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CAE companion for car crash analysis

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AUTOMOTIVE

COMPANION

Empowering Engineers

Computer Aided Engineering News, Knowledge Exchange Functional Development

Simulation Methods and Networking Material Characterization

Automotive Engineering for Experts CAE Technology

Engineering

CAE Tools

Modeling of

Materials &

Connections

√

automotive

CAE Theory

CAECompanion

2017/2018

carhs.training gmbh

Siemensstrasse 12

63755 Alzenau

Germany

Safety

Tel. +49 6023 9640 60

Fax +49 6023 9640 70

Web www.carhs.de

E-Mail trainingcenter@carhs.de

automotive CAECompanion

Table of Contents

6 CAE is the Enabler of new Vehicle Platforms 28 Seminar: Design for Durability – Lightweight

7 In-house Seminars Car Bodies and Fatigue NEW

8 Seminar Guide 30 Seminar: NVH - Background, Practice and

Simulation Methodology

Engineering 32 Seminar: Design and Simulation of Vehicle

10 Conference: automotive CAE Grand Vibration

Challenge 2018 33 Wissen: Topology optimization for crash-

11 Seminar: Crashworthy Car Body Design - loaded structures NEW

Design, Simulation, Optimization 35 Seminar: Structural Optimization in

12 Seminar: Car Body Design for Analysis Automotive Design - Theory and Application

Engineers 36 Wissen: (Non parametric) Structural

13 Seminar: Lightweight Design Strategies for Optimization

Car Bodies 41 Wissen: Robust Design Strategies for CAE-

14 Conference: Lightweight Design Summit based Virtual Prototyping in the Automotive

2018 Industry.

15 Seminar: Design of Composite Structures 43 Seminar: Robust Design - Vehicle

Development under Uncertainty

16 Seminar: CAE Intensive Training Course for

Automotive Engineers 44 Seminar: Improving Efficiency and Reducing

Risk in CAE Driven Product Development

17 Seminar: Early Increase of Design Maturity

of Restraint System Components in the Tools

Reduced Prototype Vehicle Development

Process NEW 46 Seminar: Introduction to the Python

Programming Language

18 Seminar: Interior Development -

Fundamentals, Materials, Design, 47 Wissen: Basics: Consistent Units

Manufacturing 48 Seminar: Possibilities and Limitations of

19 Seminar: Pedestrian Protection - Virtual-based Development using the

Development Strategies Example of Interior Components

20 Wissen: Functional Development: 49 Wissen: THUMS Version 4 AM50 Pedestrian

Pedestrian Protection - Lower Leg Impact and Occupant Models

21 Wissen: Functional Development:

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Pedestrian Protection - Head Impact

22 Conference: PraxisConference Pedestrian 50 Wissen: Material Models and Failure Criteria

Protection of Glass for Crash Simulation – X-FEM

22 Conference: PraxisConference Crash Dummy 54 Wissen: Spot Weld Modeling for Crash

Simulation

24 Seminar: Introduction to Fatigue Analysis

56 Seminar: Modeling of Joints in Crash

26 Wissen: Operational Strength under

Simulation

Consideration of Random Loads in the

Frequency Domain 57 Wissen: Material Models for Metallic

Materials

4

automotive CAECompanion

Crash Simulation Vehicles NEW

61 Wissen: Material Parameters for CAE 96 Conference: SafetyWeek 2017

Simulation 97 Conference: Automotive Safety Summit

63 Wissen: Material Models for Polymeric Shanghai 2017 NEW

Materials 97 Conference: SafetyUpDate Graz 2017

66 Seminar: Material Models of Plastics and 98 Conference: PraxisConference AEB

Foams for Crash Simulation

98 Conference: PraxisConference Rear Impact -

68 Wissen: Material Models for FEM Analysis of Seats - Whiplash

Short Fibre Reinforced Plastics

99 Seminar: International Safety and Crash-

70 Wissen: Material Models of Composites for Test Regulations: Current Status and Future

Crash Simulation Developments

72 Seminar: Material Models of Composites for 100 Seminar: NCAP - New Car Assessment

Crash Simulation Programs: Tests, Assessment Methods,

74 Seminar: Static and Dynamic Analysis of Ratings

Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics 101 Seminar: Passenger Cars in Low-Speed

75 Wissen: Material Parameter Identification - Crashes

Reverse Engineering 102 Seminar: Crash Safety of Alternative

Propulsion Vehicles

Theory

103 Seminar: Static Vehicle Safety Tests in

78 Wissen: Introduction and Examples of Automotive Development

Multiphysics Simulation 104 Seminar: Development of Frontal Restraint

80 Wissen: Principles and Applications of FDM, Systems meeting Legal and Consumer

FVM and FEM Protection Requirements

82 Wissen: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian 105 Seminar: Basics of Occupant Protection

Method (ALE) in Frontal Crashes: Mechanics, Energy

84 Wissen: Advances in Direct Time Integration Considerations, Protection Criteria and

Schemes for Dynamic Analysis Application Examples

88 Wissen: Meshless Methods: Smoothed 106 Wissen: Model Based Head Injury Criteria

Particle Hydrodynamics Method for Head Protection Optimization

91 Wissen: Simulation of Fluid Structure 108 Seminar: Rear Seat Occupant Protection in

Interaction Frontal Impact

93 Wissen: Comparison of Notch Stresses 109 Seminar: Side Impact - Requirements and

from Elastic Plastic FEA and Neuber Development Strategies

Approximation 110 Seminar: Head Impact on Vehicle Interiors:

FMVSS 201 and UN R21

Safety

111 Seminar Registration / Terms & Conditions

94 Seminar: Introduction to Passive Safety of 114 Seminar Calendar

Vehicles

5

automotive CAECompanion

CAE

AUTOMOTIVE

E-mobility, lightweight design, automomous vehicles: new

COMPANION

mobility concepts will replace the traditional 4-wheel, CAE KNOWLEDGE on 49 pages,

4-door, internal combustion engine automobile. Although

this transition is a long-term process, the new vehicle plat-

more than 70 Seminars & Events

forms are being developed today.

CAE is becoming the mission critical element for finding the

right solutions and making the right product and business decisions. Is CAE ready for these tasks? Is CAE develop-

ing fast enough? Are CAE engineers ready to tackle the challenges?

At carhs.training we strive to bring the latest methods and know-how to our customers.

The annual automotive CAE Grand Challenge has now for many years been the forum to identify and discuss

the focus areas of the future of CAE. Experts discuss new modeling and simulation approaches to tackle the

upcoming challenges in the automotive industry.

Our seminars provide in-depth knowledge on many areas of CAE and simulation and are updated continuously

to reflect the latest state-of-the-art.

The automotive CAECompanion provides knowledge in a handy booklet for easy reference and everyday use

covering areas like functional development, material characterization and innovative CAE technologies.

We are happy to present you the seventh edition of the automotive CAECompanion. This edition of the CAE-

Companion is the result of the work of many dedicated engineers from academics and industry. We would like to

thank all contributors and also the advertisers. Their generous contribution allows us to distribute the CAECom-

panion free of charge to the worldwide CAE community. We would like to encourage all readers, to get in touch

with us if you feel you can also contribute to future editions.

Only together, we can propel CAE into the future.

Alzenau, March 2017

President & CEO Executive Vice President Director Sales & CAE Training

2018

ATE

SAVE THE D

read more at www.carhs.de/grand-challenge

6

automotive CAECompanion

In-house Seminars

Seminars at your site - efficient, flexible and customized

Are you looking for an individual and customized training for your employees?

Most of the seminars from our training program can also be booked as train a large number of employees with

in-house seminars in German or English language. Whether on your com- different professional backgrounds as

pany site or at a venue of your choice, the scale of our in-house seminars simulation engineers for crash and occu-

is tailored to your needs. pant safety. Based on their successful CAE

Intensive Training program carhs.training

Your advantages developed an individual multi week train-

You are in full control of cost. We offer attractive fixed prices for our ing program for us. This training program

in-house seminars, depending on the number of participants and the combined theory, software and project

related service. training in an ideal manor. We were very

Even for a small number of participants you can save a lot compared pleased about the success and the pro-

to the individual booking of seminars. Additionally, there are no costs fessional handling of the project. We can

for travel and time of your employees. recommend carhs.training to companies

We respect your target dates as far as possible – also upon short that have individual and complex training

notice in „urgent cases“. needs as a partner for the design and

You benefit from our professional organization and the top-quality

execution of the training.“

seminar manuals. Dr. Wolf Bartelheimer

Our lecturers answer your individual questions. Manager Frontal Protection Small Cars

Even if you are interested in very specific questions – we are looking BMW AG

for a qualified lecturer and develop the seminar.

Many of our customers have integrated our in-house seminars into their company’s training program.

Take advantage of this offer, too! We will be pleased to prepare you an individual offer.

Contact persons

Tel. +49 6023 9640 66 Tel. +49 6023 9640 76

dirk.ulrich@carhs.de sofia.antoniadou@carhs.de

References:

ACTS, Adam Opel, Audi, Autoform, AZOS, Bentley Motors, Bertrandt, BMW, Bosch, Brose, CATARC, Code Product Solutions,

Continental, CSI, Daimler, Dalphimetal, Delphi, Dura Automotive, EDAG, Faurecia, Ford, Global NCAP, Grammer, HAITEC, Hon-

da, IAV, Idiada, IEE, JCI, IVM, Lear, L&L Products, Magna, Mahindra & Mahindra, MBtech, Messring, Open Air Systems, PATAC,

P+Z, SAIC, SMP, SMSC, Seat, Siemens, TAKATA, TASS, Tata, Tecosim, TRW, TTTech, VIF, Volkswagen.

Attractive Prices

With reference to our regular seminar fees we offer attractive discounts on our in-house seminars:

Discount for the Discount for the

30% 5th - 8th participant 50% 5th - 8th participant

60% 9th - 12th participant 70% 9th - 12th participant

70% 13th - 16th participant 75% 13th - 16th participant

75% 17th - 20th participant 80% 17th - 20th participant

80% from the 21st participant 85% from the 21st participant

7

automotive CAECompanion

Seminar Guide

Here you find the courses you need to get your job

done!

Haven’t found what you need? Get in touch with us! Durability & Fatigue

+49 6023 9640 60 ►► Introduction to Fatigue Analysis p. 24

Legend ►► Design for Durability – Lightweight Car Bodies

►► Seminar/Event that focusses on this topic and Fatigue p. 28

►► Seminar/Event that deals with this topic (among others) ►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 10

►► Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies p. 13

►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32

►► Crashworthy Car Body Design – Design, Simulation, Optimization p. 11

►► Early Increase of Design Maturity of Restraint System Components in the

Reduced Prototype Vehicle Development Process p. 17

Sem

►► Pedestrian Protection - Development Strategies p. 19

►► Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using the Example of

Interior Components p. 48

►► Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation p. 56

►► Material Models of Metals for Crash Simulation p. 60

►► Material Models of Plastics and Foams for Crash Simulation p. 66

►► Material Models of Composites for Crash Simulation p. 72

Gui

►► Introduction to Passive Safety of Vehicles p. 94

►► Introduction to Active Safety of Vehicles p. 95

►► International Crash-Rules and Regulations p. 99

►► NCAP - New Car Assessment Programs: Tests, Assessment Methods, Ratings p. 100

►► Passenger Cars in Low-Speed Crashes p. 101

►► Crashworthiness of Vehicles with Alternative Drive Systems p. 102

►► Static Vehicle Safety Tests in Automotive Development p. 103

►► Development of Frontal Restraint Systems p. 104

►► Basics of Occupant Protection in Frontal Crashes: Mechanics, Energy Consider-

ations, Protection Criteria and Application Examples p. 105

►► Rear Seat Occupant Protection in Frontal Impact p. 108

►► Side Impact – Requirements and Development Strategies p. 109

►► Head Impact on Vehicle Interiors FMVSS 201 and UN R21 p. 110

►► ... find many more seminars in our SAFETYCOMPANION

Materials

►► Design of Composite Structures p.

►► Material Models of Metals p. 47

►► Material Models of Plastics and Foams p. 53

►► Material Models of Composites S. 59

►► Static and Dynamic Analysis of Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics p. 60

►► Interior Development - Fundamentals, Materials, Design,

Manufacturing p. 65

►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 13

►► Lightweight Design Summit p. 14

►► Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies p. 20

8

automotive CAECompanion

Car Bodies

►► Crashworthy Car Body Design – Design, Simulation, Optimization p. 11

►► Car Body Design for Analysis Engineers p. 12

►► Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies p. 13

►► Design for Durability – Lightweight Car Bodies and Fatigue p. 28

►► NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation Methodology p. 30

►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32

►► Robust Design and Stochastics for Car Body Development p. 43

►► Static Vehicle Safety Tests in Automotive Development p. 103

►► Lightweight Design Summit p. 14

►► Structural Optimization p. 35

►► Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation p. 56

►► Introduction to Passive Safety of Vehicles p. 94

►► Crashworthiness of Vehicles with Alternative Drive Systems p. 102

minar

NVH - Noise Vibration Harshness

►► NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation

Methodology p. 30

►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32

►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 13

►► Car Body Design for Analysis Engineers p. 19

ide

►► Robust Design and Stochastics for Car Body

Development p. 91

►► CAE Intensive Training p. 16

►► Introduction to Fatigue Analysis p. 24

►► NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation Methodology p. 30

►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32

►► Structural Optimization in Automotive Design p. 35

►► Robust Design and Stochastics for Car Body Development p. 43

►► Improving Efficiency and Reducing Risk in CAE driven product

development p. 44

►► Introduction to the Python Programming Language p. 46

►► Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using

the Example of Interior Components p. 48

►► Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation p. 56

►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 10

CAE Basics

►► Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using the

Example of Interior Components p. 48

9

Engineering

automotive

CAE

2018

CHALLENGE

In the last 20 years computer simulation has become an indispensable

tool in automotive development. Tremendous progress in software

and computer technology makes it possible today to assess product

and process performance before physical prototypes have been built.

Despite of significant progress in simulation technology and impressive

results in industrial application there remains a number of challenges

which prevent a “100% digital prototyping”. We at carhs.training call

these Grand Challenges.

Automotive CAE Grand Challenge offers a platform for dialog

The automotive CAE Grand Challenge stimulates the exchange be-

tween users, scientists and software developers in order to solve these

challenges. Annually the current, critical challenges in automotive CAE

are being identified through a survey among the simulation experts of

the international automotive industry. In the conference one session is

dedicated to each of the most critical challenges, the so-called Grand

Challenges. In each session CAE experts from industry, research and soft-

ware development will explain the importance of the individual Challenge for the virtual development

process and talk about their efforts to solve the challenge.

Who should attend?

The conference intends bringing together industrial users, researchers and software developers to

discuss these current, critical challenges of automotive CAE and to initiate collaboration between

these groups to help overcoming the Grand Challenges of automotive CAE. The presentation program

of the conference provides both experts and beginners valuable information for their daily work. The

possibility to meet and exchange with all stakeholders of automotive CAE is a great opportunity. In

the accompanying exhibition participants can receive additional information from leading companies

of CAE.

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/grandchallenge

Facts

LANGUAGE

10

Engineering

In the development of a car body different - sometimes Mechanics of crash events

conflicting - design requirements have to be met. Fulfilling Accelerations during collisions

crash regulations is a key task. Therefore it is mandatory that Structural loading during collisions

designers have a good understanding of the crash behavior of

Examination of real crash events

mechanical structures. The combination of knowledge about

Stability problems

mechanics and the ability to use modern design tools allows

for an efficient development process without unnecessary Plasticity

design iterations. The objective of the seminar is to present Design methods

new methods for crashworthy car body design. Functional based design

At the beginning of the course the mechanical phenomena of Car body design

crash events will be discussed. Subsequently modern devel- CAE conform design

opment methods (CAD design and crash simulation) will be Crash simulation

treated. Thereafter modern implementations of safety design

Finite Element modelling of a car body

measures will be presented. Mathematical optimization of

structural design - which is increasingly used in industry - will Finite Element analysis with explicit methods

Who should attend? Energy absorbing members

This 2 day course addresses designers, test and simulation

Car bodies

engineers as well as project leaders and managers working in

Safety systems

car body development and analysis.

Pedestrian protection

Post crash

world applications

Approximation techniques

Optimization software & strategies

Shape and topology optimization

at the universities of Duisburg and Aachen. He received his doctorate on structural optimization from the

University of Siegen. Following research projects for Airbus were focused on the optimization of aircraft

Instructor

structures. Thereafter he worked in the CAE methods development department of Adam Opel AG as

project leader for structural optimization. From 2003 - 2012 he was a professor at the University of Applied

Sciences in Hamburg and taught structural design, passive safety and structural optimization. Since 2012 he

has been professor at the University of Wuppertal, where he holds the chair for optimization of mechanical

structures.

Facts

29.-30.05.2017 2920 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 01.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

11.-12.09.2017 2937 Tappenbeck 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 14.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

11

Engineering

In general analysis engineers have a sound knowledge on improvement of static properties

numerical methods and experience in structural analysis with Principal structure of the development process

the Finite Element Method. To make a valuable contribu- CAE-compatible CAD

tion to the vehicle development process using numerical Finite Element modelling of a car body

simulation, knowledge on car body design and functional

Static behaviour of the car body structure

layout is required. To efficiently undertake lightweight design

all fundamental requirements have to be taken into account Finite Element Analysis of joints

early in the design process. These requirements will be Measures for improved dynamic behavior

outlined in the seminar. Additionally the characteristics of the Part dimensioning taking into account vehicle vibrations

specific organization of the development process have to be Dynamic analysis of full vehicles

incorporated.

Measures for improved acoustic behavior

Course Objectives Acoustic design of a car body

needed for an analysis engineer to play a part in vehicle Realization of safety measures

development. Especially the examination of design variants Energy absorption elements

of existing car bodies makes the seminar descriptive and

Vehicle car bodies

practical.

Safety systems

Who should attend? Pedestrian protection

This 2 day seminar is aimed at analysis engineers working in Post crash

the automotive industry. Use of optimization methods in industrial applications

Introduction into mathematical optimization

Course Contents

Approximation techniques

Load carrying principles of lightweight design

Optimization software

Load assumptions

Optimization strategies

Design principles

Shape optimization

Technology of car body construction

Topology optimization

Car body architecture

Structural materials and pre-products

Material selection

Manufacturing methods

Joining techniques

at the universities of Duisburg and Aachen. He received his doctorate on structural optimization from the

University of Siegen. Following research projects for Airbus were focused on the optimization of aircraft

Instructor

structures. Thereafter he worked in the CAE methods development department of Adam Opel AG as

project leader for structural optimization. From 2003 - 2012 he was a professor at the University of Applied

Sciences in Hamburg and taught structural design, passive safety and structural optimization. Since 2012 he

has been professor at the University of Wuppertal, where he holds the chair for optimization of mechanical

structures.

Facts

19.-20.06.2017 2922 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 22.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

13.-14.11.2017 2921 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 16.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

12

Engineering

Designing and developing light weight vehicles ready for Material selection

series production is becoming increasingly important. Espe- Acquisition of material data

cially for fully electric vehicles with large and heavy battery Steel, aluminum, magnesium

packs light car bodies are indispensable. But also for other

Fiber composites

propulsion concepts lightweight is desirable. This seminar

will focus on production ready vehicle concepts. Ideas taken Material mix and recycling

from the extreme light weight design are integrated into the Structures of lightweight design

considerations. A symbiosis of the use of modern lightweight Space-frame structures

materials and the design of appropriate lightweight struc- Shell structures (beads, ribs, ...)

tures leads to efficient lightweight design. This multi-disci-

Foams and inlays

plinary task is only possible with development strategies that

Composite sandwich structures

can simultaneously handle requirements of crash protection,

vehicle dynamics, comfort, acoustics, durability and produc- Related joining techniques (adhesive bonding, ...)

tion of the vehicle. The aim of this seminar is to provide the Advanced CAE methods for lightweight design

competencies for the development of light vehicle structures. Stability (buckling, ...)

Dynamics and Acoustics

Who should attend?

Fracture mechanics, multi-scale models (observation of cracks,

This seminar is aimed at designers, analysis engineers and

etc.)

project managers from car body, component and system

Crash of small structures

development.

Analysis of joints

Course Contents Robustness analysis

Potentials of lightweight design Optimization of shape and dimension

Motivation and problem definition Case studies

Current lightweight vehicle concepts Selected Vehicle Components

The “Lightweight Loop” Ultra-lightweight vehicle concepts

Principles of lightweight design Vehicle concepts for mass production

Definition of requirements

Determination of design loads

Principal design rules

Approaches of bionics

Fail-safe, safe life, damage tolerance

Methodical concept finding (architecture, topology)

at the universities of Duisburg and Aachen. He received his doctorate on structural optimization from the

University of Siegen. Following research projects for Airbus were focused on the optimization of aircraft

Instructor

structures. Thereafter he worked in the CAE methods development department of Adam Opel AG as

project leader for structural optimization. From 2003 - 2012 he was a professor at the University of Applied

Sciences in Hamburg and taught structural design, passive safety and structural optimization. Since 2012 he

has been professor at the University of Wuppertal, where he holds the chair for optimization of mechanical

structures.

Facts

23.-24.11.2017 2923 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 26.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

22.-23.03.2018 3040 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 22.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

13

Engineering

class networking event for trendsetters in lightweight design in the

automotive industry. Meet OEMs and suppliers on 13./14. March

2018 at the Vogel Convention Center in Würzburg, Germany.

Keynotes and expert presentations, technical sessions and live

demonstrations highlight the importance of lightweighting for the

future of the automotive industry.

Discussions about innovative ideas and the networking between

experts from OEMs and suppliers are at the core of the Light

Weight Design Summit.

The Automobil Industrie Light Weight Design Summit is the plat-

form for the communication between OEMs and suppliers. The

summit addresses the technical management/CEO level of OEMs

and suppliers, the purchasing management, heads of development

and design, project engineers, innovation managers and materials

specialists.

DATE 13.-14.03.2018

HOMEPAGE www.leichtbau-gipfel.de

Facts

14

Engineering

Since the mass is one of the main factors influencing the This seminar is especially designed for engineers and

fuel consumption of vehicles, increasing demands to reduce technicians that work in the development departments of

energy usage and CO2 emissions, force the automotive automotive manufacturers, suppliers and engineering service

industry to consider the use of alternative designs and new providers and deal with the design and development of

materials. Composite materials have proven their potential composite components.

to reduce the weight of structures in many applications (e.g.

aerospace and motorsports). As composites have a special Course Contents

set-up and behave completely different than traditional ma- Introduction

terials, engineers must learn how to employ these materials Elastic behavior of composites

to take advantage of their special characteristics in the design

of vehicle structures. In the seminar real world examples are Failure of composite materials

used to create a basic understanding of designing composite Mechanics of composite materials and structures

structures. Then the theoretical and practical foundations of Joining technologies for composites

composite design are explained.

Design of composite structures

Course Objectives Fatigue and strength of composites

After participating in the seminar participants are able to

design and develop composite structures. They understand

the specific requirements of composite structures and the

related design concepts. In the seminar special attention is

directed to the concurrent consideration of loading, design

and manufacturing related requirements. Accordingly,

the different designs - integral, differential, fully laminated

and sandwich - are addressed. The seminar also provides

knowledge about preliminary design and FE analysis based on

classical laminate theory.

Dr. Roland Hinterhölzl (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria) is heading the

Professorship Composite Materials and the study degree program “Lightweight Design and Composite

Materials” at the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria since 2016. From 2010 to 2016 he was head

of the numerical simulation department of the Institute for Carbon Composites at the Technical University

Instructor

of Munich. The focus of his work is on process simulation and structural analysis for the automotive and

aviation industries. Dr. Hinterhölzl received his doctorate in 2000 at the University of Innsbruck on the

simulation of the time-dependent behavior of composite materials, after he had spent several months at

the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at the University of Texas at Austin

and CRREL (USA). Subsequently, he developed innovative composite components at the aerospace supplier

FACC AG and headed the structural analysis department.

Facts

11.-12.10.2017 2951 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 13.09.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

10.-11.04.2018 3037 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 13.03.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

15

Engineering

Intensive Training Course for Automotive Engineers

In cooperation with experts from industry, engineering, Content, Duration, Software

research, software development, universities and our partner The contents of the training and the software used can be

company Tecosim GmbH carhs.training offers an unique adapted to individual customer needs. Through the adapta-

intensive training as a basic training for structural analysis tion of the content the training can be made to ideally fit the

engineers in automotive development. The training covers framework of the customer.

the areas of statics, dynamics and NVH, as well as crash and

occupant simulation. The contents can be adapted to the

needs of the customer.

At BMW, we had been facing the challenge to train a

Focused on the Industrial Development Process larger group of employees with very different backgrounds

to become simulation engineers for crash and occupant

The training program puts the theoretical background, the

simulation. carhs.training has - based on their proven

mastering of the industrial CAE processes and the use of

CAE intensive training - developed a unique, multi-week

numerical simulation in automobile development in the

training scheme, which has linked in ideal way theory,

foreground. Therefore, in this training a complete CAE driven

software and project training. We were very satisfied with

development process - from the compilation of the specifica-

the success of the action and the professional execution

tions to the editing of the final reporting - is reproduced.

of this large training project. We can recommend carhs.

Software Training training to companies that have individual and complex

training requirements as a partner for the conception and

The professional handling of current simulation software is

implementation of large training programs.

part of the training, but not the main objective of it. Skilled

analysis engineer must be able to use common software Dr. Wolf Bartelheimer, Head frontal protection small cars

tools, but only well-founded expertise and knowledge of BMW AG

modern development processes and methods will allow to

successfully contribute to vehicle development.

Your Benefits

Basics - Tools – Methods Our goal is to train newcomers and job changers in the

As part of this intensive training the participants will refresh shortest time possible to become simulation engineers in the

the theory of numerical simulation and will learn to profes- automotive industry. Participants benefit from the practical

sionally use popular simulation software such as ABAQUS, experience of the trainers and exercises from industrial

NASTRAN, OptiStruct, LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH and pre-and practice.

post-processors such as HYPERMESH, ANSA and Animator

within vehicle development. For the employer, our CAE intensive training is undoubtedly

the most efficient way to train new simulation engineers:

Ideal Learning Environment it is focused and fast, and binds no other employees of the

The training takes place in our modern training facilities in company.

Alzenau, Cologne, Munich and Ruesselsheim or directly at

the customer’s site. For the duration of the course powerful Dates and prices upon request and subject to individual

notebooks are provided free of charge allowing the partic- agreement with each customer.

ipants to deepen theory and practice outside the course

hours.

The trainers are experts from universities and research In collaboration with:

institutes, the software manufacturers and experienced engi-

neers from our partner company Tecosim who daily perform

industrial simulation projects and are familiar with the real

challenges of simulation in automotive development.

16

Engineering

NEW

Reduced Prototype Vehicle Development Process

Course Description functional development of restraint systems, an overview of

The number of hardware prototypes available for the devel- the requirements of the prototype-reduced restraint system

opment of restraint systems and restraint system compo- development with regard to achieving and ensuring the

nents is declining steadily due to an increasing cost pressure necessary degree of maturity of belts and airbags.

in automotive development. In the project schedule the

availability of hardware (restraint system components and / Course Contents

or vehicle environments) shifts to the late vehicle develop- Overview and differences of vehicle development

ment phases. As a result, ensuring the required degree of ma- schedules

turity of restraint system components, in addition to the sole Standard project schedule

functional development of seat, belt and airbag, necessitates Prototype-reduced development of lead series

new strategies and development paths.

Prototype-reduced development of derivatives

In this seminar, current risks in the development of seat belts Safety belts

and airbags are addressed and ideas for the early increase Examples of requirements for safety belts

of maturity are elucidated. This is done, by explaining the

Prerequisites and timing for functional development

link between milestones in the development schedule, the

Timing for homologation and certification

functional requirements of restraint system components, the

development duration of restraint system components and Ideas / possibilities for creating vehicle environments

the description of approaches for the creation of substitutes Interactions with surrounding components

of vehicle environments in the early development process. Airbags

In addition the project schedules of conventional vehicle de-

Examples of requirements for airbags

velopment processes and prototype-reduced development

Prerequisites and timing for functional development

processes of base line models and derivatives are shown. In-

teractions of the development of seat belts and airbags with Ideas / possibilities for creating vehicle environments

surrounding components (e.g. trim parts) are also discussed. Interactions with surrounding components

Course Objectives

The course provides thoughts and ideas for a successful

approach in the development of restraint systems within

vehicle development processes in which only a small number

of prototypes are available for verification and optimization

of the systems.

The seminar is aimed at engineers and project managers of

restraint systems and restraint system components develop-

ment, as well as heads of teams or departments in the field

of passive safety, which want to gain, in addition to the pure

Sandro Hübner (EDAG Engineering GmbH) studied mechanical engineering at the University of

Instructor

Applied Sciences Schmalkalden. After completing his studies he worked as an engineer in the FEA laboratory

of Schmalkalden University of Applied Sciences. From 2003 he worked as an analysis engineer for occupant

safety at EASi Engineering GmbH. In 2006, he moved to EDAG Engineering GmbH as an analysis engineer for

vehicle safety and has been project manager for vehicle safety and CAE since 2013.

Facts

06.07.2017 2948 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.06.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

09.10.2017 2949 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.06.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

17

Engineering

In the last decades an increasing use of plastics is observed in The aim of the seminar is to provide the necessary skills for

car industry. The range of materials and functionality increas- the design of vehicle interior components and modules. This

es and high-quality plastics more and more find their way into includes in particular the choice of materials, the design and

the automobile. The goal to reduce CO2 emissions and the manufacturing processes.

related lightweight design make it necessary in many areas to

use plastics. In consideration of qualitative and quantitative Who should attend?

material selection and the economic superiority of most man- The seminar is aimed at engineers, technicians and managers

ufacturing processes for plastic components, the seminar who are planning controlling interior development projects.

provides an overview of plastics and their applications. The The focus of the seminar is on the cockpit module.

seminar illustrates the subject, in many parts with workshop

character, in two days, with fundamentally different focuses: Course Contents

Basics of Plastics

Part 1: Basics of Plastics - physics, chemistry and application

technology, in industry and in the automobile. Processes for Plastics in automotive engineering

Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Tooling, as well as the processes Designing with plastics

of mass manufacturing, such as injection molding and blow Processing Technologies

molding, are discussed. Day 1 ends with a workshop in which, Workshop

based on practical examples, functionality and choice of

Plastics in Automotive Interior

materials are treated.

From the perspective of the OEM - requirements

Part 2: Plastics in Automotive Interiors deals with the use of From the perspective of the component manufacturer –

plastics in automotive interiors and their properties. Interior material

components are subject to many requirements, ranging from From the perspective of the module supplier - system

the design appearance, look and touch and ergonomics to integration

production and assembly. The second part explains what

is being done at various stages of the interior development

process. Using the example of the cockpit and the cockpit

module, the materials and processes used are discussed. Due

to the complexity of the topic a lot of real components are

shown and their properties are discussed. If desired, compo-

nents from among the students can be considered and their

suitability for a specific application can be discussed. Practical

exercises consolidate what participants have learned.

FH Mannheim. Since 1997 he has worked in various development functions in the automotive sector.

Instructor

Throughout his professional career, he worked intensively on ergonomics, vehicle safety, manufacturing and

assembly processes of plastic components for car interiors. He has worked at OEMs as well as for tier 1 and

2 suppliers. Currently he is working at csi entwicklungstechnik GmbH. Here he is responsible for projects of

a sports car manufacturer in the interior area (Cockpit, center consoles, door panels, greenhouse, etc.).

24.-25.04.2017 2816 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 27.03.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

Facts

25.-26.09.2017 2864 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 28.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

23.-24.04.2018 3033 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 26.03.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

18

Engineering

Euro NCAP annually adjusts details in its pedestrian rating The seminar is intended for development, project or simula-

protocols and even U.S. NCAP plans to introduce a pedestrian tion engineers working in the field of vehicle safety, dealing

protection assessment. with the design of motor vehicles with regard to pedestrian

protection.

Stricter injury criteria, modified testing areas and the testing

of vehicles that were previously not tested because of their Course Contents

weight, require the thorough knowledge of the requirements

Introduction with an overview of current requirements

and a strict implementation of the requirements in the

regarding pedestrian protection

development process.

Legal requirements (EU, UN Regulations, Japan, GTR)

In the introduction the seminar informs about the different Consumer tests (Euro NCAP, U.S. NCAP, JNCAP, KNCAP)

impactors that are used for pedestrian safety testing. There-

Presentation and discussion of the design and application

after the various requirements (regulations and consumer

of the impactors

tests) are explained and compared.

Leg Impactors (Flex PLI, Upper Legform)

The focus of the seminar is on the development strategy: Head Impactors (Child head, Adult head)

Which decisions have to be taken in which development

Methods in testing and system development

phase? What are the tasks and priorities of the person in

charge of pedestrian protection? As a background, ideas Requirements on the design of vehicle front ends for

and approaches towards the design of a vehicle front end in pedestrian protection

order to meet the pedestrian protection requirements are Development strategy

discussed. In addition to that, the seminar explains how the Interaction between simulation and testing

function of active bonnets can be proven by means of numer-

Integration in the vehicle development process

ical simulation. This includes both, the pedestrian detection

that need to be proven with various impactors or human Solutions to fulfill the requirements

models, as well as the proof that the bonnet is fully deployed Passive solutions

at the time of impact. Active solutions (active bonnets, airbags)

Maren Finck (carhs.training gmbh) is a Project Manager at carhs.training gmbh. From 2008 - 2015

Instructor

she worked at EDAG as a project manager responsible for passive vehicle safety. Previously, she worked

several years at carhs GmbH and TECOSIM as an analysis engineer with a focus on pedestrian safety and

biomechanics.

31.05.2017 2895 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 03.05.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

Facts

10.10.2017 2941 Gaimersheim 1 Day 740,- EUR till 12.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

19

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

UN R127:

Impactor: Flex PLI Legform Impactor (valid from 9/2017)

Test Conditions: 40 km/h (11.1 m/s), 0°, 75 mm over ground

Criteria:

Tibia Bending Moment < 340 Nm (up to 264 mm: 380 Nm)

MCL Elongation < 22 mm

ACL/PCL Elongation < 13 mm

Euro NCAP

Impactor: Flex PLI Legform Impactor

Test Conditions: 40 km/h (11.1 m/s), 0°, 75 mm over ground

Criteria:

maximum Score 0 Points

Tibia Bending Moment < 282 Nm ≥ 340 Nm

MCL Elongation < 19 mm ≥ 22 mm

ACL/PCL Elongation < 10 mm ≥ 10 mm

Procedures:

Use of full vehicle models (impact area: detailed models of all components; motor package can be rigid)

High detailing for bumper, radiator, grill, optional accessories (head light cleaning system, parking sensors etc.)

Proper material characterization for plastic parts is required incl. failure definition

Connection modelling is highly significant (clipses, sliding components)

Use of validated impactor model

Typical simulation duration: 40 ms (up tp complete rebound → legform impactor completely separated from vehicle)

Strain rate dependency of materials in the impact area

Details of spatial discretization

Evaluation Criteria:

Tibia Bending Moment

MCL Elongation

ACL/PCL Elongation

For the optimization: Plot the above criteria vs. displacement to identify jamming

Geometry of vehicle front (impact points, impact behaviour)

Material stiffness at impact point (potential for optimization)

Stiffness of geometrical package

Clearance between outer bumper shell and bumper beam (minimum 80 mm, filled with energy-absorbing foam or

deformation elements)

No jamming elements (e.g. parking sensors) should be placed directly in front of the bumper beam

Homogenous support of the impactor along the full vehicle width is required.

Sharp stiffness gradient should be avoided.

20

CAE

Engineering WISSEN

UPDATE

UN R127:

Impactors: 3.5 kg & 4.5 kg (Phase 2) Headform Impactor

Test Conditions & Criteria:

Phase 2

Child/Small Adult 3.5 kg / 35 km/h (9.7 m/s) / 50°

BLE/WAD 1000 - WAD 1700 / Bonnet rear edge

4.5 kg / 35 km/h / 65°

Adult WAD 1700 - Bonnet rear edge/WAD 2100

HIC15 < 1000 (1/2 of the Child head impact area AND 2/3 of the total impact area)

<1700 (remaining area)

Euro NCAP:

Impactors: 3.5 kg & 4.5 kg Headform Impactor

Test Conditions: Child/Small Adult 3.5 kg / 40 km/h (11.1 m/s) / 50°

BLE/WAD 1000 - WAD 1500

Adult 4.5 kg / 40 km/h (11.1 m/s) / 65°

WAD 1500 - WAD 2100 (if points between WAD 1500 and 1700 are on bonnet, use child head)

Criteria:

maximum Score 0 Points

HIC15 < 650 ≥ 1700

Procedures:

Use of full vehicle models (impact area: detailed models of all components; engine package can be rigid)

High detailing for bonnet attachments, hinges, locks, sealing structures, bonnet shock damper, head light attachments,

windshield wiper assemblies

Connection modelling is highly significant (spot welds, adhesives etc.)

Use of validated material model for windshield failure

Use of validated impactor model

Typical simulation duration: 20 ms

Strain rate dependency of materials in the impact area

Details of spatial discretization

Evaluation Criteria:

Head Injury Criterion (HIC15)

For the optimization: use of acceleration - displacement diagrams to identify jamming

Geometry of vehicle front (impact points, impact behaviour)

Material stiffness at impact point (potential for optimization)

Stiffness of geometrical package (sheet metal thickness, structural reinforcements in direction of impact, inlays,

application of adhesives)

Clearance between bonnet outer shell and package (min. 60 - 80 mm free displacement required, otherwise an active

bonnet should be considered)

No jamming elements (e.g. bonnet shock dampers, wiper axles) should be packaged directly in the impact area

Homogenous support of the impactor along the full bonnet/vehicle width is required (e.g. muffin-like structure for the

bonnet inner shell).

Sharp stiffness gradient should be avoided.

21

Engineering

12th PraxisConference

Pedestrian Prote on

The PraxisConference Pedestrian Protection is held every June or July with over 150 participants, including delegates from all

major OEMs. It is the world’s largest expert meeting in the field of pedestrian protection. The intensive discussions at the in-

fo-points and between the presentations show that the participants value the innovative conference concept. Highlights of the

event are the demonstrations in the laboratory of Germany’s Federal Highway Research Institute and the OEM’s presentations

of pedestrian protecting solutions implemented in current car models.

Conference Topics:

Current status and future development of the regulations (UN R127, GTR 9)

Global consumper protection requirements for pedestrian protection (NCAP)

Future development of impactors

Pedestrian AEB systems

Pedestrian safety techologies (active bonnets, airbags)

Test equipment

Co-hosted with

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkf

Facts

BGS Böhme & Gehring GmbH

PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 31.05.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR

WƌĂǆŝƐŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ

ƌĂƐŚƵŵŵǇ

A new generation of crash test dummies is entering the market. THOR, World SID and Q-Dummies replace older dummy

models. This brings some challenges:

The new dummies require significant adaptations of restraint system, vehicle interiors and vehicle structures.

The calibration and certification of the new dummies is much more demanding for the laboratories.

The handling of the new and more complex dummies with their digital instrumentation and new sensors require entirely

new processes and intensive training of the technical staff.

Validated and robust CAE models of the new dummies are required to perform meaningful and reliable simulations.

The new PraxisConference Crash Dummy, jointly organized by BGS Böhme & Gehring and carhs.training, is dedicated to these

issues. It brings together users and developers, and sees itself as a communication platform for experts.

A highlight of the event is the hands-on praxis session in the laboratory of the German Federal Highway Research Institute

(BASt) where topics such as dummy seating, calibration, measurement, mounting and handling are shown in practice and

attendees can gain hands-on experience.

Co-hosted with

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkcd

Facts

PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 13.09.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR BGS Böhme & Gehring GmbH

22

THOR 50th Male

US NCAP V1.4.1

Euro NCAP V1.3*pictured

Available Now

THOR

THOR 5th Female V0.2

Coming Soon

www.humaneticsatd.com

Engineering

Fatigue damage is a significant threat for developers, The seminar is aimed at product developers, analysis

manufacturers and vendors of many products. A high num- engineers and managers who are responsible for product

ber of recalls within the automotive industry and spectacular reliability involving cyclic loading and durability.

accidents of trains and airplanes dramatically emphasize that.

Fatigue damage might bear high risk to human life and finan- Course Contents

cial stability of manufacturers like OEMs in transportation in- Fatigue damage, examples and mechanisms

dustry. Failure due to cyclic loading of products during service What stresses do I need? Modeling and stress analysis

also has a great impact on the image of a car manufacturer using FEA for durability

and therefore should be avoided.

Obtaining SN-curves and statistical issues involved

Fatigue is a complex issue with many different factors Cycle counting

influencing durability and involving large scatter of individual

parameters like loads or material data. Experimental as well Factors affecting fatigue life and synthetic SN-curves

as virtual methods are available to investigate the risk of Stress based and strain based fatigue evaluation

a product failure due to cyclic loading. Modern simulation Introduction to multiaxial fatigue theories

methods, like the finite element method, require specific

emphasis on modeling for the assessment of stresses suitable

for further fatigue postprocessing.

This seminar provides insight into modern durability analysis

covering everything from issues of required experimental

tests to stress analysis using the FEM and an introduction of

different concepts for computational durability assessment.

Statistical aspects of fatigue data and probability issues on

product reliability will be covered as well. Several examples

will be presented and discussed.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klemens Rother (Munich University of Applied Sciences) studied mechan-

ical engineering at Munich University of Applied Sciences and the Department of Mechanics, Metallurgy

and Materials Science at Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA. He earned his doctorate in the field of

Instructor

computational durability at University of Dortmund. Since 1986 he has been working in various positions in

industry, e.g. more than 15 years in senior management for structural integrity and CAE consulting services.

Since 2008 he is professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Munich, faculty of mechanical, automo-

tive and aircraft engineering. He teaches strength, lightweight design, durability and conceptual design. He

is also head of a master’s program in computational engineering. His main research focuses on CAx-support-

ed product development and structural integrity.

Facts

26.-27.04.2018 3039 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 29.03.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

24

Design and Optimize - Fatigue and Durability Solutions

of your durability process.

nCode software by HBM Prenscia enables visionary decisions to be made

at every step of the durability process. Whether it is processing field data,

predicting fatigue life in test and CAE or advanced data management – the

future can be calculated through rapid data analysis. Our customers benefit

from clear insights into the fatigue of vehicles and components.

www.hbmprenscia.com

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

Domain

Dynamic loads characterized by randomness frequently

lead to system failure through material fatigue in vibratory

mechanical structures. In order to correctly account for this

random character, it is necessary to observe the stochastic

load over a longer period of time. This requires long mea-

surement series for measurement-based determination. In

order to ensure that the random process is stationary, it is

also necessary to observe the stochastic properties over the

course of several measurement series.

Fig. 1: Modal transfer functions (left) and modal stress result for mode 2

Description of stochastic processes (right).

The aforementioned considerations make only limited allow-

Operational strength of stochastic processes

ance for the conclusion that determination of the stochastic

process can be made using individual realizations (individual For normally distributed equivalent stress histories, it is

measurement series). Consequently, the function p(x) is possible to specify probability densities in particular, which

used to characterize the stochastic process, which indicates allow counting of the stress cycles which occur (rainflow

the probability that the signal x(t) lies in the interval [x,x+∆x]. classification) to be carried out on a probabilistic basis.

The temporal correlation of the random process is described Following from this, operational strength forecasts can be de-

using the spectral power density SX (f), whereby f designates rived. Especially for narrow-band signals, it can be shown by

the frequency. Especially in the case that p(x) corresponds to means of analysis that a Rayleigh distribution results for the

a normal distribution, the distribution parameters (arithmetic oscillation amplitudes of the equivalent stress. An estimation

mean and variance) can be determined from the spectral of the distribution parameters can be carried out using the

power density SX (f). spectral equivalent stress power density SY(f) with the help of

moments of the k order

+∞

Linear mechanical systems under stochastic excitation 𝑚𝑚𝑘𝑘 = ∫ 𝑓𝑓 𝑘𝑘 𝑆𝑆𝑌𝑌 (𝑓𝑓)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

If a linear, time-invariant mechanical system is excited by −∞

transfer function h(t) over a normally distributed load signal Dirlik [1] developed an empirical distribution density function

x(t), it can be demonstrated that the equivalent stress history for counting stress cycle amplitudes (probability density

+∞ function) based on Monte-Carlo simulations which is also

𝑦𝑦(𝑡𝑡) = ∫ 𝑥𝑥(𝜏𝜏)ℎ(𝑡𝑡 − 𝜏𝜏)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 applicable for broad-band signals. Further approaches for the

−∞ distribution densities of oscillation amplitudes can be found in

is also distributed normally. The equivalent stress history can the works of Zhao-Baker [2], Tovo – Benasciutti [3], as well as

be transformed into the frequency domain by means of the Petrucci – Zuccarello [4], among others. A representation of

Fourier transformation. In particular, Y(f)=H(f)∙X(f) results, the overall process is shown in Fig. 2.

whereby Y(f),H(f) and X(f) designate the Fourier transforms

of the equivalent stress history, the transfer function and the

load signal. The power density spectrum of the input signal

delivers the power density spectrum of the equivalent stress

by means of the relationship SY (f)=H(f)∙SX (f)∙H*(f). Here, H*

is the conjugate complex and transposed transfer function.

The frequency-dependent transmission behavior H(f) of a

linear mechanical structure can be determined effectively by

a frequency-based response analysis with a unit load using

finite element methods (Fig. 1).

26

CAE

Engineering WISSEN

Using the example of a brake protection plate, operational

strength analyses [5] were carried out in the time domain

and in the frequency domain and were compared. The center

of the wheel (Fig. 3 at left) was taken as the excitation point

for the measured acceleration load. The corresponding exci-

tation PSD of the acceleration is shown in Fig. 3 at the right.

density of acceleration load (right).

domain and in the frequency domain are shown in Fig. 4. One

can see that the locality of the highly damaged areas demon- Fig. 4: Fatigue result of time domain approach (top).

strates very good correlation. The absolute damage values of Fatigue result of spectral approach (bottom).

on average than the damage values of the analysis in the Literature

time domain. This difference primarily results from the fact [1] T. Dirlik. Application of Computers in Fatigue Analysis. PhD thesis,

The University of Warwick, 1985.

that the load time series only shows a single realization of the

[2] W. Zhao and M. J. Baker. On the probability density function of

stochastic process. The damage result of the spectral analysis, rainflow stress range for stationary gaussian processes. Int. J. Fatigue,

however, delivers the expected value over all realizations of 14(2):121{ 135, March 1992.

the process (described by the PSD). In addition to the good [3] D. Benasciutti and R. Tovo. Spectral methods for lifetime prediction

correlation of the damage results, the main advantage of the under wide-band stationary random processes. Int. J. Fatigue,

analysis in the spectral domain is the fact that the computa- 27(8):867{877, 2005.

tion times are often shorter. [4] G. Petrucci and B. Zuccarello. On the estimation of the fatigue cycle

distribution from spectral density data. Proceedings of the institution

of mechanical engineers part C - J. Eng. Sci., 213(8):819{831, 1999.

[5] http://www.femfat.com/Papers.4940.0.html

W. Hinterberger, O. Ertl, C. Gaier and H. Fleischer. Spektrale Schädi-

gungsanalyse für multiaxial stochastisch belastete Komponenten.

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Engineering Center Steyr, Austria, Author: Dr. Walter Hinterberger.

For more information see www.femfat.com

27

Engineering

NEW

Today lightweight design is of paramount importance in car Remarkable cases of damage

body development. The objective is to save both material and Loads and stresses during driving

energy during manufacturing as well as during use. All of this Cyclic loading

without sacrificing technical function, economy and safety of Special loads

people and environment. Due to the inherent approach of Misuse load cases

lightweight construction to reach for the limits the load-bear- Crack initiation and fracture behavior

ing capacity of designs are often reached and the demand for Material fatigue

durability - that is, adequate fatigue strength over the entire Failure criteria

service life - suddenly comes to the fore.

Learning from real cases of damage

Finite life fatigue strength and endurance limit, Wohler curves

In the seminar first the basic principles of durability are

Fatigue strength under variable stress amplitude, Gassner

presented with particular regard to the design of car bodies.

curves

Then the design principles of modern lightweight body

Scatter of fatigue strength

construction are taught. In addition, the use of numerical

simulation and mathematical optimization within the modern Influence factors

Design, shape

car body development process is explained.

Mean stress

After participating in the seminar, the participants will un- Lifetime (fatigue) simulation

derstand the influence of cyclical loading on the design of car Fatigue damage definition

bodies, will be able to identify problems in the design and will Fatigue damage accumulation

be able to resolve them using appropriate design methods. FEA based fatigue analysis

They understand how the fatigue analysis and geometric op- Design principles for lightweight car bodies

timization enable the modern virtual development process.

Direct load paths

Typical load paths in car body

Who should attend?

Large moment of inertia

The seminar is aimed at engineers and technicians in the

Filigree design of structures

development departments of automotive manufacturers,

Support through curvature

suppliers and engineering service providers who deal with the

Intentional stiffening

design, construction, simulation and development of vehicle

Function integration

bodies, with special regard to durability.

Framework design vs. shell structures

Application to practice-relevant cases

engineering at the Technical University Darmstadt and promoted in the field of fatigue and finite element

analysis at the Institute of Materials Science at the TU Darmstadt. At Adam Opel AG, he initially worked as

a development engineer in the calculation department and introduced the fatigue life analysis in virtual

Instructor

vehicle development. Subsequently, he took over the management of the simulation and test methodology

in the central durability laboratory. Since 2005 he has been a university professor for lightweight design

and durability as well as construction and FE methods at the Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM) at

Friedberg Campus. In the field of research, he is at the forefront of the Competence Center for Automotive,

Mobility and Materials Research (AutoM). He also heads the TransMIT Center for Lightweight Design and

Durability of TransMIT Gesellschaft für Technologietransfer mbH, Giessen.

Facts

05.12.2017 3050 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 07.11.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

28

FEMFAT software

BY MAGNA POWERTRAIN

11th International

FEMFAT User

Meeting 2017

May 10th - 11th

Steyr, Austria

FEMFAT

performs fatigue analyses in combination with

most finite element solvers and pre-processors.

• Multiple joint type assessment

• Open database concept (materials, joints)

• Assessment in time and frequency domain

• Considering production processes

• More than 400 materials in database

• Verifications in more than 1000 projects

femfat.magna.com

Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG

Steyrer Strasse 32, 4300 St. Valentin

Engineering

Course Description service suppliers that are looking to enter the NVH simulation

In order to ensure the long-term success of a brand in the or want to optimize their services. Project managers and

automotive sector, it is mandatory today to have a targeted senior executives from vehicle and component development

design of the vibration and acoustic behavior of its products who want to gain a better understanding of the background

and thus achieve a high “perceived quality” of the company’s of the NVH methods.

vehicles. This functional design objective is generally called Course Contents

“NVH Noise, Vibration & Harshness”. Introduction

After vibration comfort has been one of the core objectives Tasks & objectives

of vehicle development for a long time, the acoustics in Historical development of NVH

NVH in the design process

the passenger compartment more recently also became a

competitive criterion, which today receives a lot of attention Basics of structural dynamics

Fundamentals

in the automotive industry.

Frequency analysis

The tasks of the NVH design can be divided into 3 areas: Modeling

Elimination of annoying vibrations. Modal analysis

Elimination of noise. Basics of acoustics

Design of the vehicle character. Sound propagation

Acoustic parameters

To meet these design objectives, extensive developments in Room acoustics

the fields of measurement technology and simulation meth- Psychoacoustics

odology have been undertaken in recent years. Problem analysis in NVH

Noise sources

Course Objectives

Analytical methods

In the two-day seminar, first the basics of NVH are presented. NVH measures

In this emphasis is placed on the physical background to un- Basic concepts

derstand the complex relationships in this field. Furthermore, Relevant components

the possibilities and limitations of simulation in the NVH area Example: Isolation package

are explained using practical examples. Simulation methods

Who should attend? Load cases in the NVH vehicle development process

CAE Practice: Applications and examples from the areas:

Newcomers and development engineers who wish to gain Engine mounting

an overview of the topic. Designers and engineers who want Body development

to broaden their knowledge about NVH criteria in the vehicle Chassis development

development process. Simulation engineers from engineering Optimization methods

mechanical engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern. He received his PhD in 1998 in the field of

vibration technology. He then joined the Adam Opel AG in the “Vehicle Simulation” department and worked

in the NVH group on the analysis of vehicle vibration and vehicle acoustics using the FEM. Since 2001, Mr.

Jennewein was responsible as a group leader for all NVH simulation activity at Opel. He also led a multidisci-

plinary team for the metrological validation of the calculation procedure. Since 2011 he has been a profes-

sor at the University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt and lectures in the subjects of engineering mechanics,

Instructors

mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Darmstadt. He received his PhD in 2000 in the field of

finite elements in acoustics. He then joined Adam Opel AG to work in the Vehicle Simulation Department. In

the NVH group he analyzed vehicle vibration and vehicle acoustics with the FEM. Later, Mr. Zopp introduced

the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) in the development process of Opel to expand the detectable frequency

range in the simulation. He was responsible for the global simulation methodology in the high frequency

range in the GM group. Since 2011, Mr. Zopp served as Group Head of NVH simulation at Opel. Since 2013

he has been a professor at the RheinMain University of Applied Sciences and lectures in the subjects finite

elements, engineering mechanics, machine dynamics and NVH.

Facts

07.-08.09.2017 3042 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 10.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

01.-02.03.2018 3043 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 01.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

30

Engineering

Course Description Course Contents

The vibration characteristics of vehicles have a significant in- Functional requirements

fluence on driving performance and ride comfort. Therefore Passive safety

the design of the vehicle structure with regard to vibration Vibrations and acoustics

targets is an integral part of the car body design process. Durability

Numerical simulation has become an indispensable tool Fatigue life

within this process. The evaluation and optimization based on Product Development Process

simulation results is only effective if the user has a profound Phases

knowledge about the underlying theories, the idealizations Integrated design

of reality associated with the simulation and the integration Integrated validation

of simulation results in the product development process. In

Vibration requirements

this one-day seminar the design and validation process of the

Excitation sources

vehicle structure’s vibrational properties within the product

Targets

development process will be presented. In particular, infor-

Conflicting goals

mation on the theory of mechanical vibrations, the practical

modelling and on the commonly used FE solvers Abaqus and Theory of Mechanical Vibrations

Nastran will be provided. This information will be illustrated Categorization of oscillations

Modal quantities

Course Objectives Forced oscillations

and their design and simulation within the product develop- Modal decoupling

ical vibration theory as a basis for correct modelling and System definition

application of finite element software in vibration analysis. Frequency range

To expand the knowledge regarding vibration phenomena in System boundaries, boundary conditions

vehicles and targeted design using computational methods. Structural model

Characteristic values and functions

Who should attend? Beam and shell theory

Engineers who are new in functional design and simulation. FE simulations

Designers, test engineers and technicians who want to Beam and shell elements

expand their knowledge regarding the full vehicle design Numerical solution procedures

process. Simulation services providers who want to increase Eigen-value solvers

their understanding of vehicle vibrations to optimize FEA software programs

their contribution to the car body design process. Project Vibration analysis with Nastran and Abaqus

managers and managers from the vehicle and component Assessment of simulation results

development, who want to gain a better understanding of Examples

simulation methods.

Dr.-Ing. Olaf Kolk (BMW Group) studied Physical Engineering Science and Mechanical Engineering

at the Technical University of Berlin and the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, USA. His doctorate was

in the area of vehicle dynamics of car body structures. In 1999, Dr. Kolk joined the research and innovation

center of the BMW Group in Munich, to first work in body development. There he has been responsible for

Instructor

the functional design of the BMW Z4 roadster body with regard to vibrations, passive safety and durability.

From 2010 to 2014, Dr. Kolk led the material data management for simulation, which is concerned with

material data and material inputs for simulation. Furthermore his work dealt with the integration of sus-

tainability, durability and fatigue issues within current BMW product lines. Since 2014, Dr. Kolk heads the

functional design and integration of body structure for the large BMW product line. In addition since 2009,

Dr. Kolk is lecturing at the Institute of Mechanics at the Technical University of Berlin.

Facts

05.10.2017 3030 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 07.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

32

CAE

Engineering WISSEN

NEW

By using mathematical topology optimization methods, new Special safety criteria, e.g. no leakage of the petrol

structural concepts are generated. These methods are effi- system.

cient in the field of structural design, taking into account lin- One of the first works in the area of topology optimiza-

ear structural properties and linear static loading conditions. tion for crashworthiness was the work of R.R. Mayer, N.

E.g. the homogenization method introduced by M. Bendsøe Kikuchi and R.A. Scott in 1996 (Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng.

and N. Kikuchi in 1988 (Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 39:1383–1403). Their optimization method is based on the

71:197–224) minimizes the mean compliance considering a voxel method and an optimality criterion is used to maximize

mass constraint. Therefore, they divide the design space into the energy absorption at specific weighted times. A resizing

small voxels and decide based on an analytical sensitivity for algorithm is utilized for the alteration of the design variables

each voxel, if there is material or not. After this optimization, and a threshold algorithm is used to delete finite elements

the engineer has a good proposal and the possibility for the from the structure.

interpretation and the generation of a CAD model.

In the “Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA)” method of N.M.

The consideration of the mean compliance is much too Patel et al. published in 2009 (J. Mech. Des. 131:061013.1–

simple for the optimization of crash-loaded structures. When 061013.12) an optimality criterion is used which is based on

crash load cases have to be considered, the special character- a homogeneous distribution of the inner energy density. The

istics of the highly non-linear dynamic crash problems have design space is divided into cells in which the finite elements

to be taken into account. Large deformations and rigid body have an artificial density. These artificial densities have

displacements occur during a crash incident. The material influence on the mechanical properties of the finite elements

laws used are mostly nonlinear because the kinetic energy is and are used as design variables for the optimization. The

absorbed by plastic deformation. For the correct prediction of inner energy density distribution is homogenized with a

the material behavior, strain rate dependencies and complex material distribution rule, which changes the design variables.

failure criteria have to be considered. The majority of the Neighborhood relationships can be taken into account by the

forces is transmitted via contact. In additional to that, the “Cellular Automaton Lattice”. Displacement, mass and force

crash simulation is much more complicated than the linear constraints can be used in the optimization.

simulation of structures:

The “Equivalent Static Loads Method (ESLM)” of G.J. Park

non-smooth structural behavior published in 2011 (Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 43:319–337)

not enough material data uses a nonlinear dynamic analysis domain and a linear static

important scatterings of material data optimization domain. An iteration of this optimization

method consists of a nonlinear dynamic simulation and a lin-

mesh-dependent results ear static optimization. Equivalent static loads are calculated

physical bifurcations for discrete times of the nonlinear dynamic simulation. They

simulation bifurcations are calculated such, that they cause the same displacement

field in the initial design of the linear static optimization as

input deck optimized for a special design point

the structure has in the non-linear dynamic simulation at the

In the topology optimization we deal with all these problems. specific time. The linear static optimization is performed with

We have requirements like: a multiple loading condition using the equivalent static loads.

Consideration of special acceleration values like the HIC Due to the nonlinearities, other structural responses like

value strains and stresses are not identical in the analysis and the

optimization domain.

Energy absorption,

Special force levels, The “Graph and heuristic based topology optimization

(GHT)” of C. Ortmann and A. Schumacher published in

Smooth force-displacement curve, 2013 (Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 47:839–854) was developed

Smooth acceleration-time curve, because of the limitations of the voxel-based methods. The

Special force paths for special loadcases. approach combines topology, shape and sizing optimization

and uses established finite element shell models for the crash

High stiffness of special parts, e.g. parts in a main force

simulation. The optimization task is divided into an outer

paths in the passenger area

optimization loop which performs the topology optimization

Low stiffness of special parts, e.g. at positions of the head and an inner optimization loop which performs the shape

contact of a pedestrian, and sizing optimization (figure 1).

33

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

NEW

initial design

shape optimization model creation

modification geometry model creation

of the shape

modification FE model creation

inner loop

activation of of the

FE simulations (crash, static, …)

outer loop

concurrent

no optimal shape

heuristics

reached?

modification yes

of the

activation and evaluation

topology

of the concurrent heuristics

selection of

no optimal topology

one concurrent

reached?

heuristic

yes

valuation

optimization (GHT)

algorithms while the outer loop uses heuristics (rules), which

are derived from expert knowledge, in addition to mathemat-

ical tools. E.g.:

delete unnecessary walls,

support fast deforming walls in order to avoid buckling,

remove small chambers to simplify structures, Figure 2: Topology optimization of a frame

balance energy density,

The goal is the minimization of the maximal force at a moved

use deformation space, rigid wall, so that some stiffness constraints and the manufac-

smoothen structure to simplify structures. turing constraints are fulfilled.

The basis for the modification of the geometry by the crash model Initial design (time of the

maximal deformation):

optimization software and for the automatic creation of input

decks for the crash simulation is a flexible description of the

geometry using mathematical graphs. The first approach

is the optimization of profile cross-section of the structure

abstracted by a planar graph, which reduces the geometric

optimization problem to the second dimension, although v0

the structure itself and all performed simulations are three

dimensional.

optimal design (time of the

Force-time-behavior (moving rigid wall)

maximal deformation):

Application examples

The shown application examples are optimized with the

GHT. The first example is an academic application (figure 2):

force [kN]

with a mass of 1.757 kg hit the structure with an initial vertical

velocity of 6.25 m/s. Two optimization tasks are considered: time [s]

initial opti- theoretical

1. minimize the maximum intrusion with a constraint of the design mum optimum

mass ≤ 0.027 kg

Figure 3: Topology optimization of a rocker

2. minimize the maximum acceleration with a constraint of

Especially the force-time curve and the acceleration-time

the intrusion ≤ 49 mm

curve of the optimal results are impressively, because they

The second example is a sub-model of an automotive rocker are close to the theoretical optimum (constant level during

against a pole (figure 3). The optimization tasks is to find the the crash time).

optimal topology and shape of the cross section of the rocker

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Prof. Axel Schumacher,

profile.

Bergische Universität Wuppertal

34

Engineering

Theory and Application

Course Description Course Objectives

In recent years numerical simulation has gained importance At the end of the seminar participants will have gained an

in all engineering disciplines. In the automotive industry the overview over different optimization disciplines and proce-

development process evolved from an experiment based to dures, the areas of application and their individual limitations.

a virtual development process. Through this move towards

simulation, mathematical optimization also gained impor- Who should attend?

tance and new opportunities for its application have been The seminar is suited for engineers and technicians from

opened within the development process. Only a few years research and development departments, users that intend

ago it would have been unthinkable to find the optimal cross to enlarge or fresh up their background knowledge and new-

section and the number and location of ribs for a cast part comers that want to get an overview of the subject.

through mathematical optimization, which is now common

practice. Course Contents

Local and global optimization methods and coupled

As there exists no single optimization method that is suited

strategies

for all problems it is important to gain an overview over

various optimization methods and their characteristics. In the Approximation methods

seminar the most popular and reliable optimization methods Lagrange function, dual method

will be presented. The focus will be on the explanation of the

Optimality criteria methods

basic concepts and ideas rather than on the detailed mathe-

matical derivations and formulations. Bionic optimization procedures (CAO, SKO, evolutionary

algorithms, optimization with particle swarms)

Emphasis will be on practical applications. Possibilities for

Coupling with FEM

using optimization methods will be demonstrated through

many industrial examples. Formulation of optimization problems

Sensitivity analysis

The following questions will be answered in the seminar:

Determination of important variables and variable

Which optimization methods are suited for which reduction

problems and which are not?

Sizing

How big is the optimization effort?

Shape optimization, use of morphing techniques,

How can the optimization effort be minimized? topology optimization

Which possibilities exist for the formulation of different Robustness optimization

optimization problems?

Multi disciplinary and multi objective optimization

What can lead to failure of an optimization?

Numerous application examples

Prof. Dr. Lothar Harzheim (Adam Opel AG) worked in the Group of Professor Mattheck on the

development of the optimization programs CAO and SKO before joining the simulation department of Opel.

Instructor

At Opel he is responsible for optimization, bio engineering and robustness. In this position he not only intro-

duced and applied optimization methods but has also developed software for topology optimization. Prof.

Dr. Harzheim regularly holds seminars for applied structural optimization and teaches at the Technical Uni-

versity of Darmstadt. He is the author of the book “Strukturoptimierung: Grundlagen und Anwendungen”.

Facts

18.-19.09.2017 2868 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 21.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

21.-22.02.2018 3035 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 24.01.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

35

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

The challenging topic of new conceptual designs requires trial-and-error procedures.

appropriate optimization methods to ensure price competi- Depending on the type of modification performed at the

tiveness as well as best-in-class structural performance. component non-parametric methods are classified as topolo-

The best result is achieved by an early and consequent use of gy, shape, sizing and bead optimization respectively.

optimization and a seamless integration of the procedures in

Topology Optimization

the design process.

Topology optimization is used in the initial design phase in or-

Different optimization methods can be used to improve the der to generate new design suggestions. The design process

design of new components or existing parts and assemblies. starts with a maximum design space in which the structure is

Parametric methods modify geometric parameters of a CAD allowed to be placed. At this point geometric details can be

or FEM model and are mostly used in the improvement disregarded as they are developed by the optimizer.

phase or when considering aspects from different disciplines Nevertheless existing contact regions, geometric and material

simultaneously. nonlinearities should be considered as they can influence the

Non-parametric methods use the full design flexibility of solution significantly.

CAE (simulation) models and do not require any additional

time-consuming parametrization. The most striking advan-

tage of the non-parametric approach is the ability to generate

high quality concepts in an early phase of the design process

- in particular to derive completely new innovative design

topologies leading to improved product quality (simulation

driven design, i.e. the simulation gives concept ideas to

CAD-designers).

stage with different element densities, optimization result with “hard”

Figure 1: Process of Structural Optimization remaining elements

The non-parametric optimization approaches are com- Based on the FEA results, the layout of the structural compo-

mercially available as tools which highly integrate into an nent is changed in a continuously repeated, fully autonomous

automated optimization process in direct interaction with process until an optimal design is obtained. In topology

standard CAE and CAD programs. The optimization modules optimization the finite elements are possible design elements

autonomously interact with the analysis results of CAE pro- which are ‘added to’ or ‘removed from’ the structure. The

grams such as Abaqus, Nastran and ANSYS. Results of static, adding and removing is controlled by a change of material

dynamic, thermal or fatigue analysis and well-established properties - only elements of high density form the final

technology including nonlinearities as contact, plasticity and supporting structure.

large deformations can be considered during the optimiza- Objective and constraint values for topology optimization can

tion. Additionally, the optimization provides the results in be chosen from:

suitable formats for an easy transfer into CAD. This allows the volume, mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia

designers to use their existing knowledge concerning models

compliance, nodal displacements, rotations, reaction

36

CAE

Engineering WISSEN

forces, reaction moments, internal forces, stress modifications provided by a finite set of parameters do not

natural frequencies offer enough degrees of freedom. For significant improve-

ments the full shape flexibility of non parametric methods is

results from frequency response analysis (amplitudes, required.

phases, velocities and accelerations), acoustic measures

(surface velocities, sound pressure) The non-parametric shape modifications (offered by software

like, e.g. SIMULIA Tosca Structure.shape) are performed

thermal values (temperature, internal or reaction heat flux) automatically in interaction with the FEM simulation where

and any combination of those each surface node can be displaced independently.

For the optimization process a large variety of standard Objective and constraint values for non parametric shape

manufacturing methods can be chosen from a library. These optimization can be chosen amongst others from:

include techniques like casting, stamping, drilling, turning, etc. volume, mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia

After topology optimization, an automatic validation of stress, strain, including plastic strain

the resulting design proposal – eventually with subse- compliance, displacements, rotations

quent shape optimization – or a direct transfer into CAD

Systems can be performed. natural frequencies

The use of topology optimization in the early stage of the fatigue values

development process reduces the number of development Generally in only 5-10 iterations significant improvements

cycles and helps to cut costs. can be achieved. The changes can be very sensitive to the

simulation result, i.e. slightly different values can gener-

Shape Optimization ate very different contours.

Shape optimization allows for specific detail improvements of

existing designs.

In general often small, but significant changes in the shape

(i.e. outer contour) of the component lead to major reduc-

tions of local hotspots like stresses, damage, strains and

contact pressures.

Shape modifications can be performed by:

changing geometric parameters like radii and dimensions

morphing (simple transformations like zooming, linear

distortion or translation) of specified areas

modification by means of shape basis vectors

(combined changes of several coupled surface handles,

similar to previous)

non parametric shape modifications by moving all surface Figure 4: Shape optimization of an exhaust manifold – reduction of plastic

nodes of a specified area independently strains under consideration of thermomechanical loads (images courtesy

FEV GmbH)

Thus to ensure high quality results and use the full optimi-

zation potential the FE-solver must provide reliable, realistic

results as input for the optimization:

Mesh smoothing distributes shape changes at the surface to

the inner elements to achieve homogenous mesh quality.

The use of realistic models including contact, non-linear

(eventually user) materials and geometric non linearities

guarantee that the optimization task is performed based

on the real and no surrogate component.

Approved high quality analysis software (even user

codes) and direct coupling with fatigue simulation

Figure 3: Methods for shape optimization based on parameters, morphing provide verified results.

and non-parametric approaches

Finally, a large variety of geometric and manufacturing

Parameter variation often does not provide effective restrictions has to be applied during the optimization to keep

solutions for the removal of stress hotspots as the shape important properties for the already detailed design.

37

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

The improved design can be transferred into any CAD-system. Further, non-parametric sizing optimization allows for an easy

and straightforward realization of manufacturing and design

Sizing Optimization restrictions. Even large scale industrial applications with up to

Sizing is a tool to optimize dimensions of a structure (design). millions of design variables are optimized highly efficiently for

These could be geometric dimensions or properties like an overall increase in eco-efficiency.

cross section parameters (e.g. radii) and thicknesses of finite

elements. Sizing optimization is mostly applied for sheet Bead Optimization

metal structures at a later stage of the development process Bead optimization supports the engineer to find the layout

when the general layout of the component (i.e. the topology) of bead stiffeners for shell-like structures, as, e.g. sheet metal

is more or less fixed. components. Beads improve the static stiffness and dynamic

Starting with the design area representing the part of the behavior of the component due to an increase in moment

structure to be modified the optimization system determines of inertia. Manual selection of a proper bead pattern is often

a design proposal with new sizing dimensions (e.g. new shell very difficult and requires a time-consuming trial- and error

thickness distribution) with an optimum relation between process. Compendia like “Steife Blech- und Kunststoffkon-

weight, stiffness and dynamic behavior. struktionen” by Oehler and Weber, Springer-Verlag GmbH

(1972), support the engineer in this complex task. However,

Sizing optimization can be realized by standard bead pattern are only available for simple geome-

parametric optimization (modifying geometric tries e.g. rectangular plates.

parameters) using general optimization systems For more complex parts, non-parametric optimization

non parametric optimization (modifying shell parameters) approaches are able to automatically generate a bead layout

as integrated into an FE-simulation code or provided by (i.e. location, orientation and bead pattern) based on the FEA

structural optimization software like, e.g. SIMULIA Tosca results. During the optimization (in general in 2-5 iterations)

Structure the nodes of the analysis model are moved normal to the ini-

Whereas parametric approaches modify a certain number of tial sheet surface. The resulting bead layout can be controlled

geometric parameters or assign constant shell thicknesses to by specification of a maximum bead width, height and other

some predefined areas non-parametric optimization applies form parameters.

changes for each single finite (shell) element in the model. Objective and constraint values for bead optimization can be

Only this free sizing allows for the full improvement potential. chosen e.g. from:

Based on the resulting distribution of dimensions, e.g. thick- volume, mass

nesses, elements can afterwards be clustered to combined center of gravity, moments of inertia

areas of constant thickness. stress, strain

compliance, reaction forces, reaction moments, internal

forces

displacements, velocity, acceleration

natural frequencies

results from frequency response analysis

To ensure the producibility of the part, manufacturing re-

strictions have to be considered. The result is a clear, directly

producible component design with significantly better perfor-

Figure 5: Sizing optimization of a car body – minimization of mass under mance compared to bead patterns derived from catalogues.

consideration of stiffness requirements (model courtesy by The National

Crash Analysis Center (NCAC))

volume, mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia

compliance, nodal displacements, rotations, reaction

forces, reaction moments, internal forces

Figure 6: Bead optimization of a muffler (images courtesy of Tenneco)

natural frequencies

results from frequency response analysis, acoustic

measures

thermal values

and any combination of those

Continued on page 40

38

Multiphysics Simulation

for Product, Nature & Life

Abaqus

CST

fe-safe

Isight

Simpack

Simpoe-Mold

Tosca

Wave6

XFlow

3DEXPERIENCE®

for news on industry applications and latest

technology trends. Find links to eSeminars,

Whitepapers and Tech Tips.

Visit blogs.3ds.com/simulia

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

Figure 7: Topology and shape optimization of a control arm (images courtesy OTTO FUCHS KG)

To ensure the functionality and manufacturability of the Structural Optimization supports the product development

designed component the full flexibility of the optimization process in all stages at different level of detail.

has to be restricted. In general, topology optimization may The goal is to start the development process using a start

come up with very organic structures which cannot be design which is already optimized regarding stiffness, weight

produced at reasonable cost and effort. The result of shape etc. In the progress of the design process with continuously

or bead optimization may be a complex free form surface more accurate knowledge of boundary conditions and

with severe undercuts etc. which may not be producible or interaction parameters more and more detail improvements

easy-to-process in a CAD system. Thus external constraints are required.

require additional restrictions to the optimization task to: For the full effect of structural optimization in the develop-

ment process, the following procedure for simulation driven

avoid the change of border areas to other components design could be followed:

ensure the ability to manufacture the component

Define finite element model of maximum design space

control the design and look of the part.

of component with all known loads and boundary

These restrictions can be formulated as: conditions

Perform topology optimization under consideration of

casting, drilling, stamping,… conditions

manufacturing process

member size control

Evaluate result

displacement restrictions

Optional: Perform shape optimization based on validation

frozen or fixed areas (to ensure connection to adjacent model to remove local hotspots in design proposal

components)

Transfer validated result proposal into CAD and start

symmetry (rotational, planar, …) conditions detailed design

general coupling conditions (pattern repetition, cyclic Improve mature design by local changes through shape

symmetry, …) optimization

Transfer modified shape into CAD to derive final design

40

CAE

Engineering WISSEN

Industry.

Due to a highly competitive market, the development cycles in The definition of the uncertainties forms the base for

the automotive industry have to be constantly reduced while the stochastic generation of the sampling set. Because

the demand regarding performance, cost and safety is rising. robustness evaluation requires knowledge of input scatter

CAE-based virtual prototyping and robustness evaluation helps influence, the best available know-how needs to be trans-

to meet these market requirements. A CAE-based robust- formed in the definition of input scatter including type of

ness evaluation creates a set of possible design variations distribution function, correlation of single parameter or

regarding the naturally given input scatter. A stochastic analysis spatial correlations (random fields).

methodology is used to generate the sample set. Depending

on the criteria, variance-based or probability based robustness

evaluation have to be utilized. In variance-based procedures, a

medium sized number (100 to 150) of input variables are gen-

erated by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The primary goal

of robustness evaluations is the determination of a variation

range of significant response variables and their assessment by

using definitions of system robustness like limit value violations.

By running a sample set of around 100 Latin Hypercube sam-

ples, reliable estimation of event probabilities up to 1 out of

1000 (2 to 3 Sigma range) is possible. For rare event probability

estimations like 1 out of 1000000 (4 to 6 Sigma range), proba-

bility-based robustness evaluation is necessary. The secondary

goal is the identification of correlations between input and

response scatter as well as a quantification of ”physical” and

“numerical” scatter of result variables.

Figure 1: Normal versus Figure 3: Histogram for Robustness evaluation; the violation probability of

Lognormal distribution, the limit 22 is estimated at 1 to 2%

the figure visualizes

that both distributions Within the framework of optiSLang the Metamodel of Op-

may have the same

mean and standard

timal Prognosis (MOP) algorithms and the measurement

variation but very of forecast quality (Coefficient of Prognosis-CoP) of the

different probability in correlation model were developed to provide automatic

the tails

reduction of dimensionality to the most important pa-

rameter. This is combined with automatic identification of

the meta-model which shows the best forecast quality of

Figure 2: variation for every important response value. At the same

a) correlation of time, the amount of CAE solver calls necessary to reach a

a) scattering material certain forecast quality can be minimized. This technology

parameter/

allows successful application of CAE-based robustness

b) random field of evaluation as a standard process to CPU intensive applica-

initial stresses after

forming process

tions in the automotive industry.

b)

Prognosis (MoP) to quantify the input variable contribution to the response

variable variation

41

CAE

WISSEN Engineering

robustness improvement of

passive safety performance:

It is necessary to provide state-of-the-art technology

upper diagram shows the for the consideration of test setup (dummy positioning,

scatter at milestone 1; lower crash pulse), airbag (mass flow, venting, permeability),

diagram shows the scatter

at final milestone of the

sensors, belt system, door/interior stiffness and scatter

virtual product development of friction (fig. 6). Besides the influencing dummy scatter,

process also the consideration of geometric body scatter in white

car is a topic of interest. Automation of post processing

is a key feature for productive serial use. Starting from

response variation overview, the engineer can identify the

critical response values regarding to variation (fig. 7).

applications is to investigate and improve the robustness

of the restraint systems to fulfill consumer ratings and legal

regulations of crash tests. Figure 5 shows an example how a

restraint system was improved by FE-modeling and physical

modifications to move the mean value and to reduce the

response scatter. Figure 7: Summary of variation of all important responses for load case

FMVSS 214

Figure 6: For

passive safety

applications multi Figure 8: Coefficient of

body as well as Prognosis for Variation of

finite element HIC15 values

models are used

in robustness

evaluation

pected concerning the dimensioning and increase of the

restraint systems robustness:

1. Those scattering input parameters are identified that

have significant contribution to important response

scatter.

2. Model weaknesses are detected and numerical noise of

significant vehicle performance variables is reduced.

3. The model robustness/stability and the quality of progno-

In passive safety applications, using MBS or FE-models, sis of crash-test computations are increased.

the quantification of numerical noise has become an im-

portant part of robustness evaluation. In other words, by 4. Robustness problems of the restraint systems are rec-

investigating the quantity of numerical noise, an assess- ognized and in cases of high violation of limits solved or

ment of model quality is possible. Nowadays, by develop- improved by re-design of components.

ing a reliable quantitative estimation of numerical noise

robustness, the evaluation of passive safety applications

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr.-Ing. Johannes Will, Managing Director Dynardo GmbH, www.dynardo.de

42

Engineering

The seminar addresses the current state of the art Mathematical methods for uncertainty quantification

complemented by recent achievements in research and Linear and non-linear sensitivity analysis (global / local)

development to quantify and control uncertainties (lack-of-

knowledge and variations) in vehicular development. Aspects Design of Experiments (DoE), Response Surface Methods

of sensitivity and robustness analysis are discussed as well (RSM)

as topics in reliability, resilience, redundancy and model Methods for model order reduction (MOR)

uncertainty. In addition, numerical methods for optimization Robustness versus reliability

with consideration of uncertainties and methods for model

Robustness in early design stages (Set-based Design und

order reduction (MOR) to reduce computational effort are

Solution Space Approach)

discussed. Applications (e.g. NVH, crash) illustrate the usage

of the methods and the fact that methods should be adapted Methods for resilience, redundancy, model uncertainty

to the degree of maturity of the design in the development Optimization under uncertainties

process. Applications taken from acoustics and crashworthiness

Course Objectives

The seminar is focused on methods and their theoretical

background to enable the participants to realize applications

directly in the industrial context. Hence, uncertainties can

be characterized, quantified, and – together with sensitivity

analysis – concept and structural evaluations are made

possible, which consider robustness, reliability, resilience,

and redundancy. Corresponding optimizations can then be

realized in an efficient manner.

The seminar is proposed for engineers with first experiences

in numerical concept and series development of vehicles,

who are interested in including robustness, reliability and

other aspects of uncertainty management in their industrial

designs.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fabian Duddeck (Technical University Munich) has been leading the research

group on optimization and robustness at the Technische Universität München (TUM) since 2010. His

research is focusing on shape and topology optimization for crash, NVH (noise vibration and harshness) and

Instructor

other disciplines including stochastic modeling and robustness assessments. Holding the chair for Compu-

tational Mechanics at the TUM, he also teaches and directs research at Queen Mary University of London

(QMUL) and at the French Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC). His group is involved in industrial as well as

national and international research projects. Prof. Duddeck has obtained his PhD (1997) and his Habilitation

degree (2001) at the Technische Universität München.

Facts

12.-13.09.2017 2950 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 15.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

19.-20.02.2018 3034 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 22.01.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

43

Engineering

Computer based methods are mandatory for state of the art, Motivation to use structured processes in CAE

economic as well as efficient development and qualification Which risks managers and analysis experts are facing? -

of products. Use and collaboration of CAE-tools require suited analysis based on examples

processes to lift existing potentials for an efficient and reliable

product development. Use of CAE to minimize risks

Structured process management in CAE as a means to

Performing such tasks for virtual based product development focus improvements - trends and examples for improved

and qualification demands high requirements on personnel, efficiency and the collaboration between designers and

workflows and practices. Warranty and reliability claims can analysis experts

be reduced by applying best practice in CAE-based product

development. The principle of “as little as possible but as Duties of analysis experts and managers from liability and

much as necessary” must be observed. warranty issues : aspects affecting reasonable work flows

Implementing process and risk management in CAE

To avoid mistakes and economic loss, CAE-applications

require reasonable and reliable workflows. This seminar pro- Structure of an efficient and quality driven process

vides background information on risks of using CAE and gives management

recommendations of implementing best practice. Maintain- Specific procedural requirements for CAE environment

ing high quality of CAE applications and enhancing efficiency and CAE processes

within the context of organizational structures and analysis Verification and validation

tasks are the main focus of this seminar. Use of knowledge

Monitoring and documentation of analysis planning,

management builds a bridge between performing an analysis

specifying and reporting of CAE projects

project and improving efficiency. Knowledge management is

a basis for efficiency, quality of prognosis and reliability of CAE Quality driven practices and collaboration with suppliers

application. A holistic view onto knowledge management and

knowledge based engineering will be given.

The seminar is aimed at product developers, CAE engineers

but also managers and decision makers who are responsible

for risk, performance and efficiency of projects supported by

numerical analyses, regardless if the computations are done

as a service to other companies or for in-house development

projects or ordered from a consulting partner.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klemens Rother (Munich University of Applied Sciences) studied mechan-

ical engineering at Munich University of Applied Sciences and the Department of Mechanics, Metallurgy

and Materials Science at Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA. He earned his doctorate in the field of

Instructor

computational durability at University of Dortmund. Since 1986 he has been working in various positions in

industry, e.g. more than 15 years in senior management for structural integrity and CAE consulting services.

Since 2008 he is professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Munich, faculty of mechanical, automo-

tive and aircraft engineering. He teaches strength, lightweight design, durability and conceptual design. He

is also head of a master’s program in computational engineering. His main research focuses on CAx-support-

ed product development and structural integrity.

Facts

20.-21.09.2017 2874 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 23.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

44

WE DEVELOP

RESULTS

HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

Integration and operation of LS-DYNA and

all other CAE applications on supercomputing systems

Planning, integration, and operation of complete systems

for structured management of analysis data, based, for example,

on SimManager, SimData Manager, and LoCo

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

Development of software for automation of

pre- and postprocessing methods, for example using ANSA and Animator4

Locations Braunschweig Flörsheim München Sindelngen Wolfsburg www.gns-systems.de

www.scale.eu

PRODUCTS

CadMe

Support meshing processes and data provision for CAD/CAE

LoCo

Comprehensive simulation data management solution for CAE processes

CAViT

Integrated post data management for tests and simulation

Status.E

Monitoring of requirements and project status

in product development

IT-SERVICES

CONSULTING

CAE Tools

Python is a modern programming language that is increas- Basic concepts of the Python programming language

ingly used in the field of Scientific Computing. Together with Introduction to the language

the environment www.scipy.org Python is an open source Data and control structures, functions

alternative to the commercial software MATLAB. A series of

CAE software products, including the Pre-Processor ANSA, Advanced topics

the solvers ABAQUS and PAM-CRASH and the Post-Processor Processing of data

META, are already using Python as an integrated scripting lan- Important modules of the Python standard library

guage. Python puts the emphasis on well-readable code, so Examples from scientific computing

beginners can learn the language very quickly. Nevertheless, Modularization in bigger Python projects

Python is a powerful programming language and can also be

used for larger projects. Further advantages of Python are Practical exercises

the platform independence and the very extensive standard

library supplied.

Course Objectives

The seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the

basics of the Python programming language. It also includes

an introduction to object-oriented programming. Practical

exercises, such as processing text-based files from the CAE

world, will be treated. After the seminar, participants will be

able to acquaint themselves with the Python interfaces of

CAE software products.

The seminar is aimed at newcomers to the Python language.

Experience in other scripting or programming languages

would be an advantage but is not a requirement.

Dr. André Backes (TECOSIM Technische Simulation GmbH) studied Mathematics at the

University of Duisburg. From 2000 to 2006 he was a researcher at the Institute for Mathematics at the

Instructor

Humboldt University in Berlin. His PhD studies at the chair for Numerical Mathematics introduced him to

the field of CAE. Since 2006 he works at TECOSIM GmbH in Rüsselsheim and specialized in NVH. In the area

of Virtual Benchmarking he helped developing the TECOSIM-owned process TEC|BENCH. In this project the

programming language Python was heavily used.

Facts

28.-29.09.2017 3004 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 31.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

12.-13.03.2018 3032 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 12.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

46

CAE

CAE Tools WISSEN

Background What does consistent mean?

Finite-Elemente-Programs require the usage of consistent Derived units can be expressed in terms of fundamental units

unit systems. In structural mechanics the SI-Systems and the without conversion factors:

mm-t-s (Millimeter-Ton-Second) system have proved their 1 Force Unit = 1 Mass-Unit * 1 Acceleration-Unit

worth. 1 Acceleration-Unit = 1 Length-Unit / (1 Time-Unit)2

1 Density-Unit = 1 Mass-Unit / (1 Length-Unit)3

Mass Length Time Force Pressure/Stress Energy

kg m s N Pa J

kg cm s 1.0e-02 N 1.0e+02 Pa 1.0e-04 J

kg cm ms 1.0e+04 N 1.0e+08 Pa 1.0e+02 J

kg cm μs 1.0e+10 N 1.0e+14 Pa 1.0e+08 J

kg mm ms kN GPa J

g cm s dyne dy/cm² erg

g cm μs 1.0e+07 N Mbar 1.0e+07 Ncm

g mm s μN Pa nJ

g mm ms N MPa mJ

ton mm s N MPa mJ

lbf-s²/in in s lbf psi lbf-in

kgf-s²/mm mm s kgf kgf/mm² kgf-mm

kg mm s mN kPa μJ

g cm ms dN 1.0e+05 Pa 1.0e-01 J

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CAE Tools

Interior Components

Course Description Course Contents

Computer aided engineering (CAE) gains increasing impor- Introduction to simulation: Application areas of

tance in many areas of vehicle development. The reasons for simulation, approaches and technologies of computer-

this are, firstly, a drastically increasing computer performance aided engineering

paralleled by decreasing cost, which drives the economy of Presentation and comparison of current numerical

CAE application in many disciplines. Secondly, the numerical methods: FEM - Finite Element Method (structural

methods are continuously improved and refined so that the simulation), MBS – Multi Body System (occupant and

predictive quality of the calculations is growing steadily and vehicle dynamics simulation), coupling FEM - MBS,

allows for simulations to be increasingly used as a basis for examples from the crash area

important product and design decisions. Especially in the

crash area, numerical simulation has established itself as an Use of simulation in vehicle development: Approaches

essential development tool. and applications in structures, occupants and

components. Joint use of numerical and experimental

Course Objectives simulation in development projects

The objective of this seminar is to learn about the use of nu- Structural simulation: Vehicle structure, car body

merical simulation in vehicle development and to be able to development, front and side impact crash simulations,

understand and judge its value in the development process. component and pedestrian protection simulations

In particular, it will be explained, what methods are used for Vehicle interior: Requirements and modeling for

what purposes, where the limits of these methods lie and to instrument panel, head impact, knee impact and door

identify the cost and benefits. Focus is on the application of trim analysis

simulation in crashworthy car body and in restraint system Occupant simulation: Simulation of crash and sled tests,

development. modeling of the components of a restraint system and

the interior, dummy models, combining the components

Who should attend?

to the overall model, various crash configurations

The seminar is especially suited for project and test engineers

in vehicle safety, but also for technicians and managers who Validation: Data required for validation, validation

are interested in the subject of simulation. The objective of approach including sequence in occupant simulation,

the seminar is to give the participants an overview about the component validation

application of computer simulation in vehicle safety. Tools and methods for simulation: Overview of analysis

tools, optimization, stochastic simulation, visualization

Dr.-Ing. Arno Heidkamp (IAC Group GmbH) studied Civil Engineering before he obtained a Ph.D.

in Biomechanics. Thereafter he joined TASS, where he was in charge of occupant protection projects. In

Instructor

2006 he joined TECOSIM where he worked in different areas of simulation: Crash, interiors, occupant pro-

tection and seating. As Technical Manager at TECOSIM he was in charge of the staff training in the field of

simulation methods.In 2013 he joined the IAC Group GmbH as Manager CAE and is in charge for integrating

CAE in product development processes.

Facts

15.03.2018 3036 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 15.02.2018, thereafter 890,- EUR

48

CAE

CAE Tools WISSEN

In order to reduce the number of casualties in car crashes, Connective Tissues: for simulating ligament rupture:

the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) has been

Ligaments … Mat_Simplified_Rubber (Mat_Fabric)

developed for simulating crash-induced injuries. The previ-

ous model, Version 3, was able to simulate bone fracture, Tendons … Mat_Simplified_Rubber

ligament rupture and brain injury. The new model, Version

4, is expected to simulate internal organ injury. Soft Tissues: for simulating brain and organ injuries:

Neck muscles … Mat_Spring_Muscle

Other flesh … Mat_Simplified_Rubber

Skin … Mat_Simplified_Rubber (Mat_Fabric)

Brain … Mat_Viscoelastic

Internal organs (Solid) … Mat_Simplified_Rubber

Internal organs (Hollow) … Mat_Low_Density_Foam

Validation Efforts:

THUMS V4 is validated against reference data published

around 2000. The impact speed range is around 7 m/s.

THUMS V4 has passive muscle models and can react to grav-

Features of Version 4: ity force with slight displacement of bones and deformation

Completely new FE meshes were generated to accurately of ligaments.

represent human body geometry. High-resolution CT scans

were used to digitize the interior of the body for generating

precise geometrical data of the internal organs. The modeling

also reflected the anatomical features of each organ. By

inputting data on the physical properties of organ tissue

reported in the latest research, injury at a tissue level can be

simulated. Validations were conducted against more than

20 impact tests. Geometries of THUMS V4 AM50 are based

on CT scans of a living human whose height is 173 cm and

weight is 77 kg. The model is omni-directional and it can be

used for frontal, lateral and rear impact simulations.

THUMS V4 is provided without encryption and can be mod-

ified, e.g. the internal organs can be replaced by a mass for

simulations where they are not in the focus.

No modifications to the vehicle models are required when

the THUMS V4 is used.

THUMS V4 is compatible with dummy models. Time step of

THUMS V4 is 0.4 microsecond.

Bones: for simulating bone fracture:

Cortical bones … Mat_Piecewise_Linear_Plasticity

CAE Wissen by courtesy of TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION and Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

49

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models and Failure Criteria of Glass for Crash Simulation – X-FEM

Introduction

High quality simulation of safety glass, used for making

windshields in automotive industry, is still a challenging topic

for commercial crash solvers.

Holistic modelling of the behavior of glass becomes more

important due to its influence on structural behavior in

several load cases, like for static and dynamic roof crush, as

well as for highly dynamic impacts and pedestrian protection

enhancement.

The main requirement of the automotive industry is to use

the same model and the same mesh for all load cases.

Figure 1: Schematic visualization of the discontinuity in a finite element

Nowaday exist many material models as well as many failure continuum

apply shell-element deletion, or setting its stiffness, at the

integration point, to zero, when the failure criteria is reached.

This approach works well, but has a major disadvantage: It is

highly mesh sensitive!

Local refinement, like adaptive meshing, will lead to local-

ization of plasticity and at the end to failure in the refined

area. Adaptive meshing is a suitable method for stamping

simulation where the final deformed shape is known. It is not

recommended in crash applications.

Figure 2: Modelling of discontinuous displacement field: Re-meshing vs.

To overcome this drawback, ALTAIR has developed further X-FEM

the extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) [2] and imple-

mented it in the RADIOSS crash solver [1].

Theory

X-FEM is a numerical method for geometries containing

discontinuities and singularities without the need of building Figure 3: Modelling of crack propagation with X-FEM

a conforming mesh. This numerical method was developed

for modelling large (displacement) as well as slight (strain) Application for simulating the windshield behaviour in

discontinuities within a standard finite element framework. It crash

is based on the Partition of Unity Method [3]. The X-FEM method is designed as a module and can be add-

X-FEM will be applied for the simulation of crack initiation and ed to the existing failure criteria, like Forming Limit Diagram

propagation without the need of re-meshing [4]. With X-FEM, (FLD), Johnson-Cook, tabulated failure-strain-vs-triaxiality

cracks are represented as surfaces of discontinuous displace- and others. For the usage of any application, it is highly rec-

ments continuously propagating through finite elements ommended to validate the material and failure model first,

(see figure 1). Dynamic crack propagation is an application before activating the X-FEM extension.

domain for which X-FEM is particularly suitable because the The typical safety glass consists of: Glass – Polyvinylbutyral

most prevalent method for treating crack growth (see figure (PVB) foil – Glass

3), where re-meshing, is not suitable for a solution of this

problem (see fig. 2). It is obligatory for the FEM method, to be able to represent

the correct behaviour of a windshield, to mimic independent

cracks within one shell-element, depending on the state of

stress and strain, in the individual layer (see figure 4).

50

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

shell meshed part

expected (figure 5). The validation model shows exactly the

expected behaviour of the layers through their thickness,

where the dominant shape on the upper layer is circular and

on the lower layer the star-shape becomes dominant. Figure

6 shows the simulation results with RADIOSS. It can be seen,

that the cracks propagate nearly mesh independent.

Conclusion

X-FEM is more physical in terms of crack simulation, due to

the split of elements than the classical, unphysical, deletion

of elements. Besides, X-FEM aims at avoiding extremely small

and CPU expensive meshes. It is successfully implemented

in RADIOSS, where it is able to realistically reproduce crack

Figure 5: Different crack shapes due to different stress conditions, over the

patterns in laminated glass, like in windshields. There is also

thickness the possibility of crack initiation which is important for design

improvement and stochastic analysis. X-FEM is easy to use in

RADIOSS: Only one Flag has to be set.

References

[1] HyperWorks RADIOSS Theorie Manual: 13.0 version – Nov 2014

[2] T. Belytschko, T. Black, “Elastic crack growth in finite elements with

minimal remeshing”, Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg., 45:601–620,

1999.

[3] J.M. Melenk, I. Babuska, “The Partition of Unity Finite Element

Method: Basic Theory and Applications”, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech.

Engrg., 139:289-314, 1996.

[4] N. Moës, J. Dolbow, T. Belytschko, “A finite element method for

crack growth without remeshing”, Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg.,

Figure 6: Finite element simulation (RADIOSS) results on a validation

structure – safety glass

46:131–150,1999.

CAE Wissen by courtesy of:

After final validation material-, failure criteria and the X-FEM Marian Bulla - ALTAIR Product Specialist Crash&Safety

approach can be applied to industrial cases, especially Jean-Pierre Bobineau - ALTAIR Senior Technical Specialist

well-suited for modelling fracture in brittle materials as well Maciek Wronski - ALTAIR Software Development Manager

as in multi-layered shells with different materials (figure 7 Mircea Istrate - ALTAIR Senior Software Developer

and 8).

51

A Platform for Innovation

TM

Innovate with confidence on your next simulation platform. Go forward

faster with new and enhanced capabilities in model-based development,

electromagnetism, nonlinear structural analysis, efficient model

management and meshing, multiphysics and computational performance,

structural optimization and design exploration.

Get all of the training that you need

without having to leave your desk!

HyperWorks Virtual Instructor Led Training offers the benefit of a live

instructor with convenience of taking a class from your desk.

Sometimes it is important to receive immediate training. That is

where the HyperWorks Self Paced training can be most effective.

Each exercise uses demonstration videos, interactive exercises, and

hands-on exercises using our See It!, Try It!, Do It! Methodology.

classes and HyperWorks Self Paced Courses visit

altairhyperworks.com/training

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

NEW

Spot Weld Modeling for Crash Simulation

Joints are often the weak points of a vehicle when overload The failure model is given according to

occurs e.g. in crash situations. They join the single compo- 2 2 2 2

nents to the load-bearing body in white. The crash simulation fn fs mb mt

1

needs reliable and applicable tools for the prediction of the

Fn Fs Mb Mt

load bearing capacity and energy absorption of all kinds of

joints to ensure the crash safety of vehicles. where fn, fs, mb and mt are the actual normal and shear force,

bending and torsion moment calculated in the hexahedron,

Joints are modeled with simplified models in crash simula- respectively. Fn is the critical normal force, Fs the critical shear

tions of whole cars due to efficiency. The simplified models force, Mb the critical bending moment and Mt the critical

should be able to reproduce the deformation and failure torsion moment at fracture. Because of minor importance

behavior as well as the energy absorption of the joints the critical torsion moment is neglected. The exponents are

with less computational cost but with adequate accuracy. all equal and set to 2 what results in a quadratic, equal distrib-

Simplified modeling techniques for point-shaped, line-shaped uted superposition of normal, shear, bending and torsional

and plane joints are available in different crash codes and still loading in a mixed loading case.

new models are developed because of an increasing variety

of new joining techniques. The procedure of determination of

damage and fracture parameters of the models is a more or

Procedure of failure parameter determination

less standard procedure of inverse simulation. The procedure

of calibration of model parameters of spot welds is shown in The three remaining failure parameters are determined by

this article. simulation of specimen tests of spot welded tension, lap-

shear and peel specimens. The finite element models of the

specimens are shown in Figure 2. The stepwise procedure of

calibration of the failure parameters, the critical normal force

Definition of spot weld model FN, the critical shear force Fs and the critical bending moment

Here, as example a solid element is used for the geometric Mb is described in Table 1. First the tension specimen test is

representation of a spot weld as one possibility for the simpli- simulated using the spot weld model. Under tension loading

fied modeling of spot welds. Figure 1 shows the dimensions the easiest case occurs, because fs and mb are zero. If the

and the position of a solid element representing one spot global maximum force measured in the test is reached by the

weld. The solid element is bound to the shell elements in the calculated global force, the local value of fn is evaluated and

mid position of the sheet metal using tied contact definitions gives the value of the critical normal force Fn. In the second

step the peel specimen test is simulated. If the calculated

The weld nugget diameter d = 5.4 mm and the metal sheet

global force reaches the measured value of maximum force

thickness t1 = t2 = 1.5 mm give the height

the local values fn and mb of the hexahedron are evaluated,

h = ( t1 + t2 ) /2 fs still remains zero. These values are put in the failure model

using the already determined value of FN and the critical

and the element edge length bending moment MB can be calculated by easy transforma-

L e πd 2 / 4 tion of the equation. In the third step the lap-shear specimen

is simulated. The values of fn and fs are evaluated if the

of the hexahedron.

calculated global force reaches the value of the measured

maximum force in the lap-shear test. FS can be calculated

by putting these values for fn, fs and the already determined

value for FN in the failure equation, because mb remains zero.

With this procedure the triple of parameters of the failure

model is determined which is specific for the tested material,

spot weld diameter and loading velocity.

54

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

bearing capacities quite well. The determined parameters are

shown in Table 2 and are specific for the investigated DP600

spot weld with nugget diameter of 5.4 mm and quasi-static

loading.

Figure 2: finite element models of spot welded specimens: tension, peel and

lap-shear specimen (from left to right)

1 determination of critical normal force by FN

simulation of tension test

2 determination of critical bending moment MB

by simulation of peel test with fixed value Figure 3: Comparison of the measured and calculated load vs. displacement

of FN curves of lap-shear, tension and peel tests using solid elements and

MAT_100 in LS-Dyna

3 determination of critical shear force by FS

simulation of lap-shear test with fixed

value of FN and MB

FN MB FS

Table 1: stepwise determination of failure parameters

11.1 kN 15.7 Nm 15.4 kN

Table 2: failure parameters for spot welded joints in DP600 with a nugget

diameter of 5.4 mm and quasi-static loading

Results of parameter determination

The result of the determination of parameters is shown in

Figure 3. The dashed lines are the measured load vs. displace- CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Silke Sommer,

ment curves of the three specimen tests used for parameter Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg

calibration. The calculated load vs. displacement curves are

2018

ATE

SAVE THE D

read more at www.carhs.de/grand-challenge

55

Modeling of Materials & Connections

For the efficient assembly of components and complete The course addresses engineers working in the field of crash

structures many different joining techniques are available. simulation and heads of simulation departments interested in

Joints have to ensure that the assembly will fulfill crashwor- the important topic of modelling of joints including failure.

thiness, durability and other requirements. Therefore the

best joining technique has to be selected for each application. Course Contents

Modern lightweight design often uses a material mix. Using Overview of modeling techniques for different joining

different materials, like various steel grades, lightweight techniques

alloys, plastics or composites for applications for which the Tests and methods for characterization of joints

individual material is best suited allows for weight savings.

The efficient and reliable joining of different materials is Local loading conditions at joints during testing under

even more challenging. Failure of joints can be a reason for shear, tension and bending load

collapse of vehicle structures during crash testing. Therefore Characteristics of failure behavior

failure of joints must be precisely predicted in numerical Failure modelling of

crash simulation applied in the virtual design process of

spot welded joints including spot welds in press hardened

vehicle development. steels

self-piercing riveted joints

Course Objectives

laser welded joints

The objective of this one day course is to give the participants

an overview of failure modelling of different joints (puncti- adhesive joints

form, linear, planar joints) for crash simulation and also of the Calibration methods for determination of model

characterization tests and methods that are necessary for parameters

calibrating the model parameters. Also recommendation for Validation of calibrated models through testing and

validation tests and simulations of calibrated joint models are simulation

given. Examples of typical and used models are shown in all

common crash codes.

Dr.-Ing. Silke Sommer (Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM) studied

Physics at the RWTH Aachen University and obtained her PhD degree at the Karlsruhe Institute of Tech-

Instructor

nology about modelling of the deformation and failure behaviour of spot welds. She has been working at

the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg since 2000 in the field of damage and

failure modelling of materials and joints for crash simulation. Since 2013 she is a group leader for joining and

joints.

Facts

05.09.2017 2928 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.08.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

19.03.2018 3041 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 19.02.2018, thereafter 890,- EUR

56

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Metals are the dominant material group for the body-in- deformation of metals the onset of plastic deformation is

white. A CAE based development includes the metal forming not influenced by the level of hydrostatic stress. In case

simulation of the different parts and the simulation of misuse of a plane stress condition (σ3=0) for shell elements the

and crashworthiness of subcomponents and the whole body- yield locus reduces to an ellipse in the σ1-σ2-plane.

in-white. The phenomenological models for the elastovisco-

plastic behaviour and failure initiation of metals are discussed Typically an associated flow rule is applied for metallic ma-

in general. The implementation of those models can differ terials. This means that the yield surface or yield locus is also

between the commercial FEA codes. used as a plastic potential. The plastic potential defines the

components of the plastic strain rates by the direction of the

A comprehensive material model must cover the following normal on the surface.

effects:

Description of elastic material behaviour

Stress state dependent criterion for the onset of a

plastic deformation (stress yield locus) and criterion for

derivation of plastic strain components (plastic potential)

Model for strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity (in

case of pronounced viscoplastic behaviour)

Criteria for onset of material failure (mainly strain-based

for metallic materials)

Elastic Behaviour

Figure 1: Yield surface according to von Mises

The elastic behaviour of metals is assumed to be linear. For

most technical alloys the elastic properties are assumed to If the von Mises plasticity is used the only user input is the

be isotropic on a macroscopic scale (single grains can exhibit yield stress from uniaxial tension. The yield stress and the

a pronounced orthotropy of the elastic properties). Isotropic corresponding hardening curve defines the initial size of the

linear-elastic behaviour can be described by 2 independent cylinder and its increase during strain hardening.

values, for example by the

Sheet metals typically exhibit an orthotropy of the plastic be-

Young’s modulus E with σ = ε Ε and the haviour due to the rolling process. In this case an orthotropic

shear modulus G with τ = γ G yield locus should be used. Hill-1948 offers an orthotropic

extension of the von Mises yield locus. This locus is available

From these values two further dependent elastic

in nearly all commercial FEA codes. The orthotropy parame-

constants may be derived:

ters are typically defined via three Lankford coefficients r0, r45

and r90 which are derived from tensile tests in 3 orientations

bulk modulus K:

to rolling direction. The Lankford coefficient is defined as

Possion’s ratio ν: follows:

The proportional limit Rp or the technical 0.2% yield

Here b0 and b are the initial and current width of the tensile

strength of a tensile test indicates the onset of plastic

specimen. t0 and t are the initial and current thickness of the

deformation in metallic materials. In a finite element

tensile specimen. The Lankford coefficient is typically evaluat-

analysis a criterion for the onset of plastic deformation

ed between 2% and uniform elongation. The Hill-1948 locus

is needed for general multiaxial stress states. The yield

based on Lankford coefficients is appropriate for mild and

locus is used for this purpose. Figure 1 shows the yield

high strength steel sheets. However advanced high strength

locus according to von Mises in the stress space. Stress

steel sheets and aluminium sheets are not represented

states inside the cylinder are still elastic. Stress states

adequately by this model. More complex yield loci should be

on the cylinder shell indicate the onset of plastic flow.

used.

The body diagonal in Figure 1 represents the hydrostatic

stress p. As volume constancy is assumed for the plastic

57

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Strain Hardening and Strain Rate Sensitivity Completely wrong conclusion can be drawn from this simple

The strain hardening can be derived from the classical tensile criterion.

tests. The input for the FEA codes, however, is true stress

versus true plastic strain. The raw data of the tensile tests

are force F and elongation ∆L of the extensometer. Based on

the initial cross section A0 and the initial length of extenso

meter L0 of the tensile tests the curve can be expressed as

engineering stress σeng=F/A and engineering strain e=∆L/L0.

This curve can be used only up to uniform elongation as the

strain is no longer homogeneous in the specimen for a higher

elongation. The true stress σtrue and true plastic strain ε can

be derived as follows:

This hardening curve has to be approximated and extrap-

olated for the input in FEA. In general cases higher strains

than the uniform elongation can be reached in a deformed Figure 2: Failure modes for metallic materials

structure. A well known and robust hardening law is the Swift

model:

The main failure mechanism of metallic sheets in sheet

σtrue = K (ε0+ε)n metal forming and crash is the onset of necking. At a sudden

point of deformation the strain hardening and the strain rate

sensitivity can no longer avoid a localization of the strain. Due

K, ε0 and the strain hardening exponent n are material

to strain localization a fracture appears inside the neck after

dependent parameters. Most of the metallic materials show

a small increase of the global strain. Therefore the necking

a positive strain rate sensitivity, i.e. the flow stress increas-

itself can be used as a failure criterion. As industrial sheet

es with strain rate. Steels show a pronounced strain rate

metal forming simulations and crashworthiness simulations

sensitivity. In general the strain rate sensitivity decreases with

are mainly based on shell discretization the localized necking

increasing yield strength of the steel. Aluminium alloys show

cannot be resolved directly – the width of the neck is in the

a low or even negative strain rate sensitivity at low strain

dimension of the sheet thickness. Forming Limit Curves

rates, but a positive one for high strain rates. The strain rates

(FLC) are the standard approach to predict the onset of

of a deep drawing simulation are in the range of 0.001-0.1

necking. The FLC is expressed as major principal strain versus

1/s. The strain rate in a high speed crash simulation can

minor principal strain at the onset of necking. However the

reach locally strain rates of 500 1/s. The strain rate sensitivity

classical FLC is limited to linear strain paths. More advanced

can be expressed either by analytical laws which scale the

models have to be used in case of nonlinear strain paths. For

quasi-static hardening curve as a function of the strain rate

advanced high strength steels and aluminium sheets fracture

or by providing multiple hardening curves for the relevant

can happen prior to localized necking. This fracture can be

strain rate regime.

caused either by void growth and void coalescence (ductile

normal fracture) or by shear band localization (ductile shear

Failure Criteria

fracture). The fracture limit curves for these fracture modes

As metallic materials are typically ductile, strain-based failure

can be expressed by the equivalent plastic strain at fracture

criteria are dominant for this group of materials. Many CAE

as a function of the relevant stress state parameter.

engineers favour to use the total elongation or engineering

fracture strain from the tensile test as a fracture criterion. CAE Wissen by courtesy of MATFEM Partnerschaft, Munich

However this value is not a real material parameter as the (www.matfem.de)

specimen elongation does not resolve the local strain in the

diffuse neck of a tensile test. In addition the fracture strain is

a strong function of the stress state. A sheet under bending

will fail first on the surface with tensile load despite the same

equivalent strain appears in compression without failure.

58

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occupant simulation started slowly end of the 90’s, but became

our main business of today. Actually 80 simulation engineers are

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Aroser Allee 68 · 13407 Berlin · Deutschland · T. +49 (0)30 473 931-000

www.iatmbh.com

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Besides an appropriate spatial discretisation of the structure The course addresses engineers working in the field of crash

and a profound knowledge of the required load cases, ap- simulation and heads of simulation departments interested in

propriate material modelling is a key ingredient for predictive the important topic of material modelling.

crash simulations. The load carrying structure of a car today

still mainly consists of metallic materials. The materials to be Course Contents

described are diverse. Overview of metallic materials used in cars

The seminar deals with the following materials: Influence of material structure on mechanical behavior

Phenomenological material models for metals

mild and high strength steels,

Overview of experimental methods for material

cold formable AHSS and UHSS steels,

characterization

hot formable and quenchable boron steels,

Identification of material parameters from experiments

wrought Al and Mg alloys,

Discussion of the sensitivity material parameters

cast Al and Mg alloys.

The objective of this 1 day course is to give the participants

an overview of material models of metals used in crash

simulation. In a first step the deformation behavior and the

failure mechanisms of each material class are explained

based on the material structure. The influence of strain rate

on material behavior is an important aspect in the context

of crash simulation and will be discussed in the seminar. In

a second step phenomenological material models for crash

simulation are introduced. In the third step the tests needed

for the characterization of materials are described and the

parameter identification for the material models is discussed.

Finally and using example simulations the sensitivity of sim-

ulation results regarding the identified material parameters

is shown.

Dr.-Ing. Helmut Gese (MATFEM - Partnerschaft Dr. Gese & Oberhofer) founded the

engineering consultancy MATFEM in 1993 (from 1999 the company has been named MATFEM partnership

Instructor

Dr. Gese & Oberhofer). MATFEM offers technical and scientific consultancy services at the intersection of

material science and finite element methods. Besides performing FEM analysis projects the area of activity

covers experimental and theoretical characterization of materials and the development of new material

models for simulation.

Facts

09.05.2017 2899 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 11.04.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

26.10.2017 2900 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 28.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

60

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Obtaining precise material parameters for CAE is a multi-step performed on a tightly controlled, standardized experiment.

process. Proper knowledge in many areas is necessary: By comparing the outcomes, a quantitative assessment of

the material model quality can be obtained before it is used

Appropriate test samples must be used. Factors such as in an application simulation. The experiment load conditions

environmental conditioning must be considered. being well defined, it is possible to quantitatively compare

Range of application temperatures: -40º to 80ºC simulation to experiment (Fig. 1).

Measurements must be made over many decades of

strain rate

Complex models require shear and biaxial test modes

All required properties must be correctly measured with

scientifically designed procedures.

Strict quality control, ideally to the ISO17025 norm is

needed for traceability and risk management.

Data must be fit to the best-suited model using visual and

quantitative measures, requiring extensive knowledge of

non-linear modeling.

Error-free input files must be provided for the CAE

software.

Because of the large number of uncertainties, many

analysts will conduct a verification and validation (V&V)

Figure 1: ARAMIS DIC experiment compared with ANSYS® simulation results

step to confirm that the material model is performing for a 3D-printed Aluminum component.

correctly.

Material Model Validation

Most material models used in CAE simulation are based

on limited experiments. Real life situations require the

material model to perform in many states which may not

have been considered in the initial model development. The

reliability of a material model to perform in such a situation

can be gauged by a validation process, where simulation is

Simulation Scenario Applicable Material CAE Material Models Required Tests

Static Loadings

Static small deformation: Stiffness Metals, plastics, Abaqus *ELASTIC, ANSYS ELASTIC, Tensile modulus Poisson’s ratio

foams, rubbers, NASTRAN MAT1, RADIOSS Law 1

composite

Static large deformation: Metals, plastics Abaqus *ELASTIC *PLASTIC, ANSYS Tensile stress-strain, modulus and

Post-yield modelling MISO, NASTRAN MATS1 Poisson’s ratio

Dynamic Loadings, Crash, Drop Test

Crash / dynamic loading: Metals, plastics, LS-DYNA MAT024, PAM-CRASH Tensile stress-strain at 0.01, 0.1, 1,

Impact simulations of car body composite Material 105, RADIOSS LAW 2, 10, 100/s, density and Poisson’s ratio;

Abaqus *PLASTIC, RATE, ANSYS capture and modelling of post-yield

Explicit STR behavior

Crash / dynamic loading: Impact simula- Fiber filled plastics LS-DYNA MAT019, DIGIMAT J2 Tensile stress-strain at 0.01, 0.1, 1,

tions of car instrument panel- fiber filled (Visco) Elastoviscoplasticity 10, 100/s, density and Poisson’s ratio.

plastics; high stiffness, brittle failure Directional properties also needed for

DIGIMAT

61

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Dynamic Loadings, Crash, Drop Test (continued)

Crash / dynamic loading: Ductile plastics LS-DYNA MAT089, MAT024, PAM- Tensile stress-strain strain at 0.01, 0.1,

Impact simulations of car interiors and CRASH Material 105, RADIOSS 1, 10, 100/s, density and Poisson’s ratio;

bumpers- plastics subject to ductile LAW 2, Abaqus *PLASTIC, RATE, capture and modeling of post-yield

failure ANSYS Explicit STR behavior

Crash / dynamic loading with interest Ductile plastics LS-DYNA SAMP-1, Rate dependent tensile testing,

in non-Von Mises failure envelopes and LS-DYNA MAT183 compression, shear, post yield Poisson’s

detailed post-yield modelling ratio and unloading damage curves

Crash / dynamic loading: Soft foams, LS-DYNA MAT083, MAT057 Compression tests at strain at 0.01, 0.1,

Impact of foam seats viscoelastic foam 1, 10, 100/s with unloading for damage

Crash / dynamic loading: Impact of Crushable foams LS-DYNA MAT063, MAT163 Compression tests at strain at 0.01, 0.1,

foam bumpers, energy absorbers 1, 10, 100/s with unloading for damage

Crash / dynamic loading of rubber com- Rubbers LS-DYNA MAT 181, MAT 183 Rate dependent tensile or compression

ponents: Impact of bushings, rubber tests with unloading damage curves

bumpers, shock absorbers

Hyperelasticity and non-linear NVH

Quasi-static large deformation of rub- Rubbers, foamed LS-DYNA MAT077, MAT027, AN- Quasi-static tests in uniaxial tensile,

ber-like materials with little volumetric rubbers SYS HYPER, Abaqus *HYPERELAS- biaxial tension or compression, planar

compression: Rubber boots, door seals, TIC, Abaqus *HYPERFOAM tension or shear modes, with or with-

tubing- out pre-cycling

Quasi-static large deformation of Rubbers, foamed ANSYS HYPER, ANSYS HYPER Og- Quasi-static tests in uniaxial tensile,

rubber-like materials with volumetric rubbers den foam, Abaqus *HYPERELAS- biaxial tension or compression, planar

compression: Rubber gaskets and TIC, Abaqus *HYPERFOAM tension or shear modes, with or with-

bushings, foam seals out pre-cycling, volumetric stress-strain

NVH / dynamic large deformation of Rubber, foamed Abaqus *VISCOELASTIC, PRE- Dynamic mechanical analysis of visco-

rubber: door seals, bushings rubbers LOAD=UNIAXIAL elastic frequency sweeps at multiple

preload strains

Metal Forming and Cyclic Plasticity

Sheet metal forming: Body panel and Metals LS-DYNA MAT036, MAT037 Tensile stress-strain in 0º, 45º, 90º and

component forming Lankford parameters in 3 directions

Work hardening: Repeated loadings Metals ANSYS TB Chaboche model Cyclic tensile/compression tests

under constant displacement

CAE Modelers are software apps that convert material properties data into CAE-ready material cards. CAE Modelers are capa-

ble of automating complex conversions, including rate-dependent models for crash simulations. (Fig. 2)

Features:

Converts material data to material model parameters

Single-point and curve/multi-curve data conversion

Graphical User Interface for model parameter tuning and modification

Outputs for latest and older CAE software versions

Embedded within Simulia (Abaqus/CAE), SolidWorks 2014, ANSYS

Workbench, Moldex3D, and ANSA

Master Material File creation from Matereality for HyperWorks (Fig. 3),

ANSA, Creo, Abaqus/CAE and ANSYS Workbench

Figure 2: LS-DYNA CAE Modeller is used to

create MAT024 material card.

62

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Polymer is a chemical notion comprising many different a) Setup b) Head certification test c) Resultant acceleration

materials that strongly differ from the physical behaviour of

metals. From an engineering point of view it is instructive to

subdivide polymers broadly according to their mechanical

behaviour into materials with and without permanent defor-

mation. In automotive structures, these are typically:

Elastomers, recoverable foams, plastics at small

deformation

Crushable foams, plastics at large deformation

All polymers consist of long chain molecules. The differences Figure 2: Head impactor for pedestrian protection

relate to the number of crosslinks between them (Figure 1).

Foams

Polymer foams are unique gas-polymer composites that

a) Thermoplastic b) Thermoset c) Elastomer are used in a variety of applications based on their ability to

absorb energy. Under compression, foams can be considered

as materials with a Poisson coefficient close to zero (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Compression test of an EPP foam

Elastomers

Elastomers are types of polymers that exhibit rubber-like

If they are completely recoverable, i.e. there is no permanent

qualities where disorder of the molecule arrangement is a

deformation during mechanical loading, the mathematical

measure of loading (entropy elasticity). Elastomers can be

description of the material response can be formulated

described phenomenologically by hyperelasticity where the

by the same theory as for elastomers, i.e. hyperelasticity.

stress σ can be obtained by derivation of an appropriate en-

Contrary for foams that exhibit permanent deformation, a

ergy function W with respect to the principle stretch ratio λ:

non-isochoric elasto-plastic description can be used.

In both cases, modern explicit finite element packages allow

for a tabulated input of the stress-strain relation, even strain

As an example, Ogden’s energy functions is given as rate dependent. It is therefore sufficient to describe the

principal stress-strain behavior mathematically, e.g. by

where and

In the case of strain-rate sensitive rubbers, some linear where the parameters and

dampers are considered additionally in parallel. As an exam-

describe the strain-rate dependency of the

ple, Figure 2 shows the head certification test for pedestrian

protection where the skin of the head impactor consists of material, see Figure 4.

highly strain rate dependent rubber.

63

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

It is therefore useful to parameterize the material response

e.g. by a simplified G’Sell-Jonas law

different densities and its mathematical parameterisation.

from which the stress-strain curves at constant strain-rates

may be computed. However there are, similar to metals, a lot

Plastics of open questions due to the influence of the process chain.

The influence of fibre orientation and weld lines that lead to a

Thermoplastics are polymers with non-crosslinked chain

much more brittle behavior (Figure 6,7) can be considered by

molecules in amorphous or crystalline structure. They turn

coupling of the analysis of injection moulding and structural

to liquids when heated and freeze to very glassy states when

analysis (“integrative simulations”) which are topics of ongo-

cooled sufficiently. The same effect occurs if we increase and

ing investigations.

decrease the strain rate respectively. At small strains, thermo-

plastics behave viscoelastic, i.e. they have a certain strain

rate dependency but (almost) no permanent deformation.

At large strains, thermoplastics can be described in a pretty

good approximation by viscoplasticity, i.e. strain rate depen-

dency below the yield surface is neglected. Effects like

increase of volume during plastic flow (crazing),

different yield stress under tension/compression/shear/

biaxial tension and

decrease of Young’s modulus for increasing strain

Figure 6: Fill study of a specimen enforcing weld lines

(damage)

also need to be considered to obtain a reasonable material

formulation for thermoplastics.

Figure 5: Parameterization of dynamic stress-strain curves.

direct input of the stress-strain relation, but only at constant

CAE Wissen by courtesy of the Institute for Mechanics and Materials at the TH Mittelhessen, Giessen in collaboration with

the Department of Mechanics & Simulation at the German Institute for Polymers (DKI), Darmstadt.

64

impetus.4a.co.at

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from test to material card

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Modeling of Materials & Connections

Numerical simulation has become a fundamental element in The seminar addresses experienced CAE engineers and

the development of motor vehicles. Today, many important heads of CAE departments with an interest in plastic and

design decisions, especially in the field of crash, are based on foam materials simulation. At least 1-year of experience with

simulation results. During the last few years there has been FEM-programs such as LS-DYNA and PAM-CRASH is suggest-

an increase in the use of foams in vehicles. These are, due to ed for participating in this course.

their variety and structure, much more complicated regard-

ing the characteristics of the materials than “simple” materi- Course Contents

als such as steel or aluminum, which can be modelled rather Overview of polymer materials used in vehicle

well. Characterization of foam materials is a great challenge construction

for the simulation expert. Although by now there are differ- Verification and validation procedure for crash simulation

ent modelling approaches available in explicit FEM-programs

such as LS-DYNA and PAM-CRASH, these are, however, often Introduction to mechanics of materials

not satisfactory. The application of these special material Simulation of elastic and visco-elastic rubbers and foams

models requires a sound knowledge and experience. with volume elements

The seminar provides an overview over plastics and foam Overview of available material models in explicit finite

materials used in automotive engineering and their phe- element codes

nomenology. On the first day you obtain an introduction into Simulation of elastic-plastic polymers under crash loading

the simulation of elastic and visco-elastic polymers, such as for validation

elastomers and elastic polymer foams with volume elements. Simulation of anisotropic materials with application to

You are thereby coming to understand the available material glass-fiber reinforced plastics

models in explicit finite element programs.

On the second day the focus is on the treatment of plastics,

such as thermo- and duroplastics through elasto-plasticity

with isotropic hardening. Non-associated deformation is

going to be discussed as well. The seminar is rounded off with

the procedure for simulation of glass-fiber reinforced plastics

using both isotropic and anisotropic material laws.

For a demonstration you are going to see examples created

with the program LS-DYNA. References to material models in

LS-DYNA and PAM-CRASH are going to help you in applying

what you will have learnt.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stefan Kolling (Giessen University of Applied Sciences) is Professor for Me-

chanics at the Giessen University of Applied Sciences (THM). Previously he worked as a simulation engineer

Instructor

at the Mercedes Technology Center in Sindelfingen. He was responsible for methods development in crash

simulation. In particular he was involved in the modelling of non-metal materials such as glass, polymers and

plastics. Prof. Kolling graduated from the Universities of Saarbrücken and Darmstadt, from where he also

received his Ph.D. He is author of numerous publications in the field of material modeling.

Facts

22.-23.05.2017 2909 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 24.04.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

24.-25.10.2017 2910 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 26.09.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

66

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

simulations is often performed with the material parameters

Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio ν and a plasticity model. (4)

This procedure however is insufficient to select and design

short-fibre-reinforced plastics. As shown in Figure 1, short-fi-

bre-reinforced plastics exhibit a strong anisotropy, which

is due to the different local fibre orientations. This causes

strongly direction-dependent mechanical properties.

(5)

with:

Ef, νf Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio of the fibre

e.g. Glass Fibre: Ef= 72000 MPa; νf=0.22

l,d Length and diameter of the fibre (l/d ≈ 20 ...30)

Φ Fibre volume fraction, to be calculated from the

fibre weight fraction:

(PA-GF50) ρm,ρf Density of the plastics matrix and the fibre

For technical applications it is sufficient to know the me- Studies in the past have shown that the model of Halpin and

chanical properties in and transverse to the fibre orientation. Tsai is suitable to estimate the mechanical properties. More

For these so-called transversely isotropic materials the accurate, but much more expensive, is the micromechanical

implementation of the material in FEM analysis still requires model approach of Tandon and Weng. In this model the five

five material parameters. These can be determined experi- transversely isotropic engineering constants are calculated

mentally or calculated using the mechanical properties of the as follows:

(6)

fibres and the polymer matrix, the fibre dimensions and ori-

entation. For this, the empirical Halpin-Tsai model, is a widely

used method. The five required engineering constants of a

transversely isotropic elastic material are defined as follows: (7)

(1)

(2) (8)

(3)

(9)

(10)

68

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

with:

(25)

(26)

(11)

(12) (27)

(13)

(28)

(14)

(29)

(15)

(30)

(16)

(17) (31)

(32)

(18)

with:

(20)

The use of the models requires knowledge on the distribution

(21) of fiber orientations. These can be produced through injec-

tion moulding simulations (see Figure 2). Software utilities

(22) then allow the automatic transfer of information on the local

fibre structure into the structural simulation model.

(23)

The described procedure requires, however, knowledge

The parameters S in the equations (8) - (9) and (20) - (24) are

(24) about the elastic characteristics of the plastics matrix. Their

the components of the so-called Eshelby tensor. They allow

determination is problematic because for short-fibre-re-

to explicitly take into account the geometry of the enclosure.

inforced plastics, the exact data of the matrix material are

In the case of a fiber, the components are defined as follows:

generally not known. One way to estimate these is the

application of the Halpin-Tsai model. From tension test data

the modulus E11 of the fibre-reinforced plastics can be deter-

mined. Once this is known, the matrix modulus Em follows

from equation (1). For calculations reaching the plastic region

very complex material models need to be applied, often

by using the user interface of FEM software packages. The

elastic material models described here reach their validity

limit in this case.

tion of the fibre orientation

CAE Wissen by courtesy of the Chair of Plastics Processing Technology at TU Dortmund University

69

CAE

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Many different types of composites exist today, but generally composites broadly fall into two camps. First, there are the

there is a common aim to combine two or more constituents high performance pre-preg composites in which a laminate is

to give a better material than each of the individual constit- made from stacking plies which have resin pre-impregnated

uents. The most popular composites today combine strong into the fibres; and second, there are Liquid Resin Infusion

stiff fibres (e.g. Carbon, Glass or Aramid) with a low strength technologies where resin is only added after the dry fabrics

polymer matrix (e.g. Epoxy or Polyester). Great flexibility is are placed and shaped.

possible in combining these materials to obtain required cost Regardless of the fibre, fabric or resin types there are usually

and performance. common analysis methods available to predict composites

The fibres are first brought together as yarns having, typically, mechanical performance; these range from simple analytical

6k (k=1000) and possibly up to 48k fibres. These yarns may methods for stiffness to advanced Finite Element methods

be directly used to manufacture a ‘preform’, which is the for stiffness, failure and impact or crash loading. Some simple

basic textile structure of the composite; or they may be formulae based on mechanics of materials can be helpful

further processed into fabrics. The fabrics would then be to obtain basic mechanical data; these so-called micro-me-

formed (draped), combined and trimmed for the preform. chanics laws combine fibre and matrix properties to give

Generally, Aerospace applications use 6k or 12k tows for best homogenized composite properties.

performance, whereas ‘thicker’ 24k or even 48k tows are

preferred for Automotive applications where low cost fast Voigt model: This law of

preforming is the priority. Many different types of fabrics are mixtures gives accurate axial

produced having widely different drape, infusion or final part composite modulus E1 from

mechanical properties for stiffness, strength or impact. Gen- fibre modulus (Ef), resin modu-

erally, fabrics fall into two groups and either have intertwined lus (Em), fibre volume ratio (Vf

yarns (e.g. Plain weaves and Twills) or have straight yarns = vol. fibres/ total vol.) and the

(Non Crimp Fabrics) for better stiffness. In this case yarns are matrix volume ratio Vm (=1-Vf/

overlaid and held together with light stitching. total vol.).

Reuss model: This reciprocal

law of mixtures for E2 gives a

poor estimate for transverse

modulus since transverse

stresses are non-uniform

and poorly represented by

the assumed simple spring

model. Improved relations

Bi-axial NCF (tricot stitch) are given by the Halpin-Tsai or

Hopkins-Chamis models.

Despite considerable research it has been difficult to extend

micro-mechanics models to woven textile composites for

accurate failure prediction. If homogenized properties are

available, from test or micro-mechanics, then Classical Lami-

nate Theory (CLT) can be used to compute laminate stiffness

of a stack of plies. Software tools are available to help auto-

Uni-directional NCF mate these calculations. Typically, for a given applied loading,

these codes compute overall laminate strains and individual

The function of the resin is to protect fibers and transfer ply stresses and strains in the fibre directions. Classical failure

stresses between them; particularly for load redistribution at criteria can then be used to compute maximum load limits.

the ends of any fibres that may break. Again, an enormous

variety or resin types are commercially available ranging from During the past 30 years many ply failure criteria have been

low performance, low cost, polyester systems to high perfor- proposed with the main ones being Maximum Stress (or

mance epoxy resins and super high performance/cost PEEK Strain) and the Tsai-Hill and Tsai-Wu ‘quadratic’ criteria. Each

thermoplastic resins. Finally, manufacturing methods for of these describes a failure envelope in stress, or strain space,

70

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

and gives the limits of safe loading. These criteria have points

determined from coupon tests and assumptions are used to

complete the envelope. The Maximum Stress-Strain criteria

assumes no interaction of stress components on failure,

whereas the quadratic criteria more correctly assumes stress

interactions but can be unrealistic for some load combina-

tions. In recent years the physically based Puck criteria for UD

composites has gained popularity and does overcome many

of these limitations.

12 Max.

Puck

Stress

Tsai‐Wu

12

and progressive ply damage laws should be used since these

allow the different ply failure modes to be represented and A further important crash mode is axial crushing. Here ply

damaged independently. For a UD composite failure modes and delamination models are not applicable and specialized

may be fibre tension or compression failure, transverse ma- techniques to model composites fragmentation are needed.

trix tension or compression failure, or matrix shear failure. In Fragmentation is initiated via a trigger device (usually a

addition delamination of the weak resin layer between plies chamfer) that creates local micro-cracking; this then steadily

may occur. The popular approach to model ply damage is via propagates through the part as it is crushed. An important

damage variables that modify initial linear stiffness; delamina- feature is that material at the crash front is fundamentally

tion is usually approximated with damaging spring elements different to the intact undamaged materials and both must

that tie plies together and absorb resin fracture energy during be properly represented in the numerical model.

progressive failure.

E1

G12

E2

sity of Stuttgart.

71

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Increasing demands for weight reduction paralleled by Current and upcoming areas of application of composite

requirements for improved crash performance and stiffness materials

of structures have strongly pushed the development of Analysis of composite materials

advanced composites. The use of composite materials today

is not limited to niche applications or secondary parts; they Available material models and their application

are increasingly used for important load carrying structural Modelling methods for plies and laminates

components in series production. FEM modelling of composites

In this one day seminar Prof. Thomas Karall presents the Failure mechanisms and their representation

foundations of structural impact and crash analysis of com- PAM-CRASH ply and delamination models

posites with the Finite Element Method. At the beginning of

Necessary material tests

the seminar an overview of current and upcoming industrial

applications of composite materials is given. Thereafter con- Examples

cepts for the correct physical modeling of the complex load

degradation and failure mechanisms in numerical simulation

are presented. The course concentrates on the numerical

simulation of the crash behavior of composites and is accom-

panied with demonstrations using the PAM-CRASH code.

The course addresses simulation and project engineers, proj-

ect managers as well as researchers involved in the analysis

and design of composite parts and structures.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Karall (Hof University of Applied Sciences) studied mechanical engineer-

ing at the Technical University of Vienna and received his PhD as Assistant Professor at the University of

Leoben in the field of fibre-reinforced plastics and the calculation by finite elements. From 2006 to 2010 he

was head of department at the Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology in Vienna in the

Instructor

field of mechanical and thermal testing / fibre composites, and Secretary General of the Austrian Working

Group for reinforced plastics. From 2010 to 2015 he worked as Lead Researcher for lightweight design at

Virtual Vehicle Research Center in Graz. He was also a lecturer at the Technical University of Graz and lec-

turer at the FH Joanneum Graz. Since 2015 he has been Professor at the Engineering Department of the Hof

University. His areas of work include lightweigt design, fibre-reinfoced composites and the finite element

method.

Facts

12.05.2017 2946 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 14.04.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

27.10.2017 2947 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 29.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

72

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Green Mobility office@v2c2.at

www.v2c2.at

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Due to increasingly strong social and political demands for a The seminar is especially designed for engineers and tech-

reduction of the energy demand of automobiles, systematic nicians in the development and simulation departments of

lightweight construction is becoming more and more import- automobile manufacturers, suppliers and engineering service

ant in this industry sector. Special opportunities are offered providers dealing with the simulation and development of

by the use of fibre-reinforced composites as prime materials fibre composite components, and fibre composite structures.

for lightweight constructions. A major challenge of these ma-

terials is the anisotropic material behavior and its calculation. Course Contents

Given the fact that composites are constructed entirely differ- Introduction

ent and behave completely different compared to the classic Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures

metallic materials, the engineer must learn to deal with this

class of materials to use the advantages of composites for Characteristics and parameter determination of

the design of vehicle structures. In the seminar the attendees composite materials

are first introduced to examples from practice and gain a Calculation of long-fibre-reinforced plastics

basic understanding of the tasks. After that, the theoretical FEM modelling

and practical aspects of computing methods are explained in

Material models for structural-mechanical description

order to be able to calculate statically and dynamically loaded

structures of long fibre-reinforced plastics. Calculation of static loads

Calculation of dynamic loads

Course Objectives

Failure criteria of composites

After participating in the seminar “Static and dynamic analysis

of long-fibre-reinforced plastics”, participants are able to Damage and failure mechanisms of composite materials

compute composite structures and to identify the effective

mechanisms of the associated physics. They understand the

different requirements of a fibre composite structure and

the associated calculation concepts. A particular focus of

the seminar is aimed at the challenges, the problems and

limitations in the analysis of long-fibre-reinforced compos-

ites. Accordingly, it provides knowledge for the design and

the detailed FE analysis. Furthermore, the various damage

mechanisms and failure criteria are explained.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Karall (Hof University of Applied Sciences) studied mechanical engineer-

ing at the Technical University of Vienna and received his PhD as Assistant Professor at the University of

Leoben in the field of fibre-reinforced plastics and the calculation by finite elements. From 2006 to 2010 he

was head of department at the Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology in Vienna in the

Instructor

field of mechanical and thermal testing / fibre composites, and Secretary General of the Austrian Working

Group for reinforced plastics. From 2010 to 2015 he worked as Lead Researcher for lightweight design at

Virtual Vehicle Research Center in Graz. He was also a lecturer at the Technical University of Graz and lec-

turer at the FH Joanneum Graz. Since 2015 he has been Professor at the Engineering Department of the Hof

University. His areas of work include lightweigt design, fibre-reinfoced composites and the finite element

method.

Facts

05.-06.09.2017 3038 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 08.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

74

CAE

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

The utilization of new materials such as plastics, composites, Johnson Cook)

foams, textiles or high-strength steels requires the application

of highly complex material models. These material models

generally bring along numerous material parameters, which

are difficult to define. Design optimization can be a useful

method to identify those parameters.

Design optimization can be defined as an automated proce-

dure for achieving the best outcome of a given operation while

satisfying certain restrictions. This objective has always been

central to the design process, but is now assuming greater

significance than ever because of the maturity of mathematical

and computational tools available for design optimization.

These tools are used in different scenarios. Mathematically

the problem is always reduced to minimizing a system

outcome criterion while satisfying other system responses. A

typical example would be the weight reduction of a car body

by changing sheet thicknesses under achieving different NVH

and crash criteria. Figure 1: Reverse Engineering - Parameter Identification

Reverse engineering

Nowadays these optimization tools are often used for

“reverse engineering”. This method is applied due to the

fact that complex interacting problems in measurement and

simulation often can’t be transformed into a simple problem

description, e.g. in the process of material calibration:

σ(ε,έ) couldn’t be measured directly or the effort to

measure it is too high (e.g. bending test)

sample preparation doesn’t allow or the effort is too

high to gain specimens for each loading condition

Figure 2: Optimization process diagram

(e.g. compression, shear, tension, ... ) or material (e.g.

sandwich, glue,...) needed Optimization algorithm

the material model parameters are interacting with The idea of direct optimization is to use only simulation

simulation parameters (e.g. hour glassing) or model results to find the optimal value. A typical algorithm is the Ge-

idealization (e.g. mesh size, contact formulation of multi netic Algorithm, e.g. MOGA-NSGA II. The GA is a population

material mix) based stochastic optimizer inspired by Darwin’s “Survival of

Parameter identification is commonly used to solve those the fittest” principle. But since direct optimization requires

issues. many simulation runs, this method is usually too expensive

Parameter identification problems are non-linear inverse and hence rarely used.

problems which can be solved using mathematical optimiza- The idea of metamodel-based optimization is to approximate

tion. In most cases the objective is to minimize the mismatch the relation between parameters and simulation output by

between two curves, typically a two-dimensional experi- simple functions (e.g. a linear polynomial) and perform the

mental target curve, e.g. a stress-strain curve or a force-dis- optimization on that surrogate model. Only a few simula-

placement curve, and the corresponding computed curve tion runs are required to fit the metamodel. The method is

extracted from a simulation. The computed curve depends very effective, especially for highly non-linear optimization

on system parameters that can be varied, e.g. material con- problems.

stants. The main essential components of such an algorithm

designed for system identification are The nature and capacity of the simulation environment

as well as the purpose of the optimization effort typically

the optimization algorithm (e.g. metamodel-based or dictate the strategies for metamodel-based optimization.

direct optimization) The strategies depend mostly on whether the user wants to

the curve matching metric (e.g. Mean Squared Error) build a metamodel that can be used for global exploration or

the formulation of the material “parameter” law (e.g. he is only interested in finding an optimal set of parameters.

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WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

An important criterion for choosing a strategy is also whether Curve matching metric

the user wants to build the metamodel and solve the prob-

lem iteratively or he has a “simulation budget”, i.e. a certain The objective of a parameter identification problem is to

number of simulations he wants to use as effectively as pos- minimize the mismatch between the target curve and the

sible to build a metamodel and obtain as much information simulation curve. To judge on the mismatch between two

about the design as possible. curves, a curve matching metric is required.

In case of iterative solving polynomial response surfaces The commonly applied Mean Squared Error uses the vertical

are typically used, together with the strategy “Sequential coordinate distance between two specified curves to

Response Surface Method with domain reduction” (SRSM). compute the matching error. The mismatch is quantified by

In case of a “simulation budget” or of complex problem the sum of the squares of the distances in the y-coordinate

descriptions Feedforward Neural Networks or Radial Basis between the target points and the interpolated points on the

Function Networks are used more often nowadays. To solve computed curve. Thus, the mismatch of the abscissa is not

parameter identification problems, SRSM is usually used. explicitly included.

𝑃𝑃 2 𝑃𝑃 2

1 𝑓𝑓𝑝𝑝 (𝑥𝑥) − 𝐺𝐺𝑝𝑝 1 𝑒𝑒𝑝𝑝 (𝑥𝑥)

𝜀𝜀 = ∑ 𝑊𝑊𝑃𝑃 ( ) = ∑ 𝑊𝑊𝑃𝑃 ( )

𝑃𝑃 𝑠𝑠𝑝𝑝 𝑃𝑃 𝑠𝑠𝑝𝑝

𝑝𝑝=1 𝑝𝑝=1

steep parts of the curve are difficult to incorporate in the

matching. Failure material models have the characteristic of

a steep decline of the stress-strain curve towards the end of

the curve while steep curves also feature in models in which

part of the behavior (the leading part of the curve) is linear.

In case of curve hysteresis the ordinate values of the curve

Figure 3: Sequential Response Surface Method

are not unique. To solve this problem one can use time

dependent measurement descriptions, which are unique or a

different curve matching algorithm has to be used, e.g. Partial

Curve Mapping.

point bending test (4a impetus process).

Figure 6: Partial Curve Mapping

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(experimental) curve to avoid problems with different PowerLaw 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀)𝜀𝜀̇ 𝑛𝑛

magnitudes for abscissa and ordinate. It maps the short 𝜀𝜀̇ 1

curve onto the long curve so that the lengths are equal. The Cowper Symonds 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀) [1 + ( )𝑃𝑃 ]

𝐷𝐷

error is defined by the area between the short curve and the 𝜀𝜀̇

mapped curve. The sum of the volumes representing the Johnson Cook 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀) [1 + 𝐶𝐶𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 ]

𝜀𝜀̇0

individual segment errors is the criterion which is minimized 𝜀𝜀̇ 𝜀𝜀̇

in the optimization process. Kang 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀) [1 + 𝐶𝐶1 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 + 𝐶𝐶2 (𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 )2 ]

𝜀𝜀̇0 𝜀𝜀̇0

Typical material cards in commercial solvers for elastic

Evaluation of optimization results

viscoplastic material behavior are defined by true stress- true

strain curves for different strain rates. Internally the com- Since parameter identification problems have target values or

mercial solvers are using a table lookup algorithm to get the curves, the easiest way to judge on the quality of the optimi-

current material state during an explicit simulation. zation result is to compare the optimal simulation results and

the target. If the fit is not good enough, the following issues

To use reverse engineering for material characterization, could be a reason among others:

the curves σ(ε,έ) have to be described by a parameterized

material law. Before simulating each loadcase the material First the convergence of the optimization algorithm should be

card has to be created by a script using the design parameter checked. If a sensitive parameter still varies, the results can

values submitted by the optimizer. be improved by continuing the optimization. If the optimum

is found at a bound for one or more parameters, those vari-

Well known material laws for describing the yield behavior able ranges should be enlarged. In case that not any of the

can be found in Table 1, those describing the strainrate curves found in the optimization process fits the test curves

behavior in Table 2. quite well, the material model might not be appropriate and

should be changed.

Bi-Linear 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 + 𝐸𝐸𝑇𝑇 ∙ 𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝

Ludwik 𝜎𝜎 = 𝐴𝐴 + 𝐵𝐵𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝𝑛𝑛

𝑛𝑛

G’sell Jonas 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 + 𝐾𝐾 · (1 − 𝑒𝑒 −𝑤𝑤·𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 ) · 𝑒𝑒 ℎ·𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝

∗ 𝜀𝜀

Voce 𝜎𝜎 = 𝐴𝐴 + (𝐵𝐵 − 𝐴𝐴) · 𝑒𝑒 −𝐶𝐶

1

𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 + 𝐸𝐸 · 𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 · Figure 7: Optimization History

4a three parameter 𝐸𝐸

[1 − 𝐻𝐻 · 𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 ]

Further information:

Table 1: Material laws for yield curves

http://impetus.4a.co.at

http://www.lsoptsupport.com

CAE Wissen by courtesy of

4a engineering GmbH, Austria (www.4a-engineering.at)

and

Dynamore GmbH, Stuttgart (www.dynamore.de)

77

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WISSEN Theory

Over the last decade, the multiphysics simulation approach point leads to a second way of Multiphysics coupling: The

replaced the artificial segregation of different physics with multiscale-coupling by combining a full-scale model of the

a single, unified simulation environment that replicates the system with a detailed sub-model of a cutout of the system.

real behavior of natural systems. This allowed engineers to

simulate the way physics influence one another in the real Theoretical background of Thermoacoustics

world in a matter of minutes, drastically reducing the risk of For many applications simulating acoustics, a series of

product failure and delays to market. assumptions are then made to simplify these equations:

the system is assumed lossless and isentropic (adiabatic

Multiphysics is based on the design to simulate coupled

and reversible). Yet, if you retain both the viscous and heat

physics effects by solving its underlying mathematical

conduction effects, you will end up with the equations for

representation based on partial differential equations (PDEs).

thermoacoustics that solve for the acoustic perturbations in

The user interface should allow the user to include just

pressure, velocity, and temperature.

about any physics effects of interest that are relevant to a

specific application, allowing the user to set up a simulation in The governing equations used in this model are the continu-

minutes. For all common multiphysics problems the coupling ity equation:

between the physics involved is fully automated. Joule i 0 u

heating, thermal stress, electrochemical reactions, fluid-struc-

where ρ0 is the background density;

ture interaction (FSI) are but a few examples of the many

the momentum equation:

predefined couplings that are available in software packages

such as COMSOL Multiphysics. The software then automat-

T

2

i 0u pI u u B u I

3

ically compiles the system of PDEs, representing predefined

physics as well as user-defined physics, and computes a where μ is the dynamic viscosity and μB is the bulk viscosity,

numerical solution to that system. and the term on the right hand side represents the diver-

gence of the stress tensor; the energy conservation equation:

There are a lot of examples where multiphysical simulation

comes into play in automotive applications, starting from

i 0C pT T0 0 p kT Q

sound-vibration couplings via couplings of chemical reactions, where Cp is the heat capacity at constant pressure, k is the

heat transport and free or porous flow as e.g. in catalytic con- thermal conductivity, α0 is the coefficient of thermal expan-

verters or batteries and fuel cells, to thermal management sion (isobaric), and Q is a possible heat source; and finally, the

simulations when designing the electronic system in the car. linearized equation of state relating variations in pressure,

Sometimes the coupling is just one-directional, where one temperature, and density:

physics influences the other, sometimes it is bidirectional, 0 T p 0T

where both physical processes influence each other.

where βT is the isothermal compressibility.

True multiphysical: The Thermoacoustic Effect In thermoacoustics, the background fluid is assumed to be

The thermoacoustic effect is a truly multiphysical phenome- quiescent so that u0=0. The background pressure p0 and

non as it describes the interaction between acoustic pressure, background temperature T0 need to be specified and can be

density and temperature variations. When sound propagates functions of space.

in structures and geometries with small dimensions, the

sound waves become attenuated because of thermal and The left-hand sides of the governing equations represent the

viscous losses. More specifically, the losses occur in the conserved quantities: mass, momentum, and energy (actually

acoustic thermal and viscous boundary layers near the walls. entropy). In the frequency domain, multiplication with iω

This is a known phenomenon that needs to be included when corresponds to differentiation with respect to time. The

studying and simulating systems affected by these losses terms on the right-hand sides represent the processes that

in order to model these systems correctly and to match locally change or modify the respective conserved quantity.

measurements. In two of the equations, diffusive loss terms are present, due

to viscous shear and thermal conduction. Viscous losses are

The example which is shown here takes this effect into ac- present when there are gradients in the velocity field, while

count while modeling an acoustic muffler with perforates. It thermal losses are present when there are gradients in the

also shows that this multiphysical approach can be used just temperature. Both is usually the case close to solid boundar-

for those parts of the model where it plays a significant role ies, where so-called viscous and thermal boundary layers are

while in other parts, modeling the acoustic pressure varia- created at the solid surfaces.

tions is sufficient to adequately represent real conditions. This

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Theory WISSEN

The model Step 4: The pressure acoustics model using the Kirby and

The aim of the present model is to determine the impedance Cummings impedance model is solved.

Z(ω) using a detailed thermoacoustic model of a single hole as

The results are shown in Figure 2: The transition loss has

it is computationally impossible to model the whole perforated

been plotted as a function of frequency for the different

plate. The model of one hole will give a precise value of Z in-

model versions and for experimental results by Selamet et al,

cluding thermal losses and viscous losses as well as all hole-hole

2003. The model that matches the experimental values best

interactions (see Figure 1). Moreover, there are no free param-

is the one including the thermoacoustic effect.

eters here. The so-called end correction is included explicitly

when solving this detailed thermoacoustic model.

Outlet

Porous filling

Inlet

holes (left) is used to determine lumped parameters which are then applied

Figure 2: Transition loss as a function of frequency: Blue: without including

as internal impedance boundary condition in the full-scale model of the

the thermoacoustic effect, green: Thermoacoustic effect included, turquois:

muffler (right).

thermoacoustic and effect of porous backing included. The red dots show

experimental results.

The effect of having a porous backing on one side of the

perforated plates is however not included in the initial model.

References:

The semi-analytical Kirby-Cummings impedance model, taking

Selamet et al., JSV, 262, p. 509 (2003)

a porous backing into account, is implemented for comparison.

COMSOL, Acoustics Module User’s Guide, chapter 6, pp. 327-339

Now the simulation is performed in four steps: (2014)

solved; CAE Wissen by courtesy of Comsol Multiphysics GmbH

Step 2: The pressure acoustics model using the default

perforated plate boundary condition is solved;

Step 3: The pressure acoustics model using the impedance

determined from the sub model is solved;

SAFETYWISSEN.com

Know anything you need, any�me, anywhere!

www.safetywissen.com

79

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WISSEN Theory

1 Introduction

The behaviour of mechanical systems in general is described

by a set of partial differential equations (PDE, in case of a dis-

tributed parameter system) or by a set of ordinary differential

equations (ODE, in case of a discrete parameter system).

They have to be fulfilled within the domain of the considered

(structural) problem subjected to detailed geometrical and

other boundary conditions. A closed solution in general is

not possible. Hence approximated numerical solutions are

applied during the analyzing phase within the engineering

design process. Suitable tools of computer aided engineering

(CAE) are the Finite Difference Method (FDM), the Finite Vol-

ume Method (FVM), and the Finite Element Method (FEM).

They should be discussed briefly in the following sections with

Fig. 1: Derivatives Approximated by Finite Differences

respect to their principles and major focus of application.

A final section provides a top level comparison of the three

3 The Finite Volume Method (FVM)

considered methods.

The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is newer than the FDM. As

2 The Finite Difference Method (FDM) indicated by its name, a subdivision of the entire domain of

The Finite Difference Method (FDM) is probably the oldest of the considered problem is applied into a set of finite volumes

the three considered methods. It is based on an approxi- of simple geometry like triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedrons,

mation of the derivative expressions of the PDE or ODE by hexahedrons, etc. Within each of these volumes the consid-

appropriate finite differences. As an example a set of two ered problem-specific PDE (or ODE) may be easily integrated

points in space (or time) may be considered, where some by assuming average values for the unknown functions (i.e. at

function values are provided. In this case the slope of the the center of those finite primitives). Possible derivative expres-

underlaying function may be approximated by the difference sions of the PDE or ODE may be approximated by appropriate

of the function values at these two points divided by the finite differences obtained from the mean functional values

spatial (or time) distance between the locations. Higher order between the centers of neighbouring finite volumes. This

derivatives are equivalently obtained. In case of a PDE (or approach is equivalent to the one of the FDM described at the

ODE) problem description the function values at those loca- previous section. In a similar way the possible flux of physical

tions are the unknown to be evaluated. Then an appropriate quantities through the finite volume boundaries is treated. The

set of ”measurement points” is defined within the considered mean function values at the finite volumes are the unknowns

domain and the PDE (or ODE) is formulated based on the to be evaluated at the FVM. In this way for every finite volume

just described finite differences with respect to the provided a set of algebraic equations is obtained. All of them together

boundary conditions. As a result a system of algebraic equa- with the problem defining boundary conditions (as mentioned

tions for the unknown function values is obtained and finally at the introductional section) describe a system of algebraic

solved. The more ”measurement points” are defined within equations to be subsequently solved for the unknown mean

the considered domain, the better in general the obtained function values. The more finite volumes are defined within the

function values approximate the solution of the PDE (or ODE). considered domain (! mesh refinement), the better in general

A typical application of this approach within engineering the obtained function values approximate the solution of the

analysis is the investigation of a system behaviour at the time PDE (or ODE). A typical application of this approach within

domain. Classical time integration methods are formulated engineering analysis is the investigation of flow fields in fluid

on the base of FDM, i.e. Runge Kutta and the central differ- dynamics. Hence the FVM is today the major tool for computa-

ence time integrator. tional fluid dynamics (CFD).

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The Finite Element Method (FEM) to some extend is similar The three methods FDM, FVM and FEM as described in

to the FVM discussed in the previous section. Hence it the previous sections contain some similarities. I.e. the

subdivides the entire domain of the considered problem obtained solution of the considered problem is always

into a set of primitive domains like triangles, quadrilaterals, an approximation depending on the applied number of

tetrahedrons, hexahedrons, etc. These are called Finite objects, either function evaluation points, finite volumes

Elements. Within each of these elements the unknown or finite elements. Hence the quality of the result always

field is interpolated by a combination of (initially unknown) depends on the applied effort. But in details each of

function values and spatial shape functions. These shape the method behave in a different way depending on its

functions are specific to each finite element. Based on this individual methodical approach. The FDM is purely based

approach the considered PDE or ODE may be integrated over on the differential description of the PDE or ODE defining

the elemental domain with the still unknown function values the considered problem. The FVM and FEM are based

as parameter variables. For each element a set of algebraic on a (numerical) integration of the underlaying PDE or

equations is obtained. All of them together with the problem ODE. Practical tests reveal a high precision for the FDM

defining boundary conditions (as mentioned at the introduc- compared to (physical) measurements. The real strength

tional section) form a system of algebraic equations to be of the FEM lies on the flexibility with respect to its applica-

subsequently solved for the unknown parameter values. The tion. The FVM is found to be somewhere located between

more finite elements are defined within the considered do- FDM and FEM, both with respect to flexibility and preci-

main (! mesh refinement), the better in general the obtained sion. Over the past decades these properties have surely

function values approximate the solution of the PDE (or ODE). defined the major field of engineering application for the

A typical application of this approach within engineering anal- three methods FDM, FVM and FEM.

ysis is the investigation of mechanical structures with respect

to their static or dynamic behaviour like deformation and

mechanical stress distribution. But the wide field of applica-

tion of the FEM includes as well safety aspects (i.e. computer

crash analysis at the automotive industry) and the simulation

of production processes like sheet metal forming.

References

[1] Bathe, K.J., Finite Element Procedures, Prentice-Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996

[2] Ferziger, J.H., Peric, M., Computational Methods for Fluid

Dynamics, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1996

[3] Hughes, T.J.R. The Finite Element Method, Prent. Hal. Int.

Ed., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1987

[4] Lecheler, S. Numerische Stömungssimulation,

Vieweg-Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2009

[5] Wissmann, J., Sarnes, K.-D., Finite Elemente in der Struk-

Fig. 3: Deformed Finite Element model and border stresses turmechanik, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2005

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Detlev Maurer, University of Applied Sciences Landshut

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WISSEN Theory

Before performing a numerical simulation of a multidi- lar of the coincidence of grid points and material points arises

mensional problem the choice for a suitable kinematical when it comes to problems with excessive mesh distortions,

description of the continuum has to be made. When it comes for instance explosions, fluid dynamics, etc. For such cases

to solid mechanics this choice normally leads to a Lagrangian often the Eulerian description is used which is formulated

formulation. Here the mesh nodes follow each motion of based on the spatial coordinates x and time t using a contin-

the material (material configuration) which makes it easy to uum which moves through a fixed mesh. Due to this the Eu-

track free surfaces or edges to treat with contact algorithms. lerian description only involves variables with significance for

However, when it comes to large deformations appearing the current point of time. The current configuration serves

for instance in forming simulations, the mesh distortion can as reference configuration which means that a deduction of

lead to a strongly decreasing accuracy of the results. The nu- a former point in time as it is possible with the Lagrangian

merical simulation of fluid dynamics usually uses an Eulerian approach is inhibited.

formulation where the continuum moves through a fixed

In the Eulerian approach the material velocity of a node

mesh (spatial configuration). However, this means that a

corresponds to the velocity of the material point which is

boundary does not necessarily have to remain with the initial

coincident with the node in question at the considered time.

defining nodes which makes the imposition of boundary

It is expressed as with a reference to the

conditions more complicated. ALE, as the name insinuates, is

fixed mesh but without a reference to the initial configuration

a simulation approach for the coupled numerical simulation

of the continuum and thus without a reference to the initial

of interacting Lagrangian and Eulerian continua combining

material coordinates. The relative motion of the material

their strengths and ruling out their disadvantages as far as

opposite the fixed grid leads to advective effects.

possible. In the following passages we first recall the princi-

ples of Lagrangian as well as Eulerian continua. After this the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Approach

necessary adaptations for an ALE approach are presented.

In the ALE approach an external reference system is intro-

In the end some examples for the practical use of the ALE

duced since neither the Lagrangian configuration nor the Eu-

method shall be given.

lerian configuration can be used as a reference. Fig. 2 shows

Lagrange vs. Euler the relations between the three configurations. The motion

that was introduced as before can now be expressed

To describe the motion of particles in continuum mechanics

as . The mapping from the reference

usually two domains are used. One is the material domain

configuration to the spatial domain which is equivalent to the

consisting of material particles X and the other one is

motion of the mesh points in the spatial configuration yields

the spatial domain consisting of spatial points x. In the

the mesh velocity For practical purposes we

Lagrangian description the reference configuration is

can directly regard the mapping of which yields the

identified via the material coordinates X. The relation be-

velocity of . The latter representing the particle

tween the material coordinates X and the spatial coordinates

velocity in the reference configuration.

x is realized through the motion of the material points. By

means of a mapping it is possible to link X and

x in time by the law of motion (see Fig. 1). The material ve-

locity v for this formulation is . By the inversion

it is possible to identify the reference position

of any given material particle occupying a coordinate x at a

given time t.

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Theory WISSEN

The relation between the three velocities and w can One classical application is the analysis of the effects of slosh-

be derived from the relation of and leads to ing water in a tank. Fig. 4 shows the relative movement of

the advective velocity . It constitutes the water during a deceleration of the tank from a certain initial

particle velocity relative to the mesh from the viewpoint of velocity. Not only the connection-forces to the carrying struc-

the spatial configuration since both and are variations of ture can be analyzed but also different measures to lessen

the coordinate x. the sloshing effects can be simulated and evaluated.

In the same manner Fig. 5 shows the effects of water move-

Numerical implementation ment caused by the drop test of a customary PET-bottle.

To deal with the necessary advection for the Eulerian part

it has proven useful to split a simulation into a Lagrangian

step and an Eulerian step. In the first step all advection

is inhibited so there is generally no difference between

this step and an ordinary simulation process in structural

mechanics. As long as the distortions of the mesh are rea-

sonable the Lagrangian formulation is applied. However

as soon as the distortions exceed a certain threshold a so

called “rezoning” process is executed as shown in Fig. 3.

simulate shockwave propagations induced by explosions.

Fig. 6 shows the propagation of a dust deflagration inside

a filter housing. By means of ALE simulations the influence

Fig. 3: Rezoning Process for highly distorted elements of different measures such as flame traps or gates on the

shockwave propagation and thereby on the deformation of

During this process the nodes of the mesh are moved back the housing can be evaluated.

to their initial positions. At the same time all material volume

and state variables (in Fig. 3 called „Flux“) are transported

between the elements in an advection-step. The advection

rules however can differ from solver to solver.

Examples of application

Fig. 6: Shockwave propagation in a filter housing resulting from a dust

explosion

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Heiko Honermeier, Ingenieurbüro Huß & Feickert GbR, www.ihf-ffm.de.

83

CAE

WISSEN Theory

by Robert Kroyer, Kenth Nilsson, Klaus-Jürgen Bathe

The accurate solution of dynamic response in finite element the Bathe method, no parameter is (usually) set and the ac-

analyses has been the subject of extensive research for the curacy of solution is simply dependent on the size of the time

last few decades. In general, implicit schemes are used when step used. As the time step becomes smaller the accuracy

the transient response can be obtained with a relatively small increases. Figures 2 and 3 show that the method gives the

number of large time steps, typically of order 10-3 s, and desired response, just like obtained in a mode superposition

explicit schemes are used when many time steps of small size solution including only the lowest mode response with the

need be used, typically of order 10-6 s. The most widely-used static correction. Further results are given in ref. [3] where

schemes in implicit solutions are the Newmark trapezoidal it is also shown that the error in the reaction using the New-

rule and alpha generalized method, and in explicit solutions mark method is very large.

the central difference method [1]. However, these schemes

have some undesirable characteristics, and recently more

effective methods have been proposed, which we want to

expose briefly in this short article.

The trapezoidal rule is unconditionally stable in linear anal-

yses, and has the characteristics of no amplitude decay and

a reasonable amount of period elongation. Hence, on first

sight, the solution errors seem to have excellent qualities.

However, in fact, the quality of no amplitude decay can cause

major solution problems, because frequencies may be sam-

pled that should be suppressed (for example, because they

are an artifact of finite element modeling). In linear analysis

this phenomenon can be easily and directly seen (an example

Figure 2: Acceleration of node 2 for various methods

is given below), and in nonlinear analysis, the phenomenon

can also render the iterative solution difficult to converge.

We illustrate the solution behaviors below.

k2=1, m1=0, m2=1, m3=1, ωp=1.2

While very simple, the model contains the essence of many

practical finite element models. The stiff spring represents

stiff components in a structural model, which may be largely

due to modeling constraints with stiff elements, while the Figure 3: Acceleration of node 2 for various methods (the overshoot in the

soft spring represents the rest of the model. The aim is to first time step of the Bathe method could be eliminated by using in the

Newmark method δ = 3/4, α = 1.0 for the first step only).

only solve for the response in the soft part of the structure,

like in a mode superposition solution. The trapezoidal rule There is also a parameter in the Bathe method on the size of

gives very large errors in this linear analysis, see Figures 2 and the sub-step (but this parameter, changing the accuracy, is

3. The response prediction can be improved by introduc- by far mostly used in its default value, see refs. 1-3). Hence

ing damping, numerical or physical, but then the question the advantage of the Bathe method is that no parameter

will always be how much damping to introduce when not values need to be chosen.

knowing the desired response. The same holds when using

the generalized alpha method. While the Bathe method is about twice as expensive per time

step (since two sub-steps are used), the higher accuracy in

A new scheme is the Bathe method, which combines the use general allows to use less steps in linear response solutions.

of the trapezoidal rule and Euler backward method [1-3]. In In nonlinear analysis the Bathe method is overall frequently

84

-120000.

20.00 -220000. 966.7

12.50 -320000. 800.0

633.3

5.00 466.7 CAE

Theory

300.0

133.3 WISSEN

TIME 10.02500 X

4.

RESPONSE GRAPH

nonlinear iterations of the time steps, larger time stepsY canZ X-DISPLACEMENT,

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

FLANGE

3.

be employed, and the method remains stable when the X-DISPLACEMENT,

SUPPORT_PLATE

Newmark and alpha generalized methods become NODALunstable 2. X-DISPLACEMENT,

TOP

(unless sufficient damping is introduced). CONTACT

-3

STATUS

*10

1.

TIME 10.02500

The above observations are demonstrated in the solutions

STICKING

0.

CLOSED -1.

OPEN 10000.

10005. 10010. 10015. 10020. 10025. 10030. 10035. 10040.

DEAD -3

*10

rigid wall

TIME

TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

Z X Z X

VELOCITY

Potential based Elastic shell fluid

shell TIME 10.02500 FE_PRESSURE

fluid elements elements RST CALC

35.21 TIME 10.02500

ACCELERATION

sudden 180000.

MAGNITUDE

TIME 10.02500

fluid 35.00 80000.

-20000.

flux 27.50

-120000.

20.00 -220000. 966.7

contact 12.50 -320000. 800.0

633.3

5.00 466.7

contact 300.0

shell 133.3

clamped

TIME 10.02500 X RESPONSE GRAPH

4.

Y Z X-DISPLACEMENT,

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

clamped 3.

FLANGE

X-DISPLACEMENT,

SUPPORT_PLATE

NODAL

TOP

CONTACT

-3

Newmark method, no damping (δ

STATUS

*10

1.

Figures 5 - 8

TIME 10.02500

0.

STICKING

SLIPPING = 0.5, α = 0.25)

TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0

CLOSED

OPEN

-1.

10000.

Y

10005. 10010. 10015. 10020. 10025. 10030. 10035. 10040.

anX DEAD

*10

TIME

-3

Z X

elastic shell fully clamped at its base and a fluid surrounding

VELOCITY

TIME 10.02500 FE_PRESSURE

it contained by an exterior rigid wall. Shell elements and Figures 6 and 7 show that while the presence of physical

RST CALC

subsonic 36.12

potential based fluid elements areTIME

used to represent

10.02500

damping or numerical damping improves the results using

ACCELERATION

the media. The shell structure consists of two parts with the Newmark method, to suppress all oscillations,

MAGNITUDE the damp-

35.00

180000.

model is

80000. ing must be increased to high levels, which

TIME is not desirable.

10.02500

27.50

subjected

-20000.

20.00to a sudden fluid flux representing a-120000.

pipe break. However, when using the Bathe method, no 966.7

numerical

12.50

The resulting

-220000.

shock waves cause the internal parts of the

-320000. parameter had to be adjusted and no artificial

800.0

633.3

physical damp-

5.00

model that are in contact to rapidly change status. For the im- ing was introduced in the model, see Figure 8. The results

466.7

300.0

plicit dynamic analysis of such problems usually the Newmark achieved in this analysis led to the subsequent

133.3

use of the

time integration is used. However, when contact conditions Bathe method in the analyses of large finite element models.

are included

TIME 10.02500 between internal parts, the contact surfaces X re- RESPONSE GRAPH

8.

peatedly stick and slip, which results in rapid pressure Ypulses Z X-DISPLACEMENT,

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

FLANGE

in the fluid. As a consequence, high frequency vibrations are 6.

X-DISPLACEMENT,

observed. These high frequency oscillations areNODAL spurious in 4.

SUPPORT_PLATE

X-DISPLACEMENT,

the Newmark method solution and grow with time. STATUS After a

CONTACT

TOP

-3

*10

2.

while, the solution becomes obviously very erroneous and

TIME 10.02500

SLIPPING

without damping are shown in Figure 5. Note theCLOSED highly -2.

OPEN

oscillatory response of the flange, the non-smooth DEADcontact 1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

-2

status between the internal parts and the parasitic pressure *10

distribution. TIME

TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

Z X Z X

VELOCITY

such as adding physical damping to the model (e.g. Rayleigh TIME 10.02500

36.12

FE_PRESSURE

RST CALC

TIME 10.02500

ACCELERATION

MAGNITUDE

180000. TIME 10.02500

35.00

80000.

27.50 -20000.

20.00 -120000. 966.7

12.50 -220000. 800.0

-320000. 633.3

5.00

466.7

300.0

133.3

ing. This reduces the numerical oscillations, but also reduces

TIME 10.02500 X RESPONSE GRAPH

8.

Y Z X-DISPLACEMENT,

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

FLANGE

6.

the physical response which should be solved for, and the X-DISPLACEMENT,

SUPPORT_PLATE

NODAL 4.

CONTACT X-DISPLACEMENT,

STATUS TOP

-3

*10

2.

TIME 10.02500

Newmark method with Rayleigh

order to obtain acceptable results.

STICKING 0.

SLIPPING

CLOSED

OPEN

damping, with C = 0.001 -2.

DEAD 1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

-2

*10

TIME

85

966.7

800.0

633.3

CAE 466.7

WISSEN Theory 300.0

133.3

RESPONSE GRAPH

8.

X-DISPLACEMENT,

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

FLANGE

6.

X-DISPLACEMENT,

SUPPORT_PLATE

4.

X-DISPLACEMENT,

TOP

-3

*10

2.

0.

-2.

1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

-2 Figure 9: Antenna model in various rotational positions using Bathe Method

*10

TIME When using the Bathe method, the solution is obtained very

TIME 10.02500 Y

Z X

TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

Z X

accurately for many revolutions, whereas the Newmark

TIME 10.02500

VELOCITY

TIME 10.02500

DISP MAG 100.0

FE_PRESSURE

RST CALC

Y time integration procedure fails before finishing the second

revolution, see Figure 10 for the antenna rotation instability

36.08 TIME 10.02500

ACCELERATION

180000. Z X

MAGNITUDE

TIME 10.02500

35.00 80000.

27.50 -20000.

-120000.

20.00 -220000. 966.7

12.50 -320000. 800.0

633.3

5.00 466.7

300.0

133.3

ACCELERATION

TIME 10.02500 X

8.

MAGNITUDE

RESPONSE GRAPH

damping, e.g. Rayleigh damping, is used in the model. This

Y Z

TIME 10.02500

X-DISPLACEMENT,

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

FLANGE

6.

X-DISPLACEMENT,

SUPPORT_PLATE

NODAL 4.

CONTACT X-DISPLACEMENT,

966.7 TOP

-3

STATUS

Newmark method

800.0 with numerical

*10

2.

TIME 10.02500

damping, (δ633.3

= 0.6, α = 0.3025)

STICKING 0.

SLIPPING

CLOSED

OPEN -2. 466.7

1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

DEAD

300.0 *10 -2

133.3 TIME

RESPONSE GRAPH

8.

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

6. X-DISPLACEMENT,

FLANGE

4. X-DISPLACEMENT,

SUPPORT_PLATE

-3

*10

2. X-DISPLACEMENT,

TOP

0.

-2.

1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

-2

*10

TIME

TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

Z X Z X

VELOCITY

TIME 10.02500 FE_PRESSURE

RST CALC

36.05

TIME 10.02500

ACCELERATION

MAGNITUDE

180000.

35.00 TIME 10.02500

80000.

27.50 -20000.

20.00 -120000. 966.7

-220000. 800.0

12.50

-320000. 633.3

5.00

466.7

300.0

133.3

8.

Y Z

X-DISPLACEMENT, FLANGE

6. X-DISPLACEMENT,

FLANGE

4. X-DISPLACEMENT,

NODAL SUPPORT_PLATE

CONTACT

-3

*10

STATUS

using Bathe

2. X-DISPLACEMENT,

TIME 10.02500 TOP

0.

STICKING

SLIPPING

CLOSED -2.

OPEN 1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

DEAD -2

*10

TIME

antenna structure, with focus on high accuracy of the anten-

na positioning and orientation. In this application, we see very

large displacements over long time ranges in the transient

analysis, and numerical stability can be difficult to achieve.

Figure 9 shows the model of the antenna, which is rotated Figure 10: Predicted transient response of antenna using Newmark and

with various angular velocities using the classical trapezoidal Bathe Method

rule and the Bathe method for time integration.

86

CAE

Theory WISSEN

lems, the mentioned solution phenomena are rather general

and occur in many large-scale practical analyses of structures

and fluid-structure interactions. In particular, considering con-

tact problems, a spurious response of oscillatory nature can

cause the nonlinear iterations not to converge.

While the above discussion refers to implicit integration,

of course, explicit time integration is also widely used in

practice. Using explicit integration, mostly wave propagation

problems are considered, but structural vibration and even

static problems are also solved.

Similar to the above observations regarding the trapezoidal Figure 12: Impactor acceleration-time response for the tube

rule, the predicted response obtained using the central

difference method can show spurious oscillations in the high Further solutions of problems, algorithmic details and obser-

frequency modes [4]. These are frequencies and modes that vations are given in the additional references [5-8].

cannot be represented by the chosen mesh. Ideally, any

response in these modes would be automatically suppressed References

— but without loss of accuracy in the frequencies and modes 1. K. J. Bathe, “Finite Element Procedures”, Prentice Hall, 1996, Second

that can be represented by the mesh. Edition, K. J. Bathe, Watertown, Massachusetts, 2014.

2. K. J. Bathe, “Conserving energy and momentum in nonlinear

Explicit Time Integration: Noh-Bathe Method dynamics: A simple implicit time integration scheme”, Computers &

Structures, 85:437-445, 2007.

A new explicit time integration scheme, referred to as the

3. K. J. Bathe and G. Noh, “Insight into an Implicit Time Integration

Noh-Bathe method was developed with the same aim as Scheme for Structural Dynamics”, Computers & Structures, 98-99:1-6,

for the implicit Bathe scheme [4]. The method automatically 2012.

suppresses spurious high frequency response, without using 4. G. Noh and K. J. Bathe, “An Explicit Time Integration Scheme for the

any non-physical parameters, while accurately integrating Analysis of Wave Propagations”, Computers & Structures, 129:178-

those modes that can be spatially resolved. The computa- 193, 2013.

tional cost of using the procedure is only slightly larger than 5. G. Noh, S. Ham and K. J. Bathe, “Performance of an Implicit Time

the cost with the central difference method, when using the Integration Scheme in the Analysis of Wave Propagations”, Computers

same mesh, but frequently coarser meshes can be used with & Structures, 123:93-105, 2013.

the Noh-Bathe scheme. 6. Z. Kazanci and K. J. Bathe, “Crushing and Crashing of Tubes with

Implicit Time Integration”, Int. J. Impact Engineering, 42:80-88, 2012.

Figures 11 and 12 show the analysis of the crushing of a tube. 7. K. J. Bathe, “Frontiers in Finite Element Procedures & Applications”,

Figure 11 shows the deformations at three different times, Chapter 1 in Computational Methods for Engineering Technology,

and Figure 12 shows the acceleration-time solution curves of (B.H.V. Topping and P. Iványi, eds.) Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirling-

the impactor. We see that spurious oscillations are present in shire, Scotland, 2014.

the central difference method solution, while the Noh-Bathe 8. http://www.adina.com/newsgrp.shtml

method solution does not show such oscillations.

CAE Wissen by courtesy of

Dr. Robert Kroyer

MBDA Deutschland GmbH

Senior Expert Structural Mechanics/-dynamics

Hagenauer Forst 27, 86529 Schrobenhausen, GERMANY

Kenth Nilsson MSc

Analysis & CAE

AB Volvo Penta,CB74680, Z5.1

SE-405 08, Gothenburg, SWEDEN

Prof. Dr. Klaus-Jürgen Bathe

Figure 11: Tube-crush problem: Noh-Bathe method predicted deformations Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

at t = 0.000, 0.010, and 0.015 s

Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

87

CAE

WISSEN Theory

Introduction but of the range around that point that the Kernel in question

Advanced engineering applications have traditionally relied is spanning.

upon numerical methods like the Finite Element Method

Therefore, a “smoothing” of the domain has taken place,

(FEM) in order to achieve the accuracy that closed-form

hence the term “smoothed” particle hydrodynamics.

mathematical solutions could not possibly offer. However,

when the applications moved from the linear elastic domain Although the SPH concept may differ completely from that

to the non-linear large displacement / large strain domain, of Finite Elements, there are similarities such the continuity

the classical FEM suffered strong limitations due to the loss of some basic variables within a limited region in space and

of accuracy within highly distorted meshes. The practical that the SPH method may also be derived from a Galerkin

restrictions imposed upon the usage of FEM in scenarios in- formulation

volving strong topological changes (like fracture) or involving

Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) meant that a new class of The Particle approximation is the next step after the Kernel

methods had to be adopted, which would not suffer from the approximation and it says that the domain around the

topological non-uniqueness problems that highly distorted point in question where we seek to define the value of a

FEM meshes suffer. This was achieved by adopting “parti- function, is NOT continuous. Instead it consists of a number

cle-type” methods that do not maintain a strict connectivity of “topologically unconnected finite elements” which we will

in the domain, hence they do not follow a “mesh” (meshless call from now on PARTICLES in order to distinguish them from

methods). The most fundamental of these methods is the the classical finite elements which have a pre-defined and

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method, or SPH, which is rigid topological connection (the “connectivity” defined at

a cornerstone in the Virtual Performance Solution (VPS) suite the input level). The consequence of this approximation is in

of codes of ESI Group. replacing the integral by a sum and modify the algebra to ac-

count for the “number density” of the domain (ie. how many

Overview of SPH Method in VPS particles can be found within a given domain volume defined

by the Kernel we use). This is expressed as below :

SPH is a gridless Lagrangian method whose corner stones are

two approximations, namely :

The Kernel approximation, and

The Particle approximation

The Kernel approximation is derived from the following The above equation reads like : the contribution of each parti-

identity : cle within the Kernel range (taking into account its number

density) is summed over all the particles in order to produce

the smoothed value of a function at a point.

Hence the above approximation has also its roots close to

those of the classical FE method.

which says nothing else than that the “value at a point” of a In order for the Kernel and Particle approximations to be

continuous function over a continuous domain could be ex- pragmatic, the choice of Kernel should be such that the

tracted from its integral by using a delta function as a “filter”. following is satisfied :

Assuming now that the delta function is replaced by another Compact form ie. acting over a finite range, zero outside that

function which spans a certain “range” but still obeys the range

basic delta function property Positive within this range

Respecting the “delta function properties”

Monotonically decreasing

Degenerating in the limit to a delta function

then equation 1 will yield the following form

The reader should be reminded that indeed the first two

requirements listed above are the same for the classical in-

terpolation functions of the FE method. Therefore the Kernel

which is similar in appearance as before except for the should be seen as a form of an interpolation function.

function W which will be called the KERNEL function and the

Figure 1 illustrates graphically the similarity between the FE

range of influence it spans is controlled by the “smoothing

and the SPH approximations. A patch of 9 elements is shown

length”. What that equation says is that the value of a func-

in both the FE and the equivalent SPH approximation. The

tion at a point contains information about not just that point

interpolation functions have been overlaid upon the central

88

CAE

Theory WISSEN

particle has been “sketched” as spanning its neighbors in the

SPH mesh.

habitually solve in the FE method. Moreover, starting from

the same equation but following a different set of algebraic

operations and approximations we could arrive at the follow-

ing alternative momentum equations :

9 elements

solve the continuity equations by parts whereby the partial

derivatives of the unknowns are replaced by derivatives of Artificial viscosity to handle shock discontinuities is required,

the (known) kernels, yielding : just as for existing numerical integration methods. Note that

the above set of resulting equations is not unique, but it has

been found that the differences are usually small.

SAFETYWISSEN.com

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any�me, anywhere!

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89

CAE

WISSEN Theory

Examples of Applications

The pictures below give a brief but not exhaustive overview

of the basic ranges of application of the SPH method:

Hypervelocity impact: This is a typical application where

matter behaves like a fluid under the extreme pressures

generated during hypervelocity impact. A full 3D simulation

is an ideal application fo SPH due to the large material phase

and state changes (solid-liquid-gaz, fragment clouds etc.)

imply very strong FSI simulation requirements in terms of

capability, functionality and computatuional efficiency due

to the complexity and size of the problems in question. The

SPH option in VPS is fully parallelized in DMP and can be used

within the Multi Scale Option of VPS (Multi-Model Coupling).

The images below show typical tsunami simulations regarding

the effect upon a Liquid Natural Gas tank and the flooding of

Figure 2: Double bumper penetration at 11 km/s by a cylindrical projectile a building. Critical information can be gathered in terms of

(Courtesy of ESA) the strength of the associated structures or the survival time

window the infrastructure has in a given scenario.

Vulnerability analysis: In aeronautics this involves primarily

birdstrike, hail strike etc. Birstrike is in particular well adapted

for SPH applications due to the large deformations and frag-

mentation of the bird upon impact with the wings or rotor

blades of an aircraft or helicopter.

Figure 3: Birdstrike upon jet engine fan-blade Figure 6: Tsunami induced flooding of building infrastructure

Another typical such application is forced water landing CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Argiris Kamoulakos,

(splashdown). Scientific Director, ESI Group

90

CAE

Theory WISSEN

Since the invention of the computer, several CAE methods other part of the coupled system. This iteration process is

for structure and fluid dynamics analysis were success- continued until convergence is reached in the solution of

fully developed by universities, research institutions and the coupled equations.

engineering software vendors and have been established as

standard tools in the daily design practice in the automotive,

aerospace, energy, manufacturing and other industries. On

the other hand and for several reasons, development of CAE

methods for flow and structure analysis was done for both,

flows and structures, independently from each other in most

cases, without really realizing it, a kind of thought had been

established during this time which left interactions between

both engineering disciplines for several years practically

aside. As a consequence, despite the fact that both numerical

algorithms for fluid-structure interactions (today referred

by most authors as „iterative“ and „direct“ or „monolithic“)

were developed by the author already in the mid eighties

Figure 1: Iterative two-way coupling

having highly nonlinear membrane problems like parachutes,

sails and hang-gliders in mind, it took at least two additional Direct or monolithic coupling:

decades to stimulate the interest of the industry on flu-

This algorithm is sometimes also called the simultaneous

id-structure interaction simulations. Starting from established

solution method. In this direct solution method, similar to

integral simulation programs like the famous ADINA, which

the procedure in the above iterative solution method, the

offers to the user not only the full (i.e. both „direct“ and

fluid and the solid solution variables are also fully coupled

„iterative“) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) capability but

but here the fluid and the solid equations are combined

also full thermal fluid-structure interaction analysis (TFSI)

and treated in one single system.

in a really seamless development environment, down to

highly specialized FSI simulation tools like PARA2G for gliding

parachutes, it is very gratifying to see that in recent years

more and more researchers and software vendors started to

deal with solutions for a continuously increasing number of

FSI applications.

In fluid structure interaction analysis, fluid forces are applied

on the solid and the solid deformation changes the fluid

domain. The computational domain is divided into the fluid

domain and the solid domain, where the fluid and the solid

model are defined respectively, through their material data,

boundary conditions, etc. The interaction occurs along the Figure 2: Direct (or monolithic) coupling

interface of the two domains. This is called the fluid-structure

interface. Having the two models coupled, simulations and The direct coupling algorithm requires a code de-

predictions of many physical phenomena can be performed. veloped for a particular combination of the physical

problems while the iterative coupling algorithm

In general we distinguish between two general algorithms for preserves software modularity because existing

fluid-structure interaction: flow and structural solvers can be coupled in order

to implement it. In addition the iterative approach

Iterative or two-way coupling:

facilitates solution of the flow equations and the

This algorithm is sometimes also called the partitioned structural equations with different, possibly more

method. In this iterative solution method, the fluid and efficient numerical techniques which have been

solid solution variables are fully coupled. The fluid and developed specifically for either the flow or the

the solid equations are solved individually in succession, structural part of the problem. Explicit airbag simula-

always using the latest information provided from the tion is an example for this kind of procedure. On the

91

CAE

WISSEN Theory

coupling procedure, something practically impossible

for a wide range of FSI problems, is required in the

iterative coupling method.

Depending on the physics of the FSI problem someone

should consider carefully the FSI algorithm of choice:

Direct or monolithic coupling

In the direct FSI coupling solution method the fluid

and solid equations are combined and treated in

one system (one stiffness matrix for both problems)

and solved using an iterative solver such as the

Newton-Raphson method. The direct FSI coupling

algorithm offers great robustness when solving very

difficult FSI problems, for example, large deformations

with soft structures or highly compressible flows

around very stiff structures. Due to occurring instabili-

ties like the so-called “artificial added-mass effect” and

similar these types of problems are difficult to solve

using the iterative FSI solution method.

Iterative or two-way coupling

In general the Iterative FSI coupling solution method re-

quires less memory than the direct FSI Coupling method

and therefore may be more applicable to solve very large

problems despite occurring instabilities which can be

handled, sometimes more sometimes less efficiently, by

numerical intervention like e.g. relaxation factors.

a) Tethered Helium Balloon

b) Dirigible Free Flying Helium Lighter than Air Aircraft

Dr.-Ing. Thomas Chatzikonstantinou (Aachen)

92

CAE

Theory WISSEN

Neuber Approximation

Background The following FEA analyses were performed on a fine-grain steel:

For durability analysis, the Neuber approximation is a well- Linear-elastic material behavior and subsequent Neuber

known method to estimate the local elastic-plastic stresses correction of the elastic stresses

σplast in notches based on linear-elastic FEA stress results Cyclic-plastic material curve and nominal stress-strain

σelast. definition with non-linear geometry

Cyclic-plastic material curve and true stress-strain

With the Young’s Modulus Ε, and the non-linear strain σplast

definition with non-linear geometry

it can be expressed as

As mentioned above the Neuber rule applies to regions with

limited local plastic zones. The different regions (fig. 1) for the

degree of plastification are as follows:

In region 1 (0-10 kN) local plastification restricted to the

Using the Ramberg-Osgood equation for the description of notch prevails.

the cyclic stress strain curve, In region 2 (10-20 kN) the entire cross-section begins to

plastify.

In region 3 (above 20 kN) the entire cross-section

plastifies.

the non-linear stresses σplast can be computed as the For our example the Neuber rule can be applied up to around

intersection with the Neuber hyperbola (K´ and n´denoting 20 kN, because the initial cross-section plastifies only very

the cyclic hardening coefficient and the cyclic hardening little up to this limit. Due to the loss of stiffness there is a

exponent respectively). large increase in local stresses at a load of 40 kN. Fig. 2 shows

The following case study illustrates the applicability of the a comparison of the stress amplitudes for the non-linear

Neuber method, since it is recommended for local plastifica- stresses and the Neuber corrected linear stresses. From this

tion only. diagram it can be seen that for this material the correlation is

very good up to a load of about 20kN.

Example

A notched tensile specimen of steel with notch radius 0.7

mm (stress concentration factor α = 2.15), was analyzed with

an alternating load of up to 40 kN (stress ratio R = -1). In fig.

1 the stress amplitude at the base of the notch can be seen

for the v. Mises and max. principal normal stress. From the

diagram it can be seen that initial notch plastification occurs

at approx. 8 kN.

Neuber corrected linear stresses

Conclusion

Although a multi axial stress state already exists in the notch,

the Neuber method provides useful results up to approxi-

mately 20 kN (~ 0.6% plastic strain) for the local stress in the

notch. If higher strain or stress multiaxiality are anticipated

deviations may increase and a non-linear material law should

then generally be employed. As long as the load level is

smaller than approximately three times the yield level a lot

of CPU time can be safed in durability analysis. Of course this

Figure 1: Notch stress development in the notch base with elastic-plastic result depends on the stress concentration and on the plastic

material behavior

material behavior.

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Engineering Center Steyr, Austria, Author: Gerhard Spindelberger.

For more information see www.femfat.com

93

Safety

Course Description Who should attend?

Ever increasing requirements regarding vehicle safety have The seminar addresses everybody who wants to obtain an

led to rapid developments, with major innovations in the field up-to-date overview of this wide area. It is suited for novices

of Active and Passive Safety. Especially legal requirements in the field of Passive Safety of Vehicles such as university

in the USA (FMVSS 208, 214), the consumer information graduates, career changers, project assistants, internal ser-

tests U.S. NCAP, Euro NCAP and IIHS, as well as pedestrian vice providers, but also for highly qualified technicians from

protection should be mentioned here. So far an end of this the crash-test lab.

development is not in sight. Course Contents

The seminar provides an introduction to Passive Safety of Ve- Introduction to vehicle safety

hicles. Passive Safety is about initiatives and legal provisions Overview active and passive safety

for the limitation of injuries following an accident. All import- Crash physics

ant topics are covered in the seminar, from accident statistics Accident research

and injury-biomechanics, which are decisive parts of accident General accident research

research, to the crash-rules and regulations that are derived Classification

Statistics

from the latter, and also to consumer information-tests with

Biomechanics

protection criteria and test procedures, and eventually to

Human anatomy

crash tests, where the compliance with the compulsory limits Injury mechanisms

is tested and proven in test procedures. Specific attention is Injury criteria

given to dummies, with which the potential loads on a person Dummy technology

in an accident can be measured. Finally the basic principles Dummy family

of occupant protection are explained, and the components Crash testing

of occupant protection systems, respectively restraint-sys- Crash test systems and components

tems in motor vehicles such as airbags, belt-system, steering Test methods

wheel, seat, interior, stiff passenger compartment and Crash rules and regulations

others, as well as their increasingly complex interaction, also Institutions

Rules and regulations

in terms of new systems, will be discussed.

NCAP tests

Course Objectives Latest trends

It is the primary objective of this seminar to communicate an Protection principles, occupant protection systems

understanding for the entire field of Passive Safety with all its Protection principles of passive safety

Occupant protection systems with sensors technology, ECU,

facets and correlations, but also for its limits and trends. In

airbag, belt system

the seminar you are going to learn about and understand the Passenger compartment, interior with steering wheel and

most important topics and can then judge their importance steering column, seat

for your work. With the extensive, up-to-date documentation OOP, pre crash, post crash, sensor system, vehicle body

you obtain a valuable and unique reference book for your Optimization of restraint systems, adaptive systems

daily work. Integrated safety

Rainer Hoffmann (carhs.training gmbh) has been involved in automotive safety throughout

his career. After graduating from Wayne State University, he joined Porsche as a research associate in

passive safety. Mr. Hoffmann advanced safety simulation during his subsequent tenure at ESI Group where

Instructor

he introduced new techniques like airbag simulation, numerical airbag folding and FE dummy modeling. As

the head of the simulation department of PARS (now Continental Safety Engineering), Mr. Hoffmann led

the R&D efforts for some of the first series production side airbag developments. In 1994 Mr. Hoffmann

founded EASi Engineering GmbH, which in 2006 was renamed to carhs GmbH. He has authored numerous

technical papers and has been granted German and international patents in the automotive safety field.

25.-26.04.2017 2917 Landsberg am Lech 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 28.03.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

13.-14.06.2017 2904 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 16.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

Facts

06.-07.09.2017 2936 Tappenbeck 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 09.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

20.-21.11.2017 2916 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 23.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

94

Safety

Increasing demands on the protection of vehicle occupants The seminar is aimed at new and experienced engineers

have led to a continuous reduction in the number of injured working in the field of active vehicle safety in research and

and killed persons. While more than 20,000 persons have development departments of automotive OEMs or suppliers,

been killed on German roads in the early 1970s, this number as well as for all other interested parties, which want to

is now well below 4,000. Passive safety, i. e. measures which receive an overview of current and future developments

are designed to minimize the consequences of an accident, in the areas of active vehicle safety, driver assistance and

has made a significant contribution to this achievement. automated driving.

While the potential of passive safety is considered to be large- Course Contents

ly exhausted and huge efforts are required to achieve further

Fundamentals of active safety

progress in occupant protection, active safety has become

Basic principles of action

increasingly important in recent years. Active Safety means

measures which prevent an accident or at least reduce the Legal requirements

collision speed and thus the energy input. Euro NCAP requirements

While technologies such as ABS or ESP have been estab- Current active safety systems

lished years ago and have proven their effectiveness, new ABS

techniques such as the emergency brake or the lane keeping ESC

assist and numerous other driver assistance systems are just Brake assist

entering the market. It can be assumed that these systems Pre-crash systems

will be widely used in the next few years and will lead to a

further decrease in the number of traffic victims. Driver assistance systems

Basic requirements and design strategies

Automated driving can be seen as the next step of active

Current and future driver assistance systems

safety. Although there is still a lot of development needed in

this area, it can be assumed that vehicles which will driven Automated driving

at least partially automatically in certain traffic scenarios will State of the art

enter the market over the next ten years. Opportunities and risks

Human machine interface

In the seminar first a brief introduction to active safety, in

contrast to passive safety is given. This is followed by a pre- Market introduction strategies

sentation of current active safety systems and an overview of

the requirements of legislation and consumer protection or-

ganizations. In addition, current and upcoming developments

in the area of driver assistance systems and automated

driving are presented.

Dr.-Ing. Gerd Müller (Technical University of Berlin) has been working at the department

Instructor

automotive technology of the Technical University of Berlin since 2007. From 2007 to 2015 he was a re-

search assistant. Since 2015 he has been a senior engineer of the same department. His research focuses on

vehicle safety and friction coefficient estimation. Dr. Müller gives the lecture “Fundamentals of Automotive

Engineering” and conducts parts of the integrated course “Driver Assistance Systems and Active Safety”.

Facts

08.05.2017 2944 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 10.04.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

17.11.2017 2945 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 20.10.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

95

Safety

improve automotive safety, that is the essence of SafetyWeek.

In a unique combination of knowledge congress, events and exhibition, SafetyWeek offers

participants and visitors the opportunity, to bring their expertise up-to-date and to learn

about the latest developments and technologies in product development and product

verification.

In 2017 SafetyWeek will feature numerous highlights:

The Knowledge Congress SafetyUpDate +active with the most current updates

on requirements and solutions in active and passive safety. And again in 2017:

presentations of the safety strategies and equipment of recently launched

automobiles by OEMs

The SafetyTesting +active with the innovations from the Leaders in Testing and

Simulation of components and systems in active and passive safety.

The Cooperation Forum Driver Assistance Systems with a view into the future of

mobility, organized by Bayern Innovativ

The accompanying exhibition SafetyExpo, the meeting point for suppliers and

decision makers in automotive safety.

SafetyWeek: Overview Topics and Products

Active Passive

Safety Safety

Testing Sensors

Sled Functional

Simulation Software

Calculation Components

Simulation Systems

SafetyWeek is the meeting point for everyone involved in vehicle safety. This includes de-

velopers as well as test and simulation engineers from OEMs and suppliers, manufacturers

of test systems, representatives of governments and consumer protection organizations

and researchers from universities and research institutes.

DATE 16.- 18.05.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/safetyweek

Facts

96

Safety

Automotive

Safety Summit

Shanghai 2017

For the last 3 years »SafetyTesting China« has attracted more than 250 participants each

year to discuss the latest requirements and innovations in testing of active and passive safe-

ty. The newly developed »Automotive Safety Summit Shanghai« continues the successful SafetyTesting series and expands

the scope of the event to all aspects of automotive safety.

Keynotes from international experts, presentations on requirements and innovations, the latest developments in testing and

simulation for active and passive systems will make this event a true highlight for every decision maker and engineer in the

fields of active and passive safety. With the rapid rise of New Energy Vehicles (EV, PHEV and FCV), new challenges are surfacing

for the safety community. The »Automotive Safety Summit Shanghai« is setting a focal point on Safety of New Energy Vehi-

cles, discussing requirements, technologies and validation aspects for safety of NEVs.

The event will have dedicated sessions on the following topics.

Safety of New Energy Vehicles

Global Legal and Consumer Requirements

Pedestrian Safety

Autonomous Emergency Braking

Safety Testing and Simulation

Safety in Autonomous Driving

DATE 01.-02.08.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/safetysummit

Facts

Here you get a comprehensive overview

+acve of all relevant news in automotive safety.

Active + Passive Safety = SafetyUpDate +active

The SafetyUpDate in Graz (Austria) reflects the close integration of active and passive safety and combines both topics in one

event. General topics such as the NCAP consumer tests are dealt with in plenary presentations, whereas specific topics such as

testing are presented in parallel session on active respectively passive safety.

Conference topics include:

Regulations for active and passive safety

NCAP consumer protection tests

Development tools: Test & Simulation

Development strategies & solutions

Biomechanics & accident research

DATE 26.-27.09.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/gsu

Facts

97

Safety

PraxisConference

Autonomous Emergency

Braking

The PraxisConference AEB focuses on technical development and testing details of

safety-related driver assistance systems, like emergency brake assist and autonomous

evasive steering.

First of all, leading experts in the field of requirements and technical solutions present the facts you need to develop and

approve AEB systems in accordance with state-of-the-art science and technology. This includes current and upcoming require-

ments, vehicle presentations, development strategies as well as the question of the responsibility for consequences caused by

mistakes of an autonomous driving function. Furthermore, we expand our field of action with heavy commercial vehicles, for

which AEB systems are already mandatory.

Conference Topics:

Legal and consumer protection requirements

Best practice: testing and simulation

Outlook on the development process for autonomous evasive steering and driving

Vehicle technology: introduction of up-to-date driver assistance systems

Test equipment: targets, driving robots, control and measurement software

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkaeb

Facts

Since the car industry has drastically improved the protection of occupants in

frontal and lateral impacts, the rear impact moved into the focus of consumer

protection organizations and legislators in recent years.

With the PraxisConference Rear Impact - Seats - Whiplash, we have created

a forum in where automotive engineers can get comprehensive information

Praxiskonferenz

Heckaufprall Sitze Whiplash about this important topic in a practical oriented manner. Through our concept

of the PraxisConference, in which part of the conference takes place in the test

laboratory, we ideally combine theory and practice. In the crash test laboratory of the ADAC, participants can take a look at the

BioRID dummy, the seating procedure and the experimental set-up according of the current Euro NCAP test procedure and get

an impression of the necessary test efforts.

Conference Topics:

Accident Research Rear Impact

Biomechanics of the Whiplash

Regulations and consumer protection (NCAP) requirements

Practical part in the ADAC technology center:

Positioning Oskar with HRMD Introduction BioRID, handling and positioning Sled

testing according to Euro NCAP Euro NCAP’s evaluation of rear seat head restraints

Testing technology for rear impact

Numerical simulation

Development strategies and solutions

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkh

Facts

VENUE Steigenberger Hotel Der Sonnenhof, Hermann-Aust-Straße 11, 86825 Bad Wörishofen

LANGUAGE

98

Safety

Current Status and Future Developments

Course Description safety performance across international markets. The course

Since the 1960’s, the regulation of vehicle safety performance provides a compact review of changes in passive safety

has had a major impact on vehicle and system design. As au- requirements and current priorities across the international

tomotive manufacturing has evolved into an integrated global regulatory community. Moreover, the course provides

system, understanding and anticipating legal requirements knowledge critical to understanding differences in the way

has become an immense challenge. Regulators collaborate regulators establish and enforce these legal requirements.

and diverge in how they address road-safety policy goals.

Regulatory changes in a single market can translate into Course Contents

global customer requirements. And these requirements are History of safety regulation and development of legal

continuously evolving. In a compact program, this two-day regimes (e.g., self-certification, type approval, product

seminar provides a worldwide update on the passive safety liability, in-use surveillance

landscape, covering local, national, regional, and international Regulatory agencies and rulemaking processes (e.g.,

policy and rulemaking developments. UN World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle

The first segment of the seminar focuses on regulatory insti- Regulations, European Commission, U.S. National

tutions and processes. By understanding the regulatory en- Highway Traffic Safety Administration, etc.)

vironment, including the trend towards an integrated global Regulatory drivers and priorities (e.g., accident data,

regulatory system, businesses can better prepare for changes injury dynamics, injury assessment criteria, test tools,

that impact competitiveness and customer satisfaction. harmonization, whole vehicle approval, competitiveness,

etc.)

The second segment applies this knowledge to current

and future regulatory requirements. The seminar covers Types and purposes of regulations (UN Regulations,

crashworthiness (frontal, side, rear impact, etc.) as well as Global Technical Regulations, Federal Motor Vehicle

pedestrian protection and new technologies. Safety Standards, EU Regulations and Directives, etc.)

Developments in crashworthiness and occupant

Course Objectives protection requirements (frontal impact, side impact,

This course informs participants of recent developments pole-side impact, full width barrier, offset deformable

and discussions within the global regulatory community barrier, mobile barrier, etc.)

concerning passive safety. The seminar explores differences Vulnerable road user (VRU) protection (e.g., pedestrian

in regulatory systems and philosophies, in compliance and safety, cyclist safety)

enforcement, and in the forces behind the regulation of

Safety of new propulsion technologies (electric vehicles,

vehicle safety. The course provides participants with a broad

hydrogen fuel-cells, minimum vehicle noise levels)

understanding current regulatory directions and guidance on

how to follow, and even influence, future requirements. Passive safety implications of new safety technologies

(e.g., emergency call systems, collision avoidance, VRU

Who should attend? detection, automated driving)

This seminar should be of interest to anyone involved with

meeting and anticipating legal requirements for vehicle

partner in The Potomac Alliance, a Washington-based international regulatory affairs consultancy. In

Instructor

his client advisory role, Mr. Creamer is regularly involved with meetings of the UN World Forum for the

Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29). Previously, he has held positions with the US International

Trade Commission and the Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association (representing the US automotive

supplier industry), as the representative of the US auto parts industry in Japan, and with TRW Inc. (a leading

global automotive safety systems supplier).

Facts

28.-29.06.2017 2865 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 31.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

14.-15.09.2017 2871 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 17.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

99

Safety

Course Description In both focusses the current overall rating methods are

In 1978 the first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) was described and explained. In addition to that an outlook is

established by NHTSA in the United States. The goal was given on the roadmaps and future developments of the

to motivate competing car manufacturers to enhance the NCAP programs.

safety level of their cars beyond the minimum safety stan-

dards defined by regulations. The same approach has been Who should attend?

followed globally by other organizations (e.g. by Euro NCAP, The seminar addresses design, simulation, testing and project

IIHS, ANCAP, JNCAP, KNCAP,C-NCAP,...) Euro NCAP which engineers as well as managers who want to get a current

has been established in 1997 has taken a leading role and overview on the global range of NCAP programs with an

has significantly influenced other countries and regions. The outlook on upcoming topics and trends from an insider.

NCAP programs in many cases are highly dynamic, especially Depending on the focus of their work attendees should chose

in comparison with rulemaking activities. In order to reach the appropriate focus of the seminar.

the goal to continuously improve the safety level of cars, the

requirements need to be permanently adapted to the state Course Contents

of technology. Developers in the automotive industry need to New Car Assessment Programs - overview

know about upcoming changes at an early stage in order to U.S. NCAP

be able to design or equip their vehicles accordingly.

IIHS

In this seminar attendees get an overview of the organiza- Euro NCAP

tions in charge of the NCAP programs and become familiar

with the various test and assessment methods. ANCAP

JNCAP

NEW NEW NEW NEW NEW Korea NCAP

The seminar is conducted serveral times a year with changing China NCAP

focuses:

Latin NCAP

Focus passive safety: Here the focus is on test and assess- ASEAN NCAP

ment methods for passive safety. Frontal and side impact,

whiplash, child protection and pedestrian protection are BNVSAP

discussed in detail. Tests for active safety are only mentioned Global NCAP

in as far as they are relevant for the overall rating.

Focus active safety: Here the focus is on active safety

systems such as AEB or lane assistance. The tests and

assessments for these systems are explained in detail. Test

for passive safety are only mentioned in as far as they are

relevant for the overall rating.

Direktor & Professor Andre Seeck (German Federal Highway Research Institute -

BASt) is head of the division “Vehicle Technology” with the German Federal Highway Research Institute

Instructor

(BASt). In this position he is responsible for the preparation of European Safety Regulations. He is also head

of the strategy group on automated driving and represents the German Federal Ministry of Transport and

Digital Infrastructure in the Board of Directors of Euro NCAP. These positions enable him to gain deep insight

into current and future developments in vehicle safety.

Facts

22.-23.06.2017 2879 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 25.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

02.-03.11.2017 2880 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 05.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

100

Safety

In addition to the design of car structures for the protection the future, are discussed.

of its occupants at high impact velocities, requirements and

test procedures for collisions at low speeds, which massively Who should attend?

influence the design of the vehicle front, were brought to the The seminar is aimed at specialists from passenger car and

fore in recent years. light commercial vehicle development, engineers and tech-

nicians from simulation and testing, project engineers and

For the initial insurance classification of passenger cars clas- managers who want to get an overview of the requirements

sification tests of RCAR / AZT (impact speed up to 15 km/h) and technological solutions for the development of passive

are used to determine standardized repair costs. To meet and integrated safety systems for passenger cars in low-

the insurance classification tests, many vehicles are equipped speed crash.

with cross member systems that feature energy absorbing el-

ements (crash boxes), that can be connected via a detachable Course Contents

connection to the longitudinal members in the vehicle front. Requirements and test procedures for low-speed crash

Additional partly conflicting requirements are added through Introduction to the requirements for low-speed crash tests

the EC Regulation 78/2009/EC and the NCAP tests for Legal tests

pedestrian protection. Compliance with the directive in the Consumer protection tests

leg impact area is usually achieved by energy absorption in

Other requirements

conjunction with a targeted support of the impacting leg in

the immediate front area of the vehicle. Energy management and structural forces in the vehicle

front

In connection with the design of vehicles for the different Load paths and structure loading

requirements, numerous conflicts occur, which often can

Connections to high-speed test

only be solved at the expense of a non-optimum front end

package or increased weight and manufacturing costs. Workshop for analyzing crash data and the impact of structural

design changes

Additional requirements regarding the design of the vehicle Changes of structural design

front result from legislation for vehicle protection (UN R42, Influence of crash sensing and restraint systems

...) and internal testing procedures of the manufacturer for

ensuring management of everyday damages for his vehicles. Design of passive systems

Conceptual solution approaches

Course Objectives Methods for system design

In this seminar, you first get an overview on the require- Conflicts of objectives

ments and regulations which have an impact on the design Technological feasibility and limits

of cars for the various low-speed crash constellations. This is

Discussion of integral safety systems

followed by a presentation of current energy management

in the front body structure and an introduction of technical Simulation of driving maneuvers and time – distance

considerations

solutions. Based on the state of the art approaches of integral

safety are discussed. Using interactive visualization of driving Potential of integrated solutions

maneuvers, possibilities and limits of safety concepts, using Technological feasibility and limits

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Bachem (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences) has been in

charge of teaching and research in vehicle safety at the Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences since 2011.

Instructor

Prior to joining the university he held various management positions in industry where he was in charge of

development and testing of vehicle safety functions. His last management position was head of cab body

development at MAN Truck & Bus AG. Bachem is chairman of VDI Brunswick and vice chairman of the Wolfs-

burg Institute for Research, Development and Technology Transfer e.V.

Facts

18.10.2017 2862 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 20.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

14.03.2018 3031 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 14.02.2018, thereafter 890,- EUR

101

Safety

During recent years, vehicles with alternative propulsion Participants will get an overview about automotive safety for

systems have achieved an ever-increasing importance for alternative drive systems and will learn the special challenges

the automotive market. In addition to gas-powered vehicles, and solutions which come along. Participants will be able to

which have already been existing for many years on the apply test methods and safeguarding concepts and to pursue

manufacturer and retrofit market, a wide range of hybrid development strategies in a target-oriented way.

vehicles has also established meanwhile. Even for pure elec-

tric vehicles, the first acquirable products are already on the Who should attend?

market. Worldwide over 1 million electrified vehicles were The seminar addresses development and research engineers

on the streets in 2015. By decision of the German govern- as well technicians in the fields of testing and engineering.

ment, one million electric vehicles should be found driving on Due to its current relevance the course suits young profes-

German roads by the year 2020. It is clear, however, that the sionals as well as experienced engineers who want to deepen

automotive electrification cannot be stopped anymore. their knowledge in this field.

With this new technology, new challenges for vehicle safety Course Contents

arise.

Overview alternative propulsion systems: gas, hybrid,

Electric shock risks on high-voltages systems, fire hazards in electric and fuel cell vehicles

case of lithium-ion batteries and risks of rupture in case of gas Challenges for vehicle safety

tanks are the most important issues here. For every mode of

Legal requirements and standards for safety

drive, specific drive components and their particular safety

requirements are described. In addition to common rules Safety requirements for real-world accidents

and standards, specific needs based on real-life accidents are Safety of high voltage systems

being discussed.

Battery safety

For all relevant vehicle components the respective safety Gas tank safety

requirements, safety concepts and exemplary safety initia-

Fuel cell safety

tives will be discussed. The state of the art concerning test

standards, verification methods and possibilities for virtual Structural safety

safety will be shown. Future trends will be presented with the Safety concepts

help of current research projects and results. Practical expe- Rescuing, recovering and towing of electric vehicles

rience of rescuing, recovering and towing of electric vehicles

complete the spectrum of accident safety.

Rainer Justen (Daimler AG) has more than 25 years of experience in the field of vehicle safety. After

his studies in mechanical engineering with a focus on automotive engineering he started his career in 1987

in the automotive development for Mercedes-Benz at Daimler AG. Several career milestones in the fields

Instructor

of vehicle safety, project management, safety concepts and active safety / driver assistance systems made

him an expert on all relevant topics of automotive safety. Since 2008 he is working in the field of safety

for alternative drive systems. Rainer Justen is author of numerous publications and papers on this topic. In

2015 Rainer Justen received the SAE Automotive Safety Award from the American Society of Automotive

Engineers (SAE) for his work on the safety of Li-Ion batteries in electric vehicles.

Facts

26.-27.06.2017 2907 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 29.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

06.-07.11.2017 2906 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 09.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

102

Safety

When thinking about vehicle safety testing people first The seminar is aimed at specialists from crash-related car

think about dynamic crash tests of the full vehicle or crash body and component development, engineers and techni-

simulations performed on a sled test facility. In addition to cians from test and analysis departments as well as project

these dynamic tests, however, numerous other tests on the engineers and managers.

car body and components such as seats, steering, instrument

panel, pillars, bumpers, etc. have to be performed during Course Contents

the development of a car. At first sight, these experiments Introduction

perhaps are less spectacular, but in practice they are also very Static roof crush according to FMVSS 216a

complex.

Static door intrusion according to FMVSS 214

The seminar provides an introduction to static vehicle safety Test procedures for exterior and interior parts FMVSS

testing. Static vehicle safety tests serve the determination 201U, UN R21 & R42

of criteria to minimize injury that may occur due to an

accident. The seminar covers the entire field of static vehicle Testing of seats and head restraints according to FMVSS

safety testing, ranging from biomechanical research to legal 202 and UN R17, R21 and R25

regulations and consumer protection related requirements. Test procedures on seat-belts according to UN R14 and

It discusses the required test equipment (impactors, test fa- R21

cilities) and the typical load cases of the experiments. Finally, Test procedures for steering systems according to FMVSS

the testing specifications, including the protection criteria are 203, UN R12

explained.

Test procedures for child seat anchors (ISOFIX) of FMVSS

Course Objectives 225

After participating in the seminar “Static Vehicle Safety Tests

in Automotive Development”, the participants have gained

an overview of the static vehicle safety tests to be performed

on the car body and the components. They have acquired

knowledge about the essential procedures in Europe and

North America as well as their backgrounds and gained in-

sight into equipment necessary to carry out the experiments.

Alexander Martellucci (ACTS GmbH & Co. KG) began his professional career in physical labo-

Instructor

ratories in the pharmaceutical industry. Since 1992 he is involved in the testing of components for vehicle

safety. Until 1995 he worked in the steering wheel laboratory and until 1998 he headed the airbag testing

at TRW. Since 1998 he has been with ACTS GmbH & Co. KG until 2002 as head of the component laboratory,

and since then as manager Technology & Testing Services.

Facts

26.04.2017 2872 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 29.03.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

08.11.2017 2873 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 11.10.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

103

Safety

meeting Legal and Consumer Protection Requirements

Course Description the efficiency of the entire system.

Belts, belt-load limiters, airbags, steering column, knee

Finally future topics such as the compatibility of vehicles as

bolster, seat… - only if all the components of a frontal

well as pre-crash preparation and prevention of accidents are

restraint system are in perfect harmony it is possible to meet

integrated into the seminar.

the different legal limit values as well as the requirements of

consumer tests. However, these requirements, e.g. FMVSS Who should attend?

208, U.S. NCAP, Euro NCAP et al. are manifold and extensive,

The seminar addresses simulation and test engineers, project

partly contradict each other, or the requirements superpose

engineers and project managers as well as the heads of

each other. Therefore it is a challenge for every development

development departments in the field of passive safety who

engineer to develop a restraint system by a clear, strategic

work on the design of restraint-systems for vehicles.

procedure; time-saving and target-oriented with an optimal

result.

Course Contents

In this 2-day seminar this strategic way of development will Identification of the relevant development load cases

be shown. You will learn a procedure how to ideally solve the Procedures for the development of a restraint system

complex development task of a typical frontal restraint-sys-

tem design within the scope of the available tools test and Influence and importance of individual system

simulation. Especially the importance and the influence of components on the overall performance

individual system components (e.g. belt-load limiters) for the Development strategy for UN regulations and NAR

accomplishment of development-sub tasks (e.g. minimum restraint systems

chest deflection) will be covered. In addition the influence of Development path for the conformance to the OoP

the airbag module design on the hazards of Out-of-Position requirements according to FMVSS 208

(OoP) situations is going to be discussed, and a possible

development-path for the compliance with the OoP require-

ments according to the FMVSS 208 legislation will be shown.

The possibilities and limits of the development tools test and

simulation will be discussed and communicated. Last but not

least tips and tricks for a successful overall system design will

be part of this seminar.

In this seminar you will become familiar with a procedure

for the successful development of a frontal restraint system.

Furthermore you will learn which development tool,

simulation or test, is best suited for the respective sub task.

Moreover you will be made aware of the influence of the

individual components of a restraint system (belts, belt-load

limiters, airbags, steering column, knee bolster, seat,...) on

Kai Golowko (Bertrandt Ingenieurbüro GmbH) has been working in the area of vehicle safety

Instructor

since 1999. He started his career as a test engineer for passive safety at ACTS. Since 2003 he has been

working as senior engineer for occupant safety and pedestrian protection. Since 2005 he has managed the

department vehicle safety at Bertrandt in Gaimersheim. In this position he is responsible for component

development and validation and integrated safety.

Facts

10.-11.07.2017 2901 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 12.06.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

15.-16.11.2017 2940 Tappenbeck 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 18.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

104

Safety

Mechanics, Energy Considerations, Protection Criteria and Application Examples

Course Description Who should attend?

Constant changes of requirements - in particular in the con- The course is intended for simulation engineers, systems

sumer protection tests - let the design of restraint systems engineers, project engineers, project managers and the

continuously seem more and more complex. The safety of heads of teams or departments in the crash area, dealing

rear seat occupants, for example, is playing an important role with the development of restraint systems or the analysis of

in the restraint system development today. Therefore, a deep crash data.

understanding of the complete system vehicle - restraint sys-

tem - dummy is necessary to successfully adjust the system. Course Contents

A profound knowledge of the mechanisms causing dummy Mechanical basics of frontal impact

loading and the parameters influencing and enabling their Dummies in frontal crash: HIII 50%, HIII 5%, Q6 and Q10

optimization is essential. In this 2-day seminar, the mechanics

of occupant restraining and the idea of energy consider- Short overview of new regulations and consumer tests

ations, as well as the most important occupant protection Energy considerations - force balances

criteria and strategies for their reduction, are discussed. This Phases of retention: Coupling and controlled retention

knowledge is then put in a context of legal requirements and

Relevant criteria for occupant protection: Mechanisms

ratings. The seminar focuses on the influence of the seat

and parameters for their reduction

belt, whereas unbelted load cases and an in depth analysis of

airbag concepts is not part of this seminar. Priorities in the design of restraint systems for front and

rear seats

The seminar approaches occupant safety both from a

Application examples and tips

theoretical basis as well as from the interpretation of

experimental data. Attendees will learn about the phases of

retention, the main parameters influencing occupant loading

and approaches for computing the balances of the restraint

forces acting on the occupant. Another topic of the seminar is

the rear seat occupant protection, in particular because new

dummies (Q6, Q10) will be introduced here by Euro NCAP.

The aim of the seminar is to gain an understanding about the

forces involved in energy absorption and their effects on the

occupants.

Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Eickhoff (Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG) studied mechanical engineering in Hannover

(Germany) focusing on vehicle engineering and applied mechanics. Starting from 1999 he worked with

Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG as a test engineer for sled and crash tests. Since 2003 he has been project manager in

Instructor

systems development (safety belt) of the same company. He was involved in the definition and assessment

of new restraint systems and he conducted feasibility studies using system simulation as well as dynamical

tests. Moreover he had a consultant role regarding restraint system design. He finished his doctoral thesis

at the Helmut Schmidt University Hamburg in 2012 on the reduction of belt induced thorax deflection in

frontal crashes. Since 2016 he has been head of the department Virtual & System Engineering, Homologa-

tion at Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG.

Facts

08.-09.03.2018 3048 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 08.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

105

CAE

WISSEN Safety

Introduction Fully documented head impact cases can be simulated in order

The head and more specifically the brain is among the most to compute the mechanical loadings sustained by the head

vital organs of the human body. tissues and to compare it to the real injuries described in the

medical reports. It has for example been shown in Zhou et al.

Over the past forty years, a slant has been put by the biome- (1996) [5], Kang et al. (1997) [6] and more recently in King et al.

chanical research on the understanding of the head injury (2003) [7], Kleiven et al. (2007) [8] and Deck et al. (2008) [9] that

mechanisms. Nevertheless, an injury is always a consequence the brain shear stress and strain rates predicted by their Finite El-

of an exceeded tissue tolerance to a specific loading. Even if lo- ement Head Models agree with the location and the severity of

cal tissue tolerance has very early been investigated, the global the axonal injuries described in the medical report. Since these

acceleration of the impacted head and the impact duration are finite element head models exist, new injury prediction tools

usually being used as impact severity descriptors. The Wayne based on the computed intracranial loadings become available

State University Tolerance Curve has therefore been proposed for protective systems design.

since the early Sixties thanks to several works by Lissner et al.

(1960) [1] and Gurdjian et al. (1958) [2]. This curve shows the Human Head Model Development and Validation

link between the impact of the head described by the head The proposed head geometry is based on a human skull which

acceleration and the impact duration and, on the other hand has been digitized externally and internally. Membranes such

the head injury risk. Hence, after the work of Gadd (1966) [3], as falx and tentorium are based on anatomic atlas and a brain-

University FE Head Model): skull, CSF,

membranes, brain

the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) skull interface of 2 mm thickness has been considered in order

proposed the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) in 1972. This is the to represent the CSF. Brain, CSF and scalp are modeled with

tool used nowadays in safety standards for the head protection brick elements. As a function of application, three approaches

systems using headforms. Since it is based solely on the global exist for the skull model, i.e. a rigid skull, a frangible and de-

children head and neck FE models

with specific structural and geo-

metrical characteristics of the 6

weeks, 6 months, 1,3,6 years old.

linear resultant acceleration of a single mass head model, some formable skull modeled by a three layered composite structure

limitations of this empiric criterion are well-known, such as with constant thickness and finally a detailed skull description

the fact that it is not specific to direction of impact and that it with non-constant thickness and taking into account the

neglects the angular accelerations. anatomical reinforcement beams. Figure 1 illustrates the skull,

A proposed alternative method for assessing head injury risk is to the CSF, the membranes and the brain structure of Stras-

use a human head Finite Element Model (FEM), which can en- bourg University FE Head Model (SUFEHM). The constitutive

able the investigation of the intra-cranial response under impact laws implemented under LS-DYNA for the different parts of

conditions. This method is well known since 1975 when one of the human head are reported in Deck et al 2008 [9] for the

the first three dimensional models was developed by Ward et material supposed to be elastic (scalp, CSF, membranes, face),

al [4]. This method thereby leads to added useful mechanical and visco-elastic brain material for the composite frangible

observables which should be closer to the description of known elasto-plastic behavior of the skull. In order to ensure that this

injury mechanisms. Hence, new injury criteria can be proposed. mechanical head model presents a realistic response under

In the last decades, more than ten different three dimensional impact it was validated against data reported in the literature

finite element head models have been reported in the literature. as reported in [9]. Validation focused on intra-cerebral pres-

106

CAE

Safety WISSEN

and structural analysis of the children head-neck system as a

function of age showed that the scaling down method was

applicable to children over 6 years old. For younger children,

specific geometrical and structural specifications such as

sutures, fontanels, skull homogeneity should be considered.

Figure 4: Implementation of the head injury prediction tool into a full FE approach

Figure 2 reports the head-neck models developed for the 6

considering the coupled head-protective system model in the framework of car

weeks, 6 months, 1 , 3 and 6 years old child models. bonnet or helmet optimization.

In order to establish human head tolerance limits or head in- Background of head injury criteria based on single head

jury criteria, no less than 125 real world head trauma involving acceleration and on advanced head FE models are presented.

adults and children have been simulated with the above head Further, the Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model

models. Several cranial and intra-cranial mechanical parame- (SUFEHM) has been presented and validated. In an attempt

ters have been computed and correlated with the occurrence to develop model based head injury criteria a total of 125 real

of skull fracture, subdural hematoma and neurological injuries world head trauma that occurred in motorcyclist, American

respectively. It has been shown that a under 50% risk of football and pedestrian accidents were reconstructed with

subdural hematoma appears for maximal pressure of the CSF SUFEHM.

of about -135kPa, the 50% risk of neurological injury exists for

Tolerance limits to specific injury have been computed for a

an intra-cerebral von Mises shearing stress of around 37 kPa,

50% injury risk of skull fracture, SDH and neurological injuries

both, for the adult and the child. Coming to skull fracture pre-

Finally it is shown how the proposed model based head injury

diction it was shown that the relevant mechanical parameter

criteria can be applied to experimental and numerical head

is skull strain energy and that the critical value (50% risk) is

protection systems evaluation and optimization.

strongly age dependent as it varies from 0.5 J for the adult to

6 J for the youngest child. References

[1] Lissner H.R., Lebow M., Evans F.G., Experimental studies on the

relation between acceleration and intracranial pressure changes in

man, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 111, 1960.

[2] Gurdjian E.S., Webster A., Head Injury, Little Brown Company,

Boston, 1958.

[3] Gadd C.W., Use of a weighted – impulse criterion for estimating

injury hazard, Proc. of the 10th STAPP Car Crash Conf., pp. 164-174,

1966.

[4] Ward C.C., Chan M., Nahum A.M., Intracranial pressure: a brain

injury criterion, SAE, 1980.

[5] Zhou C., Kahlil T.B., Dragovic L.J., Head injury assessment of a real

world crash by finite element modelling, Proc. of the AGARD Conf.,

1996.

[6] Kang HS,, Willinger R., Diaw BM, Chinn B : Validation of a 3D human

head model and replication of head impact in motorcycle accident by

finite element modelling. Proceed. of the 41th Stapp Car Crash Conf.

Figure 3: Implementation of the head injury prediction tool into a standard Lake Buena Vista USA, pp 329-338, 1997.

test method according to the coupled experimental versus numerical test [7] King A., Yang K., Zhang L., and Hardy W. Is head injury caused by

method.

linear or angular acceleration? IRCOBI Conference, pp 1–12, 2003

The proposed head models and injury criteria transform [8] Kleiven S (2007) Predictors for traumatic brain injuries evaluated

through accident reconstructions. Proceedings 51th Stapp Car Crash

these models to numerical head injury prediction tools with

Conference, SAE paper 2007-22-0003:81-114.

a number of possible applications in the field of evaluation

[9] Deck C., Willinger R., (2008) Improved head injury criteria based on

and optimization of head protection systems or advanced head FE model, International Journal of Crashworthiness, Vol 13, No

virtual testing. The coupled experimental versus numerical test 6, pp. 667-678.

procedure is illustrated in figure 3. Further, a full FE approach is [10] Tinard V, Deck C, Willinger R.: New methodology for improve-

possible as well when the protective system has been previous- ment of helmet performances during impacts with regards to biome-

ly modelled. In this case a virtual evaluation and optimization chanical criteria. J of Materials and Design 37 (2012) 79-88.

of the protective system is possible as reported by Tinard et

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Caroline Deck & Prof. Dr.

al 2012 [10] and illustrated in figure 4 for a car bonnet and a

Remy Willinger, University Strasbourg & CNRS, France

motorcyclist helmet optimization.

107

Safety

Rear seat occupant protection has been a low priority until The seminar addresses simulation and test engineers, project

the recent introduction of safety assessment for rear adult engineers and project managers as well as the heads of

and child occupants by Euro NCAP. Now it has moved into development departments in the field of passive safety who

the focus of research and development. work in R&D of occupant restraint-systems.

In addition to the Euro NCAP requirements, further NCAP Course Contents

ratings as well as legal requirements need to be considered

Legal Requirements

in the design of the restraint systems. And real world aspects

cannot be neglected either. Requirements from consumer testing

Dummies on the rear seat; Q6 and Q10 Child Dummies

During the 1-day seminar legal and NCAP requirements

for rear seat occupant protection in frontal impact will be Relevant protection criteria for the most important load

discussed. Furthermore the dummies used in the assessment cases

will be presented with an empasis on the Q6 and Q10 child Solutions for restraint system design and optimization

dummies. For the most important load cases the relevant

criteria and possible influcening parameters of the restraint

system will be discussed and explored. Finally solutions for

the design of the restraint system on rear seat will be shown.

Note: Only frontal impact load cases will be considered.

Course Objectives

The objective of the seminar is to provide an understanding

of the requirements and specifics in rear seat occupant pro-

tection, to provide the knowledge of test configurations and

dummies, and to provide a view on state-of-the-art solutions.

Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Eickhoff (Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG) studied mechanical engineering in Hannover

(Germany) focusing on vehicle engineering and applied mechanics. Starting from 1999 he worked with

Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG as a test engineer for sled and crash tests. Since 2003 he has been project manager in

Instructor

systems development (safety belt) of the same company. He was involved in the definition and assessment

of new restraint systems and he conducted feasibility studies using system simulation as well as dynamical

tests. Moreover he had a consultant role regarding restraint system design. He finished his doctoral thesis

at the Helmut Schmidt University Hamburg in 2012 on the reduction of belt induced thorax deflection in

frontal crashes. Since 2016 he has been head of the department Virtual & System Engineering, Homologa-

tion at Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG.

Facts

06.10.2017 2894 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

108

Safety

In addition to the protection in a frontal impact, the protec- and managers, who deal with side impact and who would like

tion in a side impact has a fixed place in the development to gain a deeper understanding of this topic in order to use it

of vehicles. Continuous aggravation of consumer tests and for an improvement of procedures.

legal regulations, e.g. due to new pole tests (UN ECE-R135

and Euro NCAP), enhanced deformable barriers and the Course Contents

prospective introduction of World-SID-Dummies (5 / 50%ile) Challenges of side impacts

are causing a need to further improve side impact protection. Side impact-relevant protection criteria.

In order to achieve this enhancement, it is necessary to get a Legal tests (FMVSS 214, UN ECE R95, UN ECE R135, ...)

much more profound understanding of the highly complex

Other tests (Euro NCAP, U.S. NCAP, further NCAPs, IIHS, car

phenomena and modes of action in a side impact which goes

manufacturer-specific tests)

far beyond the simple application of additional airbags.

Development methods and tools:

The seminar provides a comprehensive overview of today’s

Crash and occupant simulation, range of application and

standard test procedures including country-specific varia-

limitations.

tions, the legal regulations and the requirements of consum-

er protection as well as an outlook on changes in the near Performance of restraint systems in side impact:

future. In addition, tools, measuring methods and criteria, Analysis of the performance of protection and restraint

and especially virtual methods such as crash and occupant systems in side impact. Discussion of the limitations,

simulation, as well as the analysis of the performance of the conflicts and problems.

restraint systems will be discussed. Furthermore it will be Development strategy for an optimal restraint system for

explained how a target-oriented use of CAE-simulation and side impact

hardware tests can lead to optimal passenger values, while at

the same time obeying to boundary conditions such as costs, Target-oriented use of CAE-simulation and hardware

weight and time-to-market. A part of the workshop with tests

crash-data analysis finally deepens the understanding. Workshop with analysis of crash-data and discussion of

the results

Who should attend?

The seminar addresses development engineers who are

new in the field of side crash, or who have already gained

some experience in the field of safety, as well as developers

of assemblies that have to fulfil a crash-relevant function.

Bart Paul Peeters Weem (BMW AG) studied mechanical engineering at the University of Technol-

ogy in Eindhoven with focus on system and control. Since 2003 he has worked at BMW on passive safety

development. First as Simulation Engineer, later as team leader and project referent. Since 2015 he is head

of the development of full vehicle side impact protection for BMW 1-, 2- and 3-series, MINI and BMW-i.

Instructors

Stephanie Wolter (BMW AG) studied Engineering Physics at the University of Applied Sciences Mu-

nich. Since 1995 she has been working at BMW AG in different functions in the field of side protection, such

as pre-development, development of side airbags and as a project engineer in various car lines. Moreover,

she represents BMW-Group in various national and international bodies that deal with side impact and

other aspects of side protection, e.g. German Side Impact Working Group, ISO Working Groups, etc.

Facts

07.-08.06.2017 2932 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 10.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

28.-29.11.2017 2933 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 31.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

109

Safety

To prevent injuries resulting from impacts of the occupants’ This seminar is especially suited for engineers and technicians

heads on vehicle interior parts, these parts need to be de- who work on the development of vehicle interior parts and

signed in a way which allows sufficient deformation space to who want to become familiar with the safety requirements

reduce the loads on the head. Internationally there are two that are relevant for these parts.

important regulations regarding the design of interiors, such

as cockpits, roof and door liners: The U.S. FMVSS 201 and the Course Contents

Regulation UN R21. Both regulations stipulate requirements Introduction

concerning the maximum head acceleration or the HIC in Rules and regulations concerning head impact

impacts on interior parts.

FMVSS 201

The objective of this course is to provide an overview of the UN R21

legal requirements and to show how these can be fulfilled. Development tools

The focus of the seminar is on the development process

Numerical Simulation

and the development tools and methods. In particular the

interaction of testing and simulation will be described and Test

different design solutions will be discussed. Typical conflicts Workshop: Determination of impact locations in a vehicle

of objectives in the design - e.g. to fulfil NVH requirements, Development process and methods

static stiffness, or misuse, while fulfilling the safety standards

Solving of conflicts of objectives

at the same time - are addressed in this seminar. Examples of

Typical deformation paths, padding materials

practical solutions will be shown and discussed.

In addition, the development according to the head impact

requirements in the overall-context of vehicle development is

described in this seminar.

In a workshop exemplary head impact locations in a vehicle

interior and impact areas on a dashboard are determined.

Torsten Gärtner (Adam Opel AG) as been working as a simulation expert since 1997. From

numerous projects he has extensive experience in the field of occupant simulation and interior safety. He is

Technical Lead Engineer Safety Analytics at Adam Opel AG. Before that he worked as department manager

for safety with Tecosim GmbH and spent 10 years in various management positions with carhs gmbh.

Instructors

Safety Technology at the University of Wuppertal. During his studies he worked at BGS (Böhme & Gehring

Sicherheitstechnik) in the fields of dummy calibration and head impact. In 1998 he joined Continental Safety

Engineering International as an engineer. In 2000 he established FMVSS201U testing at Continental and in

2002 he introduced pedestrian protection testing. Later on UN ECE R21 and FMVSS201L testing was added,

followed by ejection mitigation. In 2003 he became team leader for pedestrian protection and interior head

impact, in 2009 he started leading the development and testing for FMH und pedestrian protection and

since 2012 he has been team leader of the competence center for pedestrian protection and interior head

impact. In this role he acts as a link between simulation, project and testing.

Facts

12.06.2017 2898 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 15.05.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

27.09.2017 2931 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 30.08.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

110

automotive CAECompanion

Registration at www.carhs.de

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111

automotive CAECompanion

Hinterhölzl, Roland 15 Peeters Weem, Bart Paul 109

A Hoffmann, Rainer 94 Pickett, Anthony 71

Active Safety 95 Honermeier, Heiko 83 Plastics 18, 66, 68, 74

Alternative Propulsion Vehicles 102 Hübner, Sandro 17 Polymeric Materials 63

Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler Method 82 Human Model 49, 106 Programming 46

B I Python 46

Bachem, Harald 101 Imprint 111 R

Backes, André 46 In-house Seminars 7 Random Loads 26

Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen 84 Intensive Training 16 Registration 111

Baumgärtner, Timo 18 Interior 48 Regulations 99

Beads 38 Interiors 18 Restraint System 17, 104

Biomechanics 106 Reverse Engineering 75

Bulla, Marian 51 J

Jennewein, Dietmar 30 Robust Design 41, 43

C Joints 56 Robustness 41

CAE 10, 16, 48 Jung, Udo 28 Rother, Klemens 24, 44

Chatzikonstantinou, Thomas 92 Justen, Rainer 102 S

Composites 15, 70, 72 Schumacher, Axel 12, 13, 34

Consistent Units 47 K

Kamoulakos, Argiris 90 Seeck, Andre 100

Crash Simulation 56, 60, 66, 72 Seminar Guide 8

Creamer, John F. 99 Karall, Thomas 72, 74

Kolk, Olaf 32 Shape Optimization 37

D Kolling, Stefan 66 Short-Fibre 68

Deck, Caroline 107 Kroyer, Robert 84 Side Impact 109

Design Maturity 17 Sizing 38

Duddeck, Fabian 43 L Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics 88

Dummy 22 Lightweight Design 13, 14, 28 Sommer, Silke 55, 56

Durability 24, 28, 93 Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics 74 Spindelberger, Gerhard 93

Dynamic Analysis 84 Low-Speed Crashes 101 Spot Weld 54, 56

M Static Vehicle Safety Tests 103

E

Martellucci, Alexander 103 Structural Optimization 35, 36

Eickhoff, Burkhard 105, 108

Material Models 57, 60, 63, 66, 72 T

F Material Parameter Identification 75 THUMS 49

Fatigue Analysis 24, 26, 28 Material Parameters 61 Time Integration 84

Finck, Maren 19 Maurer, Detlev 81 Topology Optimization 33, 36

Finite Difference Method 80 Meshless Methods 88

Finite Element Method 81 Metal 57, 60 U

Finite Volume Method 80 Müller, Gerd 95 Uncertainty 43

Fluid-Structure Interaction 91 Multiphysics Simulation 78 V

Foams 66 Vibration 30, 32

Frontal Impact 105, 108 N

NCAP 100, 104 W

G Neuber Approximation 93 Willinger, Remy 107

Gärtner, Torsten 110 Nilsson, Kenth 84 Will, Johannes 42

Gese, Helmut 60 Noise 30 Wolff, Karsten 110

Glass 50 Notch Stresses 93 Wolter, Stephanie 109

Golowko, Kai 104 NVH 30

Grand Challenge 10 X

O X-FEM 50

H Occupant Protection 105, 108

Harshness 30 Z

Operational Strength 26 Zopp, Alexander 30

Harzheim, Lothar 35 Optimization 28, 33, 35, 36

Head Impact 110

Head Injury 106 P

Heidkamp, Arno 48 Passive Safety 94

112

Seminar Calendar 2017

May June July August September October

1 Mo Labor Day 1 Th 1 Sa 1 Tu Automotive Safety Summit 1 Fr 1 Su

2 Tu 2 Fr 2 Su 2 We Shanghai 2 Sa 2 Mo

3 We 3 Sa 3 Mo 3 Th 3 Su 3 Tu German National Holiday

4 Th 4 Su Pentecost 4 Tu 4 Fr 4 Mo 4 We

5 Fr 5 Mo Pentecost 5 We 5 Sa 5 Tu Static & Dynamic Analysis 5 Th Vehicle Vibration p.32

6 Sa 6 Tu 6 Th Design of Restraint Systems p.17 6 Su 6 We Long-Fibre-Reinforced Pl. p.74 6 Fr Rear Seat Occupant Prot. p.108

7 Su 7 We 7 Fr 7 Mo 7 Th NVH- Background, Practice 7 Sa

Side Impact

8 Mo Crash Safety of Alternative 8 Th p.109 8 Sa 8 Tu 8 Fr & Simulation Methodology p.30 8 Su

9 Tu Propulsion Vehicles p.102 9 Fr 9 Su 9 We 9 Sa 9 Mo Design of Restraint Systems p.17

10 We 10 Sa 10 Mo Development of Frontal 10 Th 10 Su 10 Tu Pedestrian Protection p.19

11 Th 11 Su 11 Tu Restraint Systems p.104 11 Fr 11 Mo Crashworthy Car Body p.11 11 We PraxisConf. Composite

12 Fr Material Models of Composites 12 Mo Pedestrian Protection 12 We 12 Sa 12 Tu 12 Th Dummy Structures p.15

Robust Design

13 Sa p.72 13 Tu Introduction to Passive p.19 13 Th 13 Su 13 We p.43 13 Fr

14 Su 14 We Safety p.94 14 Fr 14 Mo 14 Th International Safety and 14 Sa

15 Mo 15 Th Corpus Christi 15 Sa 15 Tu Assumption Day 15 Fr Crash-Test Regulations p.99 15 Su

16 Tu 16 Fr 16 Su 16 We 16 Sa 16 Mo

17 We 17 Sa 17 Mo 17 Th 17 Su 17 Tu

18 Th p.96 18 Su 18 Tu 18 Fr 18 Mo Structural Optimization in 18 We Low-Speed Crash p.101

19 Fr 19 Mo Car Body Design for 19 We 19 Sa 19 Tu Automotive Design p.35 19 Th

20 Sa 20 Tu Analysis Engineers p.12 20 Th 20 Su 20 We Improving Efficiency and 20 Fr

21 Su 21 We 21 Fr 21 Mo 21 Th Reducing Risk in CAE p.44 21 Sa

22 Mo Material Models of Plastics 22 Th NCAP - New Car 22 Sa 22 Tu 22 Fr 22 Su

23 Tu and Foams for Crash Sim. p.66 23 Fr Assessment Programs p.100 23 Su 23 We 23 Sa 23 Mo

24 We 24 Sa 24 Mo 24 Th 24 Su 24 Tu Material Models of Plastics

25 Th Ascension of Christ 25 Su 25 Tu 25 Fr 25 Mo Interior Development p.18 25 We and Foams for Crash Sim. p.66

26 Fr 26 Mo Crash Safety of Alternative 26 We 26 Sa 26 Tu 26 Th Material Models of Metals p.60

SafetyUpDate Graz

27 Sa 27 Tu Propulsion Vehicles p.102 27 Th 27 Su 27 We 27 Fr Material Mod. Composites p.72

28 Su 28 We PraxisConference 28 Fr 28 Mo 28 Th PraxisConf. Python Pro- 28 Sa

29 Mo Crashworthy Car Body 29 Th Pedestrian Protection p.22 29 Sa 29 Tu 29 Fr AEB gramming p.46 29 Su

30 Tu Design p.11 30 Fr 30 Su 30 We 30 Sa 30 Mo Introduction to

31 We Pedestrian Protection p.19 31 Mo 31 Th 31 Tu Passive Safety p.94

Course Venue Alzenau Course Venue Bergisch Gladbach Course Venue Tianjin Course Venue Graz Subject to changes.

Find updates and additional information at

Course Venue Aschaffenburg Course Venue Shanghai Course Venue Tappenbeck Course Venue Gaimersheim/Ingolstadt www.carhs.de

Seminar Calendar 2017/2018

November December January 2018 February 2018 March 2018 April 2018

1 We All Saints 1 Fr 1 Mo New Year 1 Th 1 Th NVH- Background, Practice 1 Su Easter

2 Th NCAP- New Car 2 Sa 2 Tu 2 Fr 2 Fr & Simulation Methodology p.30 2 Mo Easter

3 Fr Assessment Programs p.100 3 Su 3 We 3 Sa 3 Sa 3 Tu

4 Sa 4 Mo 4 Th 4 Su 4 Su 4 We

5 Su 5 Tu 5 Fr 5 Mo 5 Mo 5 Th

6 Mo Crash Safety of Alternative 6 We 6 Sa 6 Tu 6 Tu 6 Fr

7 Tu Propulsion Vehicles p.102 7 Th 7 Su 7 We 7 We 7 Sa

8 We Static Vehicle Safety Tests p.103 8 Fr 8 Mo 8 Th 8 Th Basics of Occupant 8 Su

9 Th 9 Sa 9 Tu 9 Fr 9 Fr Protection p.105 9 Mo

10 Fr 10 Su 10 We 10 Sa 10 Sa 10 Tu Design of Composite

11 Sa 11 Mo 11 Th 11 Su 11 Su 11 We Structures p.15

12 Su 12 Tu 12 Fr 12 Mo 12 Mo Introduction to the Python 12 Th

13 Mo Car Body Design for 13 We 13 Sa 13 Tu 13 Tu Programming Language p.46 13 Fr

14 Tu Analysis Engineers p.12 14 Th 14 Su 14 We 14 We Low-Speed Crashes p.101 14 Sa

15 We Development of Frontal 15 Fr 15 Mo 15 Th 15 Th Virtual-based Development p.48 15 Su

16 Th Restraint Systems p.104 16 Sa 16 Tu 16 Fr 16 Fr 16 Mo

17 Fr Active Safety of Vehicles p.95 17 Su 17 We 17 Sa 17 Sa 17 Tu automotive CAE

18 Sa 18 Mo 18 Th 18 Su 18 Su 18 We Grand Challenge 2018 p.10

19 Su 19 Tu 19 Fr 19 Mo 19 Mo Modeling of Joints p.56 19 Th

Robust Design

20 Mo Introduction to Passive 20 We 20 Sa 20 Tu p.43 20 Tu 20 Fr

21 Tu Safety of Vehicles p.94 21 Th 21 Su 21 We Structural Optimization in 21 We 21 Sa

22 We 22 Fr 22 Mo 22 Th Automotive Design p.35 22 Th Lightweight Design 22 Su

23 Th Lightweight Design Strate- 23 Sa 23 Tu 23 Fr 23 Fr Strategies for Car Bodies p.13 23 Mo

Interior Development

24 Fr gies for Car Bodies p.13 24 Su 24 We 24 Sa 24 Sa 24 Tu p.18

25 Sa 25 Mo Christmas 25 Th 25 Su 25 Su 25 We

26 Su 26 Tu Christmas 26 Fr 26 Mo 26 Mo 26 Th Introduction to

27 Mo 27 We 27 Sa 27 Tu 27 Tu 27 Fr Fatigue Analysis p.24

28 Tu 28 Th 28 Su 28 We 28 We 28 Sa

29 We 29 Fr 29 Mo 29 Th 29 Su

30 Th 30 Sa 30 Tu 30 Fr Good Friday 30 Mo

31 Su 31 We 31 Sa

Course Venue Alzenau Course Venue Hanau Subject to changes.

Find updates and additional information at

Course Venue Tappenbeck www.carhs.de

SMART

VIRTUAL

PROTOTYPING

systems. Virtual sensors for

intelligent products. A fully

immersive experience.

Prototyping, ESI brings your

innovations to life through

a realistic virtual experience of

your product, as manufactured.

This helps engineers secure

a reliable solution in the virtual

world, and save time in the real

one.

www.esi-group.com/smart

Copyright © ESI Group 2017 - G/OM/16.103/A

enable your digital

transformation

Greater safety and comfort, alternative drive systems

and lightweight design to ensure resource conservation

and a reduction in CO2 emissions – as a world-

leading CAE development partner, TECOSIM

engineers create tomorrow’s sustainable

solutions using calculation and simulation.

Ferdinand-Stuttmann-Straße 15

65428 Rüsselsheim, Germany

info@tecosim.com

Bangalore | Basildon | Cologne | Coventry | Graz | Ingolstadt | Munich | Neckarsulm | Pune | Rüsselsheim | Stuttgart | Tokyo

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