gas Facilities published by The Safety Code Council of Alberta.

October 2007 27
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Figure 1

NOTE: Further consideration must also be given to the temperature


classification of any electrical or electronic device within the classified
area in regards to the auto-ignition point of the gases or chemical
vapours that may be present.

4.2.7 PRE – TEST EQUIPMENT CHECK AND PRESSURE TEST

IRP The following pre-test checks should be performed:

Ensure that an inspection check list is followed

Ensure that all connections are tightened

Ensure the wellhead flowline is adequately secured to restrict movement


of the line in the event of failure

28 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Ensure gas flaring lines and fluid production lines are adequately
secured

Ensure the wellhead ESD (if applicable) is function tested

Ensure the purging is completed per 4.0.13.25

Ensure the safety meeting has been completed per 4.0.13.12.

NOTE: A Production Testing Services Inspection Check List is included in


Appendix V. Applicable details of the checklist are recommended.

4.2.7.1 Pressure Testing in Daylight/Darkness

IRP Following the rig in of test equipment and associated flowlines, pressure
testing of the lines and equipment using a gaseous medium must be
conducted in daylight hours only. If the integrity of the piping system
has been broken at anytime after the initial pressure test, subsequent
pressure tests using a gaseous medium must be done in daylight hours
only.

IRP Hydraulic pressure testing may be conducted at night provided the


conditions of Section 4.2.8 are met.

IRP The pressure test must be documented.

NOTE: See Section 4.2.8 Operational Safety, for night time start up
procedures.

NOTE: In British Columbia hydraulic pressure testing is a requirement on all


high pressure piping systems up to the first pressure control choke. The
pressure test must be not less than 10% above the maximum
anticipated operating pressure as determined by the well owner. When
nitrogen is used in well stimulation, the piping system may be pressure
tested with nitrogen. See British Columbia WCB regulation Section 23.72
for more detail.

4.2.7.2 Wellhead to Choke

IRP It is the owners responsibility to specify the pressure test medium.


Hydraulic testing is recommended over the use of wellhead gas or
pressurized vapour (e.g., CO2 or N2). The test must be to the maximum
expected wellhead shut-in pressure. No leaks are to be tolerated.
Pressure testing with a gaseous medium must be conducted in daylight
hours only.

October 2007 29
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.2.7.3 Pressure Testing on Critical Sour Wells

IRP On wells defined as critical sour, the flow line from the wellhead to the
choke must be hydraulically pressure tested to the maximum expected
Shut in Tubing Head Pressure (SITHP).

4.2.7.4 Downstream of Choke

IRP An inert medium or wellhead gas should be used to pressure test


vessels to a minimum of planned operating pressure and a maximum of
90% of pressure relief device set pressure. Any interconnecting piping
must be included. No leaks are to be tolerated. Where water is used for
a hydrotest, ensure a product to negate ice build up is used in sub-zero
operations.

4.2.7.5 Open Ended Piping and Production Tanks

IRP Open ended piping (e.g., flare lines, vent lines) and production tanks
should not be isolated by valves and pressured tested. Closed valves
should not be in the system. Instead, leak tests of open ended piping
and production tanks must be part of initial operational checks after
start up. Visual inspection of connections is an alternative.

4.2.8 OPERATIONAL SAFETY

4.2.8.1 Start Up at Night

IRP If required through necessity to start up at night, after a daylight


pressure test was conducted, or a night time hydraulic pressure test was
conducted, the following conditions must be met:

Provisions are in place for lease lighting of a capacity to maintain safety


of the site workers, allow the worker to perform his routine duties safely
and to ensure visibility for the worker to safely exit an area in an
emergency

A hazard assessment has been conducted and documented

The hazard assessment deems the start up safe for the worker

All non-essential workers are vacated from the immediate area of the
testing equipment, flowlines and wellhead. These workers shall not
return to the area until cleared to do so by the owner’s wellsite

30 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

representative after consultation with the well testing supervisor/


manager

The crew is well rested

NOTE: IRP 23 Lease Lighting Standards currently under development

4.2.8.2 General Start Up Procedure

IRP The following generalized start up sequence should be performed:

All non-essential workers must vacate the surrounding area of the


testing equipment, flowlines and wellhead. These workers shall not
return to the area until cleared to do so by the owner’s wellsite
representative after consultation with the well test supervisor/ manager

The use of an ESD valve has been considered. In Alberta, all wells with
a pressure greater than 1379 kPa and an H2S content greater than 1%
require an ESD valve on the wellhead

With wing valve closed, open the master valve and record pressures

Close the choke (if applicable) and open the wing valve to the choke.
Perform a detailed leak check

Open the choke slowly to the pressure vessel. Set operating pressures
immediately, and set liquid levels as soon as possible

Begin vessel leak checks immediately, closely followed by downstream


checks. For sour wells, those performing detailed leak checks must
wear respiratory equipment

Check H2S concentration as soon as possible, and at regular intervals


thereafter. Shut in the well if additional equipment or workers are
required

Check equipment capacities. If pressures or rates exceed capacity,


decrease the rate or shut in the well

NOTE: A rate preceding the actual test is appropriate to cleanup the well and to
re-evaluate the programmed well performance.

4.2.8.3 Test Performance

IRP The test should be performed according to the following generalized


guidelines:

October 2007 31
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Perform and record measurements according to the program and


provincial guidelines

Continuously monitor safety systems and equipment

Continuously monitor air entrainment in tanks connected to a flare stack


(per 4.0.13.25 Air Entertainment and Purging)

Utilize the Safety Standby Method for all hazardous operations, and
utilize a second back-up worker during sour hazardous operations

Monitor flare rates and volumes according to the flare permit (if
applicable)

Monitor, assess, and act on new or unanticipated hazards

Hold complete de-briefing/safety meetings sessions at shift changes per


4.0.13.12 Pre-job Safety Meeting

IRP If the equipment or the procedure cannot safely accommodate the flow,
the well testing company’s supervisor of the shift has the ultimate
authority to reduce the flow or shut in the well, after consultation with
the well owner’s representative. If the representative is not available,
the well testing supervisor will assume the responsibility to reduce the
flow or shut the well in.

4.2.8.4 Shut In and Post – Test Procedures

IRP The following generalized procedures should be followed:

Shut in by closing the choke followed by the wing valve

Monitor shut in wellhead pressures per the program

Shut in master valve(s)

Displace all produced fluids to storage (or pipeline)

For sour or toxic wells, purge the sour or toxic vapours to flare

Shut down flares

Rig out and remove equipment from location

Chain and lock wellhead valves

It is recommended all solid bullplugs in the wellhead be replaced with


tapped plugs with a needle valve to check for pressure leakage past all

32 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

wellhead valves. Ensure the pressure rating of the fittings meet or


exceed the maximum wellhead shut in pressure

Inform well operator of status of stored fluids still on location

Remove debris and garbage from location.

4.2.9 WELL TESTING WORKERS

IRP The owner of the well must ensure there are an adequate number of
qualified well testing workers on the wellsite at all times to conduct
operations safely. The following identifies key situations and
recommends a minimum number of workers required to conduct the
operation safely and efficiently.

4.2.9.1 Recommended Minimum Well Testing Workers on a Wellsite


during Testing Operations

IRP All owners and well testing companies must exercise caution and good
safety judgement in the selection of well testing equipment components
and the number of qualified well testing workers. Gas/liquid
deliverability, pressure, and toxic vapours such as H2S must be
considered. Test equipment should be selected which reduces the risk of
workers being exposed to toxic vapours. Pressurized storage for the
liquid phase is one method of significantly reducing the toxic vapour
hazard. Per 4.2.2.2 Pressure Rating, vessels for pressurized storage
must meet the requirements of Provincial Regulatory Agencies.
Unregistered non-certified All vessels must have adequately sized
pressure relief devices to prevent bursting overpressure.

IRP For well testing, a minimum of two (working) qualified test workers per
shift are recommended. If an owner chooses to conduct a continuously
manned testing operation without the services of a well testing
company, the minimum worker recommendations still apply.

4.2.9.2 One Qualified Well Testing Worker per Shift

One qualified well testing person per shift may be used on sweet or sour wells in
the following circumstances:

A Hazard Assessment/JSA has been completed to define all worker’s


roles and responsibilities and the chain of command

October 2007 33
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

The individual has the knowledge and qualifications to perform as


required

The individual is in a well test supervisory capacity only, supervising two


other workers at the site, in non-flowing operations such as swabbing,
circulating, venting or bleeding off a well directly to a certified registered
pressurized tank

The workers at the site assigned to the well testing supervisor are
willing and capable of operating well testing equipment as instructed

The well is not flowed continuously to establish gas or fluid rates

Where equipment rigged in a sour inline mode is automated and


remotely controlled, the well owner may summon one qualified
representative from the well testing company to the location for
consultation or calibration of equipment as long as a qualified owning
operating company representative is present on the location at the same
time

Where the well tester is installing electronic data gathering equipment


on existing facilities and is in contact with the operator’s representative.

4.2.9.3 Two Qualified Well Testing Workers per Shift

IRP Regardless of well parameters, consideration must be given to the


amount of equipment the crew is expected to operate effectively and
safely. The workers ability to maintain a safe work environment and
efficient operations is the prime consideration.

A minimum of two qualified well testing workers per shift are recommended
required in the following circumstances:

All sweet wells flowed through test equipment

The operation is a sour inline test, with all measured well effluents at
the separator diverted back to the pipeline

A sour operation with essentially no inflow from the producing zone,


such as the servicing of a hydraulically killed well, or where the
formation is mechanically isolated

A sour operation where the final sour liquid storage stage for produced
fluids is a certified registered pressurized vessel or tank and the
pressure vessel or tank is not preceded by more than one separation
stage

34 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

A sour operation where the final liquid storage vessel is a non-registered


non-certified vessel preceded by a certified registered vessel or tank,
provided the operating pressure of the non-certified non-registered
vessel or tank does not exceed 50% of the design pressure

A sour operation where the final sour liquid storage stage is an


atmospheric tank system where; the tank(s) and thief hatches are
designed for a maximum of 7 kPa working pressure, and there is a
maximum of two atmospheric tanks

The operating pressure at the atmospheric tank system does not exceed
50% of the design pressure

The atmospheric tank system is not preceded by more than two one
(21) separation stages including a gas boot

The atmospheric tank system is gauged only by gauge boards or


electronic system at shift changes where more than two workers are
present

The H2S concentration does not exceed 5% (50 moles per kilomole)

4.2.9.4 Three Qualified Well Testing Workers per Shift

IRP Regardless of well parameters, consideration must be given to the


amount of equipment the crew is expected to operate effectively and
safely. The workers ability to maintain a safe work environment and
efficient operations is the prime consideration. Additional procedures
such as tank gauging flare enrichment, circulating fluids, operating line
heaters, use of tank-farms, and operation of choke manifolds in erosive
environments will require additional personnel. Consideration must be
given having an adequate number of workers to effectively respond to
any emergencies that may arise.

If the conditions in Section 4.2.8.3 cannot be met, a minimum of three qualified


well testing workers per shift are recommended.

NOTE: On wells having shut-in pressures over 35 mPa, consideration should be


given to the number of personnel required.

NOTE: If maintaining the atmospheric tank pressure below 50% of the thief
hatch operating pressure becomes a problem, excess solution gas may
be reduced by some or all of the following methods:

Use of pressurized tanks

October 2007 35
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Reducing the well effluent flow rate (i.e., reduce choke)

Reducing the operating pressure of the separation stage(s) upstream of


the tanks

Adding heat upstream of the last separation stage

Increasing the tank vent line and tank vent line flame arrestor size.

IRP If such operation cannot rapidly eliminate excess toxic vapours, the well
must be shut in and additional equipment and/or workers called out.

NOTE: When storage stage gas is flared, additional precautions to prevent air
entrainment are required, per Section 4.0.13.25 Air Entertainment and
Purging.

4.2.9.5 Minimum Well Testing Workers Qualifications

The following is the minimum qualifications well testing workers must possess in
training, certification and competence. Petroleum Services Standards of
Competence (PSAC) have been developed for supervisory job classifications.
These standards are registered with Enform and are recognized by the Petroleum
Services Association of Canada (PSAC). Well testing companies should consider
these Standards of Competence when qualifying their workers.

IRP Workers must have the listed minimum qualifications.

Assistant Operator (Reports to Shift Leader):

Individual Must Have:

H2S Alive® (or equivalent)

IRP Volume 16 Basic Safety Awareness Training compliance training


(PST)

IRP Volume 18 Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion Hazard


Management basic or advanced training

WHMIS

TDG

Within a reasonable amount of time after initial hire be trained in the following:

Standard First Aid Certificates and C.P.R training

36 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Company-specific training

Be qualified to drive

Be able to and perform routine maintenance repairs on service vehicles

Have basic knowledge of employers safety policies and emergency


procedures

Have knowledge of understand IRP 4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling,


as it applies to the individual's job function

Have basic knowledge of equipment functions

Have basic knowledge of safety equipment

Shift Foreman/Operator/Shift Supervisor (Leads One Shift and Reports to


Test or Job Supervisor/ Project Manager)

(In addition to Assistant Operator qualification)

Individual Must:

Command of basic testing skills (in order to be able to lead a shift with
minimum supervision)

IRP 18 Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosive Hazard Management


advanced training

Be qualified in confined space entry/rescue training

Have thorough knowledge of employer’s safety policies and emergency


procedures

Know pressure ratings of system elements

Be thoroughly trained in use of safety equipment

Be able to identify and assess hazardous conditions and act accordingly

Understand safety responsibilities of assistants

Be able to train subordinates

Have basic knowledge of local, provincial, and federal regulations

Test or Job Supervisor/ Project Manager (Well Testing Company’s Overall


Supervisor)

(In addition to Shift Foreman/Operator/Shift Supervisor qualifications):

October 2007 37
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Individual Must be able to:

Command entire test with no direct supervision

Coordinate test with well owner or owner’s representative

Train assistants subordinates , and monitor progress/ deficiencies

Be knowledgeable in local, provincial, and federal regulations

NOTE: Petroleum Competency Program (PCP) Standards of Competence have


been developed for supervisory job classifications. Well testing
companies should consider these Standards of Competence when
qualifying their workers.

38 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

APPENDIX IV

Lease Layout Schematics

October 2007 39
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Sweet Wells

Frac Flowback with Pressure Tank Minimum Spacing Requirements

40 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Cold Separators Minimum Spacing Requirements

October 2007 41
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Heated Test Unit Minimum Spacing Requirements

42 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Sour Wells

Frac Flowback with Pressure Tank Minimum Spacing Requirements

October 2007 43
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Heated Test Unit, Pressure Tank and Closed Pressure Storage Tanks Minimum
Spacing Requirements

44 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Heated Test Unit Minimum Spacing Requirements

October 2007 45
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Heated Test Unit and Pressure Tank Minimum Spacing Requirements

46 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

APPENDIX V

Production Testing Services Inspection Checklist


Contractor: Operator:

Lease Location and LSD: Critical Sour Well (Y/N)

Service Company: Service Company Rep:

Inspected By: Date: 20___ ____ ____


Yr. Mo. Day
Time: _______ (24 hr clock)
Well Activity:

October 2007 47
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Mark a check if adequate or inadequate or if not applicable

(NOTE: Any ―INADEQUATE‖ must have an explanation and be corrected)

A Signs Adeq. Inadeq B Personal Safety Adeq. Inadeq


con’
01 No Smoking 17 Fire Extinguishers
#
02 Designated Smoking 18 Floor lights #
Area
03 No Vehicles or 19 H2S gas detector
Unauthorized Persons (manual)
04 Danger High Pressure 20 Work masks worn
outside
05 H2S (if required) 21 Side packs
checked
06 Signs with Operator 22 Back Packs
name or phone # checked
B Personal Safety 23 Air Supply
checked
07 Emergency Response 24 Two air lines
Plan completed reach tanks
08 Pre-start up Safety 25 Wind direction
meeting indicators
09 Hard hats (CSA C Wellhead
approved)
10 Safety footwear 26 Clean
11 Ear protection 27 Working pressure
MPA
12 Eye protection 28 All valves seal
13 First aid supplies 29 ESD Valve
Working Pressure
MPA
14 Certificate: 30 Remote
Shutdowns (OST)
a) H2S 31 Gage in place
b) first aid
c) WHMIS
d) TDG
15 Fire retardant clothing
16 Facial Hair

48 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

D Flowline Adeq. Inadeq H Other con’d Adeq. Inadeq


32 Pipe schedule 51 Flame arrestor
in.
33 Working pressure ____ 52 Flame arrestor
MPA checked
34 Pressure Tested 53 Purge system in
(Hydro) place for tank
trucks
35 Blocked Level 54 H2S scrubber in
place for 400bbl
tanks
E Deadweight Line 55 H2S scrubber in
place on tank
trucks
36 Pipe Schedule 56 Tank lines
checked
37 Working pressure 57 Tank manifold
____MPA checked
38 Pressure tested (hydro) 58 Tank manifold
Bonded to tanks
39 Secured I Shipping Line
40 Blocked valve 59 Bonded to Tank
F Gas, Oil and 60 Length m
Waterline
41 Secured 61 Blocked Level
42 Blocked level 62 Dip Pail
G Pop line 63 Valve
43 Pipe size __ 64 Truck Bonding
44 Secured 65 Fore Extinguisher
45 Blocked Level J Propane Line
46 Pop riser pilot in place 66 Hard pipe to
vaporizer
47 Riser secured 67 Bloked level
H Other 68 Bonded
48 Check valve in place on K Tanks
pipeline
49 Plant operators notified 69 Bonded to
of procedure wellhead
50 Flame arrestors in place 70 On planks

October 2007 49
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

K Tanks Con’d Adeq. Inadeq L Stack (Dia. Adeq. Inadeq


mm. X m. con’d
71 Level 92 Igniter checked
72 Valves work 93 No. guy wires
73 Valves set 94 0 – 15 meters
wires (3)
74 Tank stairs 95 15 – 35 meters
wires (3 min.)
75 Thief hatch 96 35 – 60 meters
wires (6 min.)
76 Gas Blanket 97 Correct angels
flagged
77 Tanks Purged 98 3 clamps/cable
(1‖ apart)
78 Vertical line in. 99 Camps correct
posirion
79 Flames arrestor in. 100 Shackles straight
80 Flame arrestor checked 101 Stack straight
81 Block valve 102 Fire hazard
checked
82 Vertical line secured M Spacing
83 Drain at low point 103 Wellhead to
Separator 25m
84 Stack line clear 104 Separator to Tank
25m Min
85 Vertical line bonded 105 Separator to Stack
25m Min
86 Berm checked 106 Wellhead to tanks
50m
87 Pressure alarm 107 Tanks to Flare
50m
L Stack (Dia. mm. X 108 Flare to Wellhead
m. 50m
88 Lines clear 109 Certified Ptank to
Wellhead 25m
89 Pilot checked 110 Non-certified
Ptank to wellhead
50m
90 Shooter tube checked 111 Vaporizer to
Propane tanks
91 Flare catcher 25m

50 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

N Circulating Punp and Adeq. Inadeq P Separator Con’d Adeq. Inadeq


System
112 Check valve working 132 Instrument supply
press. system checked
MPA
113 Storm chokes working 133 BP valve stroked
press. and ser
MPA
114 Reservoir full 134 Front manifold set
115 Flowlines blocked 135 Inside valve set
116 Heater checked 136 Deadweight
manifold set
O Heater 137 Deadweight line
full
117 Upper coil schedule 138 Methanol barrel
safe
118 Upper coil working prs. 139 Liquid meters by-
MPA passed
119 Stack gasket checked 140 Floats checked
120 Bath full 141 Dump controllers
set
121 Choke inspected 142 Hi-low’s checked
122 Supply gas checked Q Lease Trailer
light plant
123 Pilot checked 143 Safety board
124 Main burner checked 144 Portable water
125 Flame arrestor checked 145 Safety binder
126 Heater preheated 146 WHMIS labelling
P Separator 147 Safety meeting
posted
127 Separator working prs. 149 Flare permit
MPA posted
128 Relief valve checked 150 Fire extinguisher
129 Pressure tested 151 Fire blanker
130 Valves Operational 152 Furnace lit
131 Lines clear 153 Office area clean

October 2007 51
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Q Lease Trailer light Adeq. Inadeq R General Adeq. Inadeq


plant Con’d
154 Lockers clean 158 Flash lights C1-D1
155 Bench area clean 159 Test program
available
156 Floor clean 160 Chemical clothing
157 Step level 161 Mobile phone
good working
order
162 Test kits checked
163 Purging completed
164 Government
notified
165 Flaring permit
obtained
166 Area residents
notified

S. Comments / Explanations:

Owner Representative: Signature

Contractor: Signature

Representative

Service Company: Signature

Representative

52 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

APPENDIX VI

FLARESTACK MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM FLARE RATES

October 2007 53
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Gas Exit Velocity of 50.8 mm (2”) Pipe

Gas Exit Velocity of 50.8 mm (2") Pipe

450

400

350

300
Velocity m/sec

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

Gas Rate 103 M 3

Velocity m/sec Speed of sound @ 0 oC


>1% H2S Gas Max Exit Velocity >1% H2S Gas Min Exit Velocity

54 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Gas Exit Velocity of 76.2 mm (3”) Pipe

Gas Exit Velocity of 76.2 mm (3") Pipe

450

400

350

300
Velocity m/sec

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

Gas Rate 10 3 M 3

Velocity m/sec Speed of sound @ 0 oC >1% H2S Gas Max Exit Velocity >1% H2S Gas Min Exit Velocity

October 2007 55
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Gas Exit Velocity of 101.6 mm (4”) Pipe

Gas Exit Velocity of 101.6mm (4") Pipe

400

350

300
Gas Velocity m/sec

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

Gas Rate 103 M3

Velocity m/sec Speed of Sound @ 0 oC


>1% H2S Gas Max Exit Velocity >1% H2S Gas Min Exit Velocity

56 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Gas Exit Velocity of 152.4 mm (6”) Pipe

Gas Exit Velocity from 152.4mm (6") Pipe

450

400

350
Gas Velocity m/sec

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Gas Rate 103 M3

Gas Velocity m/sec Speed of sound @ 0 oC


>1% H2S Gas Max Exit Velocity >1% H2S Gas Min Exit Velocity

October 2007 57
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Gas Exit Velocity from 203.2 mm (8”) Pipe

Gas Velocity From 203.2mm (8") Pipe

450

400

350

300
Gas Velocity m/sec

250

200

150

100

50

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

3 3
Gas Rate 10 M
Gas Velocity m/sec Speed of sound @ 0 oC
>1% H2S Gas Max Exit Velocity >1% H2S Gas Min Exit Velocity

58 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Gas Exit Velocity from 254 mm (10”) Pipe

Gas Exit Velocity from 254mm (10") Pipe

400

350

300

250
Gas Velocity m/sec

200

150

100

50

0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600
3 3
Gas Rate 10 M

Gas Velocity m/sec Speed of sound @ 0 oC


>1% H2S Gas Max Exit Velocity >1% H2S Gas Min Exit Velocity

October 2007 59
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

APPENDIX VII

Hydrate Charts

Natural Gas Hydrate Chart

100000

In hydrate zone
10000

Pressure
(Kpa)

1000 Out of hydrate zone

100
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00
Temparture (0C)

Gas Gravity 0.9 Gas Gravity 0.6 Gas Gravity 0.7


Gas Gravity 0.8 Gas Gravity 1.0

60 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

October 2007 61
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.3 OTHER FLOWBACKS


4.3.1 FLOWING TO OPEN TOP TANK

IRP At no time must flowing to an open top tank be undertaken if one or


more of the following criteria exists:

Operators must burn all nonconserved volumes of gas if volumes and


flow rates are sufficient to support stable combustion.

BC H2S exceeds 10 ppb (parts per billion)

AB H2S exceeds 10 ppm, or as otherwise specified

The gas or vapours have a toxic effect that is above the occupational
exposure limit

The vapours or gasses from the well effluent are heavier than air (Fluid
API greater than 50 or Gas has a gravity of over 1.0)

There are human residents within 500 metres

There are other human activities 200 metres downwind of location

May adversely affect the environment.

Hydrocarbon gas cumulative volume to atmosphere exceeds 2.0 103 m3


total in a 24 hour period

The actual flowing duration is more than 24 hours.

Flowing or startup after dark is permitted only where absolutely


necessary. Adequate lighting must be available (refer to IRP 23 Lease
Lighting Standards, under development at time of publication).

NOTE: Refer to Alberta EUB Directive 60 Upstream Petroleum Industry Flaring,


Incinerating, and Venting and EUB Directive 64 Section 14 for off site
odour emissions.

4.3.1.1 Open Top Tank Design

IRP The open top tank must be designed with an inlet diffuser and a device
to prevent splashing and misting of the fluid.

IRP There should also be a device for indicating the fluid level in the tank
that can be read from over 50 metres away.

October 2007 63
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

4.3.1.2 Safety Equipment

IRP The following additional safety equipment must be on location prior to


flow:

LEL metre with bump gas

Spill containment kit

A highly visible device to prevent flow of traffic onto location


advising of Gas Vapours are Venting To Atmosphere Wind direction
indicators ( Wellhead, Open Top Tank, Lease Entrance, and Safety
Areas)

4.3.1.3 Tank Placement

IRP Placement of the open top tank must conform to the following:

50 metres from the lease site primary access point

50 metres from the wellhead (shallow wells, coalbed methane


(CBM) 35 metres from wellhead)

25 metres from any other equipment in use

50 metres from safety meeting and muster areas

50 metres from any potential ignition source

60 metres from any road or right of way not owned by primary


operator

Prevent any possible spill from the tank from migrating off location

When possible, on down wind side of location

4.3.1.4 Well Control to Open Top Tanks

IRP Well control must conform to the following:

A choke with a bypass must be installed on the wellhead to initiate,


control and shut in flow to the open top tank at a safe distance of
35 metres.

64 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

There should be a pressure gauge, temperature reading device, and


a methanol injection point installed upstream and a pressure gauge
installed downstream of the choke.

The line to the tank must be hard piped and no hoses shall be used.

The line must have restraining devices to prevent movement of the


line in case of failure.

No personnel shall enter the hazard zone around the tank that is to
be 25 metres while flowing to the tank.

After the flow to the tank has been shut down, an appropriate wait
time must be allowed to let any gas or vapours dissipate before the
area is swept with an LEL metre

When abrasives are present the additional hazard of flow line


washing must be considered

4.3.2 PUMPING OR CIRCULATING A WELL TO AN OPEN TANK SYSTEM

NOTE: See Section 4.2.9 for IRPs on Monitoring and Supervision of Open Tank
Systems.

IRP Circulating or pumping to open tank systems after dark is not


recommended. However, if required, adequate lighting must be
available (refer to IRP 23 Lease Lighting Standards, under development
at time of publication).

IRP In operations where well site personnel or nearby residents have the
potential to be exposed to sour gas or fluids (AB greater than 10 ppm,
BC greater than 10 ppb (parts per billion), or otherwise specified by
jurisdiction), the fluids must be contained in a closed system.

IRP In operations where gas vapours are expected from produced fluid, the
hazards to on-site workers, equipment, and the public must be assessed
and deemed safe before proceeding. Hold and document a hazard
assessment/JSA meeting on the site with all personnel prior to
beginning operations. The meeting should include discussion of
procedures, sources of ignition, personal protective equipment, and
identification of hazardous atmospheres. The report must be posted on
the site.

NOTE: The Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors (CAODC) has a


standard hazard assessment form for use in daily operations.

October 2007 65
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

IRP All open tanks shall be positioned a minimum of 35 meters from the
wellhead, 25 metres from any flame arrested equipment and 50 metres
from any open flame sources.

IRP A hazard zone of 25 metres in all directions from the open tank must
be established and relayed to all persons on the site, when circulating or
pumping to an open tank system.

IRP No worker(s) shall enter the hazard zone while, circulating or pumping
to an open tank system, the only exception being the pump operator or
person monitoring the tank who must be in the zone to operate the
pump if fluid transfer or circulation is required. Precautions must be
taken to ensure the safety of the personnel working within the
hazardous zone, such as wind direction flags and H2S/LEL monitoring.

NOTE: The use of an external gauge on the tank will aid in monitoring tank
levels from outside the, hazard zone

IRP Personnel responsible for monitoring the atmosphere for hazardous


gases must be trained in the selection, use, and care of detection
devices

IRP All workers involved with circulating or pumping operations to open tank
systems shall wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)

IRP All sources of ignition must be eliminated and locked out where possible.

IRP Smoking is only allowed in designated areas.

IRP The operation shall be shutdown before fluids are splashed or flowed
over the sides of the open tank system.

IRP All flows must be controlled using a device other than the wellhead wing
valve.

IRP The piping system must be designed to accommodate pressure, H2S,


erosion, and any other products that may compromise the integrity of
the piping system. The piping system must be properly secured to
restrict movement of the line.

IRP Physical gauging of open tank systems will only be done after the area is
proven safe by the gas detection device.

66 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

IRP Any loading/unloading of fluids from open tank systems shall be done
with the well shut in and there is no flow to the open-top tank and can
only be done after the area is proven safe by the gas detection device.

4.3.3 WELLHEAD CONTROL

IRP Well control equipment should be selected having regard for Section 4.2
Well Testing.

4.3.4 LOCATION OF THE RIG PUMP

IRP Refer to AEUB Directive 037 Service Rig Inspection Manual.

4.3.5 WELL KILLING OPERATIONS

IRP During well killing operations, where possible, the well should be flowed
into the facility pipeline, or production facility or pressurized vessel. If
the facility pipeline is utilized, the backpressure imposed by the line-pac
should be considered. If production facilities or pressurized vessels are
used, the pump rate should not create a pressure exceeding the burst
rating of the system.

NOTE: The use of pipelines, production facilities or pressurized vessels are


alternatives to reduce explosion hazards. Flowlines, pressurized vessels
or atmospheric tanks equipped with suitable vapour gathering -
flaring/scrubbing systems are alternatives to eliminate any H2S releases
to atmosphere (nuisance odours and public or personal safety).

In Alberta, AEUB inspection policies regarding the handling of sour effluent are
included in AEUB Directive 037 Service Rig Inspection Manual.

NOTE: In British Columbia, the Oil and Gas Waste Regulation of the Waste
Management Act, Section 3 states, ―The owner or operator of a piece of
equipment or a facility referred to in section 4 or 6 (1) must ensure that
the one hour average ambient ground level concentration of hydrogen
sulphide due to the discharge of air contaminants from that equipment
or facility does not, at the perimeter property on which the equipment
or facility is located, exceed 10 parts per billion by volume.‖ The Oil and
Gas Waste Regulation also in section 4 (g) authorizes discharges to the
air of contaminants by owners or operators of ―equipment or facilities
that vent to the air, for the purpose of maintenance of the equipment or
facilities, (i) natural gas that contains less than 230 milligrams of total
sulphur per cubic meter of natural gas, or (ii) natural gas that contains

October 2007 67
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

at least 230 milligrams of total sulphur per cubic meter of natural gas if
the natural gas is combusted in a flare or equivalent.‖

4.3.5.1 Coiled Tubing Unit (CTU) Operations Using Air

CAUTION: The use of air with coiled tubing operations is NOT


RECOMMENDED. Extreme hazard exists with this operation.

Nitrogen gas is recommended.

Air is sometimes used in coiled tubing clean outs in shallow gas wells with low
formation pressure, where no condensate or H2S is present in the formation fluid,
and there is a low flow rate expectation from the well.

NOTE: Nitrogen gas is recommended for higher risk wells.

IRP A safe operating procedure should be followed. A written procedure


including a hazard assessment/JSA should be available on-site with
consideration given to the following:

Wind direction

Proper grounding of equipment

Safe and effective control and handling of well effluent

Ensure that all the air has been displaced from the well, after the job,
before shutting in or producing the well

IRP Coil Tubing Operations with air can only be performed to an open top
tank.

IRP Air and well effluent must not be flowed into a pressure vessel. It can
only be directed to a pressure vessel after all the air is out of the system
and the well effluent has been checked for any oxygen content. This can
be done with a gas monitor.

NOTE: Refer to IRP Section 4.3.1 Flowing to Open Top Tank

NOTEe: Refer to IRP 18 Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion Hazard


Management

68 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.3.5.2 Operations at Night

IRP Where possible, flowback, swabbing, and coiled tubing operations


should be conducted during daylight hours. Adequate lighting must be
provided if it is necessary to continue operations into the night.

IRP Operations that will involve the bleeding of gas to open systems under
the cover of darkness must proceed only where absolutely necessary.
This will include flowback, swabbing, and coiled tubing operations.

NOTE: IRP 23 Lease Lighting Standards is currently under development and


should be referenced once complete.

NOTE: Refer to Section 4.2.8.1 Start Up at Night

4.3.5.3 Swabbing

IRP A check valve and an additional shut-off valve must be installed on the
flow line. The shut-off valve must be closed while running in the hole if
the hole is on vacuum. Consideration should be given to using a purge
medium to follow swab cups while running in the hole.

NOTE: Check valves do not always seal 100%. The manual shut-off valve is a
backup for the check valve.

The purpose of this procedure is to prevent drawing air or the flame from the flare
into the production tank or into the tubing when running the swab cup back into
the well. The introduction of air into the system can lead to a combustible
mixture. Section 4.0.13.25 Air Entrainment and Purging details other
considerations for the prevention of air entrainment. Where gases produced are
being flared, appropriate backflash control measures must be taken. Refer to
AEUB Directive 060 Section 7.7 Backflash Control.

4.3.5.4 Control of Potential Ignition Sources

IRP Shut down of potential ignition sources on location, for example the rig
pump, boiler, heaters, and vaporizers, if not required for the operation,
must be considered during the swabbing of hydrocarbons.

IRP Review and/or create a JSA/Hazard Assessment for the proper


procedure to be performed.

October 2007 69
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

IRP While swabbing to an open tank system where gas vapours are vented
to atmosphere a highly visible device must be used to prevent flow of
traffic onto location advising of Gas Vapours Are Venting to Atmosphere.

NOTE: Refer to Section 4.3.1 Flowing to Open Top Tank

NOTE: Refer to IRP 18 Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion Hazard


Management

4.3.6 SNUBBING OPERATIONS

4.3.6.1 Handling Bleed Offs From the Snubbing Unit

IRP The bleed off line from the snubbing unit to the separator must be
equipped with a choke manifold in case of loss of control of the remote
control valve on the snubbing stack.

IRP The line upstream of this choke manifold must be pressure tested to the
anticipated maximum well pressure.

4.3.6.2 Flowing Casing While Snubbing

IRP The flowline must be an independent line from the casing to a choke or
choke manifold and must be pressure tested for the maximum wellhead
pressure. Refer to Section 4.2.7 Pre – Test Equipment Check and
Pressure Test

IRP No other line can be connected to this line except for the line that was
used for the pressure test. The pressure testing line should be
disconnected during flowing operations and the connection point
plugged.

IRP The flowline must have a temperature and pressure data acquisition
points to mitigate the hazard of down-hole and surface hydrate
conditions. This must be discussed during the pre-job safety meeting.

4.3.6.3 Handling Bleed off Snubbing Unit While Flowing Casing

IRP The bleed off line from the snubbing unit must not be connected to the
same choke/manifold or separator as the flowline from the casing.

IRP The bleed off line can be piped to a second separator such as a low
stage downstream of the primary separator provided its operational

70 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

pressure is reduced to near atmospheric conditions and will not have the
condition impeded by the primary separator that is handling the flow
from the casing.

IRP If only one separator is on location or the secondary separator cannot


meet the condition as laid out in this document, then the bleed off can
be directed to an independent vent line on the flare stack and must
have a choke manifold in the flowline and the upstream side of this
choke manifold pressure tested to the maximum wellhead pressure. A
Flapper style check valve that has been tested shall be installed in this
line. There also must be an evaluation of the possibility of liquids being
produced to this line and if the possibility exists, this procedure must
not be done.

IRP The possibility of running the bleed off line to a rig tank can be
considered if it meets the requirements as laid out in Section 4.3.1
Flowing to Open Top Tank.

4.3.6.4 Through Tubing Clean Outs With Snubbing Units

IRP This operation must only be conducted during daylight hours taking into
account environmental weather conditions

IRP All involved services must attend a documented safety meeting to


review procedures and communications protocol.

October 2007 71
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Table 2: IRP 15.3.1.5 Reserve Circulation Sand Cleanout Equipment

Flow back lines from the tubing and the snubbing unit bleed off line
must be rigged in, in such a way that if the upper snubbing BOP
needs to be opened at any time, the snubbing stack can be bled off
to zero before opening the upper snubbing BOP.

Sources of pressure include back pressure from the test vessel, or


line pressure from the flowing tubing.

The lines must terminate according to oil company policy or


applicable jurisdictional regulation.

Typical surface sand cleanout equipment consists of the following


equipment, which must have a working pressure equal to or greater than
the bottomhole pressure:

A 15 m by 50 mm double- or triple-braided hose


An emergency shutdown (ESD) valve
Several slim hole valves
A tubing swivel
A Chiksan or heavy-walled elbow

All the surface equipment used for sand cleanouts must be dedicated
solely for that purpose. This equipment must be an addition to normal rig
inventory. The valves must be lubricated and pressure tested after each
use. When leaks are detected, they must be sent for repair and
recertification to OEM specifications. Hose ends must be integral crimped
unit style

To help predict when repair or replacement will be needed, the equipment


owner must maintain a logbook detailing the following:

Each valve’s serial number


Date of use
Volume of sand flowed through the valve body
The working pressure it was exposed to

Hoses will typically bubble before failing and must be replaced, not
repaired, when this is noticed. The swivel and Chiksan must be monitored
for erosion wear after each use and repaired as needed.

All components of the sand cleanout system must be hydraulically


pressure tested to at least 10% above the maximum anticipated operating
pressure.

For reverse sand cleanouts, a remote-activated fail-close shut-off


must be installed on a valve upstream of all flow back equipment at
the top of the tubing string. This device must be function tested
before use

72 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.3.7 WELL SITE WORKERS COMPETENCY

Refer to IRP 7 Standards for Well Site Supervision of Drilling Completions and
Workovers

October 2007 73
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.4 LOADING, UNLOADING AND


TRANSPORTATION OF FLUIDS
4.4.1 FLUID HAULING COMPANY PROCEDURES

IRP Fluid Hauling companies must adhere to the following procedures and
practices.

Stop at the entrance to all sites, put on the appropriate PPE, do a


hazard assessment then report to the onsite supervisor if available,
and/or assigned representative before entering work area.

Ensure the consignor (shipper/owner) has provided appropriately


completed shipping documents and that the transport company vehicle
has the appropriate placarding as required by law

Ensure that tank specification is acceptable for fluid characteristics


defined in shipping documents. The design and construction of the tank
must be capable of handling the sour fluid to be hauled, if applicable

Ensure drivers are properly trained and educated on the Transportation


of Dangerous Goods (TDG) and Workplace Hazardous Materials
Information System (WHMIS) and fluid they are expected to haul

Provide proper PPE as designated for the job to be performed

All trucks should be equipped with a 30 minute SCBA

Treat sweet fluids being hauled immediately after a sour load as a sour
load with respect to worker safety

List all necessary H2S equipment on a pre-trip check list

Maintain all equipment valves, fittings, hoses, and hatch seals in good
working order

Ensure trucks with diesel engines have intake air shut-offs

Maintain a contingency plan including procedures for trucking-related


spills.

All drivers should be trained in the selection, use and care of gas
detection equipment

Drivers should be competent to their company standards

October 2007 75
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

Prior to loading fluid ensure all equipment has a bonding device in place
(grounding) and is used

4.4.2 FLUID CHARACTERISTICS

IRP The properties of any fluids to be loaded, unloaded or transported are to


be evaluated for the following hazards from information in the shipping
documents:

Toxicity

Flammability

Corrosive effects

Environmental impact of escaped fluids

Flash point and auto ignition

Solid deposition

IRP Well Owners and transporters of fluid must make or have available
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) to workers. Refer to Section
4.0.13.18 Produced Fluids for more information.

NOTE: Current MSDS and TDG information may provide valuable information to
assess any toxicological or flammability hazards.

Other sources of produced fluid properties information includes well testing and
reservoir fluid analysis, regulatory production reports or custody transfer (point of
sale) measurements.

4.4.3 LOADING, UNLOADING AND TRANSPORTATION PRACTICES

4.4.3.1 Closed Systems

The use of a closed system (pressurized tanks or atmospheric tanks equipped with
suitable vapour gathering – flaring / scrubbing systems) may be necessary to
eliminate any H2S releases to atmosphere (nuisance odorous and public or
personal safety). The duration of operation, proximity to, and notification of area
residents, should be considered. Inspection policies regarding the handling of sour
effluent in Alberta are included in AEUB Directive 037, Service Rig Inspection
Manual.

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Closed systems can also be utilized to enhance the safe handling of high vapour
pressure hydrocarbons on the well site.

4.4.3.2 Tank Truck Loading and Unloading – Temporary Production


Testing Operations – Sweet and Sour Fluids

IRP Atmospheric tank trucks should only be used to haul sweet and sour
fluids where the fluid is non-gaseous and there is minimal possibility of
vapour breakout due to agitation or ambient temperature increases. An
H2S scrubber must be used while loading, unloading and transporting
sour fluids where an atmospheric tank truck is used to haul sour fluids.

IRP Operators of trucks equipped with on-board scrubbers must ensure that
their units are maintained as per manufacturer recommendations. Refer
to Section 4.0.13.17 H2S Scrubbers.

IRP Where there is the possibility of vapour breakout and pressure build up
on the tank truck due to agitation or increased ambient temperature,
the sour fluid must be transported in a certified tank truck.

4.4.3.3 Using Atmospheric or Pressure Certified Tank Trucks

IRP A well must not be flowed directly to a tank truck.

IRP To haul sour gaseous fluids the pressurized tank truck must arrive at the
well site with a purge in the tank or be equipped to be purged at the
well site.

IRP All vents must be closed and all fluid transfer lines capped while
transporting the fluid

IRP Tank trucks may be vented to a flare stack only when:

Proper procedures are in place and documented (pre-job hazard


assessment/JSA)

The tank has been purged and been tested with an LEL meter to
determine the oxygen content in the tank

The tank truck is able to maintain the purge in a sealed tank

There is a positive flow of gas to the flare stack to produce a venturi


on the vent line from the tank truck

There is a back flash control mechanism in the vent line to the stack

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

The system, including the tank truck and the tanks being emptied
will not allow air into the system

IRP The facility where the fluids will be off-loaded should be equipped with a
purge gas make-up system so as to purge the tank while fluid is being
pumped off, allowing the tank truck to have a purge on board when
returning to the well site.

IRP When loading and unloading fluids from pressurized flowback or


atmospheric storage tanks, precautions must be taken in the placement
of the truck relative to the tank(s) location on the well site.

IRP When loading and unloading fluids from a pressurized flowback or


storage tank that a live well is flowing to, the following precautions must
be taken:

The tank truck to be loaded or unloaded must be parked 25 meters


from the pressurized flowback or storage tank

A fluid head must be maintained in the pressurized flowback or


storage tank at all times – gas must not be allowed to escape to the
tank truck being loaded or unloaded

The pressure of the pressurized flowback or storage tank system


must be reduced to the minimum pressure required to transfer the
fluid to the tank truck

The pressure capabilities of the piping and hose system to the tank
truck must meet the operating pressure of the shipping vessel

Where a certified pressurized tank truck is used, the pressure


capabilities of the tank on the truck must not be exceeded.

NOTE: Where possible, shut-off the truck while loading. The pressure on the
flowback or storage tank will transfer the fluid to the tank truck. The use
of a pump will also agitate fluids resulting in additional gas vapour from
the fluid.

IRP When loading fluids produced from a sour well where testing operations
are in progress the following procedures must be adhered to:

1) Where an atmospheric tank truck is used, connect the trucks atmospheric


tank vent line to an adequately sized H2S scrubber. The scrubber may be truck
mounted or a stand alone skid mounted unit.

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

2) Where a truck equipped with a pressurized tank is used, ensure the tank
specification including pressure rating is sufficient for the nature of the fluids
being loaded. See Venting Tanks to Flare Stacks below.

IRP The tank to be filled or unloaded should be separated (blocked) from


any other tanks being used while the tank truck is loading or unloading.
A gas blanket (positive pressure) must be maintained on closed system
production tanks.

IRP Tank trucks must be a minimum of 7 metres from the atmospheric tank
to be filled or unloaded.

IRP Tank trucks must be electrically bonded to the tank to be filled or


unloaded prior to and during fluid transfers. The wheels must be
chocked while transferring the liquids and must be equipped with a
minimum of 25 metres of bonding cable.

4.4.3.4 Permanent Production Facilities – Sweet or Sour Fluids

IRP A well must not be flowed directly into a tank truck.

IRP When loading sour fluids, tank truck vapours may be directed into a
flare system as long as the trucks tank contains no oxygen, otherwise
tank truck vapours should be scrubbed through an H2S scrubber and
vented to atmosphere. Eliminating oxygen can be achieved by the
following:

An adequate positive pressure is maintained on the production


tanks at a closed system multi-well facility where the fluid is to be
unloaded

Ensure the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of the


truck tank is not less than the MAWP of the production facility
components being connected to properly sized vent lines should be
provided at the multi-well facility where the fluid is to be unloaded;
this will allow the void left in the tank truck after unloading to be
replaced with adequate gas vapours from the positive pressure
production tanks

Thief hatches on trucks must be in good working condition.

IRP A gas blanket (positive pressure) must be maintained on closed system


production tanks.

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

IRP Tank trucks must be a minimum of 7 metres from the tank to be filled
or unloaded (25 metres from pressurized vessel).

IRP Tank trucks must be electrically bonded to the tank to be filled or


unloaded prior to and during fluid transfers. The wheels must be
chocked while transferring the liquids and must be equipped with a
minimum of 25 metres of bonding cable.

4.4.3.5 Transportation – Sour Fluids

IRP Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) legislation must be consulted


for selecting equipment to transport sour fluids.

NOTE: Refer to the definitions in this IRP for information relative to TDG
legislation and tank construction.

IRP Trucks transporting sour fluid must be equipped with a functional H2S
scrubber to adequately control odour emissions or be a sealed tank.

IRP The tank vent must be sealed during storage and during transport when
the truck is empty.

4.4.4 FLUID HAULING COMPANY WORKER QUALIFICATIONS

IRP Workers transporting sour fluids shall have valid H2S Alive®, WHMIS,
and TDG certificates.

IRP Workers operating fluid hauling trucks must have a valid operator’s
license and a permit for the province/territory of operation.

IRP Workers must be trained in proper procedures and practices for


operating vehicles while transporting fluids.

IRP Workers must be properly trained in loading and unloading procedures


and practices.

IRP Workers must be properly trained in the use of safety equipment used in
the course of the operation, including breathing equipment, gas
detection, and explosive monitoring devices.

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Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

4.4.5 HYDROCARBON TRANSPORTATION: CLASS & PACKING GROUP


(BOILING POINT, FLASH POINT & VAPOUR PRESSURE)

TDG Class 3, Flammable Liquids, Packing Group I: Hydrocarbon mixtures with an


initial boiling point of 37.8 o C (100o F) or less at an absolute pressure of 101.325
kPa (14.7 psi) are a Class 3, Packing Group I, and flammable liquid for the
purposes of transportation.

TDG Class 2, Gasses Hydrocarbon mixtures with a Reid Vapour Pressure of 275
kPa (40 psi) or greater at 37.8o C (100o F) are gasses for the purposes of
transportation.

NOTE: Reid Vapour Pressure is determined in a laboratory test. API gravity can
be readily measured in the field. C1-C7 content can also be indicative of
flammability. Flammability increases with increasing C1-C7 content.
Fluid analyses, if available, should be reviewed. Fluid and ambient
temperatures should also be considered.

References/Links

Transport Canada TDG Regs, Part 3

Transport Canada TDG Regs, Schedule VI, Part I (Class 3, Flammable Liquids,
Packing Group Test Methods)

Transport Canada TDG Regs, Schedule VI, Part III (Class 2, Gases, Reid Vapour
Pressure, Test Methods)

CSA B621, Selection & Use for TDG

Transport Canada TDG Regs, 7.33.1 (GrandFathering)

Alberta Safety Codes Act

Boilers & Pressure Vessel Exemption Order

ASME Section VIII

ASME B31.3

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IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

APPENDIX VIII

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Petroleum Institute (API), Recommended Practices for Drill Stem Design
and Operating Limits, Thirteenth Edition, April 1, 1989, RP7G, Dallas, Texas

API, Recommended Practices for Occupational Safety and Health for Oil and Gas
Well Drilling and Servicing Operations First Edition, January, 1981, RP54,
Dallas, Texas.

API, Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment, Spec. 6A Edition,
Dallas, Texas

American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Code for Pressure Piping, B31,
Chemical and Petroleum Refinery Piping, ASME B31.3, 1990 Edition, 345 East
47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.

ASME, B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, 1988 Edition, 345 East 47th
Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.

ASME, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Div I, 345 East 47th Street,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

American Society of Testing And Materials (ASTM), Standard Test Method for
Vapour Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method), Philadelphia, PA.

ASTM, D56-79: Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester,
Philadelphia, PA.

ASTM, D93-80: Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Penski-Martens Closed
Tester, Philadelphia, P.A.

ASTM, D3278-82: Standard Test Method for Flash Point of Liquids by Setaflash
Closed Tester, Philadelphia, P.A.

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) Publication #1994-0002


Guideline for Prevention and Safe Handling of Hydrates (1994).

82 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

CAPP Publication #1999-0002 Occupational Health and Safety of Light


Hydrocarbons.

CAPP Publication #1999-0005 Consumer Guideline for the Selection of Fire


Resistant Workwear for Protection Against Hydrocarbon Flash Fires.

CAPP Publication #1999-0014 Recommended Practices for Flaring of Associated


and Solution Gas at Oil Production Facilities.

CAPP Publication #1999-0015 CAPP Safety Guideline for Ground Disturbance in


the Vicinity of Underground Facilities.

Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA), 1987 Tank Vapour Flaring Committee


Report Recommendations Surrounding Tank Vapour Flaring During Sour Well
Testing, Calgary, Alberta.

CPA, DRILL STEM TESTING SAFETY GUIDELINES 1986, Calgary, Alberta.

Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Industrial Protective Headwear, Z94.1,


Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, Hearing Protectors, Z94.2, Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, Industrial Eye & Face Protectors, Z-94.3, Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, Protective Footwear, Z195, Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, B620-1987: Highway Tanks and Portable Tanks for the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods, Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, B621-1987: Selection and Use of Highway Tanks, Portable Tanks, Cargo
Compartments and Containers for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods,
Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 in Bulk by Road, Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, B622-1987: Selection and Use of Highway Tanks, Multi-unit Tank Cars and
Portable Tanks for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods, Class 2, by Road,
Rexdale, Ontario.

CSA, B620-98: Highway Tanks and Portable Tanks for the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods, Rexdale, Ontario..

CSA, B621-98: Selection and Use of Highway Tanks, Portable Tanks, Cargo
Compartments and Containers for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods,
Classes 3, 4, 5, 6.1, 8 and 9, Rexdale, Ontario..

October 2007 83
IRP4 Well Testing and Fluid Handling

CSA, B622-98: Selection and Use of Highway Tanks, Multi-unit Tank Cars and
Portable Tanks for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods, Class 2, Rexdale,
Ontario.

IRP 1 Review- Subcommittee, ―IRP Volume 1 –Critical Sour Drilling‖ (Volume 1 -


2004), 2004, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

Well Services Review Committee, ―IRP Volume 2 - Completing and Servicing


Critical Sour Wells‖, (Volume 2 – 2006), 2007, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

Alberta Heavy Oil and Oil Sands Practices Steering Committee, ―IRP Volume 3 -
Heavy Oil and Sands Operations‖ (Volume 3 - 2002), 2002, Drilling and
Completions Committee, Calgary, Alberta.

Minimum Wellhead Requirements Subcommittee of DACC, ―IRP Volume 5 –


Minimum Wellhead Requirements‖, (Volume 5), 2002, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

Critical Sour Underbalanced Drilling Committee, ―IRP Volume 6 – Critical Sour


Underbalanced‖, (Volume 6 - 2004), 2004, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

DACC Sub-Committee Members, ―IRP Volume 7 – Standards for Wellsite


Supervision of Drilling, Completions and Workovers‖, (Volume 7 - 2002),
2002, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

2005 IRP Review Committee, ―IRP Volume 15 – Snubbing Operations‖, (Volume


15- 2007), 2007, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

Canadian Petroleum Safety Council, ―IRP Volume 16 – Basic Safety Awareness


Training‖, (Volume 13- 2003), 2003, Enform, Calgary, Alberta.

IRP 18 Development Committee, ―IRP Volume 18 – Fire and Explosion Hazard


Management‖, (Volume 18 – 2006), 2007, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

IRP 20 Development Committee, ―IRP Volume 20 – Wellsite Design Spacing


Recommendations‖, (Volume unknown), TBD, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

IRP 23 Development Committee, ―IRP Volume 23 – Lease Lighting Standards‖,


(Volume unknown), TBD, DACC, Calgary, Alberta.

Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) ERCB, Guide G-37 Service Rig
Inspection Manual, 1988, ERCB, Calgary, Alberta.

ERCB, Directive 037 Informational Letter IL 91-2 Sour Gas Flaring Requirements
and Change to Regulations.

84 October 2007
Well Testing and Fluid Handling IRP4

Government of Alberta, Alberta Occupational Health and Safety (AOH&S), Alberta


Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations, Edmonton, Alberta.

AOH&S, Well Testing – Minimum Guidelines for Enhanced Field Operations, June
1990, Edmonton, Alberta.

AOH&S, Safety Codes Act.

AOH&S, Boiler & Pressure Vessel Exemption Order.

AOH&S, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Control Act & Regulation.

Government of Canada, Transportation of Dangerous Good Act and Regulations

Government of Canada, WHMIS

Government of Canada, National Safety Code

National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), MR0175 Sulphide Stress


Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment, Houston, Texas.

October 2007 85