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CVG3106 Summer 2018

Soil Mechanics II

Course Instructor
Sai K. Vanapalli
A015(CBY)
sai.vanapalli@uottawa.ca
(613)562-5800 Ext. 6638

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 1


Soil Origin
Physical (mechanical) process Chemical process

erosion disintegration

Retain the same


composition as that
of the parent rock

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Soil Origin
 Chemical process: results in changes in mineral form of the parent rock due
to the action of water, oxygen and carbon dioxide

 Chemical weathering: results in the formation of groups of crystalline


particles of colloidal size (< 0.002 mm) (particle sizes less than 0.075 mm
are not visible to the naked eye)

 Clay mineral: Plate-like form having high specific area

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Site Investigation Studies
• Geotechnical structural designs are provided based on geological
exploration details and soil mechanics.
• Geological exploration
- genesis
- landform: material, texture and aerial extent
- drill holes (allows to map formations, thickness and content)
• Geological exploration (site investigation and laboratory studies)
• Soil mechanics (Stress vs. strain relationships, engineering properties
of the soil and several empirical relationships derived from research
studies)
• Experience: Global, Regional, Local
• Previous precedents: Previous case studies

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Site Investigation Studies
• Key parameter: ECONOMICS (Geotechnical Engineers get paid).
Soil exploration costs (0.1 to 1% cost of the project in many
cases).
• Physical configuration and numerical values of site investigation
studies (i.e., soil properties, geology, groundwater conditions)
are used to propose a conceptual model.
• Geotechnical Engineers: Solutions / Design procedures. (Note:
Engineers are accountable)
• “Engineering Judgement” used in the design of foundations and
soil structures based on site investigation studies.

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Site Investigation Interpretation
• Geology aspects
- Stratigraphic controls (textural separation within
stratigraphic units)
- Mapping structures (Strike/dip, continuity of beds, shear
zones, faults, joints etc)

• Hydrogeology aspects
- Groundwater flow system
- Piezometer conditions

• Material properties
- Representative samples (assign proper materials for design)

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Subsurface Exploration

 Identify the layers of deposits and physical characteristics


 Type and depth of foundation
 Load-bearing capacity
 Settlement
 Expansive or collapsible soil
 Location of water table
 Lateral earth pressure
 Construction method for changing
subsoil conditions

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Subsurface Exploration
 Program
 Collection of preliminary information
survey maps, reports, hydrological information, soil manuals

 Reconnaissance (Visual inspection)


air photo interpretation, site access, slope failures, evidence of seepage, check
outcrops, check surface materials, check for power, gas, telephone and water
lines, interview residents

 Site investigation
boreholes, soil samples

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Horror Scenes
• Poor information
• Collecting wrong type or improper information, little information, too much information
• Late Prof. Sauer (Site investigation studies guru of Western Canada) -Poor information is
worse than none at all!
• Economic concerns
• Ask for sufficient funds in advance or ask for extra funds
• (General allocation of funds in the range of 0.1 to 1% of total budget)
• Must work with incomplete data (compromise for economic reasons)
• Recent trends: Need geo-chemistry information too! Need more money.
• Overlooked database information
• Avoid duplication or omission
• Details such as topographic maps, geological maps for groundwater potential, soil survey
• Oil company maps, air photos, previous reports, Internet etc.
• Embarrassing if all information is not collected /omitted.
•Miss critical elements related to project investigation
•Selecting proper site locations
•Environmental and Archaeological issues
•Major design revisions required during construction
•High water table, Artesian conditions (flowing test hole out of control)
•Hazards
•Landslides, Cave ins, Sink holes, seepage/critical blow outs

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli


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Borehole Log

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Subsurface exploration

Auger boring
 Simplest method, disturbed sample
 Hand auger: Posthole and helical auger
 3 to 5 m, highways and small structures
 Potable power-driven helical augers

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Subsurface exploration

Auger boring
 Hollow stem auger
 Same as continuous augers
 Do not have to be removed at
short lengths of flights
 Sample collected inside the stem
 Can be used for collecting samples
below GWT
 Fast sampling for test holes greater
than 30 m
 Limitations: Higher operating cost,
needs more power and soil
samples cannot be examined
between samples

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Subsurface exploration

Auger boring

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Subsurface exploration

Wash boring
 Casing (2 – 3 m), Chopping bit,
rarely used in the US

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Subsurface exploration

Rotary drilling
 Most versatile of all rigs (used in
sand, clays and rocks)

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Hydraulic Rotary Rig

- Operation principle: hydraulic fluid circulation (water or drilling mud is used)


- Most versatile (sands, clays and rocks)
- Most expensive (Drill truck, Water truck, Service vehicle, also trailer (dog house) and
Van equipped with data logging system)
- Crooked hole (Bad news)
- A good driller rarely gets a crooked hole.
- If the driller is no good?#$?$?&$?$$
- Good drillers are rare people.. cooperate and get cooperation from them.
- Used for larger projects that need deep test holes

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Subsurface exploration

Percussion drilling
 Heavy drilling bit is raised and lowered to chop the hard soil

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Procedures for sampling soil
 Disturbed sample
 Grain-size analysis
 Liquid and plastic limit
 Specific gravity
 Organic content
 Classification of soil

 Undisturbed sample
 Consolidation
 Hydraulic conductivity
 Shear strength

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Procedures for sampling soil

Split-spoon sampling
 Disturbed but representative
sample

 Degree of disturbance (less than


10% for undisturbed sample)
D0 2 − Di 2
= AR (%) 2
× 100
Di
 AR = area ratio
 D0 = outside dia. of the sampling
tube
 Di = inside dia. of the sampling
tube

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Continuous Flight Auger

- One man crew (Cost around $ 200 per hour)


- Depth of penetration in soils: 60 to 70m

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Procedures for sampling soil

Standard penetration test (SPT)


 Soil samples are obtained from using drive methods (the sampler is driven by
used of a drop hammer).

 The number of blows required to advance the sampler (overcoming resistance)


provides a qualitative indication of the in-place properties of the soil.

 Coarse-grained and dense soils require more number of blows to advance the
sampler than in soft or loose soil.

 The SPT requires that a 51 mm (2-in.) split spoon sampler be used in conjunction
with a 63.5 kg (140-lb) drive weight falling 0.76m (30 in.).

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Procedures for sampling soil

Standard penetration test (SPT)


 The SPT reports the number of
blows N to drive the sampler 0.46 m
(18 in.) into undisturbed soil.

 The blow count to reach three 152


mm (6 in.) of penetration is
recorded, and the standard 140 lb
penetration test result is the number
of blows required for the last 0.3 m
(12 in.) of driving.

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Standard penetration test (SPT)
performed by uOttawa students
Procedures for sampling soil

Standard penetration test (SPT)


 Energy efficiency  Studies have shown for cohesionless
actual hammer enery tothe sampler soil deposits, the measured blow
Er (%) × 100 counts will be affected by the soil
input energy
depth being sampled. A correction
 N60: average energy ratio of 60% called overburden correction should
(60 is the percentage of the theoretical free- be applied.
fall hammer energy)
( N1 )60 = CN N 60
Em
N 60 = N m  (N1)60 = N60 corrected to a standard
0.6 E ff
value of σ’0 = 100 kPa
Nm = measured penetration resistance  CN = Correction factor
Em = actual hammer energy  1 
0.5

Eff = theoretical free-fall energy to the  


( σ ′
 0 a 
P )
hammer

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 24


SPT Correction
Definitions:
Measured blow count (N)
Corrected blow count (N60 & N1,60):
 Adjusted for energy (N60):
• N is adjusted to a percentage of the theoretical free-fall hammer energy of
60 %.
 Adjusted for energy and stress level (N1,60):
• N60 may additionally be adjusted to an effective overburden pressure of 100
kPa.
• When calculating N1,60, various other factors (bore-hole diameter, rod
length etc) that influence the SPT results can be taken into consideration.

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SPT Correction

Calculations:
For most geotechnical applications: SPT Corr
𝑁𝑁60 = 𝑁𝑁 × 𝐶𝐶𝑒𝑒

𝑁𝑁1,60 = 𝑁𝑁 × 𝐶𝐶𝑒𝑒 × 𝐶𝐶𝑛𝑛


where:
Ce = energy correction factor. It depends mainly on the way that hammer is
lifted and released.
Some typical values of Ce Factor Equipment variable Correction
(after Skempton, 1986) Donut Hammer 0.50 to 1.00
Energy Safety Hammer 0.70 to 1.20
ratio Automatic-Trip Donut-type
0.80 to 1.30
Hammer

Cn = overburden correction factor. In SPT Corr, N1,60 can be calculated


according to an equation that you can select from the Calc. method pop-up
menu.

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SPT Correction

Calculations:
Calculation of N1,60 in SPT Corr
 Simplified calculation for N1,60 is : 𝑁𝑁1,60 = 𝑁𝑁 × 𝐶𝐶𝑒𝑒 × 𝐶𝐶𝑛𝑛

 Other factors can be taken into consideration in some scenarios,

𝑁𝑁1,60 = 𝑁𝑁 × 𝐶𝐶𝑒𝑒 × 𝐶𝐶𝑛𝑛 × 𝐶𝐶𝑟𝑟 × 𝐶𝐶𝑏𝑏 × 𝐶𝐶𝑠𝑠


where
Cr = rod length correction factor. It depends on the total length of the drill rod.
Cb = bore-hole diameter correction factor. It can be set according to the selected
diameter from the drop down list.
Cs = liner correction factor. It depends on the sampler used to perform the test.
For the sampler with liners, Cs = 1.00. For samplers without liners, Cs = 1.10 ~ 1.30.

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CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 28
Standard
Penetration (SPT)
Penetration Number, N:
Used in the estimation of φ’
and Design of Foundations
(CVG 3106)
Std. Penetration Number (N) with Depth
Procedures for sampling soil

Correlation between SPT and soil conditions

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Procedures for sampling soil

Correlation between SPT and soil conditions

Value of Relative condition of soil Approximate Value of


N φ’
10 Loose 30o
20 Medium-dense 32o
30 Medium-dense to dense 36o
40 Dense 38o
50 Dense to very dense 40o
60 Very dense 42o

 Engineering judgment should be followed in using these values for practice due
to the reason that these results are based on generalized correlations.

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 DGD2: Example 1

A site in Canada had the measured SPT Depth (m) Nm


resistances indicated in the table. The 1.2 7
SPT procedures used deliver about 72% 2.2 4
of the theoretical free-fall energy to the 3.2 3
sampler. Assuming that the sands have 4.2 3
an average void ratio of 0.44 and the 5.2 5
water table is at a depth of 1.5m. The 6.2 9
sand above the water table is in a state 7.2 12
of dry. Compute (N1)60 with depth (Gs = 8.2 12
2.7). 9.2 14
10.2 9

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 DGD2: Example 2

A blow counts for an SPT test at a depth of 5 m in a coarse-grained soil at every 0.15
m (6 in) are 8, 12, 15. A donut hammer with ER = 45 % and a standard sampler were
used in a borehole. Groundwater table is 10 m below the surface (γt = 19 kN/m3, γsat
= 20.5 kN/m3).

(a) Determine N value


(b) Correct the N value for overburden pressure and energy ratio of 60%.

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• Acknowledgments to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Vane shear test
This is one of the most versatile and widely used devices used for
investigating undrained shear strength (Cu) and sensitivity of soft clays
Applied
Torque, T Disturbed Rupture
soil surface
Bore hole
(diameter = DB)

h > 3DB)
Vane T
H Vane

PLAN VIEW
Rate of rotation : 60 – 120 per minute
Test can be conducted at 0.5 m
D vertical intervals
Vane shear test
 Useful to determine the in-situ
shear strength of cohesive soils.

 A torque is applied to rotate the


vanes, which is related to the shear
strength of soils.
T
cu =
K
 π  D H  D 
2
K  6   1 + 
 10   2   3 H 
cu (corrected ) = λ cu (VST )

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Vane shear test
After the initial test, vane can be
rapidly rotated through several
revolutions until the clay become
remoulded

cu h

τpeak
τultimate

cu Shear displacement
Since the test is very fast,
Unconsolidated Undrained Peak Stength
(UU) can be expected Sensitivity =
Ultimate Stength
• Acknowledgments to Dr. Nalin De Silva
 DGD2: Example 3

A vane test was conducted on saturated clay. The height and diameter of the vane
were 200 mm and 100 mm, respectively. The maximum torque was measured as
0.0740 kN-m. The residual torque was 0.0320 kN-m. Determine (a) undrained shear
strength, (b) sensitivity of the soil.

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 DGD2: Example 4

a. A vane shear test was conducted in a saturated clay. The height and diameter of
the vane were 4 in. and 2 in. respectively. During the test, the maximum torque
applied was 12.4 lb-ft. Determine the undrained shear strength of the clay.
b. The clay soil described in (a) has a liquid limit of 64 and a plastic limit of 29.
What would be the corrected undrained shear strength of the clay for design
purposes?. Use Bjerrum’s relationship for λ.

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 42


Pocket Penetrometer
Pushed directly into the soil. The unconfined compression
strength (qu) is measured by a calibrated spring.

• Acknowledgments to Dr. Nalin De Silva


Procedures for sampling soil

Thin-walled tube (Shelby tube)


 Undisturbed clayey soils (50.8 mm and
76.2 mm in outside diameter)

 Piston sampler
 Prevent distortions in the sample by
not letting the soil squeeze into the
sampling tube very fast and by not
admitting excess soil
 Less disturbance compared to Shelby
tube

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Determine the shear strength of soils
Sampling

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K.


45
Vanapalli
Observation of water table
 An instrument called, piezometer is commonly
used to measure the pore-water developed in
voids or pore spaces of an underground soil mass.

 In its simplest form, piezometer is an open tube or


standpipe, with its tip inserted into the soil layer
of interest (suitable for coarse-grained soils with
high coefficient of permeability).

 As engineers we are interested in the “excess”


pore-water pressure, or the magnitude of pressure
greater than a normal hydrostatic pressure
resulting from the position of the groundwater
table (phreatic surface).

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Observation of water table

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Observation of water table
 Before construction: phreatic surface condition (i.e., no excess pore-water
pressure).

 The water level in the piezometer rises as construction loading causes


underground stress to increase.

 Control the rate at which the new loading occurs (keep the stress resulting in
the supporting soil from exceeding the strength of the soil).

 The time lag for changes in pore-water pressures to be measured would be


excessive for fine-grained soils (Reason: low coefficient of permeability).

 Extensive modifications to the conventional piezometer to measure the pore-


water pressure in fine-grained soils (penetration resistance and soil pore-water
pressure).

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Cone penetration test
 Simple and inexpensive test (cone tip +
friction sleeve + pore-water pressure).

 Static test (20 mm/sec) generally used in


cohesive soils or tills.

 Stratigraphy (layering), relative stiffness


of clay and approximate undrained
strength. Empirically correlated with
friction and density in sands.

 Soil types, N60

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Cone penetration test

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Cone penetration test
Undrained shear strength, Su (kPa) Undrained shear strength, Su (kPa) Undrained shear strength, Su (kPa)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 0 100 200 300 400
0 0 0
ADNP001 (Nkt = 15)
Su (CPTu) JALS003 (Nkt = 15)
C42E002 (Nkt = 15)
5 Su (Field vane) 5
Su (CPTu) 5
Su (CPTu)
Su (Field vane)
Su (Field vane)
(a)
10 10 10

(C)
Depth (m)

(e)
Depth (m)

Depth (m)
15 15 15

20 20 20

qc − σ 0
cu =
25 25 25

Nk
30 30 30

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Cone penetration test
Overconsolidaton ratio, OCR
0 2 4 6 8 10
0

GEVS

5 OCR (CPTu)
OCR (Oedometer)

1.01
 qc − σ 0 
10

OCR = 0.37  
Depth (m)

15  σ ′
v0 
20
Mayne and Kemper (1988)
25

30

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Pressuremeter test
 Cylindrical diaphragm. Volume
versus pressure relation is
measured.
 Relatively complex and expensive
test. Subject to testing errors if used
by inexperienced operator.
 All soils on a theoretical basis. Better
results in homogeneous soils.
 In situ horizontal stress
(approximate), stiffness modulus.
Strength calculations based on
analytical assumptions.

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Pressuremeter test
Air

Coaxial tube

Water

Pre – bored or
self – bored hole

Guard cell

Measuring cell

Guard cell

• Acknowledgments to Dr. Nalin De Silva


Pressure
Pressuremeter test
Air

Coaxial tube Time

Volumetric expansion
Water

Pre – bored or
self – bored hole

Guard cell

Volumetric expansion
Measuring cell
Pseudo- Elastic
Guard cell elastic phase
phase

Pressure
• Acknowledgments to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Coring of rocks
 Core barrels used with diamond
drilling

 Single-tube and double-tube core


barrel

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 56


Geophysical exploration
 Seismic refraction survey: thickness of  Cross-hole seismic survey: shear
the layering of various soils and the modulus
depth to rock or hard soil at a site

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Plate load test

 Elastic modulus and bearing capacity


Applied load (kN)
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
0

20

40

60

Displacement (mm)
80

100

120

140 1.0m x 1.0m


2.0m x 2.0m
2.5m x 2.5m
160 3.0m x 3.0m (North)
3.0 m x 3.0m (South)

180

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 58


Plate load test
(In-situ bearing capacity)

Digging Plate Load Test Pit


Plate load test
(In-situ bearing capacity)

Plate Stack at Beginning of Test Plate Stack at Failure. Failure Depth = 25 mm


Plate load test
(In-situ bearing capacity)

Plate Load Test Using Dead Load


Plate load test
(In-situ bearing capacity)

Bearing Capacity Failure Envelop

Plate Load Test Schematic


Geotechnical Field School 2010 Foundation Failure
Think Safety First!
 Gloves and hard hats will be provided
 Wear safety boots
 Wear hard hats for SPT test
 WHMIS guidelines
 Dress for the weather
 Rain gear
 Warm clothes
Safety First!
Safety First!
Safety First!
(Student happily wearing his hard hat!)
Geotechnical Investigations
Geotechnical Field School
Students asking questions
Thank You!
CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai K. Vanapalli 69