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Empowering Engineers


Computer Aided Engineering News, Knowledge Exchange Functional Development
Simulation Methods and Networking Material Characterization
Automotive Engineering for Experts CAE Technology

CAE Tools

Modeling of
Materials &

CAE Theory

carhs.training gmbh
Siemensstrasse 12
63755 Alzenau
Tel. +49 6023 9640 60
Fax +49 6023 9640 70
Web www.carhs.de
E-Mail trainingcenter@carhs.de
automotive CAECompanion

Table of Contents
6 CAE is the Enabler of new Vehicle Platforms 28 Seminar: Design for Durability – Lightweight
7 In-house Seminars Car Bodies and Fatigue  NEW
8 Seminar Guide 30 Seminar: NVH - Background, Practice and
Simulation Methodology
Engineering 32 Seminar: Design and Simulation of Vehicle
10 Conference: automotive CAE Grand Vibration
Challenge 2018 33 Wissen: Topology optimization for crash-
11 Seminar: Crashworthy Car Body Design - loaded structures  NEW
Design, Simulation, Optimization 35 Seminar: Structural Optimization in
12 Seminar: Car Body Design for Analysis Automotive Design - Theory and Application
Engineers 36 Wissen: (Non parametric) Structural
13 Seminar: Lightweight Design Strategies for Optimization
Car Bodies 41 Wissen: Robust Design Strategies for CAE-
14 Conference: Lightweight Design Summit based Virtual Prototyping in the Automotive
2018 Industry.
15 Seminar: Design of Composite Structures 43 Seminar: Robust Design - Vehicle
Development under Uncertainty
16 Seminar: CAE Intensive Training Course for
Automotive Engineers 44 Seminar: Improving Efficiency and Reducing
Risk in CAE Driven Product Development
17 Seminar: Early Increase of Design Maturity
of Restraint System Components in the Tools
Reduced Prototype Vehicle Development
Process  NEW 46 Seminar: Introduction to the Python
Programming Language
18 Seminar: Interior Development -
Fundamentals, Materials, Design, 47 Wissen: Basics: Consistent Units
Manufacturing 48 Seminar: Possibilities and Limitations of
19 Seminar: Pedestrian Protection - Virtual-based Development using the
Development Strategies Example of Interior Components
20 Wissen: Functional Development: 49 Wissen: THUMS Version 4 AM50 Pedestrian
Pedestrian Protection - Lower Leg Impact and Occupant Models
21 Wissen: Functional Development:
Modeling of Materials & Connections
Pedestrian Protection - Head Impact
22 Conference: PraxisConference Pedestrian 50 Wissen: Material Models and Failure Criteria
Protection of Glass for Crash Simulation – X-FEM
22 Conference: PraxisConference Crash Dummy 54 Wissen: Spot Weld Modeling for Crash
24 Seminar: Introduction to Fatigue Analysis
56 Seminar: Modeling of Joints in Crash
26 Wissen: Operational Strength under
Consideration of Random Loads in the
Frequency Domain 57 Wissen: Material Models for Metallic
automotive CAECompanion

60 Seminar: Material Models of Metals for 95 Seminar: Introduction to Active Safety of

Crash Simulation Vehicles  NEW
61 Wissen: Material Parameters for CAE 96 Conference: SafetyWeek 2017
Simulation 97 Conference: Automotive Safety Summit
63 Wissen: Material Models for Polymeric Shanghai 2017  NEW
Materials 97 Conference: SafetyUpDate Graz 2017
66 Seminar: Material Models of Plastics and 98 Conference: PraxisConference AEB
Foams for Crash Simulation
98 Conference: PraxisConference Rear Impact -
68 Wissen: Material Models for FEM Analysis of Seats - Whiplash
Short Fibre Reinforced Plastics
99 Seminar: International Safety and Crash-
70 Wissen: Material Models of Composites for Test Regulations: Current Status and Future
Crash Simulation Developments
72 Seminar: Material Models of Composites for 100 Seminar: NCAP - New Car Assessment
Crash Simulation Programs: Tests, Assessment Methods,
74 Seminar: Static and Dynamic Analysis of Ratings
Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics 101 Seminar: Passenger Cars in Low-Speed
75 Wissen: Material Parameter Identification - Crashes
Reverse Engineering 102 Seminar: Crash Safety of Alternative
Propulsion Vehicles
103 Seminar: Static Vehicle Safety Tests in
78 Wissen: Introduction and Examples of Automotive Development
Multiphysics Simulation 104 Seminar: Development of Frontal Restraint
80 Wissen: Principles and Applications of FDM, Systems meeting Legal and Consumer
FVM and FEM Protection Requirements
82 Wissen: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian 105 Seminar: Basics of Occupant Protection
Method (ALE) in Frontal Crashes: Mechanics, Energy
84 Wissen: Advances in Direct Time Integration Considerations, Protection Criteria and
Schemes for Dynamic Analysis Application Examples
88 Wissen: Meshless Methods: Smoothed 106 Wissen: Model Based Head Injury Criteria
Particle Hydrodynamics Method for Head Protection Optimization
91 Wissen: Simulation of Fluid Structure 108 Seminar: Rear Seat Occupant Protection in
Interaction Frontal Impact
93 Wissen: Comparison of Notch Stresses 109 Seminar: Side Impact - Requirements and
from Elastic Plastic FEA and Neuber Development Strategies
Approximation 110 Seminar: Head Impact on Vehicle Interiors:
FMVSS 201 and UN R21
111 Seminar Registration / Terms & Conditions
94 Seminar: Introduction to Passive Safety of 114 Seminar Calendar
automotive CAECompanion

CAE is the Enabler of new Vehicle Platforms

E-mobility, lightweight design, automomous vehicles: new
mobility concepts will replace the traditional 4-wheel, CAE KNOWLEDGE on 49 pages,
4-door, internal combustion engine automobile. Although
this transition is a long-term process, the new vehicle plat-
more than 70 Seminars & Events
forms are being developed today.
CAE is becoming the mission critical element for finding the
right solutions and making the right product and business decisions. Is CAE ready for these tasks? Is CAE develop-
ing fast enough? Are CAE engineers ready to tackle the challenges?
At carhs.training we strive to bring the latest methods and know-how to our customers.
The annual automotive CAE Grand Challenge has now for many years been the forum to identify and discuss
the focus areas of the future of CAE. Experts discuss new modeling and simulation approaches to tackle the
upcoming challenges in the automotive industry.
Our seminars provide in-depth knowledge on many areas of CAE and simulation and are updated continuously
to reflect the latest state-of-the-art.
The automotive CAECompanion provides knowledge in a handy booklet for easy reference and everyday use
covering areas like functional development, material characterization and innovative CAE technologies.
We are happy to present you the seventh edition of the automotive CAECompanion. This edition of the CAE-
Companion is the result of the work of many dedicated engineers from academics and industry. We would like to
thank all contributors and also the advertisers. Their generous contribution allows us to distribute the CAECom-
panion free of charge to the worldwide CAE community. We would like to encourage all readers, to get in touch
with us if you feel you can also contribute to future editions.
Only together, we can propel CAE into the future.
Alzenau, March 2017

Rainer Hoffmann Ralf Reuter Dr. Dirk Ulrich

President & CEO Executive Vice President Director Sales & CAE Training

April 17-18, 2018

read more at www.carhs.de/grand-challenge
automotive CAECompanion

In-house Seminars
Seminars at your site - efficient, flexible and customized
Are you looking for an individual and customized training for your employees?

„At BMW we faced the challenge to

Most of the seminars from our training program can also be booked as train a large number of employees with
in-house seminars in German or English language. Whether on your com- different professional backgrounds as
pany site or at a venue of your choice, the scale of our in-house seminars simulation engineers for crash and occu-
is tailored to your needs. pant safety. Based on their successful CAE
Intensive Training program carhs.training
Your advantages developed an individual multi week train-
„„ You are in full control of cost. We offer attractive fixed prices for our ing program for us. This training program
in-house seminars, depending on the number of participants and the combined theory, software and project
related service. training in an ideal manor. We were very
„„ Even for a small number of participants you can save a lot compared pleased about the success and the pro-
to the individual booking of seminars. Additionally, there are no costs fessional handling of the project. We can
for travel and time of your employees. recommend carhs.training to companies
„„ We respect your target dates as far as possible – also upon short that have individual and complex training
notice in „urgent cases“. needs as a partner for the design and
„„ You benefit from our professional organization and the top-quality
execution of the training.“
seminar manuals. Dr. Wolf Bartelheimer
„„ Our lecturers answer your individual questions. Manager Frontal Protection Small Cars
„„ Even if you are interested in very specific questions – we are looking BMW AG
for a qualified lecturer and develop the seminar.
Many of our customers have integrated our in-house seminars into their company’s training program.
Take advantage of this offer, too! We will be pleased to prepare you an individual offer.

Contact persons

Dr. Dirk Ulrich Sofia Antoniadou

Tel. +49 6023 9640 66 Tel. +49 6023 9640 76
dirk.ulrich@carhs.de sofia.antoniadou@carhs.de

ACTS, Adam Opel, Audi, Autoform, AZOS, Bentley Motors, Bertrandt, BMW, Bosch, Brose, CATARC, Code Product Solutions,
Continental, CSI, Daimler, Dalphimetal, Delphi, Dura Automotive, EDAG, Faurecia, Ford, Global NCAP, Grammer, HAITEC, Hon-
da, IAV, Idiada, IEE, JCI, IVM, Lear, L&L Products, Magna, Mahindra & Mahindra, MBtech, Messring, Open Air Systems, PATAC,
P+Z, SAIC, SMP, SMSC, Seat, Siemens, TAKATA, TASS, Tata, Tecosim, TRW, TTTech, VIF, Volkswagen.

Attractive Prices
With reference to our regular seminar fees we offer attractive discounts on our in-house seminars:

1 Day Seminar 2 Day Seminar

Discount for the Discount for the
30% 5th - 8th participant 50% 5th - 8th participant
60% 9th - 12th participant 70% 9th - 12th participant
70% 13th - 16th participant 75% 13th - 16th participant
75% 17th - 20th participant 80% 17th - 20th participant
80% from the 21st participant 85% from the 21st participant
automotive CAECompanion

Seminar Guide
Here you find the courses you need to get your job
Haven’t found what you need? Get in touch with us! Durability & Fatigue
 +49 6023 9640 60 ►► Introduction to Fatigue Analysis p. 24
Legend ►► Design for Durability – Lightweight Car Bodies
►► Seminar/Event that focusses on this topic and Fatigue p. 28
►► Seminar/Event that deals with this topic (among others) ►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 10
►► Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies p. 13
►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32

Crash & Safety

►► Crashworthy Car Body Design – Design, Simulation, Optimization p. 11
►► Early Increase of Design Maturity of Restraint System Components in the
Reduced Prototype Vehicle Development Process p. 17

►► Pedestrian Protection - Development Strategies p. 19
►► Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using the Example of
Interior Components p. 48
►► Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation p. 56
►► Material Models of Metals for Crash Simulation p. 60
►► Material Models of Plastics and Foams for Crash Simulation p. 66
►► Material Models of Composites for Crash Simulation p. 72

►► Introduction to Passive Safety of Vehicles p. 94
►► Introduction to Active Safety of Vehicles p. 95
►► International Crash-Rules and Regulations p. 99
►► NCAP - New Car Assessment Programs: Tests, Assessment Methods, Ratings p. 100
►► Passenger Cars in Low-Speed Crashes p. 101
►► Crashworthiness of Vehicles with Alternative Drive Systems p. 102
►► Static Vehicle Safety Tests in Automotive Development p. 103
►► Development of Frontal Restraint Systems p. 104
►► Basics of Occupant Protection in Frontal Crashes: Mechanics, Energy Consider-
ations, Protection Criteria and Application Examples p. 105
►► Rear Seat Occupant Protection in Frontal Impact p. 108
►► Side Impact – Requirements and Development Strategies p. 109
►► Head Impact on Vehicle Interiors FMVSS 201 and UN R21 p. 110
►► ... find many more seminars in our SAFETYCOMPANION

►► Design of Composite Structures p.
►► Material Models of Metals p. 47
►► Material Models of Plastics and Foams p. 53
►► Material Models of Composites S. 59
►► Static and Dynamic Analysis of Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics p. 60
►► Interior Development - Fundamentals, Materials, Design,
Manufacturing p. 65
►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 13
►► Lightweight Design Summit p. 14
►► Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies p. 20

automotive CAECompanion

Car Bodies
►► Crashworthy Car Body Design – Design, Simulation, Optimization p. 11
►► Car Body Design for Analysis Engineers p. 12
►► Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies p. 13
►► Design for Durability – Lightweight Car Bodies and Fatigue p. 28
►► NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation Methodology p. 30
►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32
►► Robust Design and Stochastics for Car Body Development p. 43
►► Static Vehicle Safety Tests in Automotive Development p. 103
►► Lightweight Design Summit p. 14
►► Structural Optimization p. 35
►► Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation p. 56
►► Introduction to Passive Safety of Vehicles p. 94
►► Crashworthiness of Vehicles with Alternative Drive Systems p. 102

NVH - Noise Vibration Harshness
►► NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation
Methodology p. 30
►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32
►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 13
►► Car Body Design for Analysis Engineers p. 19

►► Robust Design and Stochastics for Car Body
Development p. 91

CAE Methods & Tools

►► CAE Intensive Training p. 16
►► Introduction to Fatigue Analysis p. 24
►► NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation Methodology p. 30
►► Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration p. 32
►► Structural Optimization in Automotive Design p. 35
►► Robust Design and Stochastics for Car Body Development p. 43
►► Improving Efficiency and Reducing Risk in CAE driven product
development p. 44
►► Introduction to the Python Programming Language p. 46
►► Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using
the Example of Interior Components p. 48
►► Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation p. 56
►► automotive CAE Grand Challenge p. 10

CAE Basics

√ ►► CAE Intensive Training p. 16

►► Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using the
Example of Interior Components p. 48



In the last 20 years computer simulation has become an indispensable
tool in automotive development. Tremendous progress in software
and computer technology makes it possible today to assess product
and process performance before physical prototypes have been built.
Despite of significant progress in simulation technology and impressive
results in industrial application there remains a number of challenges
which prevent a “100% digital prototyping”. We at carhs.training call
these Grand Challenges.
Automotive CAE Grand Challenge offers a platform for dialog
The automotive CAE Grand Challenge stimulates the exchange be-
tween users, scientists and software developers in order to solve these
challenges. Annually the current, critical challenges in automotive CAE
are being identified through a survey among the simulation experts of
the international automotive industry. In the conference one session is
dedicated to each of the most critical challenges, the so-called Grand
Challenges. In each session CAE experts from industry, research and soft-
ware development will explain the importance of the individual Challenge for the virtual development
process and talk about their efforts to solve the challenge.
Who should attend?
The conference intends bringing together industrial users, researchers and software developers to
discuss these current, critical challenges of automotive CAE and to initiate collaboration between
these groups to help overcoming the Grand Challenges of automotive CAE. The presentation program
of the conference provides both experts and beginners valuable information for their daily work. The
possibility to meet and exchange with all stakeholders of automotive CAE is a great opportunity. In
the accompanying exhibition participants can receive additional information from leading companies
of CAE.

DATE 17.- 18.04.2018

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/grandchallenge

VENUE Congress Park Hanau, Schloßplatz 1, 63450 Hanau


PRICE 850,- EUR till 20.03.2018, thereafter 980,- EUR


Crashworthy Car Body Design - Design, Simulation, Optimization

Course Description Course Contents

In the development of a car body different - sometimes „„ Mechanics of crash events
conflicting - design requirements have to be met. Fulfilling „„ Accelerations during collisions
crash regulations is a key task. Therefore it is mandatory that „„ Structural loading during collisions
designers have a good understanding of the crash behavior of
„„ Examination of real crash events
mechanical structures. The combination of knowledge about
„„ Stability problems
mechanics and the ability to use modern design tools allows
for an efficient development process without unnecessary „„ Plasticity
design iterations. The objective of the seminar is to present „„ Design methods
new methods for crashworthy car body design. „„ Functional based design

At the beginning of the course the mechanical phenomena of „„ Car body design
crash events will be discussed. Subsequently modern devel- „„ CAE conform design
opment methods (CAD design and crash simulation) will be „„ Crash simulation
treated. Thereafter modern implementations of safety design
„„ Finite Element modelling of a car body
measures will be presented. Mathematical optimization of
structural design - which is increasingly used in industry - will „„ Finite Element analysis with explicit methods

be covered at the end of the course. „„ Possibilities and limitations

„„ Technical implementation of safety measures

Who should attend? „„ Energy absorbing members
This 2 day course addresses designers, test and simulation
„„ Car bodies
engineers as well as project leaders and managers working in
„„ Safety systems
car body development and analysis.
„„ Pedestrian protection
„„ Post crash

„„ Use of mathematical optimization procedures in real

world applications
„„ Approximation techniques
„„ Optimization software & strategies
„„ Shape and topology optimization

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Axel Schumacher (University of Wuppertal) studied mechanical engineering

at the universities of Duisburg and Aachen. He received his doctorate on structural optimization from the
University of Siegen. Following research projects for Airbus were focused on the optimization of aircraft

structures. Thereafter he worked in the CAE methods development department of Adam Opel AG as
project leader for structural optimization. From 2003 - 2012 he was a professor at the University of Applied
Sciences in Hamburg and taught structural design, passive safety and structural optimization. Since 2012 he
has been professor at the University of Wuppertal, where he holds the chair for optimization of mechanical



29.-30.05.2017 2920 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 01.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

11.-12.09.2017 2937 Tappenbeck 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 14.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Car Body Design for Analysis Engineers

Course Description „„ Development process described at the example of the

In general analysis engineers have a sound knowledge on improvement of static properties
numerical methods and experience in structural analysis with „„ Principal structure of the development process
the Finite Element Method. To make a valuable contribu- „„ CAE-compatible CAD
tion to the vehicle development process using numerical „„ Finite Element modelling of a car body
simulation, knowledge on car body design and functional
„„ Static behaviour of the car body structure
layout is required. To efficiently undertake lightweight design
all fundamental requirements have to be taken into account „„ Finite Element Analysis of joints

early in the design process. These requirements will be „„ Measures for improved dynamic behavior
outlined in the seminar. Additionally the characteristics of the „„ Part dimensioning taking into account vehicle vibrations
specific organization of the development process have to be „„ Dynamic analysis of full vehicles
„„ Measures for improved acoustic behavior
Course Objectives „„ Acoustic design of a car body

The objective of the seminar is to transfer the knowledge „„ Simulation methods

needed for an analysis engineer to play a part in vehicle „„ Realization of safety measures
development. Especially the examination of design variants „„ Energy absorption elements
of existing car bodies makes the seminar descriptive and
„„ Vehicle car bodies
„„ Safety systems
Who should attend? „„ Pedestrian protection
This 2 day seminar is aimed at analysis engineers working in „„ Post crash
the automotive industry. „„ Use of optimization methods in industrial applications
„„ Introduction into mathematical optimization
Course Contents
„„ Approximation techniques
„„ Load carrying principles of lightweight design
„„ Optimization software
„„ Load assumptions
„„ Optimization strategies
„„ Design principles
„„ Shape optimization
„„ Technology of car body construction
„„ Topology optimization
„„ Car body architecture
„„ Structural materials and pre-products
„„ Material selection
„„ Manufacturing methods
„„ Joining techniques

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Axel Schumacher (University of Wuppertal) studied mechanical engineering

at the universities of Duisburg and Aachen. He received his doctorate on structural optimization from the
University of Siegen. Following research projects for Airbus were focused on the optimization of aircraft

structures. Thereafter he worked in the CAE methods development department of Adam Opel AG as
project leader for structural optimization. From 2003 - 2012 he was a professor at the University of Applied
Sciences in Hamburg and taught structural design, passive safety and structural optimization. Since 2012 he
has been professor at the University of Wuppertal, where he holds the chair for optimization of mechanical



19.-20.06.2017 2922 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 22.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

13.-14.11.2017 2921 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 16.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Lightweight Design Strategies for Car Bodies

Course Description „„ Materials and their specific design rules

Designing and developing light weight vehicles ready for „„ Material selection
series production is becoming increasingly important. Espe- „„ Acquisition of material data
cially for fully electric vehicles with large and heavy battery „„ Steel, aluminum, magnesium
packs light car bodies are indispensable. But also for other
„„ Fiber composites
propulsion concepts lightweight is desirable. This seminar
will focus on production ready vehicle concepts. Ideas taken „„ Material mix and recycling

from the extreme light weight design are integrated into the „„ Structures of lightweight design
considerations. A symbiosis of the use of modern lightweight „„ Space-frame structures
materials and the design of appropriate lightweight struc- „„ Shell structures (beads, ribs, ...)
tures leads to efficient lightweight design. This multi-disci-
„„ Foams and inlays
plinary task is only possible with development strategies that
„„ Composite sandwich structures
can simultaneously handle requirements of crash protection,
vehicle dynamics, comfort, acoustics, durability and produc- „„ Related joining techniques (adhesive bonding, ...)
tion of the vehicle. The aim of this seminar is to provide the „„ Advanced CAE methods for lightweight design
competencies for the development of light vehicle structures. „„ Stability (buckling, ...)
„„ Dynamics and Acoustics
Who should attend?
„„ Fracture mechanics, multi-scale models (observation of cracks,
This seminar is aimed at designers, analysis engineers and
project managers from car body, component and system
„„ Crash of small structures
„„ Analysis of joints
Course Contents „„ Robustness analysis
„„ Potentials of lightweight design „„ Optimization of shape and dimension
„„ Motivation and problem definition „„ Case studies
„„ Current lightweight vehicle concepts „„ Selected Vehicle Components
„„ The “Lightweight Loop” „„ Ultra-lightweight vehicle concepts
„„ Principles of lightweight design „„ Vehicle concepts for mass production
„„ Definition of requirements
„„ Determination of design loads
„„ Principal design rules
„„ Approaches of bionics
„„ Fail-safe, safe life, damage tolerance
„„ Methodical concept finding (architecture, topology)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Axel Schumacher (University of Wuppertal) studied mechanical engineering

at the universities of Duisburg and Aachen. He received his doctorate on structural optimization from the
University of Siegen. Following research projects for Airbus were focused on the optimization of aircraft

structures. Thereafter he worked in the CAE methods development department of Adam Opel AG as
project leader for structural optimization. From 2003 - 2012 he was a professor at the University of Applied
Sciences in Hamburg and taught structural design, passive safety and structural optimization. Since 2012 he
has been professor at the University of Wuppertal, where he holds the chair for optimization of mechanical



23.-24.11.2017 2923 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 26.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

22.-23.03.2018 3040 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 22.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


The »Automobil Industrie« - Lightweight Design Summit is the high-

class networking event for trendsetters in lightweight design in the
automotive industry. Meet OEMs and suppliers on 13./14. March
2018 at the Vogel Convention Center in Würzburg, Germany.
Keynotes and expert presentations, technical sessions and live
demonstrations highlight the importance of lightweighting for the
future of the automotive industry.
Discussions about innovative ideas and the networking between
experts from OEMs and suppliers are at the core of the Light
Weight Design Summit.

Who should attend?

The Automobil Industrie Light Weight Design Summit is the plat-
form for the communication between OEMs and suppliers. The
summit addresses the technical management/CEO level of OEMs
and suppliers, the purchasing management, heads of development
and design, project engineers, innovation managers and materials

DATE 13.-14.03.2018

HOMEPAGE www.leichtbau-gipfel.de

VENUE Vogel Convention Center, Würzburg

LANGUAGE German with simultaneous translation into English


Design of Composite Structures

Course Description Who should attend?

Since the mass is one of the main factors influencing the This seminar is especially designed for engineers and
fuel consumption of vehicles, increasing demands to reduce technicians that work in the development departments of
energy usage and CO2 emissions, force the automotive automotive manufacturers, suppliers and engineering service
industry to consider the use of alternative designs and new providers and deal with the design and development of
materials. Composite materials have proven their potential composite components.
to reduce the weight of structures in many applications (e.g.
aerospace and motorsports). As composites have a special Course Contents
set-up and behave completely different than traditional ma- „„ Introduction
terials, engineers must learn how to employ these materials „„ Elastic behavior of composites
to take advantage of their special characteristics in the design
of vehicle structures. In the seminar real world examples are „„ Failure of composite materials
used to create a basic understanding of designing composite „„ Mechanics of composite materials and structures
structures. Then the theoretical and practical foundations of „„ Joining technologies for composites
composite design are explained.
„„ Design of composite structures
Course Objectives „„ Fatigue and strength of composites
After participating in the seminar participants are able to
design and develop composite structures. They understand
the specific requirements of composite structures and the
related design concepts. In the seminar special attention is
directed to the concurrent consideration of loading, design
and manufacturing related requirements. Accordingly,
the different designs - integral, differential, fully laminated
and sandwich - are addressed. The seminar also provides
knowledge about preliminary design and FE analysis based on
classical laminate theory.

Dr. Roland Hinterhölzl (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria) is heading the
Professorship Composite Materials and the study degree program “Lightweight Design and Composite
Materials” at the University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria since 2016. From 2010 to 2016 he was head
of the numerical simulation department of the Institute for Carbon Composites at the Technical University

of Munich. The focus of his work is on process simulation and structural analysis for the automotive and
aviation industries. Dr. Hinterhölzl received his doctorate in 2000 at the University of Innsbruck on the
simulation of the time-dependent behavior of composite materials, after he had spent several months at
the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at the University of Texas at Austin
and CRREL (USA). Subsequently, he developed innovative composite components at the aerospace supplier
FACC AG and headed the structural analysis department.



11.-12.10.2017 2951 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 13.09.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

10.-11.04.2018 3037 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 13.03.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Become a CAE Specialist in 3½ Weeks

Intensive Training Course for Automotive Engineers
In cooperation with experts from industry, engineering, Content, Duration, Software
research, software development, universities and our partner The contents of the training and the software used can be
company Tecosim GmbH carhs.training offers an unique adapted to individual customer needs. Through the adapta-
intensive training as a basic training for structural analysis tion of the content the training can be made to ideally fit the
engineers in automotive development. The training covers framework of the customer.
the areas of statics, dynamics and NVH, as well as crash and
occupant simulation. The contents can be adapted to the
needs of the customer.
At BMW, we had been facing the challenge to train a
Focused on the Industrial Development Process larger group of employees with very different backgrounds
to become simulation engineers for crash and occupant
The training program puts the theoretical background, the
simulation. carhs.training has - based on their proven
mastering of the industrial CAE processes and the use of
CAE intensive training - developed a unique, multi-week
numerical simulation in automobile development in the
training scheme, which has linked in ideal way theory,
foreground. Therefore, in this training a complete CAE driven
software and project training. We were very satisfied with
development process - from the compilation of the specifica-
the success of the action and the professional execution
tions to the editing of the final reporting - is reproduced.
of this large training project. We can recommend carhs.
Software Training training to companies that have individual and complex
training requirements as a partner for the conception and
The professional handling of current simulation software is
implementation of large training programs.
part of the training, but not the main objective of it. Skilled
analysis engineer must be able to use common software Dr. Wolf Bartelheimer, Head frontal protection small cars
tools, but only well-founded expertise and knowledge of BMW AG
modern development processes and methods will allow to
successfully contribute to vehicle development.
Your Benefits
Basics - Tools – Methods Our goal is to train newcomers and job changers in the
As part of this intensive training the participants will refresh shortest time possible to become simulation engineers in the
the theory of numerical simulation and will learn to profes- automotive industry. Participants benefit from the practical
sionally use popular simulation software such as ABAQUS, experience of the trainers and exercises from industrial
NASTRAN, OptiStruct, LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH and pre-and practice.
post-processors such as HYPERMESH, ANSA and Animator
within vehicle development. For the employer, our CAE intensive training is undoubtedly
the most efficient way to train new simulation engineers:
Ideal Learning Environment it is focused and fast, and binds no other employees of the
The training takes place in our modern training facilities in company.
Alzenau, Cologne, Munich and Ruesselsheim or directly at
the customer’s site. For the duration of the course powerful Dates and prices upon request and subject to individual
notebooks are provided free of charge allowing the partic- agreement with each customer.
ipants to deepen theory and practice outside the course

Trainers from Simulation Practice

The trainers are experts from universities and research In collaboration with:
institutes, the software manufacturers and experienced engi-
neers from our partner company Tecosim who daily perform
industrial simulation projects and are familiar with the real
challenges of simulation in automotive development.


Early Increase of Design Maturity of Restraint System Components in the

Reduced Prototype Vehicle Development Process
Course Description functional development of restraint systems, an overview of
The number of hardware prototypes available for the devel- the requirements of the prototype-reduced restraint system
opment of restraint systems and restraint system compo- development with regard to achieving and ensuring the
nents is declining steadily due to an increasing cost pressure necessary degree of maturity of belts and airbags.
in automotive development. In the project schedule the
availability of hardware (restraint system components and / Course Contents
or vehicle environments) shifts to the late vehicle develop- „„ Overview and differences of vehicle development
ment phases. As a result, ensuring the required degree of ma- schedules
turity of restraint system components, in addition to the sole „„ Standard project schedule
functional development of seat, belt and airbag, necessitates „„ Prototype-reduced development of lead series
new strategies and development paths.
„„ Prototype-reduced development of derivatives
In this seminar, current risks in the development of seat belts „„ Safety belts
and airbags are addressed and ideas for the early increase „„ Examples of requirements for safety belts
of maturity are elucidated. This is done, by explaining the
„„ Prerequisites and timing for functional development
link between milestones in the development schedule, the
„„ Timing for homologation and certification
functional requirements of restraint system components, the
development duration of restraint system components and „„ Ideas / possibilities for creating vehicle environments
the description of approaches for the creation of substitutes „„ Interactions with surrounding components
of vehicle environments in the early development process. „„ Airbags
In addition the project schedules of conventional vehicle de-
„„ Examples of requirements for airbags
velopment processes and prototype-reduced development
„„ Prerequisites and timing for functional development
processes of base line models and derivatives are shown. In-
teractions of the development of seat belts and airbags with „„ Ideas / possibilities for creating vehicle environments
surrounding components (e.g. trim parts) are also discussed. „„ Interactions with surrounding components

Course Objectives
The course provides thoughts and ideas for a successful
approach in the development of restraint systems within
vehicle development processes in which only a small number
of prototypes are available for verification and optimization
of the systems.

Who should attend?

The seminar is aimed at engineers and project managers of
restraint systems and restraint system components develop-
ment, as well as heads of teams or departments in the field
of passive safety, which want to gain, in addition to the pure

Sandro Hübner (EDAG Engineering GmbH) studied mechanical engineering at the University of

Applied Sciences Schmalkalden. After completing his studies he worked as an engineer in the FEA laboratory
of Schmalkalden University of Applied Sciences. From 2003 he worked as an analysis engineer for occupant
safety at EASi Engineering GmbH. In 2006, he moved to EDAG Engineering GmbH as an analysis engineer for
vehicle safety and has been project manager for vehicle safety and CAE since 2013.



06.07.2017 2948 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.06.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

09.10.2017 2949 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.06.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR


Interior Development - Fundamentals, Materials, Design, Manufacturing

Course Description Course Objectives

In the last decades an increasing use of plastics is observed in The aim of the seminar is to provide the necessary skills for
car industry. The range of materials and functionality increas- the design of vehicle interior components and modules. This
es and high-quality plastics more and more find their way into includes in particular the choice of materials, the design and
the automobile. The goal to reduce CO2 emissions and the manufacturing processes.
related lightweight design make it necessary in many areas to
use plastics. In consideration of qualitative and quantitative Who should attend?
material selection and the economic superiority of most man- The seminar is aimed at engineers, technicians and managers
ufacturing processes for plastic components, the seminar who are planning controlling interior development projects.
provides an overview of plastics and their applications. The The focus of the seminar is on the cockpit module.
seminar illustrates the subject, in many parts with workshop
character, in two days, with fundamentally different focuses: Course Contents
„„ Basics of Plastics
Part 1: Basics of Plastics - physics, chemistry and application
technology, in industry and in the automobile. Processes for „„ Plastics in automotive engineering

Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Tooling, as well as the processes „„ Designing with plastics
of mass manufacturing, such as injection molding and blow „„ Processing Technologies
molding, are discussed. Day 1 ends with a workshop in which, „„ Workshop
based on practical examples, functionality and choice of
„„ Plastics in Automotive Interior
materials are treated.
„„ From the perspective of the OEM - requirements
Part 2: Plastics in Automotive Interiors deals with the use of „„ From the perspective of the component manufacturer –
plastics in automotive interiors and their properties. Interior material
components are subject to many requirements, ranging from „„ From the perspective of the module supplier - system
the design appearance, look and touch and ergonomics to integration
production and assembly. The second part explains what
is being done at various stages of the interior development
process. Using the example of the cockpit and the cockpit
module, the materials and processes used are discussed. Due
to the complexity of the topic a lot of real components are
shown and their properties are discussed. If desired, compo-
nents from among the students can be considered and their
suitability for a specific application can be discussed. Practical
exercises consolidate what participants have learned.

Timo Baumgärtner (csi entwicklungstechnik GmbH) studied process engineering at the

FH Mannheim. Since 1997 he has worked in various development functions in the automotive sector.

Throughout his professional career, he worked intensively on ergonomics, vehicle safety, manufacturing and
assembly processes of plastic components for car interiors. He has worked at OEMs as well as for tier 1 and
2 suppliers. Currently he is working at csi entwicklungstechnik GmbH. Here he is responsible for projects of
a sports car manufacturer in the interior area (Cockpit, center consoles, door panels, greenhouse, etc.).


24.-25.04.2017 2816 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 27.03.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

25.-26.09.2017 2864 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 28.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

23.-24.04.2018 3033 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 26.03.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Pedestrian Protection - Development Strategies

Course Description Who should attend?

Euro NCAP annually adjusts details in its pedestrian rating The seminar is intended for development, project or simula-
protocols and even U.S. NCAP plans to introduce a pedestrian tion engineers working in the field of vehicle safety, dealing
protection assessment. with the design of motor vehicles with regard to pedestrian
Stricter injury criteria, modified testing areas and the testing
of vehicles that were previously not tested because of their Course Contents
weight, require the thorough knowledge of the requirements
„„ Introduction with an overview of current requirements
and a strict implementation of the requirements in the
regarding pedestrian protection
development process.
„„ Legal requirements (EU, UN Regulations, Japan, GTR)
In the introduction the seminar informs about the different „„ Consumer tests (Euro NCAP, U.S. NCAP, JNCAP, KNCAP)
impactors that are used for pedestrian safety testing. There-
„„ Presentation and discussion of the design and application
after the various requirements (regulations and consumer
of the impactors
tests) are explained and compared.
„„ Leg Impactors (Flex PLI, Upper Legform)
The focus of the seminar is on the development strategy: „„ Head Impactors (Child head, Adult head)
Which decisions have to be taken in which development
„„ Methods in testing and system development
phase? What are the tasks and priorities of the person in
charge of pedestrian protection? As a background, ideas „„ Requirements on the design of vehicle front ends for
and approaches towards the design of a vehicle front end in pedestrian protection
order to meet the pedestrian protection requirements are „„ Development strategy
discussed. In addition to that, the seminar explains how the „„ Interaction between simulation and testing
function of active bonnets can be proven by means of numer-
„„ Integration in the vehicle development process
ical simulation. This includes both, the pedestrian detection
that need to be proven with various impactors or human „„ Solutions to fulfill the requirements
models, as well as the proof that the bonnet is fully deployed „„ Passive solutions
at the time of impact. „„ Active solutions (active bonnets, airbags)

Maren Finck (carhs.training gmbh) is a Project Manager at carhs.training gmbh. From 2008 - 2015

she worked at EDAG as a project manager responsible for passive vehicle safety. Previously, she worked
several years at carhs GmbH and TECOSIM as an analysis engineer with a focus on pedestrian safety and


31.05.2017 2895 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 03.05.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

12.-13.06.2017 3011 Tianjin, China 2 Days 4.900,- RMB

10.10.2017 2941 Gaimersheim 1 Day 740,- EUR till 12.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

WISSEN Engineering

Functional Development: Pedestrian Protection - Lower Leg Impact

Requirements/Critical Target Values:

„„ UN R127:
Impactor: Flex PLI Legform Impactor (valid from 9/2017)
Test Conditions: 40 km/h (11.1 m/s), 0°, 75 mm over ground
Tibia Bending Moment < 340 Nm (up to 264 mm: 380 Nm)
MCL Elongation < 22 mm
ACL/PCL Elongation < 13 mm

„„ Euro NCAP
Impactor: Flex PLI Legform Impactor
Test Conditions: 40 km/h (11.1 m/s), 0°, 75 mm over ground
maximum Score 0 Points
Tibia Bending Moment < 282 Nm ≥ 340 Nm
MCL Elongation < 19 mm ≥ 22 mm
ACL/PCL Elongation < 10 mm ≥ 10 mm

„„ Use of full vehicle models (impact area: detailed models of all components; motor package can be rigid)
„„ High detailing for bumper, radiator, grill, optional accessories (head light cleaning system, parking sensors etc.)
„„ Proper material characterization for plastic parts is required incl. failure definition
„„ Connection modelling is highly significant (clipses, sliding components)
„„ Use of validated impactor model
„„ Typical simulation duration: 40 ms (up tp complete rebound → legform impactor completely separated from vehicle)

Critical Modeling Parameters:

„„ Strain rate dependency of materials in the impact area
„„ Details of spatial discretization

Evaluation Criteria:
„„ Tibia Bending Moment
„„ MCL Elongation
„„ ACL/PCL Elongation
„„ For the optimization: Plot the above criteria vs. displacement to identify jamming

Main Influencing Factors:

„„ Geometry of vehicle front (impact points, impact behaviour)
„„ Material stiffness at impact point (potential for optimization)
„„ Stiffness of geometrical package
„„ Clearance between outer bumper shell and bumper beam (minimum 80 mm, filled with energy-absorbing foam or
deformation elements)
„„ No jamming elements (e.g. parking sensors) should be placed directly in front of the bumper beam
„„ Homogenous support of the impactor along the full vehicle width is required.
„„ Sharp stiffness gradient should be avoided.

Engineering WISSEN

Functional Development: Pedestrian Protection - Head Impact

Requirements/Critical Target Values:

„„ UN R127:
Impactors: 3.5 kg & 4.5 kg (Phase 2) Headform Impactor
Test Conditions & Criteria:
Phase 2
Child/Small Adult 3.5 kg / 35 km/h (9.7 m/s) / 50°
BLE/WAD 1000 - WAD 1700 / Bonnet rear edge
4.5 kg / 35 km/h / 65°
Adult WAD 1700 - Bonnet rear edge/WAD 2100
HIC15 < 1000 (1/2 of the Child head impact area AND 2/3 of the total impact area)
<1700 (remaining area)

„„ Euro NCAP:
Impactors: 3.5 kg & 4.5 kg Headform Impactor
Test Conditions: Child/Small Adult 3.5 kg / 40 km/h (11.1 m/s) / 50°
BLE/WAD 1000 - WAD 1500
Adult 4.5 kg / 40 km/h (11.1 m/s) / 65°
WAD 1500 - WAD 2100 (if points between WAD 1500 and 1700 are on bonnet, use child head)
maximum Score 0 Points
HIC15 < 650 ≥ 1700
„„ Use of full vehicle models (impact area: detailed models of all components; engine package can be rigid)
„„ High detailing for bonnet attachments, hinges, locks, sealing structures, bonnet shock damper, head light attachments,
windshield wiper assemblies
„„ Connection modelling is highly significant (spot welds, adhesives etc.)
„„ Use of validated material model for windshield failure
„„ Use of validated impactor model
„„ Typical simulation duration: 20 ms

Critical Modelling Parameters:

„„ Strain rate dependency of materials in the impact area
„„ Details of spatial discretization

Evaluation Criteria:
„„ Head Injury Criterion (HIC15)
„„ For the optimization: use of acceleration - displacement diagrams to identify jamming

Main Influencing Factors:

„„ Geometry of vehicle front (impact points, impact behaviour)
„„ Material stiffness at impact point (potential for optimization)
„„ Stiffness of geometrical package (sheet metal thickness, structural reinforcements in direction of impact, inlays,
application of adhesives)
„„ Clearance between bonnet outer shell and package (min. 60 - 80 mm free displacement required, otherwise an active
bonnet should be considered)
„„ No jamming elements (e.g. bonnet shock dampers, wiper axles) should be packaged directly in the impact area
„„ Homogenous support of the impactor along the full bonnet/vehicle width is required (e.g. muffin-like structure for the
bonnet inner shell).
„„ Sharp stiffness gradient should be avoided.


12th PraxisConference
Pedestrian Prote on
The PraxisConference Pedestrian Protection is held every June or July with over 150 participants, including delegates from all
major OEMs. It is the world’s largest expert meeting in the field of pedestrian protection. The intensive discussions at the in-
fo-points and between the presentations show that the participants value the innovative conference concept. Highlights of the
event are the demonstrations in the laboratory of Germany’s Federal Highway Research Institute and the OEM’s presentations
of pedestrian protecting solutions implemented in current car models.
Conference Topics:
„„ Current status and future development of the regulations (UN R127, GTR 9)
„„ Global consumper protection requirements for pedestrian protection (NCAP)
„„ Future development of impactors
„„ Pedestrian AEB systems
„„ Pedestrian safety techologies (active bonnets, airbags)
„„ Test equipment

DATE 28.- 29. June 2017

Co-hosted with
HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkf

VENUE Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Brüderstraße 53, 51427 Bergisch Gladbach

LANGUAGE German with simultaneous translation into English

BGS Böhme & Gehring GmbH
PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 31.05.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR

A new generation of crash test dummies is entering the market. THOR, World SID and Q-Dummies replace older dummy
models. This brings some challenges:
„„ The new dummies require significant adaptations of restraint system, vehicle interiors and vehicle structures.
„„ The calibration and certification of the new dummies is much more demanding for the laboratories.
„„ The handling of the new and more complex dummies with their digital instrumentation and new sensors require entirely
new processes and intensive training of the technical staff.
„„ Validated and robust CAE models of the new dummies are required to perform meaningful and reliable simulations.
The new PraxisConference Crash Dummy, jointly organized by BGS Böhme & Gehring and carhs.training, is dedicated to these
issues. It brings together users and developers, and sees itself as a communication platform for experts.
A highlight of the event is the hands-on praxis session in the laboratory of the German Federal Highway Research Institute
(BASt) where topics such as dummy seating, calibration, measurement, mounting and handling are shown in practice and
attendees can gain hands-on experience.

DATE 11.- 12. October 2017

Co-hosted with
HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkcd

VENUE Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Brüderstraße 53, 51427 Bergisch Gladbach

LANGUAGE German with simultaneous translation into English

PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 13.09.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR BGS Böhme & Gehring GmbH

THOR 50th Male
US NCAP V1.4.1
Euro NCAP V1.3*pictured
Available Now

State of art FE Models

THOR 5th Female V0.2
Coming Soon


Introduction to Fatigue Analysis

Course Description Who should attend?

Fatigue damage is a significant threat for developers, The seminar is aimed at product developers, analysis
manufacturers and vendors of many products. A high num- engineers and managers who are responsible for product
ber of recalls within the automotive industry and spectacular reliability involving cyclic loading and durability.
accidents of trains and airplanes dramatically emphasize that.
Fatigue damage might bear high risk to human life and finan- Course Contents
cial stability of manufacturers like OEMs in transportation in- „„ Fatigue damage, examples and mechanisms
dustry. Failure due to cyclic loading of products during service „„ What stresses do I need? Modeling and stress analysis
also has a great impact on the image of a car manufacturer using FEA for durability
and therefore should be avoided.
„„ Obtaining SN-curves and statistical issues involved
Fatigue is a complex issue with many different factors „„ Cycle counting
influencing durability and involving large scatter of individual
parameters like loads or material data. Experimental as well „„ Factors affecting fatigue life and synthetic SN-curves
as virtual methods are available to investigate the risk of „„ Stress based and strain based fatigue evaluation
a product failure due to cyclic loading. Modern simulation „„ Introduction to multiaxial fatigue theories
methods, like the finite element method, require specific
emphasis on modeling for the assessment of stresses suitable
for further fatigue postprocessing.
This seminar provides insight into modern durability analysis
covering everything from issues of required experimental
tests to stress analysis using the FEM and an introduction of
different concepts for computational durability assessment.
Statistical aspects of fatigue data and probability issues on
product reliability will be covered as well. Several examples
will be presented and discussed.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klemens Rother (Munich University of Applied Sciences) studied mechan-
ical engineering at Munich University of Applied Sciences and the Department of Mechanics, Metallurgy
and Materials Science at Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA. He earned his doctorate in the field of

computational durability at University of Dortmund. Since 1986 he has been working in various positions in
industry, e.g. more than 15 years in senior management for structural integrity and CAE consulting services.
Since 2008 he is professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Munich, faculty of mechanical, automo-
tive and aircraft engineering. He teaches strength, lightweight design, durability and conceptual design. He
is also head of a master’s program in computational engineering. His main research focuses on CAx-support-
ed product development and structural integrity.



26.-27.04.2018 3039 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 29.03.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

Design and Optimize - Fatigue and Durability Solutions

Intelligent software for visionary decisions at every step

of your durability process.
nCode software by HBM Prenscia enables visionary decisions to be made
at every step of the durability process. Whether it is processing field data,
predicting fatigue life in test and CAE or advanced data management  – the
future can be calculated through rapid data analysis. Our customers benefit
from clear insights into the fatigue of vehicles and components.

Visit www.ncode.com to learn more about nCode, or contact us at info.de@hbmprenscia.com

WISSEN Engineering

Operational Strength under Consideration of Random Loads in the Frequency

Dynamic loads characterized by randomness frequently
lead to system failure through material fatigue in vibratory
mechanical structures. In order to correctly account for this
random character, it is necessary to observe the stochastic
load over a longer period of time. This requires long mea-
surement series for measurement-based determination. In
order to ensure that the random process is stationary, it is
also necessary to observe the stochastic properties over the
course of several measurement series.
Fig. 1: Modal transfer functions (left) and modal stress result for mode 2
Description of stochastic processes (right).
The aforementioned considerations make only limited allow-
Operational strength of stochastic processes
ance for the conclusion that determination of the stochastic
process can be made using individual realizations (individual For normally distributed equivalent stress histories, it is
measurement series). Consequently, the function p(x) is possible to specify probability densities in particular, which
used to characterize the stochastic process, which indicates allow counting of the stress cycles which occur (rainflow
the probability that the signal x(t) lies in the interval [x,x+∆x]. classification) to be carried out on a probabilistic basis.
The temporal correlation of the random process is described Following from this, operational strength forecasts can be de-
using the spectral power density SX (f), whereby f designates rived. Especially for narrow-band signals, it can be shown by
the frequency. Especially in the case that p(x) corresponds to means of analysis that a Rayleigh distribution results for the
a normal distribution, the distribution parameters (arithmetic oscillation amplitudes of the equivalent stress. An estimation
mean and variance) can be determined from the spectral of the distribution parameters can be carried out using the
power density SX (f). spectral equivalent stress power density SY(f) with the help of
moments of the k order
Linear mechanical systems under stochastic excitation 𝑚𝑚𝑘𝑘 = ∫ 𝑓𝑓 𝑘𝑘 𝑆𝑆𝑌𝑌 (𝑓𝑓)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
If a linear, time-invariant mechanical system is excited by −∞
transfer function h(t) over a normally distributed load signal Dirlik [1] developed an empirical distribution density function
x(t), it can be demonstrated that the equivalent stress history for counting stress cycle amplitudes (probability density
+∞ function) based on Monte-Carlo simulations which is also
𝑦𝑦(𝑡𝑡) = ∫ 𝑥𝑥(𝜏𝜏)ℎ(𝑡𝑡 − 𝜏𝜏)𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 applicable for broad-band signals. Further approaches for the
−∞ distribution densities of oscillation amplitudes can be found in
is also distributed normally. The equivalent stress history can the works of Zhao-Baker [2], Tovo – Benasciutti [3], as well as
be transformed into the frequency domain by means of the Petrucci – Zuccarello [4], among others. A representation of
Fourier transformation. In particular, Y(f)=H(f)∙X(f) results, the overall process is shown in Fig. 2.
whereby Y(f),H(f) and X(f) designate the Fourier transforms
of the equivalent stress history, the transfer function and the
load signal. The power density spectrum of the input signal
delivers the power density spectrum of the equivalent stress
by means of the relationship SY (f)=H(f)∙SX (f)∙H*(f). Here, H*
is the conjugate complex and transposed transfer function.
The frequency-dependent transmission behavior H(f) of a
linear mechanical structure can be determined effectively by
a frequency-based response analysis with a unit load using
finite element methods (Fig. 1).

Fig. 2: Spectral fatigue process

Engineering WISSEN

Example – Operational strength of a brake protection plate

Using the example of a brake protection plate, operational
strength analyses [5] were carried out in the time domain
and in the frequency domain and were compared. The center
of the wheel (Fig. 3 at left) was taken as the excitation point
for the measured acceleration load. The corresponding exci-
tation PSD of the acceleration is shown in Fig. 3 at the right.

Fig. 3: FE model with acceleration at center node (left). Power spectral

density of acceleration load (right).

The results of the operational strength analyses in the time

domain and in the frequency domain are shown in Fig. 4. One
can see that the locality of the highly damaged areas demon- Fig. 4: Fatigue result of time domain approach (top).
strates very good correlation. The absolute damage values of Fatigue result of spectral approach (bottom).

the analysis in the frequency domain are about 80% higher

on average than the damage values of the analysis in the Literature
time domain. This difference primarily results from the fact [1] T. Dirlik. Application of Computers in Fatigue Analysis. PhD thesis,
The University of Warwick, 1985.
that the load time series only shows a single realization of the
[2] W. Zhao and M. J. Baker. On the probability density function of
stochastic process. The damage result of the spectral analysis, rainflow stress range for stationary gaussian processes. Int. J. Fatigue,
however, delivers the expected value over all realizations of 14(2):121{ 135, March 1992.
the process (described by the PSD). In addition to the good [3] D. Benasciutti and R. Tovo. Spectral methods for lifetime prediction
correlation of the damage results, the main advantage of the under wide-band stationary random processes. Int. J. Fatigue,
analysis in the spectral domain is the fact that the computa- 27(8):867{877, 2005.
tion times are often shorter. [4] G. Petrucci and B. Zuccarello. On the estimation of the fatigue cycle
distribution from spectral density data. Proceedings of the institution
of mechanical engineers part C - J. Eng. Sci., 213(8):819{831, 1999.
[5] http://www.femfat.com/Papers.4940.0.html
W. Hinterberger, O. Ertl, C. Gaier and H. Fleischer. Spektrale Schädi-
gungsanalyse für multiaxial stochastisch belastete Komponenten.

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Engineering Center Steyr, Austria, Author: Dr. Walter Hinterberger.
For more information see www.femfat.com


Design for Durability – Lightweight Car Bodies and Fatigue

Course Description Course Contents

Today lightweight design is of paramount importance in car „„ Remarkable cases of damage
body development. The objective is to save both material and „„ Loads and stresses during driving
energy during manufacturing as well as during use. All of this „„ Cyclic loading
without sacrificing technical function, economy and safety of „„ Special loads
people and environment. Due to the inherent approach of „„ Misuse load cases
lightweight construction to reach for the limits the load-bear- „„ Crack initiation and fracture behavior
ing capacity of designs are often reached and the demand for „„ Material fatigue
durability - that is, adequate fatigue strength over the entire „„ Failure criteria
service life - suddenly comes to the fore.
„„ Learning from real cases of damage

Course Objectives „„ Material and component strength

„„ Finite life fatigue strength and endurance limit, Wohler curves
In the seminar first the basic principles of durability are
„„ Fatigue strength under variable stress amplitude, Gassner
presented with particular regard to the design of car bodies.
Then the design principles of modern lightweight body
„„ Scatter of fatigue strength
construction are taught. In addition, the use of numerical
simulation and mathematical optimization within the modern „„ Influence factors
„„ Design, shape
car body development process is explained.
„„ Mean stress
After participating in the seminar, the participants will un- „„ Lifetime (fatigue) simulation
derstand the influence of cyclical loading on the design of car „„ Fatigue damage definition
bodies, will be able to identify problems in the design and will „„ Fatigue damage accumulation
be able to resolve them using appropriate design methods. „„ FEA based fatigue analysis
They understand how the fatigue analysis and geometric op- „„ Design principles for lightweight car bodies
timization enable the modern virtual development process.
„„ Direct load paths
„„ Typical load paths in car body
Who should attend?
„„ Large moment of inertia
The seminar is aimed at engineers and technicians in the
„„ Filigree design of structures
development departments of automotive manufacturers,
„„ Support through curvature
suppliers and engineering service providers who deal with the
„„ Intentional stiffening
design, construction, simulation and development of vehicle
„„ Function integration
bodies, with special regard to durability.
„„ Framework design vs. shell structures
„„ Application to practice-relevant cases

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Udo Jung (Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen) studied mechanical

engineering at the Technical University Darmstadt and promoted in the field of fatigue and finite element
analysis at the Institute of Materials Science at the TU Darmstadt. At Adam Opel AG, he initially worked as
a development engineer in the calculation department and introduced the fatigue life analysis in virtual

vehicle development. Subsequently, he took over the management of the simulation and test methodology
in the central durability laboratory. Since 2005 he has been a university professor for lightweight design
and durability as well as construction and FE methods at the Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM) at
Friedberg Campus. In the field of research, he is at the forefront of the Competence Center for Automotive,
Mobility and Materials Research (AutoM). He also heads the TransMIT Center for Lightweight Design and
Durability of TransMIT Gesellschaft für Technologietransfer mbH, Giessen.



05.12.2017 3050 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 07.11.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

FEMFAT software

11th International
Meeting 2017
May 10th - 11th
Steyr, Austria

performs fatigue analyses in combination with
most finite element solvers and pre-processors.

• Fast and flexible fatigue life prediction

• Multiple joint type assessment
• Open database concept (materials, joints)
• Assessment in time and frequency domain
• Considering production processes
• More than 400 materials in database
• Verifications in more than 1000 projects

Engineering Center Steyr GmbH & Co KG
Steyrer Strasse 32, 4300 St. Valentin

NVH - Background, Practice and Simulation Methodology

Course Description service suppliers that are looking to enter the NVH simulation
In order to ensure the long-term success of a brand in the or want to optimize their services. Project managers and
automotive sector, it is mandatory today to have a targeted senior executives from vehicle and component development
design of the vibration and acoustic behavior of its products who want to gain a better understanding of the background
and thus achieve a high “perceived quality” of the company’s of the NVH methods.
vehicles. This functional design objective is generally called Course Contents
“NVH Noise, Vibration & Harshness”. „„ Introduction
After vibration comfort has been one of the core objectives „„ Tasks & objectives
of vehicle development for a long time, the acoustics in „„ Historical development of NVH
„„ NVH in the design process
the passenger compartment more recently also became a
competitive criterion, which today receives a lot of attention „„ Basics of structural dynamics
„„ Fundamentals
in the automotive industry.
„„ Frequency analysis
The tasks of the NVH design can be divided into 3 areas: „„ Modeling
„„ Elimination of annoying vibrations. „„ Modal analysis
„„ Elimination of noise. „„ Basics of acoustics
„„ Design of the vehicle character. „„ Sound propagation
„„ Acoustic parameters
To meet these design objectives, extensive developments in „„ Room acoustics
the fields of measurement technology and simulation meth- „„ Psychoacoustics
odology have been undertaken in recent years. „„ Problem analysis in NVH
„„ Noise sources
Course Objectives
„„ Analytical methods
In the two-day seminar, first the basics of NVH are presented. „„ NVH measures
In this emphasis is placed on the physical background to un- „„ Basic concepts
derstand the complex relationships in this field. Furthermore, „„ Relevant components
the possibilities and limitations of simulation in the NVH area „„ Example: Isolation package
are explained using practical examples. „„ Simulation methods
Who should attend? „„ Load cases in the NVH vehicle development process
„„ CAE Practice: Applications and examples from the areas:
Newcomers and development engineers who wish to gain „„ Engine mounting
an overview of the topic. Designers and engineers who want „„ Body development
to broaden their knowledge about NVH criteria in the vehicle „„ Chassis development
development process. Simulation engineers from engineering „„ Optimization methods

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dietmar Jennewein (Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences) studied

mechanical engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern. He received his PhD in 1998 in the field of
vibration technology. He then joined the Adam Opel AG in the “Vehicle Simulation” department and worked
in the NVH group on the analysis of vehicle vibration and vehicle acoustics using the FEM. Since 2001, Mr.
Jennewein was responsible as a group leader for all NVH simulation activity at Opel. He also led a multidisci-
plinary team for the metrological validation of the calculation procedure. Since 2011 he has been a profes-
sor at the University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt and lectures in the subjects of engineering mechanics,

control and automotive engineering.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Alexander Zopp (RheinMain University of Applied Sciences) studied

mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Darmstadt. He received his PhD in 2000 in the field of
finite elements in acoustics. He then joined Adam Opel AG to work in the Vehicle Simulation Department. In
the NVH group he analyzed vehicle vibration and vehicle acoustics with the FEM. Later, Mr. Zopp introduced
the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) in the development process of Opel to expand the detectable frequency
range in the simulation. He was responsible for the global simulation methodology in the high frequency
range in the GM group. Since 2011, Mr. Zopp served as Group Head of NVH simulation at Opel. Since 2013
he has been a professor at the RheinMain University of Applied Sciences and lectures in the subjects finite
elements, engineering mechanics, machine dynamics and NVH.



07.-08.09.2017 3042 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 10.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

01.-02.03.2018 3043 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 01.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Design and Simulation of Vehicle Vibration

Course Description Course Contents
The vibration characteristics of vehicles have a significant in- „„ Functional requirements
fluence on driving performance and ride comfort. Therefore „„ Passive safety
the design of the vehicle structure with regard to vibration „„ Vibrations and acoustics
targets is an integral part of the car body design process. „„ Durability
Numerical simulation has become an indispensable tool „„ Fatigue life
within this process. The evaluation and optimization based on „„ Product Development Process
simulation results is only effective if the user has a profound „„ Phases
knowledge about the underlying theories, the idealizations „„ Integrated design
of reality associated with the simulation and the integration „„ Integrated validation
of simulation results in the product development process. In
„„ Vibration requirements
this one-day seminar the design and validation process of the
„„ Excitation sources
vehicle structure’s vibrational properties within the product
„„ Targets
development process will be presented. In particular, infor-
„„ Conflicting goals
mation on the theory of mechanical vibrations, the practical
modelling and on the commonly used FE solvers Abaqus and „„ Theory of Mechanical Vibrations
Nastran will be provided. This information will be illustrated „„ Categorization of oscillations

using practical examples from car body development. „„ Free vibrations

„„ Modal quantities
Course Objectives „„ Forced oscillations

To understand the relationships of functional requirements „„ Resonances

and their design and simulation within the product develop- „„ Modal decoupling

ment process. To Increase the knowledge about mechan- „„ Modelling

ical vibration theory as a basis for correct modelling and „„ System definition
application of finite element software in vibration analysis. „„ Frequency range
To expand the knowledge regarding vibration phenomena in „„ System boundaries, boundary conditions
vehicles and targeted design using computational methods. „„ Structural model
„„ Characteristic values and functions
Who should attend? „„ Beam and shell theory
Engineers who are new in functional design and simulation. „„ FE simulations
Designers, test engineers and technicians who want to „„ Beam and shell elements
expand their knowledge regarding the full vehicle design „„ Numerical solution procedures
process. Simulation services providers who want to increase „„ Eigen-value solvers
their understanding of vehicle vibrations to optimize „„ FEA software programs
their contribution to the car body design process. Project „„ Vibration analysis with Nastran and Abaqus
managers and managers from the vehicle and component „„ Assessment of simulation results
development, who want to gain a better understanding of „„ Examples
simulation methods.

Dr.-Ing. Olaf Kolk (BMW Group) studied Physical Engineering Science and Mechanical Engineering
at the Technical University of Berlin and the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, USA. His doctorate was
in the area of vehicle dynamics of car body structures. In 1999, Dr. Kolk joined the research and innovation
center of the BMW Group in Munich, to first work in body development. There he has been responsible for

the functional design of the BMW Z4 roadster body with regard to vibrations, passive safety and durability.
From 2010 to 2014, Dr. Kolk led the material data management for simulation, which is concerned with
material data and material inputs for simulation. Furthermore his work dealt with the integration of sus-
tainability, durability and fatigue issues within current BMW product lines. Since 2014, Dr. Kolk heads the
functional design and integration of body structure for the large BMW product line. In addition since 2009,
Dr. Kolk is lecturing at the Institute of Mechanics at the Technical University of Berlin.



05.10.2017 3030 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 07.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

Engineering WISSEN

Topology optimization for crash-loaded structures

By using mathematical topology optimization methods, new „„ Special safety criteria, e.g. no leakage of the petrol
structural concepts are generated. These methods are effi- system.
cient in the field of structural design, taking into account lin- One of the first works in the area of topology optimiza-
ear structural properties and linear static loading conditions. tion for crashworthiness was the work of R.R. Mayer, N.
E.g. the homogenization method introduced by M. Bendsøe Kikuchi and R.A. Scott in 1996 (Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng.
and N. Kikuchi in 1988 (Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 39:1383–1403). Their optimization method is based on the
71:197–224) minimizes the mean compliance considering a voxel method and an optimality criterion is used to maximize
mass constraint. Therefore, they divide the design space into the energy absorption at specific weighted times. A resizing
small voxels and decide based on an analytical sensitivity for algorithm is utilized for the alteration of the design variables
each voxel, if there is material or not. After this optimization, and a threshold algorithm is used to delete finite elements
the engineer has a good proposal and the possibility for the from the structure.
interpretation and the generation of a CAD model.
In the “Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA)” method of N.M.
The consideration of the mean compliance is much too Patel et al. published in 2009 (J. Mech. Des. 131:061013.1–
simple for the optimization of crash-loaded structures. When 061013.12) an optimality criterion is used which is based on
crash load cases have to be considered, the special character- a homogeneous distribution of the inner energy density. The
istics of the highly non-linear dynamic crash problems have design space is divided into cells in which the finite elements
to be taken into account. Large deformations and rigid body have an artificial density. These artificial densities have
displacements occur during a crash incident. The material influence on the mechanical properties of the finite elements
laws used are mostly nonlinear because the kinetic energy is and are used as design variables for the optimization. The
absorbed by plastic deformation. For the correct prediction of inner energy density distribution is homogenized with a
the material behavior, strain rate dependencies and complex material distribution rule, which changes the design variables.
failure criteria have to be considered. The majority of the Neighborhood relationships can be taken into account by the
forces is transmitted via contact. In additional to that, the “Cellular Automaton Lattice”. Displacement, mass and force
crash simulation is much more complicated than the linear constraints can be used in the optimization.
simulation of structures:
The “Equivalent Static Loads Method (ESLM)” of G.J. Park
„„ non-smooth structural behavior published in 2011 (Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 43:319–337)
„„ not enough material data uses a nonlinear dynamic analysis domain and a linear static
„„ important scatterings of material data optimization domain. An iteration of this optimization
method consists of a nonlinear dynamic simulation and a lin-
„„ mesh-dependent results ear static optimization. Equivalent static loads are calculated
„„ physical bifurcations for discrete times of the nonlinear dynamic simulation. They
„„ simulation bifurcations are calculated such, that they cause the same displacement
field in the initial design of the linear static optimization as
„„ input deck optimized for a special design point
the structure has in the non-linear dynamic simulation at the
In the topology optimization we deal with all these problems. specific time. The linear static optimization is performed with
We have requirements like: a multiple loading condition using the equivalent static loads.
„„ Consideration of special acceleration values like the HIC Due to the nonlinearities, other structural responses like
value strains and stresses are not identical in the analysis and the
optimization domain.
„„ Energy absorption,
„„ Special force levels, The “Graph and heuristic based topology optimization
(GHT)” of C. Ortmann and A. Schumacher published in
„„ Smooth force-displacement curve, 2013 (Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 47:839–854) was developed
„„ Smooth acceleration-time curve, because of the limitations of the voxel-based methods. The
„„ Special force paths for special loadcases. approach combines topology, shape and sizing optimization
and uses established finite element shell models for the crash
„„ High stiffness of special parts, e.g. parts in a main force
simulation. The optimization task is divided into an outer
paths in the passenger area
optimization loop which performs the topology optimization
„„ Low stiffness of special parts, e.g. at positions of the head and an inner optimization loop which performs the shape
contact of a pedestrian, and sizing optimization (figure 1).
WISSEN Engineering

initial design
shape optimization model creation
modification geometry model creation
of the shape
modification FE model creation
inner loop

activation of of the
FE simulations (crash, static, …)
outer loop

the non- shape

no optimal shape
modification yes
of the
activation and evaluation
of the concurrent heuristics
selection of
no optimal topology
one concurrent

Figure 1: Optimization scheme of the graph and heuristic based topology

optimization (GHT)

The inner loop is carried out with mathematical optimization

algorithms while the outer loop uses heuristics (rules), which
are derived from expert knowledge, in addition to mathemat-
ical tools. E.g.:
„„ delete unnecessary walls,
„„ support fast deforming walls in order to avoid buckling,
„„ remove small chambers to simplify structures, Figure 2: Topology optimization of a frame
„„ balance energy density,
The goal is the minimization of the maximal force at a moved
„„ use deformation space, rigid wall, so that some stiffness constraints and the manufac-
„„ smoothen structure to simplify structures. turing constraints are fulfilled.
The basis for the modification of the geometry by the crash model Initial design (time of the
maximal deformation):
optimization software and for the automatic creation of input
decks for the crash simulation is a flexible description of the
geometry using mathematical graphs. The first approach
is the optimization of profile cross-section of the structure
abstracted by a planar graph, which reduces the geometric
optimization problem to the second dimension, although v0
the structure itself and all performed simulations are three
optimal design (time of the
Force-time-behavior (moving rigid wall)
maximal deformation):
Application examples
The shown application examples are optimized with the
GHT. The first example is an academic application (figure 2):
force [kN]

A simple frame structure clamped on the left side. A sphere

with a mass of 1.757 kg hit the structure with an initial vertical
velocity of 6.25 m/s. Two optimization tasks are considered: time [s]
initial opti- theoretical
1. minimize the maximum intrusion with a constraint of the design mum optimum

mass ≤ 0.027 kg
Figure 3: Topology optimization of a rocker
2. minimize the maximum acceleration with a constraint of
Especially the force-time curve and the acceleration-time
the intrusion ≤ 49 mm
curve of the optimal results are impressively, because they
The second example is a sub-model of an automotive rocker are close to the theoretical optimum (constant level during
against a pole (figure 3). The optimization tasks is to find the the crash time).
optimal topology and shape of the cross section of the rocker
CAE Wissen by courtesy of Prof. Axel Schumacher,
Bergische Universität Wuppertal


Structural Optimization in Automotive Design -

Theory and Application
Course Description Course Objectives
In recent years numerical simulation has gained importance At the end of the seminar participants will have gained an
in all engineering disciplines. In the automotive industry the overview over different optimization disciplines and proce-
development process evolved from an experiment based to dures, the areas of application and their individual limitations.
a virtual development process. Through this move towards
simulation, mathematical optimization also gained impor- Who should attend?
tance and new opportunities for its application have been The seminar is suited for engineers and technicians from
opened within the development process. Only a few years research and development departments, users that intend
ago it would have been unthinkable to find the optimal cross to enlarge or fresh up their background knowledge and new-
section and the number and location of ribs for a cast part comers that want to get an overview of the subject.
through mathematical optimization, which is now common
practice. Course Contents
„„ Local and global optimization methods and coupled
As there exists no single optimization method that is suited
for all problems it is important to gain an overview over
various optimization methods and their characteristics. In the „„ Approximation methods
seminar the most popular and reliable optimization methods „„ Lagrange function, dual method
will be presented. The focus will be on the explanation of the
„„ Optimality criteria methods
basic concepts and ideas rather than on the detailed mathe-
matical derivations and formulations. „„ Bionic optimization procedures (CAO, SKO, evolutionary
algorithms, optimization with particle swarms)
Emphasis will be on practical applications. Possibilities for
„„ Coupling with FEM
using optimization methods will be demonstrated through
many industrial examples. „„ Formulation of optimization problems
„„ Sensitivity analysis
The following questions will be answered in the seminar:
„„ Determination of important variables and variable
„„ Which optimization methods are suited for which reduction
problems and which are not?
„„ Sizing
„„ How big is the optimization effort?
„„ Shape optimization, use of morphing techniques,
„„ How can the optimization effort be minimized? topology optimization
„„ Which possibilities exist for the formulation of different „„ Robustness optimization
optimization problems?
„„ Multi disciplinary and multi objective optimization
„„ What can lead to failure of an optimization?
„„ Numerous application examples

Prof. Dr. Lothar Harzheim (Adam Opel AG) worked in the Group of Professor Mattheck on the
development of the optimization programs CAO and SKO before joining the simulation department of Opel.

At Opel he is responsible for optimization, bio engineering and robustness. In this position he not only intro-
duced and applied optimization methods but has also developed software for topology optimization. Prof.
Dr. Harzheim regularly holds seminars for applied structural optimization and teaches at the Technical Uni-
versity of Darmstadt. He is the author of the book “Strukturoptimierung: Grundlagen und Anwendungen”.



18.-19.09.2017 2868 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 21.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

21.-22.02.2018 3035 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 24.01.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

WISSEN Engineering

(Non parametric) Structural Optimization

Introduction and simulation tools and eliminates manual, time-consuming,

The challenging topic of new conceptual designs requires trial-and-error procedures.
appropriate optimization methods to ensure price competi- Depending on the type of modification performed at the
tiveness as well as best-in-class structural performance. component non-parametric methods are classified as topolo-
The best result is achieved by an early and consequent use of gy, shape, sizing and bead optimization respectively.
optimization and a seamless integration of the procedures in
Topology Optimization
the design process.
Topology optimization is used in the initial design phase in or-
Different optimization methods can be used to improve the der to generate new design suggestions. The design process
design of new components or existing parts and assemblies. starts with a maximum design space in which the structure is
Parametric methods modify geometric parameters of a CAD allowed to be placed. At this point geometric details can be
or FEM model and are mostly used in the improvement disregarded as they are developed by the optimizer.
phase or when considering aspects from different disciplines Nevertheless existing contact regions, geometric and material
simultaneously. nonlinearities should be considered as they can influence the
Non-parametric methods use the full design flexibility of solution significantly.
CAE (simulation) models and do not require any additional
time-consuming parametrization. The most striking advan-
tage of the non-parametric approach is the ability to generate
high quality concepts in an early phase of the design process
- in particular to derive completely new innovative design
topologies leading to improved product quality (simulation
driven design, i.e. the simulation gives concept ideas to

Figure 2: Process of topology optimization – design space, intermediate

stage with different element densities, optimization result with “hard”
Figure 1: Process of Structural Optimization remaining elements

The non-parametric optimization approaches are com- Based on the FEA results, the layout of the structural compo-
mercially available as tools which highly integrate into an nent is changed in a continuously repeated, fully autonomous
automated optimization process in direct interaction with process until an optimal design is obtained. In topology
standard CAE and CAD programs. The optimization modules optimization the finite elements are possible design elements
autonomously interact with the analysis results of CAE pro- which are ‘added to’ or ‘removed from’ the structure. The
grams such as Abaqus, Nastran and ANSYS. Results of static, adding and removing is controlled by a change of material
dynamic, thermal or fatigue analysis and well-established properties - only elements of high density form the final
technology including nonlinearities as contact, plasticity and supporting structure.
large deformations can be considered during the optimiza- Objective and constraint values for topology optimization can
tion. Additionally, the optimization provides the results in be chosen from:
suitable formats for an easy transfer into CAD. This allows the „„ volume, mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia
designers to use their existing knowledge concerning models
„„ compliance, nodal displacements, rotations, reaction
Engineering WISSEN

forces, reaction moments, internal forces, stress modifications provided by a finite set of parameters do not
„„ natural frequencies offer enough degrees of freedom. For significant improve-
ments the full shape flexibility of non parametric methods is
„„ results from frequency response analysis (amplitudes, required.
phases, velocities and accelerations), acoustic measures
(surface velocities, sound pressure) The non-parametric shape modifications (offered by software
like, e.g. SIMULIA Tosca Structure.shape) are performed
„„ thermal values (temperature, internal or reaction heat flux) automatically in interaction with the FEM simulation where
„„ and any combination of those each surface node can be displaced independently.
For the optimization process a large variety of standard Objective and constraint values for non parametric shape
manufacturing methods can be chosen from a library. These optimization can be chosen amongst others from:
include techniques like casting, stamping, drilling, turning, etc. „„ volume, mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia
After topology optimization, an automatic validation of „„ stress, strain, including plastic strain
the resulting design proposal – eventually with subse- „„ compliance, displacements, rotations
quent shape optimization – or a direct transfer into CAD
Systems can be performed. „„ natural frequencies
The use of topology optimization in the early stage of the „„ fatigue values
development process reduces the number of development Generally in only 5-10 iterations significant improvements
cycles and helps to cut costs. can be achieved. The changes can be very sensitive to the
simulation result, i.e. slightly different values can gener-
Shape Optimization ate very different contours.
Shape optimization allows for specific detail improvements of
existing designs.
In general often small, but significant changes in the shape
(i.e. outer contour) of the component lead to major reduc-
tions of local hotspots like stresses, damage, strains and
contact pressures.
Shape modifications can be performed by:
„„ changing geometric parameters like radii and dimensions
„„ morphing (simple transformations like zooming, linear
distortion or translation) of specified areas
„„ modification by means of shape basis vectors
(combined changes of several coupled surface handles,
similar to previous)
„„ non parametric shape modifications by moving all surface Figure 4: Shape optimization of an exhaust manifold – reduction of plastic
nodes of a specified area independently strains under consideration of thermomechanical loads (images courtesy

Thus to ensure high quality results and use the full optimi-
zation potential the FE-solver must provide reliable, realistic
results as input for the optimization:
„„ Mesh smoothing distributes shape changes at the surface to
the inner elements to achieve homogenous mesh quality.
„„ The use of realistic models including contact, non-linear
(eventually user) materials and geometric non linearities
guarantee that the optimization task is performed based
on the real and no surrogate component.
„„ Approved high quality analysis software (even user
codes) and direct coupling with fatigue simulation
Figure 3: Methods for shape optimization based on parameters, morphing provide verified results.
and non-parametric approaches
Finally, a large variety of geometric and manufacturing
Parameter variation often does not provide effective restrictions has to be applied during the optimization to keep
solutions for the removal of stress hotspots as the shape important properties for the already detailed design.
WISSEN Engineering

The improved design can be transferred into any CAD-system. Further, non-parametric sizing optimization allows for an easy
and straightforward realization of manufacturing and design
Sizing Optimization restrictions. Even large scale industrial applications with up to
Sizing is a tool to optimize dimensions of a structure (design). millions of design variables are optimized highly efficiently for
These could be geometric dimensions or properties like an overall increase in eco-efficiency.
cross section parameters (e.g. radii) and thicknesses of finite
elements. Sizing optimization is mostly applied for sheet Bead Optimization
metal structures at a later stage of the development process Bead optimization supports the engineer to find the layout
when the general layout of the component (i.e. the topology) of bead stiffeners for shell-like structures, as, e.g. sheet metal
is more or less fixed. components. Beads improve the static stiffness and dynamic
Starting with the design area representing the part of the behavior of the component due to an increase in moment
structure to be modified the optimization system determines of inertia. Manual selection of a proper bead pattern is often
a design proposal with new sizing dimensions (e.g. new shell very difficult and requires a time-consuming trial- and error
thickness distribution) with an optimum relation between process. Compendia like “Steife Blech- und Kunststoffkon-
weight, stiffness and dynamic behavior. struktionen” by Oehler and Weber, Springer-Verlag GmbH
(1972), support the engineer in this complex task. However,
Sizing optimization can be realized by standard bead pattern are only available for simple geome-
„„ parametric optimization (modifying geometric tries e.g. rectangular plates.
parameters) using general optimization systems For more complex parts, non-parametric optimization
„„ non parametric optimization (modifying shell parameters) approaches are able to automatically generate a bead layout
as integrated into an FE-simulation code or provided by (i.e. location, orientation and bead pattern) based on the FEA
structural optimization software like, e.g. SIMULIA Tosca results. During the optimization (in general in 2-5 iterations)
Structure the nodes of the analysis model are moved normal to the ini-
Whereas parametric approaches modify a certain number of tial sheet surface. The resulting bead layout can be controlled
geometric parameters or assign constant shell thicknesses to by specification of a maximum bead width, height and other
some predefined areas non-parametric optimization applies form parameters.
changes for each single finite (shell) element in the model. Objective and constraint values for bead optimization can be
Only this free sizing allows for the full improvement potential. chosen e.g. from:
Based on the resulting distribution of dimensions, e.g. thick- „„ volume, mass
nesses, elements can afterwards be clustered to combined „„ center of gravity, moments of inertia
areas of constant thickness. „„ stress, strain
„„ compliance, reaction forces, reaction moments, internal
„„ displacements, velocity, acceleration
„„ natural frequencies
„„ results from frequency response analysis
To ensure the producibility of the part, manufacturing re-
strictions have to be considered. The result is a clear, directly
producible component design with significantly better perfor-
Figure 5: Sizing optimization of a car body – minimization of mass under mance compared to bead patterns derived from catalogues.
consideration of stiffness requirements (model courtesy by The National
Crash Analysis Center (NCAC))

Objective and constraint values for sizing can be chosen from

„„ volume, mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia
„„ compliance, nodal displacements, rotations, reaction
forces, reaction moments, internal forces
Figure 6: Bead optimization of a muffler (images courtesy of Tenneco)
„„ natural frequencies
„„ results from frequency response analysis, acoustic
„„ thermal values
„„ and any combination of those
Continued on page 40
Multiphysics Simulation
for Product, Nature & Life


Explore the Dassault Systèmes SIMULIA Blog

for news on industry applications and latest
technology trends. Find links to eSeminars,
Whitepapers and Tech Tips.

Visit blogs.3ds.com/simulia
WISSEN Engineering

Continued from page 38

Figure 7: Topology and shape optimization of a control arm (images courtesy OTTO FUCHS KG)

Manufacturing Restrictions Workflow

To ensure the functionality and manufacturability of the Structural Optimization supports the product development
designed component the full flexibility of the optimization process in all stages at different level of detail.
has to be restricted. In general, topology optimization may The goal is to start the development process using a start
come up with very organic structures which cannot be design which is already optimized regarding stiffness, weight
produced at reasonable cost and effort. The result of shape etc. In the progress of the design process with continuously
or bead optimization may be a complex free form surface more accurate knowledge of boundary conditions and
with severe undercuts etc. which may not be producible or interaction parameters more and more detail improvements
easy-to-process in a CAD system. Thus external constraints are required.
require additional restrictions to the optimization task to: For the full effect of structural optimization in the develop-
ment process, the following procedure for simulation driven
„„ avoid the change of border areas to other components design could be followed:
„„ ensure the ability to manufacture the component
„„ Define finite element model of maximum design space
„„ control the design and look of the part.
of component with all known loads and boundary
These restrictions can be formulated as: conditions
„„ Perform topology optimization under consideration of
„„ casting, drilling, stamping,… conditions
manufacturing process
„„ member size control
„„ Evaluate result
„„ displacement restrictions
„„ Optional: Perform shape optimization based on validation
„„ frozen or fixed areas (to ensure connection to adjacent model to remove local hotspots in design proposal
„„ Transfer validated result proposal into CAD and start
„„ symmetry (rotational, planar, …) conditions detailed design
„„ general coupling conditions (pattern repetition, cyclic „„ Improve mature design by local changes through shape
symmetry, …) optimization
„„ Transfer modified shape into CAD to derive final design

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dassault Systèmes - www.3ds.com/tosca

Engineering WISSEN

Robust Design Strategies for CAE-based Virtual Prototyping in the Automotive

Due to a highly competitive market, the development cycles in The definition of the uncertainties forms the base for
the automotive industry have to be constantly reduced while the stochastic generation of the sampling set. Because
the demand regarding performance, cost and safety is rising. robustness evaluation requires knowledge of input scatter
CAE-based virtual prototyping and robustness evaluation helps influence, the best available know-how needs to be trans-
to meet these market requirements. A CAE-based robust- formed in the definition of input scatter including type of
ness evaluation creates a set of possible design variations distribution function, correlation of single parameter or
regarding the naturally given input scatter. A stochastic analysis spatial correlations (random fields).
methodology is used to generate the sample set. Depending
on the criteria, variance-based or probability based robustness
evaluation have to be utilized. In variance-based procedures, a
medium sized number (100 to 150) of input variables are gen-
erated by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The primary goal
of robustness evaluations is the determination of a variation
range of significant response variables and their assessment by
using definitions of system robustness like limit value violations.
By running a sample set of around 100 Latin Hypercube sam-
ples, reliable estimation of event probabilities up to 1 out of
1000 (2 to 3 Sigma range) is possible. For rare event probability
estimations like 1 out of 1000000 (4 to 6 Sigma range), proba-
bility-based robustness evaluation is necessary. The secondary
goal is the identification of correlations between input and
response scatter as well as a quantification of ”physical” and
“numerical” scatter of result variables.
Figure 1: Normal versus Figure 3: Histogram for Robustness evaluation; the violation probability of
Lognormal distribution, the limit 22 is estimated at 1 to 2%
the figure visualizes
that both distributions Within the framework of optiSLang the Metamodel of Op-
may have the same
mean and standard
timal Prognosis (MOP) algorithms and the measurement
variation but very of forecast quality (Coefficient of Prognosis-CoP) of the
different probability in correlation model were developed to provide automatic
the tails
reduction of dimensionality to the most important pa-
rameter. This is combined with automatic identification of
the meta-model which shows the best forecast quality of
Figure 2: variation for every important response value. At the same
a) correlation of time, the amount of CAE solver calls necessary to reach a
a) scattering material certain forecast quality can be minimized. This technology
allows successful application of CAE-based robustness
b) random field of evaluation as a standard process to CPU intensive applica-
initial stresses after
forming process
tions in the automotive industry.


Figure 4: Coefficient of Prognosis (CoP) using the Metamodel of Optimal

Prognosis (MoP) to quantify the input variable contribution to the response
variable variation

WISSEN Engineering

Figure 5: Visualization of is applied to regular procedures in virtual prototyping.

robustness improvement of
passive safety performance:
It is necessary to provide state-of-the-art technology
upper diagram shows the for the consideration of test setup (dummy positioning,
scatter at milestone 1; lower crash pulse), airbag (mass flow, venting, permeability),
diagram shows the scatter
at final milestone of the
sensors, belt system, door/interior stiffness and scatter
virtual product development of friction (fig. 6). Besides the influencing dummy scatter,
process also the consideration of geometric body scatter in white
car is a topic of interest. Automation of post processing
is a key feature for productive serial use. Starting from
response variation overview, the engineer can identify the
critical response values regarding to variation (fig. 7).

The goal of robustness evaluations for passive car safety

applications is to investigate and improve the robustness
of the restraint systems to fulfill consumer ratings and legal
regulations of crash tests. Figure 5 shows an example how a
restraint system was improved by FE-modeling and physical
modifications to move the mean value and to reduce the
response scatter. Figure 7: Summary of variation of all important responses for load case
Figure 6: For
passive safety
applications multi Figure 8: Coefficient of
body as well as Prognosis for Variation of
finite element HIC15 values
models are used
in robustness

In the serial use, the following added value can be ex-

pected concerning the dimensioning and increase of the
restraint systems robustness:
1. Those scattering input parameters are identified that
have significant contribution to important response
2. Model weaknesses are detected and numerical noise of
significant vehicle performance variables is reduced.
3. The model robustness/stability and the quality of progno-
In passive safety applications, using MBS or FE-models, sis of crash-test computations are increased.
the quantification of numerical noise has become an im-
portant part of robustness evaluation. In other words, by 4. Robustness problems of the restraint systems are rec-
investigating the quantity of numerical noise, an assess- ognized and in cases of high violation of limits solved or
ment of model quality is possible. Nowadays, by develop- improved by re-design of components.
ing a reliable quantitative estimation of numerical noise
robustness, the evaluation of passive safety applications

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr.-Ing. Johannes Will, Managing Director Dynardo GmbH, www.dynardo.de


Robust Design - Vehicle Development under Uncertainty

Course Description Course Contents

The seminar addresses the current state of the art „„ Mathematical methods for uncertainty quantification
complemented by recent achievements in research and „„ Linear and non-linear sensitivity analysis (global / local)
development to quantify and control uncertainties (lack-of-
knowledge and variations) in vehicular development. Aspects „„ Design of Experiments (DoE), Response Surface Methods
of sensitivity and robustness analysis are discussed as well (RSM)
as topics in reliability, resilience, redundancy and model „„ Methods for model order reduction (MOR)
uncertainty. In addition, numerical methods for optimization „„ Robustness versus reliability
with consideration of uncertainties and methods for model
„„ Robustness in early design stages (Set-based Design und
order reduction (MOR) to reduce computational effort are
Solution Space Approach)
discussed. Applications (e.g. NVH, crash) illustrate the usage
of the methods and the fact that methods should be adapted „„ Methods for resilience, redundancy, model uncertainty
to the degree of maturity of the design in the development „„ Optimization under uncertainties
process. „„ Applications taken from acoustics and crashworthiness
Course Objectives
The seminar is focused on methods and their theoretical
background to enable the participants to realize applications
directly in the industrial context. Hence, uncertainties can
be characterized, quantified, and – together with sensitivity
analysis – concept and structural evaluations are made
possible, which consider robustness, reliability, resilience,
and redundancy. Corresponding optimizations can then be
realized in an efficient manner.

Who should attend?

The seminar is proposed for engineers with first experiences
in numerical concept and series development of vehicles,
who are interested in including robustness, reliability and
other aspects of uncertainty management in their industrial

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Fabian Duddeck (Technical University Munich) has been leading the research
group on optimization and robustness at the Technische Universität München (TUM) since 2010. His
research is focusing on shape and topology optimization for crash, NVH (noise vibration and harshness) and

other disciplines including stochastic modeling and robustness assessments. Holding the chair for Compu-
tational Mechanics at the TUM, he also teaches and directs research at Queen Mary University of London
(QMUL) and at the French Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC). His group is involved in industrial as well as
national and international research projects. Prof. Duddeck has obtained his PhD (1997) and his Habilitation
degree (2001) at the Technische Universität München.



12.-13.09.2017 2950 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 15.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

19.-20.02.2018 3034 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 22.01.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Improving Efficiency and Reducing Risk in CAE Driven Product Development

Course Description Course Contents

Computer based methods are mandatory for state of the art, „„ Motivation to use structured processes in CAE
economic as well as efficient development and qualification „„ Which risks managers and analysis experts are facing? -
of products. Use and collaboration of CAE-tools require suited analysis based on examples
processes to lift existing potentials for an efficient and reliable
product development. „„ Use of CAE to minimize risks
„„ Structured process management in CAE as a means to
Performing such tasks for virtual based product development focus improvements - trends and examples for improved
and qualification demands high requirements on personnel, efficiency and the collaboration between designers and
workflows and practices. Warranty and reliability claims can analysis experts
be reduced by applying best practice in CAE-based product
development. The principle of “as little as possible but as „„ Duties of analysis experts and managers from liability and
much as necessary” must be observed. warranty issues : aspects affecting reasonable work flows
„„ Implementing process and risk management in CAE
To avoid mistakes and economic loss, CAE-applications
require reasonable and reliable workflows. This seminar pro- „„ Structure of an efficient and quality driven process
vides background information on risks of using CAE and gives management
recommendations of implementing best practice. Maintain- „„ Specific procedural requirements for CAE environment
ing high quality of CAE applications and enhancing efficiency and CAE processes
within the context of organizational structures and analysis „„ Verification and validation
tasks are the main focus of this seminar. Use of knowledge
„„ Monitoring and documentation of analysis planning,
management builds a bridge between performing an analysis
specifying and reporting of CAE projects
project and improving efficiency. Knowledge management is
a basis for efficiency, quality of prognosis and reliability of CAE „„ Quality driven practices and collaboration with suppliers
application. A holistic view onto knowledge management and
knowledge based engineering will be given.

Who should attend?

The seminar is aimed at product developers, CAE engineers
but also managers and decision makers who are responsible
for risk, performance and efficiency of projects supported by
numerical analyses, regardless if the computations are done
as a service to other companies or for in-house development
projects or ordered from a consulting partner.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klemens Rother (Munich University of Applied Sciences) studied mechan-
ical engineering at Munich University of Applied Sciences and the Department of Mechanics, Metallurgy
and Materials Science at Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA. He earned his doctorate in the field of

computational durability at University of Dortmund. Since 1986 he has been working in various positions in
industry, e.g. more than 15 years in senior management for structural integrity and CAE consulting services.
Since 2008 he is professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Munich, faculty of mechanical, automo-
tive and aircraft engineering. He teaches strength, lightweight design, durability and conceptual design. He
is also head of a master’s program in computational engineering. His main research focuses on CAx-support-
ed product development and structural integrity.



20.-21.09.2017 2874 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 23.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

Integration and operation of LS-DYNA and
all other CAE applications on supercomputing systems


Planning, integration, and operation of complete systems
for structured management of analysis data, based, for example,
on SimManager, SimData Manager, and LoCo

Development of software for automation of
pre- and postprocessing methods, for example using ANSA and Animator4

GNS Systems GmbH Phone +49 (0)531 - 1 23 87 0 Mail info@gns-systems.de

Locations Braunschweig Flörsheim München Sindelngen Wolfsburg www.gns-systems.de

empowering CAE processes


Support meshing processes and data provision for CAD/CAE
Comprehensive simulation data management solution for CAE processes
Integrated post data management for tests and simulation
Monitoring of requirements and project status
in product development


CAE Tools

Introduction to the Python Programming Language

Course Description Course Contents

Python is a modern programming language that is increas- „„ Basic concepts of the Python programming language
ingly used in the field of Scientific Computing. Together with „„ Introduction to the language
the environment www.scipy.org Python is an open source „„ Data and control structures, functions
alternative to the commercial software MATLAB. A series of
CAE software products, including the Pre-Processor ANSA, „„ Advanced topics
the solvers ABAQUS and PAM-CRASH and the Post-Processor „„ Processing of data
META, are already using Python as an integrated scripting lan- „„ Important modules of the Python standard library
guage. Python puts the emphasis on well-readable code, so „„ Examples from scientific computing
beginners can learn the language very quickly. Nevertheless, „„ Modularization in bigger Python projects
Python is a powerful programming language and can also be
used for larger projects. Further advantages of Python are „„ Practical exercises
the platform independence and the very extensive standard
library supplied.

Course Objectives
The seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the
basics of the Python programming language. It also includes
an introduction to object-oriented programming. Practical
exercises, such as processing text-based files from the CAE
world, will be treated. After the seminar, participants will be
able to acquaint themselves with the Python interfaces of
CAE software products.

Who should attend?

The seminar is aimed at newcomers to the Python language.
Experience in other scripting or programming languages
would be an advantage but is not a requirement.

Dr. André Backes (TECOSIM Technische Simulation GmbH) studied Mathematics at the
University of Duisburg. From 2000 to 2006 he was a researcher at the Institute for Mathematics at the

Humboldt University in Berlin. His PhD studies at the chair for Numerical Mathematics introduced him to
the field of CAE. Since 2006 he works at TECOSIM GmbH in Rüsselsheim and specialized in NVH. In the area
of Virtual Benchmarking he helped developing the TECOSIM-owned process TEC|BENCH. In this project the
programming language Python was heavily used.



28.-29.09.2017 3004 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 31.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

12.-13.03.2018 3032 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 12.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Basics: Consistent Units

Background What does consistent mean?
Finite-Elemente-Programs require the usage of consistent Derived units can be expressed in terms of fundamental units
unit systems. In structural mechanics the SI-Systems and the without conversion factors:
mm-t-s (Millimeter-Ton-Second) system have proved their 1 Force Unit = 1 Mass-Unit * 1 Acceleration-Unit
worth. 1 Acceleration-Unit = 1 Length-Unit / (1 Time-Unit)2
1 Density-Unit = 1 Mass-Unit / (1 Length-Unit)3
Mass Length Time Force Pressure/Stress Energy
kg m s N Pa J
kg cm s 1.0e-02 N 1.0e+02 Pa 1.0e-04 J
kg cm ms 1.0e+04 N 1.0e+08 Pa 1.0e+02 J
kg cm μs 1.0e+10 N 1.0e+14 Pa 1.0e+08 J
kg mm ms kN GPa J
g cm s dyne dy/cm² erg
g cm μs 1.0e+07 N Mbar 1.0e+07 Ncm
g mm s μN Pa nJ
g mm ms N MPa mJ
ton mm s N MPa mJ
lbf-s²/in in s lbf psi lbf-in
kgf-s²/mm mm s kgf kgf/mm² kgf-mm
kg mm s mN kPa μJ
g cm ms dN 1.0e+05 Pa 1.0e-01 J

CAE Tools

Possibilities and Limitations of Virtual-based Development using the Example of

Interior Components
Course Description Course Contents
Computer aided engineering (CAE) gains increasing impor- „„ Introduction to simulation: Application areas of
tance in many areas of vehicle development. The reasons for simulation, approaches and technologies of computer-
this are, firstly, a drastically increasing computer performance aided engineering
paralleled by decreasing cost, which drives the economy of „„ Presentation and comparison of current numerical
CAE application in many disciplines. Secondly, the numerical methods: FEM - Finite Element Method (structural
methods are continuously improved and refined so that the simulation), MBS – Multi Body System (occupant and
predictive quality of the calculations is growing steadily and vehicle dynamics simulation), coupling FEM - MBS,
allows for simulations to be increasingly used as a basis for examples from the crash area
important product and design decisions. Especially in the
crash area, numerical simulation has established itself as an „„ Use of simulation in vehicle development: Approaches
essential development tool. and applications in structures, occupants and
components. Joint use of numerical and experimental
Course Objectives simulation in development projects
The objective of this seminar is to learn about the use of nu- „„ Structural simulation: Vehicle structure, car body
merical simulation in vehicle development and to be able to development, front and side impact crash simulations,
understand and judge its value in the development process. component and pedestrian protection simulations
In particular, it will be explained, what methods are used for „„ Vehicle interior: Requirements and modeling for
what purposes, where the limits of these methods lie and to instrument panel, head impact, knee impact and door
identify the cost and benefits. Focus is on the application of trim analysis
simulation in crashworthy car body and in restraint system „„ Occupant simulation: Simulation of crash and sled tests,
development. modeling of the components of a restraint system and
the interior, dummy models, combining the components
Who should attend?
to the overall model, various crash configurations
The seminar is especially suited for project and test engineers
in vehicle safety, but also for technicians and managers who „„ Validation: Data required for validation, validation
are interested in the subject of simulation. The objective of approach including sequence in occupant simulation,
the seminar is to give the participants an overview about the component validation
application of computer simulation in vehicle safety. „„ Tools and methods for simulation: Overview of analysis
tools, optimization, stochastic simulation, visualization

Dr.-Ing. Arno Heidkamp (IAC Group GmbH) studied Civil Engineering before he obtained a Ph.D.
in Biomechanics. Thereafter he joined TASS, where he was in charge of occupant protection projects. In

2006 he joined TECOSIM where he worked in different areas of simulation: Crash, interiors, occupant pro-
tection and seating. As Technical Manager at TECOSIM he was in charge of the staff training in the field of
simulation methods.In 2013 he joined the IAC Group GmbH as Manager CAE and is in charge for integrating
CAE in product development processes.



15.03.2018 3036 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 15.02.2018, thereafter 890,- EUR


THUMS Version 4 AM50 Pedestrian and Occupant Models

Background and Objective: „„ Trabecular bone … Mat_Damage_2

In order to reduce the number of casualties in car crashes, Connective Tissues: for simulating ligament rupture:
the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) has been
„„ Ligaments … Mat_Simplified_Rubber (Mat_Fabric)
developed for simulating crash-induced injuries. The previ-
ous model, Version 3, was able to simulate bone fracture, „„ Tendons … Mat_Simplified_Rubber
ligament rupture and brain injury. The new model, Version
4, is expected to simulate internal organ injury. Soft Tissues: for simulating brain and organ injuries:
„„ Neck muscles … Mat_Spring_Muscle
„„ Other flesh … Mat_Simplified_Rubber
„„ Skin … Mat_Simplified_Rubber (Mat_Fabric)
„„ Brain … Mat_Viscoelastic
„„ Internal organs (Solid) … Mat_Simplified_Rubber
„„ Internal organs (Hollow) … Mat_Low_Density_Foam

The total model size is 1.77 million elements.

Validation Efforts:
THUMS V4 is validated against reference data published
around 2000. The impact speed range is around 7 m/s.
THUMS V4 has passive muscle models and can react to grav-
Features of Version 4: ity force with slight displacement of bones and deformation
Completely new FE meshes were generated to accurately of ligaments.
represent human body geometry. High-resolution CT scans
were used to digitize the interior of the body for generating
precise geometrical data of the internal organs. The modeling
also reflected the anatomical features of each organ. By
inputting data on the physical properties of organ tissue
reported in the latest research, injury at a tissue level can be
simulated. Validations were conducted against more than
20 impact tests. Geometries of THUMS V4 AM50 are based
on CT scans of a living human whose height is 173 cm and
weight is 77 kg. The model is omni-directional and it can be
used for frontal, lateral and rear impact simulations.
THUMS V4 is provided without encryption and can be mod-
ified, e.g. the internal organs can be replaced by a mass for
simulations where they are not in the focus.
No modifications to the vehicle models are required when
the THUMS V4 is used.
THUMS V4 is compatible with dummy models. Time step of
THUMS V4 is 0.4 microsecond.

Material Constitutive Laws and Model Sizes:

Bones: for simulating bone fracture:
„„ Cortical bones … Mat_Piecewise_Linear_Plasticity

CAE Wissen by courtesy of TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION and Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.
WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models and Failure Criteria of Glass for Crash Simulation – X-FEM

High quality simulation of safety glass, used for making
windshields in automotive industry, is still a challenging topic
for commercial crash solvers.
Holistic modelling of the behavior of glass becomes more
important due to its influence on structural behavior in
several load cases, like for static and dynamic roof crush, as
well as for highly dynamic impacts and pedestrian protection
The main requirement of the automotive industry is to use
the same model and the same mesh for all load cases.
Figure 1: Schematic visualization of the discontinuity in a finite element
Nowaday exist many material models as well as many failure continuum

criteria. The common approach for fracture modelling is to

apply shell-element deletion, or setting its stiffness, at the
integration point, to zero, when the failure criteria is reached.
This approach works well, but has a major disadvantage: It is
highly mesh sensitive!
Local refinement, like adaptive meshing, will lead to local-
ization of plasticity and at the end to failure in the refined
area. Adaptive meshing is a suitable method for stamping
simulation where the final deformed shape is known. It is not
recommended in crash applications.
Figure 2: Modelling of discontinuous displacement field: Re-meshing vs.
To overcome this drawback, ALTAIR has developed further X-FEM
the extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) [2] and imple-
mented it in the RADIOSS crash solver [1].

X-FEM is a numerical method for geometries containing
discontinuities and singularities without the need of building Figure 3: Modelling of crack propagation with X-FEM
a conforming mesh. This numerical method was developed
for modelling large (displacement) as well as slight (strain) Application for simulating the windshield behaviour in
discontinuities within a standard finite element framework. It crash
is based on the Partition of Unity Method [3]. The X-FEM method is designed as a module and can be add-
X-FEM will be applied for the simulation of crack initiation and ed to the existing failure criteria, like Forming Limit Diagram
propagation without the need of re-meshing [4]. With X-FEM, (FLD), Johnson-Cook, tabulated failure-strain-vs-triaxiality
cracks are represented as surfaces of discontinuous displace- and others. For the usage of any application, it is highly rec-
ments continuously propagating through finite elements ommended to validate the material and failure model first,
(see figure 1). Dynamic crack propagation is an application before activating the X-FEM extension.
domain for which X-FEM is particularly suitable because the The typical safety glass consists of: Glass – Polyvinylbutyral
most prevalent method for treating crack growth (see figure (PVB) foil – Glass
3), where re-meshing, is not suitable for a solution of this
problem (see fig. 2). It is obligatory for the FEM method, to be able to represent
the correct behaviour of a windshield, to mimic independent
cracks within one shell-element, depending on the state of
stress and strain, in the individual layer (see figure 4).

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Figure 7: Industrial application: Pedestrian Head impact

Figure 4: Schematic visualization of different cracks in different layer of a

shell meshed part

Due to different stress states, different crack shapes are

expected (figure 5). The validation model shows exactly the
expected behaviour of the layers through their thickness,
where the dominant shape on the upper layer is circular and
on the lower layer the star-shape becomes dominant. Figure
6 shows the simulation results with RADIOSS. It can be seen,
that the cracks propagate nearly mesh independent.

Figure 8: Industrial application: Roof crush

X-FEM is more physical in terms of crack simulation, due to
the split of elements than the classical, unphysical, deletion
of elements. Besides, X-FEM aims at avoiding extremely small
and CPU expensive meshes. It is successfully implemented
in RADIOSS, where it is able to realistically reproduce crack
Figure 5: Different crack shapes due to different stress conditions, over the
patterns in laminated glass, like in windshields. There is also
thickness the possibility of crack initiation which is important for design
improvement and stochastic analysis. X-FEM is easy to use in
RADIOSS: Only one Flag has to be set.

[1] HyperWorks RADIOSS Theorie Manual: 13.0 version – Nov 2014
[2] T. Belytschko, T. Black, “Elastic crack growth in finite elements with
minimal remeshing”, Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg., 45:601–620,
[3] J.M. Melenk, I. Babuska, “The Partition of Unity Finite Element
Method: Basic Theory and Applications”, Comput. Meths. Appl. Mech.
Engrg., 139:289-314, 1996.
[4] N. Moës, J. Dolbow, T. Belytschko, “A finite element method for
crack growth without remeshing”, Int. J. Numer. Methods Engrg.,
Figure 6: Finite element simulation (RADIOSS) results on a validation
structure – safety glass
CAE Wissen by courtesy of:
After final validation material-, failure criteria and the X-FEM Marian Bulla - ALTAIR Product Specialist Crash&Safety
approach can be applied to industrial cases, especially Jean-Pierre Bobineau - ALTAIR Senior Technical Specialist
well-suited for modelling fracture in brittle materials as well Maciek Wronski - ALTAIR Software Development Manager
as in multi-layered shells with different materials (figure 7 Mircea Istrate - ALTAIR Senior Software Developer
and 8).
A Platform for Innovation

Introducing Altair HyperWorks 2017

Innovate with confidence on your next simulation platform. Go forward
faster with new and enhanced capabilities in model-based development,
electromagnetism, nonlinear structural analysis, efficient model
management and meshing, multiphysics and computational performance,
structural optimization and design exploration.

Learn how at altairhyperworks.com/hw2017

Get all of the training that you need
without having to leave your desk!

HyperWorks Virtual Instructor Led Training

HyperWorks Virtual Instructor Led Training offers the benefit of a live
instructor with convenience of taking a class from your desk.

HyperWorks Self Paced Training

Sometimes it is important to receive immediate training. That is
where the HyperWorks Self Paced training can be most effective.
Each exercise uses demonstration videos, interactive exercises, and
hands-on exercises using our See It!, Try It!, Do It! Methodology.

For a complete schedule of Virtual Instructor Led

classes and HyperWorks Self Paced Courses visit

Follow HyperWorks on:

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections
Spot Weld Modeling for Crash Simulation

Joints are often the weak points of a vehicle when overload The failure model is given according to
occurs e.g. in crash situations. They join the single compo- 2 2 2 2
nents to the load-bearing body in white. The crash simulation  fn   fs   mb   mt 
            1
needs reliable and applicable tools for the prediction of the
 Fn   Fs   Mb   Mt 
load bearing capacity and energy absorption of all kinds of
joints to ensure the crash safety of vehicles. where fn, fs, mb and mt are the actual normal and shear force,
bending and torsion moment calculated in the hexahedron,
Joints are modeled with simplified models in crash simula- respectively. Fn is the critical normal force, Fs the critical shear
tions of whole cars due to efficiency. The simplified models force, Mb the critical bending moment and Mt the critical
should be able to reproduce the deformation and failure torsion moment at fracture. Because of minor importance
behavior as well as the energy absorption of the joints the critical torsion moment is neglected. The exponents are
with less computational cost but with adequate accuracy. all equal and set to 2 what results in a quadratic, equal distrib-
Simplified modeling techniques for point-shaped, line-shaped uted superposition of normal, shear, bending and torsional
and plane joints are available in different crash codes and still loading in a mixed loading case.
new models are developed because of an increasing variety
of new joining techniques. The procedure of determination of
damage and fracture parameters of the models is a more or
Procedure of failure parameter determination
less standard procedure of inverse simulation. The procedure
of calibration of model parameters of spot welds is shown in The three remaining failure parameters are determined by
this article. simulation of specimen tests of spot welded tension, lap-
shear and peel specimens. The finite element models of the
specimens are shown in Figure 2. The stepwise procedure of
calibration of the failure parameters, the critical normal force
Definition of spot weld model FN, the critical shear force Fs and the critical bending moment
Here, as example a solid element is used for the geometric Mb is described in Table 1. First the tension specimen test is
representation of a spot weld as one possibility for the simpli- simulated using the spot weld model. Under tension loading
fied modeling of spot welds. Figure 1 shows the dimensions the easiest case occurs, because fs and mb are zero. If the
and the position of a solid element representing one spot global maximum force measured in the test is reached by the
weld. The solid element is bound to the shell elements in the calculated global force, the local value of fn is evaluated and
mid position of the sheet metal using tied contact definitions gives the value of the critical normal force Fn. In the second
step the peel specimen test is simulated. If the calculated
The weld nugget diameter d = 5.4 mm and the metal sheet
global force reaches the measured value of maximum force
thickness t1 = t2 = 1.5 mm give the height
the local values fn and mb of the hexahedron are evaluated,
h = ( t1 + t2 ) /2 fs still remains zero. These values are put in the failure model
using the already determined value of FN and the critical
and the element edge length bending moment MB can be calculated by easy transforma-
L e  πd 2 / 4 tion of the equation. In the third step the lap-shear specimen
is simulated. The values of fn and fs are evaluated if the
of the hexahedron.
calculated global force reaches the value of the measured
maximum force in the lap-shear test. FS can be calculated
by putting these values for fn, fs and the already determined
value for FN in the failure equation, because mb remains zero.
With this procedure the triple of parameters of the failure
model is determined which is specific for the tested material,
spot weld diameter and loading velocity.

Figure 1: position and size of spot weld model hexahedron

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

shown in straight lines and reproduce the measured load

bearing capacities quite well. The determined parameters are
shown in Table 2 and are specific for the investigated DP600
spot weld with nugget diameter of 5.4 mm and quasi-static

Figure 2: finite element models of spot welded specimens: tension, peel and
lap-shear specimen (from left to right)

step procedure result

1 determination of critical normal force by FN
simulation of tension test
2 determination of critical bending moment MB
by simulation of peel test with fixed value Figure 3: Comparison of the measured and calculated load vs. displacement
of FN curves of lap-shear, tension and peel tests using solid elements and
MAT_100 in LS-Dyna
3 determination of critical shear force by FS
simulation of lap-shear test with fixed
value of FN and MB
Table 1: stepwise determination of failure parameters
11.1 kN 15.7 Nm 15.4 kN
Table 2: failure parameters for spot welded joints in DP600 with a nugget
diameter of 5.4 mm and quasi-static loading
Results of parameter determination
The result of the determination of parameters is shown in
Figure 3. The dashed lines are the measured load vs. displace- CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Silke Sommer,
ment curves of the three specimen tests used for parameter Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg
calibration. The calculated load vs. displacement curves are


April 17-18, 2018

read more at www.carhs.de/grand-challenge

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Modeling of Joints in Crash Simulation

Course Description Who should attend?

For the efficient assembly of components and complete The course addresses engineers working in the field of crash
structures many different joining techniques are available. simulation and heads of simulation departments interested in
Joints have to ensure that the assembly will fulfill crashwor- the important topic of modelling of joints including failure.
thiness, durability and other requirements. Therefore the
best joining technique has to be selected for each application. Course Contents
Modern lightweight design often uses a material mix. Using „„ Overview of modeling techniques for different joining
different materials, like various steel grades, lightweight techniques
alloys, plastics or composites for applications for which the „„ Tests and methods for characterization of joints
individual material is best suited allows for weight savings.
The efficient and reliable joining of different materials is „„ Local loading conditions at joints during testing under
even more challenging. Failure of joints can be a reason for shear, tension and bending load
collapse of vehicle structures during crash testing. Therefore „„ Characteristics of failure behavior
failure of joints must be precisely predicted in numerical „„ Failure modelling of
crash simulation applied in the virtual design process of
„„ spot welded joints including spot welds in press hardened
vehicle development. steels
„„ self-piercing riveted joints
Course Objectives
„„ laser welded joints
The objective of this one day course is to give the participants
an overview of failure modelling of different joints (puncti- „„ adhesive joints

form, linear, planar joints) for crash simulation and also of the „„ Calibration methods for determination of model
characterization tests and methods that are necessary for parameters
calibrating the model parameters. Also recommendation for „„ Validation of calibrated models through testing and
validation tests and simulations of calibrated joint models are simulation
given. Examples of typical and used models are shown in all
common crash codes.

Dr.-Ing. Silke Sommer (Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM) studied
Physics at the RWTH Aachen University and obtained her PhD degree at the Karlsruhe Institute of Tech-

nology about modelling of the deformation and failure behaviour of spot welds. She has been working at
the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg since 2000 in the field of damage and
failure modelling of materials and joints for crash simulation. Since 2013 she is a group leader for joining and



05.09.2017 2928 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.08.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

19.03.2018 3041 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 19.02.2018, thereafter 890,- EUR

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Material Models for Metallic Materials

Metals are the dominant material group for the body-in- deformation of metals the onset of plastic deformation is
white. A CAE based development includes the metal forming not influenced by the level of hydrostatic stress. In case
simulation of the different parts and the simulation of misuse of a plane stress condition (σ3=0) for shell elements the
and crashworthiness of subcomponents and the whole body- yield locus reduces to an ellipse in the σ1-σ2-plane.
in-white. The phenomenological models for the elastovisco-
plastic behaviour and failure initiation of metals are discussed Typically an associated flow rule is applied for metallic ma-
in general. The implementation of those models can differ terials. This means that the yield surface or yield locus is also
between the commercial FEA codes. used as a plastic potential. The plastic potential defines the
components of the plastic strain rates by the direction of the
A comprehensive material model must cover the following normal on the surface.
„„ Description of elastic material behaviour
„„ Stress state dependent criterion for the onset of a
plastic deformation (stress yield locus) and criterion for
derivation of plastic strain components (plastic potential)
„„ Model for strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity (in
case of pronounced viscoplastic behaviour)
„„ Criteria for onset of material failure (mainly strain-based
for metallic materials)
Elastic Behaviour
Figure 1: Yield surface according to von Mises
The elastic behaviour of metals is assumed to be linear. For
most technical alloys the elastic properties are assumed to If the von Mises plasticity is used the only user input is the
be isotropic on a macroscopic scale (single grains can exhibit yield stress from uniaxial tension. The yield stress and the
a pronounced orthotropy of the elastic properties). Isotropic corresponding hardening curve defines the initial size of the
linear-elastic behaviour can be described by 2 independent cylinder and its increase during strain hardening.
values, for example by the
Sheet metals typically exhibit an orthotropy of the plastic be-
„„ Young’s modulus E with σ = ε Ε and the haviour due to the rolling process. In this case an orthotropic
„„ shear modulus G with τ = γ G yield locus should be used. Hill-1948 offers an orthotropic
extension of the von Mises yield locus. This locus is available
„„ From these values two further dependent elastic
in nearly all commercial FEA codes. The orthotropy parame-
constants may be derived:
ters are typically defined via three Lankford coefficients r0, r45
and r90 which are derived from tensile tests in 3 orientations
„„ bulk modulus K:
to rolling direction. The Lankford coefficient is defined as
„„ Possion’s ratio ν: follows:

Yield Locus and Plastic Potential

The proportional limit Rp or the technical 0.2% yield
Here b0 and b are the initial and current width of the tensile
strength of a tensile test indicates the onset of plastic
specimen. t0 and t are the initial and current thickness of the
deformation in metallic materials. In a finite element
tensile specimen. The Lankford coefficient is typically evaluat-
analysis a criterion for the onset of plastic deformation
ed between 2% and uniform elongation. The Hill-1948 locus
is needed for general multiaxial stress states. The yield
based on Lankford coefficients is appropriate for mild and
locus is used for this purpose. Figure 1 shows the yield
high strength steel sheets. However advanced high strength
locus according to von Mises in the stress space. Stress
steel sheets and aluminium sheets are not represented
states inside the cylinder are still elastic. Stress states
adequately by this model. More complex yield loci should be
on the cylinder shell indicate the onset of plastic flow.
The body diagonal in Figure 1 represents the hydrostatic
stress p. As volume constancy is assumed for the plastic
WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Strain Hardening and Strain Rate Sensitivity Completely wrong conclusion can be drawn from this simple
The strain hardening can be derived from the classical tensile criterion.
tests. The input for the FEA codes, however, is true stress
versus true plastic strain. The raw data of the tensile tests
are force F and elongation ∆L of the extensometer. Based on
the initial cross section A0 and the initial length of extenso­
meter L0 of the tensile tests the curve can be expressed as
engineering stress σeng=F/A and engineering strain e=∆L/L0.
This curve can be used only up to uniform elongation as the
strain is no longer homogeneous in the specimen for a higher
elongation. The true stress σtrue and true plastic strain ε can
be derived as follows:

σtrue = σeng· (1+e); εtot = ln (1+e); εpl=εtot - σtrue / E

This hardening curve has to be approximated and extrap-
olated for the input in FEA. In general cases higher strains
than the uniform elongation can be reached in a deformed Figure 2: Failure modes for metallic materials
structure. A well known and robust hardening law is the Swift
The main failure mechanism of metallic sheets in sheet
σtrue = K (ε0+ε)n metal forming and crash is the onset of necking. At a sudden
point of deformation the strain hardening and the strain rate
sensitivity can no longer avoid a localization of the strain. Due
K, ε0 and the strain hardening exponent n are material
to strain localization a fracture appears inside the neck after
dependent parameters. Most of the metallic materials show
a small increase of the global strain. Therefore the necking
a positive strain rate sensitivity, i.e. the flow stress increas-
itself can be used as a failure criterion. As industrial sheet
es with strain rate. Steels show a pronounced strain rate
metal forming simulations and crashworthiness simulations
sensitivity. In general the strain rate sensitivity decreases with
are mainly based on shell discretization the localized necking
increasing yield strength of the steel. Aluminium alloys show
cannot be resolved directly – the width of the neck is in the
a low or even negative strain rate sensitivity at low strain
dimension of the sheet thickness. Forming Limit Curves
rates, but a positive one for high strain rates. The strain rates
(FLC) are the standard approach to predict the onset of
of a deep drawing simulation are in the range of 0.001-0.1
necking. The FLC is expressed as major principal strain versus
1/s. The strain rate in a high speed crash simulation can
minor principal strain at the onset of necking. However the
reach locally strain rates of 500 1/s. The strain rate sensitivity
classical FLC is limited to linear strain paths. More advanced
can be expressed either by analytical laws which scale the
models have to be used in case of nonlinear strain paths. For
quasi-static hardening curve as a function of the strain rate
advanced high strength steels and aluminium sheets fracture
or by providing multiple hardening curves for the relevant
can happen prior to localized necking. This fracture can be
strain rate regime.
caused either by void growth and void coalescence (ductile
normal fracture) or by shear band localization (ductile shear
Failure Criteria
fracture). The fracture limit curves for these fracture modes
As metallic materials are typically ductile, strain-based failure
can be expressed by the equivalent plastic strain at fracture
criteria are dominant for this group of materials. Many CAE
as a function of the relevant stress state parameter.
engineers favour to use the total elongation or engineering
fracture strain from the tensile test as a fracture criterion. CAE Wissen by courtesy of MATFEM Partnerschaft, Munich
However this value is not a real material parameter as the (www.matfem.de)
specimen elongation does not resolve the local strain in the
diffuse neck of a tensile test. In addition the fracture strain is
a strong function of the stress state. A sheet under bending
will fail first on the surface with tensile load despite the same
equivalent strain appears in compression without failure.


We started with full scale crash tests. Then we developed minor

and major test equipment and even test tracks. Our software pro-
ducts for analysis of test results are applied worldwide. Crash and
occupant simulation started slowly end of the 90’s, but became
our main business of today. Actually 80 simulation engineers are
supporting our customers in the automotive industry.

Our long-term dedication to automotive safety gives us a unique

expertise, the best position for our common future.

We say „Thank You“ to all our employees, to all our customers, to

all our suppliers and to all our partners for making IAT to what it
is today and in the future: a fair and reliable partner.

IAT Ingenieurgesellschaft für Automobiltechnik mbH

Aroser Allee 68 · 13407 Berlin · Deutschland · T. +49 (0)30 473 931-000

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models of Metals for Crash Simulation

Course Description Who should attend?

Besides an appropriate spatial discretisation of the structure The course addresses engineers working in the field of crash
and a profound knowledge of the required load cases, ap- simulation and heads of simulation departments interested in
propriate material modelling is a key ingredient for predictive the important topic of material modelling.
crash simulations. The load carrying structure of a car today
still mainly consists of metallic materials. The materials to be Course Contents
described are diverse. „„ Overview of metallic materials used in cars
The seminar deals with the following materials: „„ Influence of material structure on mechanical behavior
„„ Phenomenological material models for metals
„„ mild and high strength steels,
„„ Overview of experimental methods for material
„„ cold formable AHSS and UHSS steels,
„„ hot formable and quenchable boron steels,
„„ Identification of material parameters from experiments
„„ wrought Al and Mg alloys,
„„ Discussion of the sensitivity material parameters
„„ cast Al and Mg alloys.
The objective of this 1 day course is to give the participants
an overview of material models of metals used in crash
simulation. In a first step the deformation behavior and the
failure mechanisms of each material class are explained
based on the material structure. The influence of strain rate
on material behavior is an important aspect in the context
of crash simulation and will be discussed in the seminar. In
a second step phenomenological material models for crash
simulation are introduced. In the third step the tests needed
for the characterization of materials are described and the
parameter identification for the material models is discussed.
Finally and using example simulations the sensitivity of sim-
ulation results regarding the identified material parameters
is shown.

Dr.-Ing. Helmut Gese (MATFEM - Partnerschaft Dr. Gese & Oberhofer) founded the
engineering consultancy MATFEM in 1993 (from 1999 the company has been named MATFEM partnership

Dr. Gese & Oberhofer). MATFEM offers technical and scientific consultancy services at the intersection of
material science and finite element methods. Besides performing FEM analysis projects the area of activity
covers experimental and theoretical characterization of materials and the development of new material
models for simulation.



09.05.2017 2899 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 11.04.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

26.10.2017 2900 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 28.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Material Parameters for CAE Simulation

Obtaining precise material parameters for CAE is a multi-step performed on a tightly controlled, standardized experiment.
process. Proper knowledge in many areas is necessary: By comparing the outcomes, a quantitative assessment of
the material model quality can be obtained before it is used
„„ Appropriate test samples must be used. Factors such as in an application simulation. The experiment load conditions
environmental conditioning must be considered. being well defined, it is possible to quantitatively compare
„„ Range of application temperatures: -40º to 80ºC simulation to experiment (Fig. 1).
„„ Measurements must be made over many decades of
strain rate
„„ Complex models require shear and biaxial test modes
„„ All required properties must be correctly measured with
scientifically designed procedures.
„„ Strict quality control, ideally to the ISO17025 norm is
needed for traceability and risk management.
„„ Data must be fit to the best-suited model using visual and
quantitative measures, requiring extensive knowledge of
non-linear modeling.
„„ Error-free input files must be provided for the CAE
„„ Because of the large number of uncertainties, many
analysts will conduct a verification and validation (V&V)
Figure 1: ARAMIS DIC experiment compared with ANSYS® simulation results
step to confirm that the material model is performing for a 3D-printed Aluminum component.
Material Model Validation
Most material models used in CAE simulation are based
on limited experiments. Real life situations require the
material model to perform in many states which may not
have been considered in the initial model development. The
reliability of a material model to perform in such a situation
can be gauged by a validation process, where simulation is

Testing Requirements and Modelling for Different Simulation Scenarios

Simulation Scenario Applicable Material CAE Material Models Required Tests
Static Loadings
Static small deformation: Stiffness Metals, plastics, Abaqus *ELASTIC, ANSYS ELASTIC, Tensile modulus Poisson’s ratio
foams, rubbers, NASTRAN MAT1, RADIOSS Law 1
Static large deformation: Metals, plastics Abaqus *ELASTIC *PLASTIC, ANSYS Tensile stress-strain, modulus and
Post-yield modelling MISO, NASTRAN MATS1 Poisson’s ratio
Dynamic Loadings, Crash, Drop Test
Crash / dynamic loading: Metals, plastics, LS-DYNA MAT024, PAM-CRASH Tensile stress-strain at 0.01, 0.1, 1,
Impact simulations of car body composite Material 105, RADIOSS LAW 2, 10, 100/s, density and Poisson’s ratio;
Abaqus *PLASTIC, RATE, ANSYS capture and modelling of post-yield
Explicit STR behavior
Crash / dynamic loading: Impact simula- Fiber filled plastics LS-DYNA MAT019, DIGIMAT J2 Tensile stress-strain at 0.01, 0.1, 1,
tions of car instrument panel- fiber filled (Visco) Elastoviscoplasticity 10, 100/s, density and Poisson’s ratio.
plastics; high stiffness, brittle failure Directional properties also needed for
WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Simulation Scenario Applicable Material CAE Material Models Required Tests

Dynamic Loadings, Crash, Drop Test (continued)
Crash / dynamic loading: Ductile plastics LS-DYNA MAT089, MAT024, PAM- Tensile stress-strain strain at 0.01, 0.1,
Impact simulations of car interiors and CRASH Material 105, RADIOSS 1, 10, 100/s, density and Poisson’s ratio;
bumpers- plastics subject to ductile LAW 2, Abaqus *PLASTIC, RATE, capture and modeling of post-yield
failure ANSYS Explicit STR behavior
Crash / dynamic loading with interest Ductile plastics LS-DYNA SAMP-1, Rate dependent tensile testing,
in non-Von Mises failure envelopes and LS-DYNA MAT183 compression, shear, post yield Poisson’s
detailed post-yield modelling ratio and unloading damage curves
Crash / dynamic loading: Soft foams, LS-DYNA MAT083, MAT057 Compression tests at strain at 0.01, 0.1,
Impact of foam seats viscoelastic foam 1, 10, 100/s with unloading for damage
Crash / dynamic loading: Impact of Crushable foams LS-DYNA MAT063, MAT163 Compression tests at strain at 0.01, 0.1,
foam bumpers, energy absorbers 1, 10, 100/s with unloading for damage
Crash / dynamic loading of rubber com- Rubbers LS-DYNA MAT 181, MAT 183 Rate dependent tensile or compression
ponents: Impact of bushings, rubber tests with unloading damage curves
bumpers, shock absorbers
Hyperelasticity and non-linear NVH
Quasi-static large deformation of rub- Rubbers, foamed LS-DYNA MAT077, MAT027, AN- Quasi-static tests in uniaxial tensile,
ber-like materials with little volumetric rubbers SYS HYPER, Abaqus *HYPERELAS- biaxial tension or compression, planar
compression: Rubber boots, door seals, TIC, Abaqus *HYPERFOAM tension or shear modes, with or with-
tubing- out pre-cycling
Quasi-static large deformation of Rubbers, foamed ANSYS HYPER, ANSYS HYPER Og- Quasi-static tests in uniaxial tensile,
rubber-like materials with volumetric rubbers den foam, Abaqus *HYPERELAS- biaxial tension or compression, planar
compression: Rubber gaskets and TIC, Abaqus *HYPERFOAM tension or shear modes, with or with-
bushings, foam seals out pre-cycling, volumetric stress-strain
NVH / dynamic large deformation of Rubber, foamed Abaqus *VISCOELASTIC, PRE- Dynamic mechanical analysis of visco-
rubber: door seals, bushings rubbers LOAD=UNIAXIAL elastic frequency sweeps at multiple
preload strains
Metal Forming and Cyclic Plasticity
Sheet metal forming: Body panel and Metals LS-DYNA MAT036, MAT037 Tensile stress-strain in 0º, 45º, 90º and
component forming Lankford parameters in 3 directions
Work hardening: Repeated loadings Metals ANSYS TB Chaboche model Cyclic tensile/compression tests
under constant displacement

Software for Material Parameter Conversion

CAE Modelers are software apps that convert material properties data into CAE-ready material cards. CAE Modelers are capa-
ble of automating complex conversions, including rate-dependent models for crash simulations. (Fig. 2)
„„ Converts material data to material model parameters
„„ Single-point and curve/multi-curve data conversion
„„ Graphical User Interface for model parameter tuning and modification
„„ Outputs for latest and older CAE software versions
„„ Embedded within Simulia (Abaqus/CAE), SolidWorks 2014, ANSYS
Workbench, Moldex3D, and ANSA
„„ Master Material File creation from Matereality for HyperWorks (Fig. 3),
ANSA, Creo, Abaqus/CAE and ANSYS Workbench
Figure 2: LS-DYNA CAE Modeller is used to
create MAT024 material card.

CAE Wissen by courtesy of DatapointLabs / Matereality

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Material Models for Polymeric Materials

Polymer is a chemical notion comprising many different a) Setup b) Head certification test c) Resultant acceleration
materials that strongly differ from the physical behaviour of
metals. From an engineering point of view it is instructive to
subdivide polymers broadly according to their mechanical
behaviour into materials with and without permanent defor-
mation. In automotive structures, these are typically:
„„ Elastomers, recoverable foams, plastics at small
„„ Crushable foams, plastics at large deformation
All polymers consist of long chain molecules. The differences Figure 2: Head impactor for pedestrian protection
relate to the number of crosslinks between them (Figure 1).
Polymer foams are unique gas-polymer composites that
a) Thermoplastic b) Thermoset c) Elastomer are used in a variety of applications based on their ability to
absorb energy. Under compression, foams can be considered
as materials with a Poisson coefficient close to zero (Figure 3).

Figure 1: Molecular structure of polymers

Figure 3: Compression test of an EPP foam

Elastomers are types of polymers that exhibit rubber-like
If they are completely recoverable, i.e. there is no permanent
qualities where disorder of the molecule arrangement is a
deformation during mechanical loading, the mathematical
measure of loading (entropy elasticity). Elastomers can be
description of the material response can be formulated
described phenomenologically by hyperelasticity where the
by the same theory as for elastomers, i.e. hyperelasticity.
stress σ can be obtained by derivation of an appropriate en-
Contrary for foams that exhibit permanent deformation, a
ergy function W with respect to the principle stretch ratio λ:
non-isochoric elasto-plastic description can be used.
In both cases, modern explicit finite element packages allow
for a tabulated input of the stress-strain relation, even strain
As an example, Ogden’s energy functions is given as rate dependent. It is therefore sufficient to describe the
principal stress-strain behavior mathematically, e.g. by

where and
In the case of strain-rate sensitive rubbers, some linear where the parameters and
dampers are considered additionally in parallel. As an exam-
describe the strain-rate dependency of the
ple, Figure 2 shows the head certification test for pedestrian
protection where the skin of the head impactor consists of material, see Figure 4.
highly strain rate dependent rubber.

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

strain-rates. This, however, is hard to achieve experimentally.

It is therefore useful to parameterize the material response
e.g. by a simplified G’Sell-Jonas law

Figure 4: Typical stress-strain relation of a foam under compression for

different densities and its mathematical parameterisation.
from which the stress-strain curves at constant strain-rates
may be computed. However there are, similar to metals, a lot
Plastics of open questions due to the influence of the process chain.
The influence of fibre orientation and weld lines that lead to a
Thermoplastics are polymers with non-crosslinked chain
much more brittle behavior (Figure 6,7) can be considered by
molecules in amorphous or crystalline structure. They turn
coupling of the analysis of injection moulding and structural
to liquids when heated and freeze to very glassy states when
analysis (“integrative simulations”) which are topics of ongo-
cooled sufficiently. The same effect occurs if we increase and
ing investigations.
decrease the strain rate respectively. At small strains, thermo-
plastics behave viscoelastic, i.e. they have a certain strain
rate dependency but (almost) no permanent deformation.
At large strains, thermoplastics can be described in a pretty
good approximation by viscoplasticity, i.e. strain rate depen-
dency below the yield surface is neglected. Effects like
„„ increase of volume during plastic flow (crazing),
„„ different yield stress under tension/compression/shear/
biaxial tension and
„„ decrease of Young’s modulus for increasing strain
Figure 6: Fill study of a specimen enforcing weld lines
also need to be considered to obtain a reasonable material
formulation for thermoplastics.

Figure 7: Influence of weld lines during tensile test

Figure 5: Parameterization of dynamic stress-strain curves.

Also for plastic materials, modern material laws allow for a

direct input of the stress-strain relation, but only at constant

CAE Wissen by courtesy of the Institute for Mechanics and Materials at the TH Mittelhessen, Giessen in collaboration with
the Department of Mechanics & Simulation at the German Institute for Polymers (DKI), Darmstadt.


service: validated materialcards for polymers,

composites, metals, foams, ...
software: intelligent reliable solution
from test to material card
hardware: efficient dynamic testing

4a impetus
intelligent testing systems powered by 4a engineering GmbH
Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models of Plastics and Foams for Crash Simulation

Course Description Who should attend?

Numerical simulation has become a fundamental element in The seminar addresses experienced CAE engineers and
the development of motor vehicles. Today, many important heads of CAE departments with an interest in plastic and
design decisions, especially in the field of crash, are based on foam materials simulation. At least 1-year of experience with
simulation results. During the last few years there has been FEM-programs such as LS-DYNA and PAM-CRASH is suggest-
an increase in the use of foams in vehicles. These are, due to ed for participating in this course.
their variety and structure, much more complicated regard-
ing the characteristics of the materials than “simple” materi- Course Contents
als such as steel or aluminum, which can be modelled rather „„ Overview of polymer materials used in vehicle
well. Characterization of foam materials is a great challenge construction
for the simulation expert. Although by now there are differ- „„ Verification and validation procedure for crash simulation
ent modelling approaches available in explicit FEM-programs
such as LS-DYNA and PAM-CRASH, these are, however, often „„ Introduction to mechanics of materials
not satisfactory. The application of these special material „„ Simulation of elastic and visco-elastic rubbers and foams
models requires a sound knowledge and experience. with volume elements
The seminar provides an overview over plastics and foam „„ Overview of available material models in explicit finite
materials used in automotive engineering and their phe- element codes
nomenology. On the first day you obtain an introduction into „„ Simulation of elastic-plastic polymers under crash loading
the simulation of elastic and visco-elastic polymers, such as for validation
elastomers and elastic polymer foams with volume elements. „„ Simulation of anisotropic materials with application to
You are thereby coming to understand the available material glass-fiber reinforced plastics
models in explicit finite element programs.
On the second day the focus is on the treatment of plastics,
such as thermo- and duroplastics through elasto-plasticity
with isotropic hardening. Non-associated deformation is
going to be discussed as well. The seminar is rounded off with
the procedure for simulation of glass-fiber reinforced plastics
using both isotropic and anisotropic material laws.
For a demonstration you are going to see examples created
with the program LS-DYNA. References to material models in
LS-DYNA and PAM-CRASH are going to help you in applying
what you will have learnt.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stefan Kolling (Giessen University of Applied Sciences) is Professor for Me-
chanics at the Giessen University of Applied Sciences (THM). Previously he worked as a simulation engineer

at the Mercedes Technology Center in Sindelfingen. He was responsible for methods development in crash
simulation. In particular he was involved in the modelling of non-metal materials such as glass, polymers and
plastics. Prof. Kolling graduated from the Universities of Saarbrücken and Darmstadt, from where he also
received his Ph.D. He is author of numerous publications in the field of material modeling.



22.-23.05.2017 2909 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 24.04.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

24.-25.10.2017 2910 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 26.09.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models for FEM Analysis of Short Fibre Reinforced Plastics

The analysis and design of parts by structural and crash

simulations is often performed with the material parameters
Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio ν and a plasticity model. (4)
This procedure however is insufficient to select and design
short-fibre-reinforced plastics. As shown in Figure 1, short-fi-
bre-reinforced plastics exhibit a strong anisotropy, which
is due to the different local fibre orientations. This causes
strongly direction-dependent mechanical properties.

Em, νm Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio of the matrix

Ef, νf Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio of the fibre
e.g. Glass Fibre: Ef= 72000 MPa; νf=0.22
l,d Length and diameter of the fibre (l/d ≈ 20 ...30)
Φ Fibre volume fraction, to be calculated from the
fibre weight fraction:

Figure 1: Electron microscopic picture of a polished specimen

(PA-GF50) ρm,ρf Density of the plastics matrix and the fibre
For technical applications it is sufficient to know the me- Studies in the past have shown that the model of Halpin and
chanical properties in and transverse to the fibre orientation. Tsai is suitable to estimate the mechanical properties. More
For these so-called transversely isotropic materials the accurate, but much more expensive, is the micromechanical
implementation of the material in FEM analysis still requires model approach of Tandon and Weng. In this model the five
five material parameters. These can be determined experi- transversely isotropic engineering constants are calculated
mentally or calculated using the mechanical properties of the as follows:
fibres and the polymer matrix, the fibre dimensions and ori-
entation. For this, the empirical Halpin-Tsai model, is a widely
used method. The five required engineering constants of a
transversely isotropic elastic material are defined as follows: (7)


(2) (8)



Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN




(12) (27)



(17) (31)


(19) α fibre aspect ratio (l/d)

λf,λm,µf,µm Lamé constants of fibre and matrix

The use of the models requires knowledge on the distribution
(21) of fiber orientations. These can be produced through injec-
tion moulding simulations (see Figure 2). Software utilities
(22) then allow the automatic transfer of information on the local
fibre structure into the structural simulation model.
The described procedure requires, however, knowledge
The parameters S in the equations (8) - (9) and (20) - (24) are
(24) about the elastic characteristics of the plastics matrix. Their
the components of the so-called Eshelby tensor. They allow
determination is problematic because for short-fibre-re-
to explicitly take into account the geometry of the enclosure.
inforced plastics, the exact data of the matrix material are
In the case of a fiber, the components are defined as follows:
generally not known. One way to estimate these is the
application of the Halpin-Tsai model. From tension test data
the modulus E11 of the fibre-reinforced plastics can be deter-
mined. Once this is known, the matrix modulus Em follows
from equation (1). For calculations reaching the plastic region
very complex material models need to be applied, often
by using the user interface of FEM software packages. The
elastic material models described here reach their validity
limit in this case.

Figure 2: Screenshot of an injection moulding simulation for the determina-

tion of the fibre orientation

CAE Wissen by courtesy of the Chair of Plastics Processing Technology at TU Dortmund University

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models of Composites for Crash Simulation

Many different types of composites exist today, but generally composites broadly fall into two camps. First, there are the
there is a common aim to combine two or more constituents high performance pre-preg composites in which a laminate is
to give a better material than each of the individual constit- made from stacking plies which have resin pre-impregnated
uents. The most popular composites today combine strong into the fibres; and second, there are Liquid Resin Infusion
stiff fibres (e.g. Carbon, Glass or Aramid) with a low strength technologies where resin is only added after the dry fabrics
polymer matrix (e.g. Epoxy or Polyester). Great flexibility is are placed and shaped.
possible in combining these materials to obtain required cost Regardless of the fibre, fabric or resin types there are usually
and performance. common analysis methods available to predict composites
The fibres are first brought together as yarns having, typically, mechanical performance; these range from simple analytical
6k (k=1000) and possibly up to 48k fibres. These yarns may methods for stiffness to advanced Finite Element methods
be directly used to manufacture a ‘preform’, which is the for stiffness, failure and impact or crash loading. Some simple
basic textile structure of the composite; or they may be formulae based on mechanics of materials can be helpful
further processed into fabrics. The fabrics would then be to obtain basic mechanical data; these so-called micro-me-
formed (draped), combined and trimmed for the preform. chanics laws combine fibre and matrix properties to give
Generally, Aerospace applications use 6k or 12k tows for best homogenized composite properties.
performance, whereas ‘thicker’ 24k or even 48k tows are
preferred for Automotive applications where low cost fast Voigt model: This law of
preforming is the priority. Many different types of fabrics are mixtures gives accurate axial
produced having widely different drape, infusion or final part composite modulus E1 from
mechanical properties for stiffness, strength or impact. Gen- fibre modulus (Ef), resin modu-
erally, fabrics fall into two groups and either have intertwined lus (Em), fibre volume ratio (Vf
yarns (e.g. Plain weaves and Twills) or have straight yarns = vol. fibres/ total vol.) and the
(Non Crimp Fabrics) for better stiffness. In this case yarns are matrix volume ratio Vm (=1-Vf/
overlaid and held together with light stitching. total vol.).
Reuss model: This reciprocal
law of mixtures for E2 gives a
poor estimate for transverse
modulus since transverse
stresses are non-uniform
and poorly represented by
the assumed simple spring
model. Improved relations
Bi-axial NCF (tricot stitch) are given by the Halpin-Tsai or
Hopkins-Chamis models.
Despite considerable research it has been difficult to extend
micro-mechanics models to woven textile composites for
accurate failure prediction. If homogenized properties are
available, from test or micro-mechanics, then Classical Lami-
nate Theory (CLT) can be used to compute laminate stiffness
of a stack of plies. Software tools are available to help auto-
Uni-directional NCF mate these calculations. Typically, for a given applied loading,
these codes compute overall laminate strains and individual
The function of the resin is to protect fibers and transfer ply stresses and strains in the fibre directions. Classical failure
stresses between them; particularly for load redistribution at criteria can then be used to compute maximum load limits.
the ends of any fibres that may break. Again, an enormous
variety or resin types are commercially available ranging from During the past 30 years many ply failure criteria have been
low performance, low cost, polyester systems to high perfor- proposed with the main ones being Maximum Stress (or
mance epoxy resins and super high performance/cost PEEK Strain) and the Tsai-Hill and Tsai-Wu ‘quadratic’ criteria. Each
thermoplastic resins. Finally, manufacturing methods for of these describes a failure envelope in stress, or strain space,

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

and gives the limits of safe loading. These criteria have points
determined from coupon tests and assumptions are used to
complete the envelope. The Maximum Stress-Strain criteria
assumes no interaction of stress components on failure,
whereas the quadratic criteria more correctly assumes stress
interactions but can be unrealistic for some load combina-
tions. In recent years the physically based Puck criteria for UD
composites has gained popularity and does overcome many
of these limitations.

12 Max. 



For impact and crash classical criteria are not appropriate

and progressive ply damage laws should be used since these
allow the different ply failure modes to be represented and A further important crash mode is axial crushing. Here ply
damaged independently. For a UD composite failure modes and delamination models are not applicable and specialized
may be fibre tension or compression failure, transverse ma- techniques to model composites fragmentation are needed.
trix tension or compression failure, or matrix shear failure. In Fragmentation is initiated via a trigger device (usually a
addition delamination of the weak resin layer between plies chamfer) that creates local micro-cracking; this then steadily
may occur. The popular approach to model ply damage is via propagates through the part as it is crushed. An important
damage variables that modify initial linear stiffness; delamina- feature is that material at the crash front is fundamentally
tion is usually approximated with damaging spring elements different to the intact undamaged materials and both must
that tie plies together and absorb resin fracture energy during be properly represented in the numerical model.
progressive failure.




CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Anthony Pickett, IFB Univer-

sity of Stuttgart.

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Material Models of Composites for Crash Simulation

Course Description Course Contents

Increasing demands for weight reduction paralleled by „„ Current and upcoming areas of application of composite
requirements for improved crash performance and stiffness materials
of structures have strongly pushed the development of „„ Analysis of composite materials
advanced composites. The use of composite materials today
is not limited to niche applications or secondary parts; they „„ Available material models and their application
are increasingly used for important load carrying structural „„ Modelling methods for plies and laminates
components in series production. „„ FEM modelling of composites
In this one day seminar Prof. Thomas Karall presents the „„ Failure mechanisms and their representation
foundations of structural impact and crash analysis of com- „„ PAM-CRASH ply and delamination models
posites with the Finite Element Method. At the beginning of
„„ Necessary material tests
the seminar an overview of current and upcoming industrial
applications of composite materials is given. Thereafter con- „„ Examples
cepts for the correct physical modeling of the complex load
degradation and failure mechanisms in numerical simulation
are presented. The course concentrates on the numerical
simulation of the crash behavior of composites and is accom-
panied with demonstrations using the PAM-CRASH code.

Who should attend?

The course addresses simulation and project engineers, proj-
ect managers as well as researchers involved in the analysis
and design of composite parts and structures.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Karall (Hof University of Applied Sciences) studied mechanical engineer-
ing at the Technical University of Vienna and received his PhD as Assistant Professor at the University of
Leoben in the field of fibre-reinforced plastics and the calculation by finite elements. From 2006 to 2010 he
was head of department at the Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology in Vienna in the

field of mechanical and thermal testing / fibre composites, and Secretary General of the Austrian Working
Group for reinforced plastics. From 2010 to 2015 he worked as Lead Researcher for lightweight design at
Virtual Vehicle Research Center in Graz. He was also a lecturer at the Technical University of Graz and lec-
turer at the FH Joanneum Graz. Since 2015 he has been Professor at the Engineering Department of the Hof
University. His areas of work include lightweigt design, fibre-reinfoced composites and the finite element



12.05.2017 2946 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 14.04.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

27.10.2017 2947 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 29.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

...enabling smart mobility

Automated Driving
Safety & Security
Efficiency & Comfort
Efficient Development Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug
Forschungsgesellschaft mbH
Future Production A-8010 Graz · Inffeldgasse 21a
Tel. +43 316 873 9001
Green Mobility office@v2c2.at

Modeling of Materials & Connections

Static and Dynamic Analysis of Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics

Course Description Who should attend?

Due to increasingly strong social and political demands for a The seminar is especially designed for engineers and tech-
reduction of the energy demand of automobiles, systematic nicians in the development and simulation departments of
lightweight construction is becoming more and more import- automobile manufacturers, suppliers and engineering service
ant in this industry sector. Special opportunities are offered providers dealing with the simulation and development of
by the use of fibre-reinforced composites as prime materials fibre composite components, and fibre composite structures.
for lightweight constructions. A major challenge of these ma-
terials is the anisotropic material behavior and its calculation. Course Contents
Given the fact that composites are constructed entirely differ- „„ Introduction
ent and behave completely different compared to the classic „„ Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures
metallic materials, the engineer must learn to deal with this
class of materials to use the advantages of composites for „„ Characteristics and parameter determination of
the design of vehicle structures. In the seminar the attendees composite materials
are first introduced to examples from practice and gain a „„ Calculation of long-fibre-reinforced plastics
basic understanding of the tasks. After that, the theoretical „„ FEM modelling
and practical aspects of computing methods are explained in
„„ Material models for structural-mechanical description
order to be able to calculate statically and dynamically loaded
structures of long fibre-reinforced plastics. „„ Calculation of static loads
„„ Calculation of dynamic loads
Course Objectives
„„ Failure criteria of composites
After participating in the seminar “Static and dynamic analysis
of long-fibre-reinforced plastics”, participants are able to „„ Damage and failure mechanisms of composite materials
compute composite structures and to identify the effective
mechanisms of the associated physics. They understand the
different requirements of a fibre composite structure and
the associated calculation concepts. A particular focus of
the seminar is aimed at the challenges, the problems and
limitations in the analysis of long-fibre-reinforced compos-
ites. Accordingly, it provides knowledge for the design and
the detailed FE analysis. Furthermore, the various damage
mechanisms and failure criteria are explained.

Prof. Dr. Thomas Karall (Hof University of Applied Sciences) studied mechanical engineer-
ing at the Technical University of Vienna and received his PhD as Assistant Professor at the University of
Leoben in the field of fibre-reinforced plastics and the calculation by finite elements. From 2006 to 2010 he
was head of department at the Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology in Vienna in the

field of mechanical and thermal testing / fibre composites, and Secretary General of the Austrian Working
Group for reinforced plastics. From 2010 to 2015 he worked as Lead Researcher for lightweight design at
Virtual Vehicle Research Center in Graz. He was also a lecturer at the Technical University of Graz and lec-
turer at the FH Joanneum Graz. Since 2015 he has been Professor at the Engineering Department of the Hof
University. His areas of work include lightweigt design, fibre-reinfoced composites and the finite element



05.-06.09.2017 3038 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 08.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Material Parameter Identification - Reverse Engineering

The utilization of new materials such as plastics, composites, Johnson Cook)
foams, textiles or high-strength steels requires the application
of highly complex material models. These material models
generally bring along numerous material parameters, which
are difficult to define. Design optimization can be a useful
method to identify those parameters.
Design optimization can be defined as an automated proce-
dure for achieving the best outcome of a given operation while
satisfying certain restrictions. This objective has always been
central to the design process, but is now assuming greater
significance than ever because of the maturity of mathematical
and computational tools available for design optimization.
These tools are used in different scenarios. Mathematically
the problem is always reduced to minimizing a system
outcome criterion while satisfying other system responses. A
typical example would be the weight reduction of a car body
by changing sheet thicknesses under achieving different NVH
and crash criteria. Figure 1: Reverse Engineering - Parameter Identification
Reverse engineering
Nowadays these optimization tools are often used for
“reverse engineering”. This method is applied due to the
fact that complex interacting problems in measurement and
simulation often can’t be transformed into a simple problem
description, e.g. in the process of material calibration:
„„ σ(ε,έ) couldn’t be measured directly or the effort to
measure it is too high (e.g. bending test)
„„ sample preparation doesn’t allow or the effort is too
high to gain specimens for each loading condition
Figure 2: Optimization process diagram
(e.g. compression, shear, tension, ... ) or material (e.g.
sandwich, glue,...) needed Optimization algorithm
„„ the material model parameters are interacting with The idea of direct optimization is to use only simulation
simulation parameters (e.g. hour glassing) or model results to find the optimal value. A typical algorithm is the Ge-
idealization (e.g. mesh size, contact formulation of multi netic Algorithm, e.g. MOGA-NSGA II. The GA is a population
material mix) based stochastic optimizer inspired by Darwin’s “Survival of
Parameter identification is commonly used to solve those the fittest” principle. But since direct optimization requires
issues. many simulation runs, this method is usually too expensive
Parameter identification problems are non-linear inverse and hence rarely used.
problems which can be solved using mathematical optimiza- The idea of metamodel-based optimization is to approximate
tion. In most cases the objective is to minimize the mismatch the relation between parameters and simulation output by
between two curves, typically a two-dimensional experi- simple functions (e.g. a linear polynomial) and perform the
mental target curve, e.g. a stress-strain curve or a force-dis- optimization on that surrogate model. Only a few simula-
placement curve, and the corresponding computed curve tion runs are required to fit the metamodel. The method is
extracted from a simulation. The computed curve depends very effective, especially for highly non-linear optimization
on system parameters that can be varied, e.g. material con- problems.
stants. The main essential components of such an algorithm
designed for system identification are The nature and capacity of the simulation environment
as well as the purpose of the optimization effort typically
„„ the optimization algorithm (e.g. metamodel-based or dictate the strategies for metamodel-based optimization.
direct optimization) The strategies depend mostly on whether the user wants to
„„ the curve matching metric (e.g. Mean Squared Error) build a metamodel that can be used for global exploration or
„„ the formulation of the material “parameter” law (e.g. he is only interested in finding an optimal set of parameters.

WISSEN Modeling of Materials & Connections

An important criterion for choosing a strategy is also whether Curve matching metric
the user wants to build the metamodel and solve the prob-
lem iteratively or he has a “simulation budget”, i.e. a certain The objective of a parameter identification problem is to
number of simulations he wants to use as effectively as pos- minimize the mismatch between the target curve and the
sible to build a metamodel and obtain as much information simulation curve. To judge on the mismatch between two
about the design as possible. curves, a curve matching metric is required.

In case of iterative solving polynomial response surfaces The commonly applied Mean Squared Error uses the vertical
are typically used, together with the strategy “Sequential coordinate distance between two specified curves to
Response Surface Method with domain reduction” (SRSM). compute the matching error. The mismatch is quantified by
In case of a “simulation budget” or of complex problem the sum of the squares of the distances in the y-coordinate
descriptions Feedforward Neural Networks or Radial Basis between the target points and the interpolated points on the
Function Networks are used more often nowadays. To solve computed curve. Thus, the mismatch of the abscissa is not
parameter identification problems, SRSM is usually used. explicitly included.
𝑃𝑃 2 𝑃𝑃 2
1 𝑓𝑓𝑝𝑝 (𝑥𝑥) − 𝐺𝐺𝑝𝑝 1 𝑒𝑒𝑝𝑝 (𝑥𝑥)
𝜀𝜀 = ∑ 𝑊𝑊𝑃𝑃 ( ) = ∑ 𝑊𝑊𝑃𝑃 ( ) 
𝑃𝑃 𝑠𝑠𝑝𝑝 𝑃𝑃 𝑠𝑠𝑝𝑝
𝑝𝑝=1 𝑝𝑝=1

Figure 5: Mean Squared Error

A major difficulty with ordinate-based curve matching is that

steep parts of the curve are difficult to incorporate in the
matching. Failure material models have the characteristic of
a steep decline of the stress-strain curve towards the end of
the curve while steep curves also feature in models in which
part of the behavior (the leading part of the curve) is linear.
In case of curve hysteresis the ordinate values of the curve
Figure 3: Sequential Response Surface Method
are not unique. To solve this problem one can use time
dependent measurement descriptions, which are unique or a
different curve matching algorithm has to be used, e.g. Partial
Curve Mapping.

Figure 4: Material characterization of the yield behavior based on a three

point bending test (4a impetus process).
Figure 6: Partial Curve Mapping

Modeling of Materials & Connections WISSEN

Partial Curve Mapping normalizes the curves to the test

(experimental) curve to avoid problems with different PowerLaw 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀)𝜀𝜀̇ 𝑛𝑛
magnitudes for abscissa and ordinate. It maps the short 𝜀𝜀̇ 1
curve onto the long curve so that the lengths are equal. The Cowper Symonds 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀) [1 + ( )𝑃𝑃 ]
error is defined by the area between the short curve and the 𝜀𝜀̇
mapped curve. The sum of the volumes representing the Johnson Cook 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀) [1 + 𝐶𝐶⁡𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 ]
individual segment errors is the criterion which is minimized 𝜀𝜀̇ 𝜀𝜀̇
in the optimization process. Kang 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 (𝜀𝜀) [1 + 𝐶𝐶1 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 + 𝐶𝐶2 (𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 )2 ]
𝜀𝜀̇0 𝜀𝜀̇0

Formulation of the material “parameter” law Table 2: Strain rate dependence

Typical material cards in commercial solvers for elastic
Evaluation of optimization results
viscoplastic material behavior are defined by true stress- true
strain curves for different strain rates. Internally the com- Since parameter identification problems have target values or
mercial solvers are using a table lookup algorithm to get the curves, the easiest way to judge on the quality of the optimi-
current material state during an explicit simulation. zation result is to compare the optimal simulation results and
the target. If the fit is not good enough, the following issues
To use reverse engineering for material characterization, could be a reason among others:
the curves σ(ε,έ) have to be described by a parameterized
material law. Before simulating each loadcase the material First the convergence of the optimization algorithm should be
card has to be created by a script using the design parameter checked. If a sensitive parameter still varies, the results can
values submitted by the optimizer. be improved by continuing the optimization. If the optimum
is found at a bound for one or more parameters, those vari-
Well known material laws for describing the yield behavior able ranges should be enlarged. In case that not any of the
can be found in Table 1, those describing the strainrate curves found in the optimization process fits the test curves
behavior in Table 2. quite well, the material model might not be appropriate and
should be changed.
Bi-Linear 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 + 𝐸𝐸𝑇𝑇 ∙ 𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝

Ludwik 𝜎𝜎 = 𝐴𝐴 + 𝐵𝐵𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝𝑛𝑛

Bergström 𝜎𝜎 = 𝐴𝐴 + 𝑘𝑘√1 − exp⁡(−0.5⁡𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 ⁡)

G’sell Jonas 𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 + 𝐾𝐾 · (1 − 𝑒𝑒 −𝑤𝑤·𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 ) · 𝑒𝑒 ℎ·𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝

Johnson Cook 𝜎𝜎 = [𝐴𝐴 + 𝐵𝐵 · (𝜀𝜀𝑃𝑃 )𝑛𝑛 ] · [1 − (𝑇𝑇 ∗ )𝑚𝑚 ]

Swift 𝜎𝜎 = 𝐴𝐴 · (𝐵𝐵 + 𝜀𝜀𝑃𝑃 )𝐶𝐶

∗ 𝜀𝜀
Voce 𝜎𝜎 = 𝐴𝐴 + (𝐵𝐵 − 𝐴𝐴) · 𝑒𝑒 −𝐶𝐶
𝜎𝜎 = 𝜎𝜎0 + 𝐸𝐸 · 𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 · Figure 7: Optimization History
4a three parameter 𝐸𝐸
[1 − 𝐻𝐻 · 𝜀𝜀𝑝𝑝 ]
Further information:
Table 1: Material laws for yield curves
CAE Wissen by courtesy of
4a engineering GmbH, Austria (www.4a-engineering.at)
Dynamore GmbH, Stuttgart (www.dynamore.de)


Introduction and Examples of Multiphysics Simulation

Over the last decade, the multiphysics simulation approach point leads to a second way of Multiphysics coupling: The
replaced the artificial segregation of different physics with multiscale-coupling by combining a full-scale model of the
a single, unified simulation environment that replicates the system with a detailed sub-model of a cutout of the system.
real behavior of natural systems. This allowed engineers to
simulate the way physics influence one another in the real Theoretical background of Thermoacoustics
world in a matter of minutes, drastically reducing the risk of For many applications simulating acoustics, a series of
product failure and delays to market. assumptions are then made to simplify these equations:
the system is assumed lossless and isentropic (adiabatic
Multiphysics is based on the design to simulate coupled
and reversible). Yet, if you retain both the viscous and heat
physics effects by solving its underlying mathematical
conduction effects, you will end up with the equations for
representation based on partial differential equations (PDEs).
thermoacoustics that solve for the acoustic perturbations in
The user interface should allow the user to include just
pressure, velocity, and temperature.
about any physics effects of interest that are relevant to a
specific application, allowing the user to set up a simulation in The governing equations used in this model are the continu-
minutes. For all common multiphysics problems the coupling ity equation:
between the physics involved is fully automated. Joule i   0   u 
heating, thermal stress, electrochemical reactions, fluid-struc-
where ρ0 is the background density;
ture interaction (FSI) are but a few examples of the many
the momentum equation:
predefined couplings that are available in software packages
such as COMSOL Multiphysics. The software then automat-

 T
 2 
i 0u      pI   u  u     B     u I 
3 

ically compiles the system of PDEs, representing predefined   
physics as well as user-defined physics, and computes a where μ is the dynamic viscosity and μB is the bulk viscosity,
numerical solution to that system. and the term on the right hand side represents the diver-
gence of the stress tensor; the energy conservation equation:
There are a lot of examples where multiphysical simulation
comes into play in automotive applications, starting from
 
i 0C pT  T0 0 p     kT   Q
sound-vibration couplings via couplings of chemical reactions, where Cp is the heat capacity at constant pressure, k is the
heat transport and free or porous flow as e.g. in catalytic con- thermal conductivity, α0 is the coefficient of thermal expan-
verters or batteries and fuel cells, to thermal management sion (isobaric), and Q is a possible heat source; and finally, the
simulations when designing the electronic system in the car. linearized equation of state relating variations in pressure,
Sometimes the coupling is just one-directional, where one temperature, and density:
physics influences the other, sometimes it is bidirectional,   0 T p   0T 
where both physical processes influence each other.
where βT is the isothermal compressibility.
True multiphysical: The Thermoacoustic Effect In thermoacoustics, the background fluid is assumed to be
The thermoacoustic effect is a truly multiphysical phenome- quiescent so that u0=0. The background pressure p0 and
non as it describes the interaction between acoustic pressure, background temperature T0 need to be specified and can be
density and temperature variations. When sound propagates functions of space.
in structures and geometries with small dimensions, the
sound waves become attenuated because of thermal and The left-hand sides of the governing equations represent the
viscous losses. More specifically, the losses occur in the conserved quantities: mass, momentum, and energy (actually
acoustic thermal and viscous boundary layers near the walls. entropy). In the frequency domain, multiplication with iω
This is a known phenomenon that needs to be included when corresponds to differentiation with respect to time. The
studying and simulating systems affected by these losses terms on the right-hand sides represent the processes that
in order to model these systems correctly and to match locally change or modify the respective conserved quantity.
measurements. In two of the equations, diffusive loss terms are present, due
to viscous shear and thermal conduction. Viscous losses are
The example which is shown here takes this effect into ac- present when there are gradients in the velocity field, while
count while modeling an acoustic muffler with perforates. It thermal losses are present when there are gradients in the
also shows that this multiphysical approach can be used just temperature. Both is usually the case close to solid boundar-
for those parts of the model where it plays a significant role ies, where so-called viscous and thermal boundary layers are
while in other parts, modeling the acoustic pressure varia- created at the solid surfaces.
tions is sufficient to adequately represent real conditions. This

The model Step 4: The pressure acoustics model using the Kirby and
The aim of the present model is to determine the impedance Cummings impedance model is solved.
Z(ω) using a detailed thermoacoustic model of a single hole as
The results are shown in Figure 2: The transition loss has
it is computationally impossible to model the whole perforated
been plotted as a function of frequency for the different
plate. The model of one hole will give a precise value of Z in-
model versions and for experimental results by Selamet et al,
cluding thermal losses and viscous losses as well as all hole-hole
2003. The model that matches the experimental values best
interactions (see Figure 1). Moreover, there are no free param-
is the one including the thermoacoustic effect.
eters here. The so-called end correction is included explicitly
when solving this detailed thermoacoustic model.

Porous filling


Figure 1: The thermoacoustic sub-model of one of the perforated plate

holes (left) is used to determine lumped parameters which are then applied
Figure 2: Transition loss as a function of frequency: Blue: without including
as internal impedance boundary condition in the full-scale model of the
the thermoacoustic effect, green: Thermoacoustic effect included, turquois:
muffler (right).
thermoacoustic and effect of porous backing included. The red dots show
experimental results.
The effect of having a porous backing on one side of the
perforated plates is however not included in the initial model.
The semi-analytical Kirby-Cummings impedance model, taking
Selamet et al., JSV, 262, p. 509 (2003)
a porous backing into account, is implemented for comparison.
COMSOL, Acoustics Module User’s Guide, chapter 6, pp. 327-339
Now the simulation is performed in four steps: (2014)

Step 1: The thermoacoustic sub-model of the single hole is

solved; CAE Wissen by courtesy of Comsol Multiphysics GmbH
Step 2: The pressure acoustics model using the default
perforated plate boundary condition is solved;
Step 3: The pressure acoustics model using the impedance
determined from the sub model is solved;

Know anything you need, any�me, anywhere!


Principles and Applications of FDM, FVM and FEM

1 Introduction
The behaviour of mechanical systems in general is described
by a set of partial differential equations (PDE, in case of a dis-
tributed parameter system) or by a set of ordinary differential
equations (ODE, in case of a discrete parameter system).
They have to be fulfilled within the domain of the considered
(structural) problem subjected to detailed geometrical and
other boundary conditions. A closed solution in general is
not possible. Hence approximated numerical solutions are
applied during the analyzing phase within the engineering
design process. Suitable tools of computer aided engineering
(CAE) are the Finite Difference Method (FDM), the Finite Vol-
ume Method (FVM), and the Finite Element Method (FEM).
They should be discussed briefly in the following sections with
Fig. 1: Derivatives Approximated by Finite Differences
respect to their principles and major focus of application.
A final section provides a top level comparison of the three
3 The Finite Volume Method (FVM)
considered methods.
The Finite Volume Method (FVM) is newer than the FDM. As
2 The Finite Difference Method (FDM) indicated by its name, a subdivision of the entire domain of
The Finite Difference Method (FDM) is probably the oldest of the considered problem is applied into a set of finite volumes
the three considered methods. It is based on an approxi- of simple geometry like triangles, quadrilaterals, tetrahedrons,
mation of the derivative expressions of the PDE or ODE by hexahedrons, etc. Within each of these volumes the consid-
appropriate finite differences. As an example a set of two ered problem-specific PDE (or ODE) may be easily integrated
points in space (or time) may be considered, where some by assuming average values for the unknown functions (i.e. at
function values are provided. In this case the slope of the the center of those finite primitives). Possible derivative expres-
underlaying function may be approximated by the difference sions of the PDE or ODE may be approximated by appropriate
of the function values at these two points divided by the finite differences obtained from the mean functional values
spatial (or time) distance between the locations. Higher order between the centers of neighbouring finite volumes. This
derivatives are equivalently obtained. In case of a PDE (or approach is equivalent to the one of the FDM described at the
ODE) problem description the function values at those loca- previous section. In a similar way the possible flux of physical
tions are the unknown to be evaluated. Then an appropriate quantities through the finite volume boundaries is treated. The
set of ”measurement points” is defined within the considered mean function values at the finite volumes are the unknowns
domain and the PDE (or ODE) is formulated based on the to be evaluated at the FVM. In this way for every finite volume
just described finite differences with respect to the provided a set of algebraic equations is obtained. All of them together
boundary conditions. As a result a system of algebraic equa- with the problem defining boundary conditions (as mentioned
tions for the unknown function values is obtained and finally at the introductional section) describe a system of algebraic
solved. The more ”measurement points” are defined within equations to be subsequently solved for the unknown mean
the considered domain, the better in general the obtained function values. The more finite volumes are defined within the
function values approximate the solution of the PDE (or ODE). considered domain (! mesh refinement), the better in general
A typical application of this approach within engineering the obtained function values approximate the solution of the
analysis is the investigation of a system behaviour at the time PDE (or ODE). A typical application of this approach within
domain. Classical time integration methods are formulated engineering analysis is the investigation of flow fields in fluid
on the base of FDM, i.e. Runge Kutta and the central differ- dynamics. Hence the FVM is today the major tool for computa-
ence time integrator. tional fluid dynamics (CFD).

Fig. 2: Subdivision of the Spatial Domain into Finite Volumes


4 The Finite Element Method (FEM) 5 Properties of the Methods

The Finite Element Method (FEM) to some extend is similar The three methods FDM, FVM and FEM as described in
to the FVM discussed in the previous section. Hence it the previous sections contain some similarities. I.e. the
subdivides the entire domain of the considered problem obtained solution of the considered problem is always
into a set of primitive domains like triangles, quadrilaterals, an approximation depending on the applied number of
tetrahedrons, hexahedrons, etc. These are called Finite objects, either function evaluation points, finite volumes
Elements. Within each of these elements the unknown or finite elements. Hence the quality of the result always
field is interpolated by a combination of (initially unknown) depends on the applied effort. But in details each of
function values and spatial shape functions. These shape the method behave in a different way depending on its
functions are specific to each finite element. Based on this individual methodical approach. The FDM is purely based
approach the considered PDE or ODE may be integrated over on the differential description of the PDE or ODE defining
the elemental domain with the still unknown function values the considered problem. The FVM and FEM are based
as parameter variables. For each element a set of algebraic on a (numerical) integration of the underlaying PDE or
equations is obtained. All of them together with the problem ODE. Practical tests reveal a high precision for the FDM
defining boundary conditions (as mentioned at the introduc- compared to (physical) measurements. The real strength
tional section) form a system of algebraic equations to be of the FEM lies on the flexibility with respect to its applica-
subsequently solved for the unknown parameter values. The tion. The FVM is found to be somewhere located between
more finite elements are defined within the considered do- FDM and FEM, both with respect to flexibility and preci-
main (! mesh refinement), the better in general the obtained sion. Over the past decades these properties have surely
function values approximate the solution of the PDE (or ODE). defined the major field of engineering application for the
A typical application of this approach within engineering anal- three methods FDM, FVM and FEM.
ysis is the investigation of mechanical structures with respect
to their static or dynamic behaviour like deformation and
mechanical stress distribution. But the wide field of applica-
tion of the FEM includes as well safety aspects (i.e. computer
crash analysis at the automotive industry) and the simulation
of production processes like sheet metal forming.

Fig. 4: Flexibility and rrecision of the discussed methods (see [4])

[1] Bathe, K.J., Finite Element Procedures, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996
[2] Ferziger, J.H., Peric, M., Computational Methods for Fluid
Dynamics, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1996
[3] Hughes, T.J.R. The Finite Element Method, Prent. Hal. Int.
Ed., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1987
[4] Lecheler, S. Numerische Stömungssimulation,
Vieweg-Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2009
[5] Wissmann, J., Sarnes, K.-D., Finite Elemente in der Struk-
Fig. 3: Deformed Finite Element model and border stresses turmechanik, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2005

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Detlev Maurer, University of Applied Sciences Landshut


Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method (ALE)

Introduction The disadvantage of the Lagrangian approach and in particu-

Before performing a numerical simulation of a multidi- lar of the coincidence of grid points and material points arises
mensional problem the choice for a suitable kinematical when it comes to problems with excessive mesh distortions,
description of the continuum has to be made. When it comes for instance explosions, fluid dynamics, etc. For such cases
to solid mechanics this choice normally leads to a Lagrangian often the Eulerian description is used which is formulated
formulation. Here the mesh nodes follow each motion of based on the spatial coordinates x and time t using a contin-
the material (material configuration) which makes it easy to uum which moves through a fixed mesh. Due to this the Eu-
track free surfaces or edges to treat with contact algorithms. lerian description only involves variables with significance for
However, when it comes to large deformations appearing the current point of time. The current configuration serves
for instance in forming simulations, the mesh distortion can as reference configuration which means that a deduction of
lead to a strongly decreasing accuracy of the results. The nu- a former point in time as it is possible with the Lagrangian
merical simulation of fluid dynamics usually uses an Eulerian approach is inhibited.
formulation where the continuum moves through a fixed
In the Eulerian approach the material velocity of a node
mesh (spatial configuration). However, this means that a
corresponds to the velocity of the material point which is
boundary does not necessarily have to remain with the initial
coincident with the node in question at the considered time.
defining nodes which makes the imposition of boundary
It is expressed as with a reference to the
conditions more complicated. ALE, as the name insinuates, is
fixed mesh but without a reference to the initial configuration
a simulation approach for the coupled numerical simulation
of the continuum and thus without a reference to the initial
of interacting Lagrangian and Eulerian continua combining
material coordinates. The relative motion of the material
their strengths and ruling out their disadvantages as far as
opposite the fixed grid leads to advective effects.
possible. In the following passages we first recall the princi-
ples of Lagrangian as well as Eulerian continua. After this the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Approach
necessary adaptations for an ALE approach are presented.
In the ALE approach an external reference system is intro-
In the end some examples for the practical use of the ALE
duced since neither the Lagrangian configuration nor the Eu-
method shall be given.
lerian configuration can be used as a reference. Fig. 2 shows
Lagrange vs. Euler the relations between the three configurations. The motion
that was introduced as before can now be expressed
To describe the motion of particles in continuum mechanics
as . The mapping from the reference
usually two domains are used. One is the material domain
configuration to the spatial domain which is equivalent to the
consisting of material particles X and the other one is
motion of the mesh points in the spatial configuration yields
the spatial domain consisting of spatial points x. In the
the mesh velocity For practical purposes we
Lagrangian description the reference configuration is
can directly regard the mapping of which yields the
identified via the material coordinates X. The relation be-
velocity of . The latter representing the particle
tween the material coordinates X and the spatial coordinates
velocity in the reference configuration.
x is realized through the motion of the material points. By
means of a mapping it is possible to link X and
x in time by the law of motion (see Fig. 1). The material ve-
locity v for this formulation is . By the inversion
it is possible to identify the reference position
of any given material particle occupying a coordinate x at a
given time t.

Fig. 1: Lagrangian approach Fig. 2: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach


The relation between the three velocities and w can One classical application is the analysis of the effects of slosh-
be derived from the relation of and leads to ing water in a tank. Fig. 4 shows the relative movement of
the advective velocity . It constitutes the water during a deceleration of the tank from a certain initial
particle velocity relative to the mesh from the viewpoint of velocity. Not only the connection-forces to the carrying struc-
the spatial configuration since both and are variations of ture can be analyzed but also different measures to lessen
the coordinate x. the sloshing effects can be simulated and evaluated.
In the same manner Fig. 5 shows the effects of water move-
Numerical implementation ment caused by the drop test of a customary PET-bottle.
To deal with the necessary advection for the Eulerian part
it has proven useful to split a simulation into a Lagrangian
step and an Eulerian step. In the first step all advection
is inhibited so there is generally no difference between
this step and an ordinary simulation process in structural
mechanics. As long as the distortions of the mesh are rea-
sonable the Lagrangian formulation is applied. However
as soon as the distortions exceed a certain threshold a so
called “rezoning” process is executed as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5: Movement of Water in a drop-test of a PET-bottle

Another large area for ALE simulation is the capability to

simulate shockwave propagations induced by explosions.
Fig. 6 shows the propagation of a dust deflagration inside
a filter housing. By means of ALE simulations the influence
Fig. 3: Rezoning Process for highly distorted elements of different measures such as flame traps or gates on the
shockwave propagation and thereby on the deformation of
During this process the nodes of the mesh are moved back the housing can be evaluated.
to their initial positions. At the same time all material volume
and state variables (in Fig. 3 called „Flux“) are transported
between the elements in an advection-step. The advection
rules however can differ from solver to solver.

Examples of application

Fig. 4: Water sloshing in a tank

Fig. 6: Shockwave propagation in a filter housing resulting from a dust

CAE Wissen by courtesy of Heiko Honermeier, Ingenieurbüro Huß & Feickert GbR, www.ihf-ffm.de.


Advances in Direct Time Integration Schemes for Dynamic Analysis

by Robert Kroyer, Kenth Nilsson, Klaus-Jürgen Bathe
The accurate solution of dynamic response in finite element the Bathe method, no parameter is (usually) set and the ac-
analyses has been the subject of extensive research for the curacy of solution is simply dependent on the size of the time
last few decades. In general, implicit schemes are used when step used. As the time step becomes smaller the accuracy
the transient response can be obtained with a relatively small increases. Figures 2 and 3 show that the method gives the
number of large time steps, typically of order 10-3 s, and desired response, just like obtained in a mode superposition
explicit schemes are used when many time steps of small size solution including only the lowest mode response with the
need be used, typically of order 10-6 s. The most widely-used static correction. Further results are given in ref. [3] where
schemes in implicit solutions are the Newmark trapezoidal it is also shown that the error in the reaction using the New-
rule and alpha generalized method, and in explicit solutions mark method is very large.
the central difference method [1]. However, these schemes
have some undesirable characteristics, and recently more
effective methods have been proposed, which we want to
expose briefly in this short article.

Implicit Time Integration: Bathe Method

The trapezoidal rule is unconditionally stable in linear anal-
yses, and has the characteristics of no amplitude decay and
a reasonable amount of period elongation. Hence, on first
sight, the solution errors seem to have excellent qualities.
However, in fact, the quality of no amplitude decay can cause
major solution problems, because frequencies may be sam-
pled that should be suppressed (for example, because they
are an artifact of finite element modeling). In linear analysis
this phenomenon can be easily and directly seen (an example
Figure 2: Acceleration of node 2 for various methods
is given below), and in nonlinear analysis, the phenomenon
can also render the iterative solution difficult to converge.
We illustrate the solution behaviors below.

Figure 1: Model problem of three degrees of freedom spring system k1=107,

k2=1, m1=0, m2=1, m3=1, ωp=1.2

Figure 1 gives a simple two spring model solved [2,3].

While very simple, the model contains the essence of many
practical finite element models. The stiff spring represents
stiff components in a structural model, which may be largely
due to modeling constraints with stiff elements, while the Figure 3: Acceleration of node 2 for various methods (the overshoot in the
soft spring represents the rest of the model. The aim is to first time step of the Bathe method could be eliminated by using in the
Newmark method δ = 3/4, α = 1.0 for the first step only).
only solve for the response in the soft part of the structure,
like in a mode superposition solution. The trapezoidal rule There is also a parameter in the Bathe method on the size of
gives very large errors in this linear analysis, see Figures 2 and the sub-step (but this parameter, changing the accuracy, is
3. The response prediction can be improved by introduc- by far mostly used in its default value, see refs. 1-3). Hence
ing damping, numerical or physical, but then the question the advantage of the Bathe method is that no parameter
will always be how much damping to introduce when not values need to be chosen.
knowing the desired response. The same holds when using
the generalized alpha method. While the Bathe method is about twice as expensive per time
step (since two sub-steps are used), the higher accuracy in
A new scheme is the Bathe method, which combines the use general allows to use less steps in linear response solutions.
of the trapezoidal rule and Euler backward method [1-3]. In In nonlinear analysis the Bathe method is overall frequently
20.00 -220000. 966.7
12.50 -320000. 800.0
5.00 466.7 CAE
133.3 WISSEN

more effective because it converges much better in the

TIME 10.02500 X

nonlinear iterations of the time steps, larger time stepsY canZ X-DISPLACEMENT,

be employed, and the method remains stable when the X-DISPLACEMENT,
Newmark and alpha generalized methods become NODALunstable 2. X-DISPLACEMENT,
(unless sufficient damping is introduced). CONTACT


TIME 10.02500
The above observations are demonstrated in the solutions

given in Figures 4 to 10. SLIPPING

OPEN 10000.
10005. 10010. 10015. 10020. 10025. 10030. 10035. 10040.
rigid wall
TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

Potential based Elastic shell fluid
shell TIME 10.02500 FE_PRESSURE
fluid elements elements RST CALC
35.21 TIME 10.02500
sudden 180000.
TIME 10.02500
fluid 35.00 80000.
flux 27.50
20.00 -220000. 966.7
contact 12.50 -320000. 800.0
5.00 466.7
contact 300.0
shell 133.3


clamped 3.

Figure 5: Predicted response using 2. X-DISPLACEMENT,


Figure 4: Schematic of the shell-fluid problem considered; results shown in


Newmark method, no damping (δ


Figures 5 - 8
TIME 10.02500
SLIPPING = 0.5, α = 0.25)
TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0
10005. 10010. 10015. 10020. 10025. 10030. 10035. 10040.

Figure 4 shows the model considered, which consists of Z



elastic shell fully clamped at its base and a fluid surrounding
it contained by an exterior rigid wall. Shell elements and Figures 6 and 7 show that while the presence of physical
subsonic 36.12
potential based fluid elements areTIME
used to represent
damping or numerical damping improves the results using
the media. The shell structure consists of two parts with the Newmark method, to suppress all oscillations,
MAGNITUDE the damp-

frictional contact conditions between them. The

model is
80000. ing must be increased to high levels, which
TIME is not desirable.
20.00to a sudden fluid flux representing a-120000.
pipe break. However, when using the Bathe method, no 966.7
The resulting
shock waves cause the internal parts of the
-320000. parameter had to be adjusted and no artificial
physical damp-
model that are in contact to rapidly change status. For the im- ing was introduced in the model, see Figure 8. The results

plicit dynamic analysis of such problems usually the Newmark achieved in this analysis led to the subsequent
use of the
time integration is used. However, when contact conditions Bathe method in the analyses of large finite element models.
are included
TIME 10.02500 between internal parts, the contact surfaces X re- RESPONSE GRAPH
peatedly stick and slip, which results in rapid pressure Ypulses Z X-DISPLACEMENT,

in the fluid. As a consequence, high frequency vibrations are 6.
observed. These high frequency oscillations areNODAL spurious in 4.
the Newmark method solution and grow with time. STATUS After a

while, the solution becomes obviously very erroneous and
TIME 10.02500

may even diverge. The results using the NewmarkSTICKING method 0.

without damping are shown in Figure 5. Note theCLOSED highly -2.
oscillatory response of the flange, the non-smooth DEADcontact 1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.
status between the internal parts and the parasitic pressure *10

distribution. TIME

To overcome this problem, different techniques can be used,

TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y


such as adding physical damping to the model (e.g. Rayleigh TIME 10.02500


damping). In this case the damping will only be applied to

TIME 10.02500
180000. TIME 10.02500

the structure and the question is how much damping to

27.50 -20000.
20.00 -120000. 966.7
12.50 -220000. 800.0

introduce when physically it is negligible. Alternatively, the

-320000. 633.3

Newmark method can be used to introduce numerical damp-

ing. This reduces the numerical oscillations, but also reduces


the physical response which should be solved for, and the X-DISPLACEMENT,

Figure 6: Predicted response using


question is how much numerical damping to introduce in


TIME 10.02500
Newmark method with Rayleigh
order to obtain acceptable results.
damping, with C = 0.001 -2.
DEAD 1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.


CAE 466.7
WISSEN Theory 300.0





1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.
-2 Figure 9: Antenna model in various rotational positions using Bathe Method

TIME When using the Bathe method, the solution is obtained very
TIME 10.02500 Y

TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

accurately for many revolutions, whereas the Newmark
TIME 10.02500
TIME 10.02500
DISP MAG 100.0
Y time integration procedure fails before finishing the second
revolution, see Figure 10 for the antenna rotation instability
36.08 TIME 10.02500

180000. Z X

occurring in the solution. The numerical instability is also well

TIME 10.02500
35.00 80000.
27.50 -20000.
20.00 -220000. 966.7

seen when studying the axial forces in the antenna stabilizers,

12.50 -320000. 800.0
5.00 466.7

see Figure 10, and occurs quite suddenly. No physical


TIME 10.02500 X
damping, e.g. Rayleigh damping, is used in the model. This
TIME 10.02500

antenna rotation problem may be seen as an extension of the


Figure 7: Predicted response using


problem of a rotating stiff pendulum[2].

966.7 TOP


Newmark method
800.0 with numerical

TIME 10.02500

damping, (δ633.3
= 0.6, α = 0.3025)
OPEN -2. 466.7
1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.
300.0 *10 -2

133.3 TIME






1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.

TIME 10.02500 Y TIME 10.02500 DISP MAG 100.0 Y

TIME 10.02500
35.00 TIME 10.02500
27.50 -20000.
20.00 -120000. 966.7
-220000. 800.0
-320000. 633.3




Figure 8: Predicted response


using Bathe
TIME 10.02500 TOP

method, no physical damping

OPEN 1000. 1001. 1002. 1003. 1004. 1005.


Another example solution pertains to the rotation of a heavy

antenna structure, with focus on high accuracy of the anten-
na positioning and orientation. In this application, we see very
large displacements over long time ranges in the transient
analysis, and numerical stability can be difficult to achieve.
Figure 9 shows the model of the antenna, which is rotated Figure 10: Predicted transient response of antenna using Newmark and
with various angular velocities using the classical trapezoidal Bathe Method
rule and the Bathe method for time integration.


Although the above analyses focus on relatively simple prob-

lems, the mentioned solution phenomena are rather general
and occur in many large-scale practical analyses of structures
and fluid-structure interactions. In particular, considering con-
tact problems, a spurious response of oscillatory nature can
cause the nonlinear iterations not to converge.
While the above discussion refers to implicit integration,
of course, explicit time integration is also widely used in
practice. Using explicit integration, mostly wave propagation
problems are considered, but structural vibration and even
static problems are also solved.
Similar to the above observations regarding the trapezoidal Figure 12: Impactor acceleration-time response for the tube
rule, the predicted response obtained using the central
difference method can show spurious oscillations in the high Further solutions of problems, algorithmic details and obser-
frequency modes [4]. These are frequencies and modes that vations are given in the additional references [5-8].
cannot be represented by the chosen mesh. Ideally, any
response in these modes would be automatically suppressed References
— but without loss of accuracy in the frequencies and modes 1. K. J. Bathe, “Finite Element Procedures”, Prentice Hall, 1996, Second
that can be represented by the mesh. Edition, K. J. Bathe, Watertown, Massachusetts, 2014.
2. K. J. Bathe, “Conserving energy and momentum in nonlinear
Explicit Time Integration: Noh-Bathe Method dynamics: A simple implicit time integration scheme”, Computers &
Structures, 85:437-445, 2007.
A new explicit time integration scheme, referred to as the
3. K. J. Bathe and G. Noh, “Insight into an Implicit Time Integration
Noh-Bathe method was developed with the same aim as Scheme for Structural Dynamics”, Computers & Structures, 98-99:1-6,
for the implicit Bathe scheme [4]. The method automatically 2012.
suppresses spurious high frequency response, without using 4. G. Noh and K. J. Bathe, “An Explicit Time Integration Scheme for the
any non-physical parameters, while accurately integrating Analysis of Wave Propagations”, Computers & Structures, 129:178-
those modes that can be spatially resolved. The computa- 193, 2013.
tional cost of using the procedure is only slightly larger than 5. G. Noh, S. Ham and K. J. Bathe, “Performance of an Implicit Time
the cost with the central difference method, when using the Integration Scheme in the Analysis of Wave Propagations”, Computers
same mesh, but frequently coarser meshes can be used with & Structures, 123:93-105, 2013.
the Noh-Bathe scheme. 6. Z. Kazanci and K. J. Bathe, “Crushing and Crashing of Tubes with
Implicit Time Integration”, Int. J. Impact Engineering, 42:80-88, 2012.
Figures 11 and 12 show the analysis of the crushing of a tube. 7. K. J. Bathe, “Frontiers in Finite Element Procedures & Applications”,
Figure 11 shows the deformations at three different times, Chapter 1 in Computational Methods for Engineering Technology,
and Figure 12 shows the acceleration-time solution curves of (B.H.V. Topping and P. Iványi, eds.) Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirling-
the impactor. We see that spurious oscillations are present in shire, Scotland, 2014.
the central difference method solution, while the Noh-Bathe 8. http://www.adina.com/newsgrp.shtml
method solution does not show such oscillations.
CAE Wissen by courtesy of
Dr. Robert Kroyer
MBDA Deutschland GmbH
Senior Expert Structural Mechanics/-dynamics
Hagenauer Forst 27, 86529 Schrobenhausen, GERMANY
Kenth Nilsson MSc
Analysis & CAE
AB Volvo Penta,CB74680, Z5.1
SE-405 08, Gothenburg, SWEDEN
Prof. Dr. Klaus-Jürgen Bathe
Figure 11: Tube-crush problem: Noh-Bathe method predicted deformations Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
at t = 0.000, 0.010, and 0.015 s
Cambridge, MA 02139, USA


Meshless Methods: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

Introduction but of the range around that point that the Kernel in question
Advanced engineering applications have traditionally relied is spanning.
upon numerical methods like the Finite Element Method
Therefore, a “smoothing” of the domain has taken place,
(FEM) in order to achieve the accuracy that closed-form
hence the term “smoothed” particle hydrodynamics.
mathematical solutions could not possibly offer. However,
when the applications moved from the linear elastic domain Although the SPH concept may differ completely from that
to the non-linear large displacement / large strain domain, of Finite Elements, there are similarities such the continuity
the classical FEM suffered strong limitations due to the loss of some basic variables within a limited region in space and
of accuracy within highly distorted meshes. The practical that the SPH method may also be derived from a Galerkin
restrictions imposed upon the usage of FEM in scenarios in- formulation
volving strong topological changes (like fracture) or involving
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) meant that a new class of The Particle approximation is the next step after the Kernel
methods had to be adopted, which would not suffer from the approximation and it says that the domain around the
topological non-uniqueness problems that highly distorted point in question where we seek to define the value of a
FEM meshes suffer. This was achieved by adopting “parti- function, is NOT continuous. Instead it consists of a number
cle-type” methods that do not maintain a strict connectivity of “topologically unconnected finite elements” which we will
in the domain, hence they do not follow a “mesh” (meshless call from now on PARTICLES in order to distinguish them from
methods). The most fundamental of these methods is the the classical finite elements which have a pre-defined and
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method, or SPH, which is rigid topological connection (the “connectivity” defined at
a cornerstone in the Virtual Performance Solution (VPS) suite the input level). The consequence of this approximation is in
of codes of ESI Group. replacing the integral by a sum and modify the algebra to ac-
count for the “number density” of the domain (ie. how many
Overview of SPH Method in VPS particles can be found within a given domain volume defined
by the Kernel we use). This is expressed as below :
SPH is a gridless Lagrangian method whose corner stones are
two approximations, namely :
„„ The Kernel approximation, and
„„ The Particle approximation

The Kernel approximation is derived from the following The above equation reads like : the contribution of each parti-
identity : cle within the Kernel range (taking into account its number
density) is summed over all the particles in order to produce
the smoothed value of a function at a point.
Hence the above approximation has also its roots close to
those of the classical FE method.
which says nothing else than that the “value at a point” of a In order for the Kernel and Particle approximations to be
continuous function over a continuous domain could be ex- pragmatic, the choice of Kernel should be such that the
tracted from its integral by using a delta function as a “filter”. following is satisfied :
Assuming now that the delta function is replaced by another „„ Compact form ie. acting over a finite range, zero outside that
function which spans a certain “range” but still obeys the range
basic delta function property „„ Positive within this range
„„ Respecting the “delta function properties”
„„ Monotonically decreasing
„„ Degenerating in the limit to a delta function
then equation 1 will yield the following form
The reader should be reminded that indeed the first two
requirements listed above are the same for the classical in-
terpolation functions of the FE method. Therefore the Kernel
which is similar in appearance as before except for the should be seen as a form of an interpolation function.
function W which will be called the KERNEL function and the
Figure 1 illustrates graphically the similarity between the FE
range of influence it spans is controlled by the “smoothing
and the SPH approximations. A patch of 9 elements is shown
length”. What that equation says is that the value of a func-
in both the FE and the equivalent SPH approximation. The
tion at a point contains information about not just that point
interpolation functions have been overlaid upon the central

element of the FE mesh while the Kernel of the central

particle has been “sketched” as spanning its neighbors in the
SPH mesh.

Observe that these equations are different from those we

habitually solve in the FE method. Moreover, starting from
the same equation but following a different set of algebraic
operations and approximations we could arrive at the follow-
ing alternative momentum equations :

Figure 1: Comparison between FE and SPH modeling of the same patch of

9 elements

The above mentioned approximations can be applied to

solve the continuity equations by parts whereby the partial
derivatives of the unknowns are replaced by derivatives of Artificial viscosity to handle shock discontinuities is required,
the (known) kernels, yielding : just as for existing numerical integration methods. Note that
the above set of resulting equations is not unique, but it has
been found that the differences are usually small.

Know anything you need,
any�me, anywhere!


Examples of Applications
The pictures below give a brief but not exhaustive overview
of the basic ranges of application of the SPH method:
Hypervelocity impact: This is a typical application where
matter behaves like a fluid under the extreme pressures
generated during hypervelocity impact. A full 3D simulation
is an ideal application fo SPH due to the large material phase
and state changes (solid-liquid-gaz, fragment clouds etc.)

Figure 4: Airbus A321 Splashdown (courtesy of EC project CRAHVI)

Natural Hazzards: Excessive marine phenomena like tsunamis

imply very strong FSI simulation requirements in terms of
capability, functionality and computatuional efficiency due
to the complexity and size of the problems in question. The
SPH option in VPS is fully parallelized in DMP and can be used
within the Multi Scale Option of VPS (Multi-Model Coupling).
The images below show typical tsunami simulations regarding
the effect upon a Liquid Natural Gas tank and the flooding of
Figure 2: Double bumper penetration at 11 km/s by a cylindrical projectile a building. Critical information can be gathered in terms of
(Courtesy of ESA) the strength of the associated structures or the survival time
window the infrastructure has in a given scenario.
Vulnerability analysis: In aeronautics this involves primarily
birdstrike, hail strike etc. Birstrike is in particular well adapted
for SPH applications due to the large deformations and frag-
mentation of the bird upon impact with the wings or rotor
blades of an aircraft or helicopter.

Figure 5: Tsunami induced surge upon a Liquid Natural Gas tank

Figure 3: Birdstrike upon jet engine fan-blade Figure 6: Tsunami induced flooding of building infrastructure

Another typical such application is forced water landing CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Argiris Kamoulakos,
(splashdown). Scientific Director, ESI Group


Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction

Since the invention of the computer, several CAE methods other part of the coupled system. This iteration process is
for structure and fluid dynamics analysis were success- continued until convergence is reached in the solution of
fully developed by universities, research institutions and the coupled equations.
engineering software vendors and have been established as
standard tools in the daily design practice in the automotive,
aerospace, energy, manufacturing and other industries. On
the other hand and for several reasons, development of CAE
methods for flow and structure analysis was done for both,
flows and structures, independently from each other in most
cases, without really realizing it, a kind of thought had been
established during this time which left interactions between
both engineering disciplines for several years practically
aside. As a consequence, despite the fact that both numerical
algorithms for fluid-structure interactions (today referred
by most authors as „iterative“ and „direct“ or „monolithic“)
were developed by the author already in the mid eighties
Figure 1: Iterative two-way coupling
having highly nonlinear membrane problems like parachutes,
sails and hang-gliders in mind, it took at least two additional „„ Direct or monolithic coupling:
decades to stimulate the interest of the industry on flu-
This algorithm is sometimes also called the simultaneous
id-structure interaction simulations. Starting from established
solution method. In this direct solution method, similar to
integral simulation programs like the famous ADINA, which
the procedure in the above iterative solution method, the
offers to the user not only the full (i.e. both „direct“ and
fluid and the solid solution variables are also fully coupled
„iterative“) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) capability but
but here the fluid and the solid equations are combined
also full thermal fluid-structure interaction analysis (TFSI)
and treated in one single system.
in a really seamless development environment, down to
highly specialized FSI simulation tools like PARA2G for gliding
parachutes, it is very gratifying to see that in recent years
more and more researchers and software vendors started to
deal with solutions for a continuously increasing number of
FSI applications.

Fluid Structure Interaction Basics

In fluid structure interaction analysis, fluid forces are applied
on the solid and the solid deformation changes the fluid
domain. The computational domain is divided into the fluid
domain and the solid domain, where the fluid and the solid
model are defined respectively, through their material data,
boundary conditions, etc. The interaction occurs along the Figure 2: Direct (or monolithic) coupling
interface of the two domains. This is called the fluid-structure
interface. Having the two models coupled, simulations and The direct coupling algorithm requires a code de-
predictions of many physical phenomena can be performed. veloped for a particular combination of the physical
problems while the iterative coupling algorithm
In general we distinguish between two general algorithms for preserves software modularity because existing
fluid-structure interaction: flow and structural solvers can be coupled in order
to implement it. In addition the iterative approach
„„ Iterative or two-way coupling:
facilitates solution of the flow equations and the
This algorithm is sometimes also called the partitioned structural equations with different, possibly more
method. In this iterative solution method, the fluid and efficient numerical techniques which have been
solid solution variables are fully coupled. The fluid and developed specifically for either the flow or the
the solid equations are solved individually in succession, structural part of the problem. Explicit airbag simula-
always using the latest information provided from the tion is an example for this kind of procedure. On the


other hand, development of a stable and accurate

coupling procedure, something practically impossible
for a wide range of FSI problems, is required in the
iterative coupling method.

Problem Dependency of Algorithm of Choice

Depending on the physics of the FSI problem someone
should consider carefully the FSI algorithm of choice:
„„ Direct or monolithic coupling
In the direct FSI coupling solution method the fluid
and solid equations are combined and treated in
one system (one stiffness matrix for both problems)
and solved using an iterative solver such as the
Newton-Raphson method. The direct FSI coupling
algorithm offers great robustness when solving very
difficult FSI problems, for example, large deformations
with soft structures or highly compressible flows
around very stiff structures. Due to occurring instabili-
ties like the so-called “artificial added-mass effect” and
similar these types of problems are difficult to solve
using the iterative FSI solution method.
„„ Iterative or two-way coupling
In general the Iterative FSI coupling solution method re-
quires less memory than the direct FSI Coupling method
and therefore may be more applicable to solve very large
problems despite occurring instabilities which can be
handled, sometimes more sometimes less efficiently, by
numerical intervention like e.g. relaxation factors.

Figure 4 a+b: Direct FSI coupling examples:

a) Tethered Helium Balloon
b) Dirigible Free Flying Helium Lighter than Air Aircraft

CAE Wissen by courtesy of

Dr.-Ing. Thomas Chatzikonstantinou (Aachen)

Figure 3: Iterative two-way FSI coupling example: Ram-Air Parachute


Comparison of Notch Stresses from Elastic Plastic FEA and

Neuber Approximation
Background The following FEA analyses were performed on a fine-grain steel:
For durability analysis, the Neuber approximation is a well- „„ Linear-elastic material behavior and subsequent Neuber
known method to estimate the local elastic-plastic stresses correction of the elastic stresses
σplast in notches based on linear-elastic FEA stress results „„ Cyclic-plastic material curve and nominal stress-strain
σelast. definition with non-linear geometry
„„ Cyclic-plastic material curve and true stress-strain
With the Young’s Modulus Ε, and the non-linear strain σplast
definition with non-linear geometry
it can be expressed as
As mentioned above the Neuber rule applies to regions with
limited local plastic zones. The different regions (fig. 1) for the
degree of plastification are as follows:
„„ In region 1 (0-10 kN) local plastification restricted to the
Using the Ramberg-Osgood equation for the description of notch prevails.
the cyclic stress strain curve, „„ In region 2 (10-20 kN) the entire cross-section begins to
„„ In region 3 (above 20 kN) the entire cross-section
the non-linear stresses σplast can be computed as the For our example the Neuber rule can be applied up to around
intersection with the Neuber hyperbola (K´ and n´denoting 20 kN, because the initial cross-section plastifies only very
the cyclic hardening coefficient and the cyclic hardening little up to this limit. Due to the loss of stiffness there is a
exponent respectively). large increase in local stresses at a load of 40 kN. Fig. 2 shows
The following case study illustrates the applicability of the a comparison of the stress amplitudes for the non-linear
Neuber method, since it is recommended for local plastifica- stresses and the Neuber corrected linear stresses. From this
tion only. diagram it can be seen that for this material the correlation is
very good up to a load of about 20kN.
A notched tensile specimen of steel with notch radius 0.7
mm (stress concentration factor α = 2.15), was analyzed with
an alternating load of up to 40 kN (stress ratio R = -1). In fig.
1 the stress amplitude at the base of the notch can be seen
for the v. Mises and max. principal normal stress. From the
diagram it can be seen that initial notch plastification occurs
at approx. 8 kN.

Figure 2: Comparison of stress amplitudes for elastic-plastic stresses and

Neuber corrected linear stresses

Although a multi axial stress state already exists in the notch,
the Neuber method provides useful results up to approxi-
mately 20 kN (~ 0.6% plastic strain) for the local stress in the
notch. If higher strain or stress multiaxiality are anticipated
deviations may increase and a non-linear material law should
then generally be employed. As long as the load level is
smaller than approximately three times the yield level a lot
of CPU time can be safed in durability analysis. Of course this
Figure 1: Notch stress development in the notch base with elastic-plastic result depends on the stress concentration and on the plastic
material behavior
material behavior.
CAE Wissen by courtesy of Engineering Center Steyr, Austria, Author: Gerhard Spindelberger.
For more information see www.femfat.com

Introduction to Passive Safety of Vehicles

Course Description Who should attend?
Ever increasing requirements regarding vehicle safety have The seminar addresses everybody who wants to obtain an
led to rapid developments, with major innovations in the field up-to-date overview of this wide area. It is suited for novices
of Active and Passive Safety. Especially legal requirements in the field of Passive Safety of Vehicles such as university
in the USA (FMVSS 208, 214), the consumer information graduates, career changers, project assistants, internal ser-
tests U.S. NCAP, Euro NCAP and IIHS, as well as pedestrian vice providers, but also for highly qualified technicians from
protection should be mentioned here. So far an end of this the crash-test lab.
development is not in sight. Course Contents
The seminar provides an introduction to Passive Safety of Ve- „„ Introduction to vehicle safety
hicles. Passive Safety is about initiatives and legal provisions „„ Overview active and passive safety
for the limitation of injuries following an accident. All import- „„ Crash physics
ant topics are covered in the seminar, from accident statistics „„ Accident research
and injury-biomechanics, which are decisive parts of accident „„ General accident research
research, to the crash-rules and regulations that are derived „„ Classification
„„ Statistics
from the latter, and also to consumer information-tests with
„„ Biomechanics
protection criteria and test procedures, and eventually to
„„ Human anatomy
crash tests, where the compliance with the compulsory limits „„ Injury mechanisms
is tested and proven in test procedures. Specific attention is „„ Injury criteria
given to dummies, with which the potential loads on a person „„ Dummy technology
in an accident can be measured. Finally the basic principles „„ Dummy family
of occupant protection are explained, and the components „„ Crash testing
of occupant protection systems, respectively restraint-sys- „„ Crash test systems and components
tems in motor vehicles such as airbags, belt-system, steering „„ Test methods
wheel, seat, interior, stiff passenger compartment and „„ Crash rules and regulations
others, as well as their increasingly complex interaction, also „„ Institutions
„„ Rules and regulations
in terms of new systems, will be discussed.
„„ NCAP tests
Course Objectives „„ Latest trends
It is the primary objective of this seminar to communicate an „„ Protection principles, occupant protection systems
understanding for the entire field of Passive Safety with all its „„ Protection principles of passive safety
„„ Occupant protection systems with sensors technology, ECU,
facets and correlations, but also for its limits and trends. In
airbag, belt system
the seminar you are going to learn about and understand the „„ Passenger compartment, interior with steering wheel and
most important topics and can then judge their importance steering column, seat
for your work. With the extensive, up-to-date documentation „„ OOP, pre crash, post crash, sensor system, vehicle body
you obtain a valuable and unique reference book for your „„ Optimization of restraint systems, adaptive systems
daily work. „„ Integrated safety

Rainer Hoffmann (carhs.training gmbh) has been involved in automotive safety throughout
his career. After graduating from Wayne State University, he joined Porsche as a research associate in
passive safety. Mr. Hoffmann advanced  safety simulation during his subsequent tenure at ESI Group where

he introduced new techniques like airbag simulation, numerical airbag folding and FE dummy modeling. As
the head of the simulation department of PARS (now Continental Safety Engineering), Mr. Hoffmann led
the R&D efforts for some of the first series production side airbag developments. In 1994 Mr. Hoffmann
founded EASi Engineering GmbH, which in 2006 was renamed to carhs GmbH. He has authored numerous
technical papers and has been granted German and international patents in the automotive safety field.


25.-26.04.2017 2917 Landsberg am Lech 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 28.03.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

13.-14.06.2017 2904 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 16.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

06.-07.09.2017 2936 Tappenbeck 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 09.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

30.10.-01.11.2017 3017 Tianjin, China 3 Days 6.900,- RMB

20.-21.11.2017 2916 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 23.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Introduction to Active Safety of Vehicles

Course Description Who should attend?

Increasing demands on the protection of vehicle occupants The seminar is aimed at new and experienced engineers
have led to a continuous reduction in the number of injured working in the field of active vehicle safety in research and
and killed persons. While more than 20,000 persons have development departments of automotive OEMs or suppliers,
been killed on German roads in the early 1970s, this number as well as for all other interested parties, which want to
is now well below 4,000. Passive safety, i. e. measures which receive an overview of current and future developments
are designed to minimize the consequences of an accident, in the areas of active vehicle safety, driver assistance and
has made a significant contribution to this achievement. automated driving.
While the potential of passive safety is considered to be large- Course Contents
ly exhausted and huge efforts are required to achieve further
„„ Fundamentals of active safety
progress in occupant protection, active safety has become
„„ Basic principles of action
increasingly important in recent years. Active Safety means
measures which prevent an accident or at least reduce the „„ Legal requirements
collision speed and thus the energy input. „„ Euro NCAP requirements

While technologies such as ABS or ESP have been estab- „„ Current active safety systems
lished years ago and have proven their effectiveness, new „„ ABS
techniques such as the emergency brake or the lane keeping „„ ESC
assist and numerous other driver assistance systems are just „„ Brake assist
entering the market. It can be assumed that these systems „„ Pre-crash systems
will be widely used in the next few years and will lead to a
further decrease in the number of traffic victims. „„ Driver assistance systems
„„ Basic requirements and design strategies
Automated driving can be seen as the next step of active
„„ Current and future driver assistance systems
safety. Although there is still a lot of development needed in
this area, it can be assumed that vehicles which will driven „„ Automated driving
at least partially automatically in certain traffic scenarios will „„ State of the art
enter the market over the next ten years. „„ Opportunities and risks
„„ Human machine interface
In the seminar first a brief introduction to active safety, in
contrast to passive safety is given. This is followed by a pre- „„ Market introduction strategies
sentation of current active safety systems and an overview of
the requirements of legislation and consumer protection or-
ganizations. In addition, current and upcoming developments
in the area of driver assistance systems and automated
driving are presented.

Dr.-Ing. Gerd Müller (Technical University of Berlin) has been working at the department

automotive technology of the Technical University of Berlin since 2007. From 2007 to 2015 he was a re-
search assistant. Since 2015 he has been a senior engineer of the same department. His research focuses on
vehicle safety and friction coefficient estimation. Dr. Müller gives the lecture “Fundamentals of Automotive
Engineering” and conducts parts of the integrated course “Driver Assistance Systems and Active Safety”.



08.05.2017 2944 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 10.04.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

17.11.2017 2945 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 20.10.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR


Supporting automotive development engineers to further

improve automotive safety, that is the essence of SafetyWeek.
In a unique combination of knowledge congress, events and exhibition, SafetyWeek offers
participants and visitors the opportunity, to bring their expertise up-to-date and to learn
about the latest developments and technologies in product development and product
In 2017 SafetyWeek will feature numerous highlights:
„„ The Knowledge Congress SafetyUpDate +active with the most current updates
on requirements and solutions in active and passive safety. And again in 2017:
presentations of the safety strategies and equipment of recently launched
automobiles by OEMs
„„ The SafetyTesting +active with the innovations from the Leaders in Testing and
Simulation of components and systems in active and passive safety.
„„ The Cooperation Forum Driver Assistance Systems with a view into the future of
mobility, organized by Bayern Innovativ
„„ The accompanying exhibition SafetyExpo, the meeting point for suppliers and
decision makers in automotive safety.
SafetyWeek: Overview Topics and Products

Active Passive
Safety Safety
Testing Sensors

Sled Functional
Simulation Software

Crash Test ADAS

Calculation Components

Simulation Systems

Who should attend?

SafetyWeek is the meeting point for everyone involved in vehicle safety. This includes de-
velopers as well as test and simulation engineers from OEMs and suppliers, manufacturers
of test systems, representatives of governments and consumer protection organizations
and researchers from universities and research institutes.
DATE 16.- 18.05.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/safetyweek

VENUE Stadthalle Aschaffenburg, Schloßplatz 1, 63736 Aschaffenburg

LANGUAGE German with simultaneous translation into English

PRICE from 420 EUR (single event)


Safety Summit
Shanghai 2017
For the last 3 years »SafetyTesting China« has attracted more than 250 participants each
year to discuss the latest requirements and innovations in testing of active and passive safe-
ty. The newly developed »Automotive Safety Summit Shanghai« continues the successful SafetyTesting series and expands
the scope of the event to all aspects of automotive safety.
Keynotes from international experts, presentations on requirements and innovations, the latest developments in testing and
simulation for active and passive systems will make this event a true highlight for every decision maker and engineer in the
fields of active and passive safety. With the rapid rise of New Energy Vehicles (EV, PHEV and FCV), new challenges are surfacing
for the safety community. The »Automotive Safety Summit Shanghai« is setting a focal point on Safety of New Energy Vehi-
cles, discussing requirements, technologies and validation aspects for safety of NEVs.
The event will have dedicated sessions on the following topics.
„„ Safety of New Energy Vehicles
„„ Global Legal and Consumer Requirements
„„ Pedestrian Safety
„„ Autonomous Emergency Braking
„„ Safety Testing and Simulation
„„ Safety in Autonomous Driving

DATE 01.-02.08.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/safetysummit

VENUE Kerry Hotel, Pudong, Shanghai, China

LANGUAGE English / Chinese with simultaneous translation

Keep yourself up-to-date by attending

SAFETYUPDATE the SafetyUpDate on a regular basis!

Here you get a comprehensive overview
+acve of all relevant news in automotive safety.
Active + Passive Safety = SafetyUpDate +active
The SafetyUpDate in Graz (Austria) reflects the close integration of active and passive safety and combines both topics in one
event. General topics such as the NCAP consumer tests are dealt with in plenary presentations, whereas specific topics such as
testing are presented in parallel session on active respectively passive safety.
Conference topics include:
„„ Regulations for active and passive safety
„„ NCAP consumer protection tests
„„ Development tools: Test & Simulation
„„ Development strategies & solutions
„„ Biomechanics & accident research

DATE 26.-27.09.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/gsu

VENUE Technische Universität Graz

LANGUAGE German with translation into English

PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 29.08.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR


Autonomous Emergency
The PraxisConference AEB focuses on technical development and testing details of
safety-related driver assistance systems, like emergency brake assist and autonomous
evasive steering.
First of all, leading experts in the field of requirements and technical solutions present the facts you need to develop and
approve AEB systems in accordance with state-of-the-art science and technology. This includes current and upcoming require-
ments, vehicle presentations, development strategies as well as the question of the responsibility for consequences caused by
mistakes of an autonomous driving function. Furthermore, we expand our field of action with heavy commercial vehicles, for
which AEB systems are already mandatory.
Conference Topics:
„„ Legal and consumer protection requirements
„„ Best practice: testing and simulation
„„ Outlook on the development process for autonomous evasive steering and driving
„„ Vehicle technology: introduction of up-to-date driver assistance systems
„„ Test equipment: targets, driving robots, control and measurement software

DATE 28.- 29.09.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkaeb

VENUE TH Ingolstadt, Esplanade 10, 85049 Ingolstadt

LANGUAGE German with simultaneous translation into English

PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 31.08.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR

Since the car industry has drastically improved the protection of occupants in
frontal and lateral impacts, the rear impact moved into the focus of consumer
protection organizations and legislators in recent years.
With the PraxisConference Rear Impact - Seats - Whiplash, we have created
a forum in where automotive engineers can get comprehensive information

Heckaufprall Sitze Whiplash about this important topic in a practical oriented manner. Through our concept
of the PraxisConference, in which part of the conference takes place in the test
laboratory, we ideally combine theory and practice. In the crash test laboratory of the ADAC, participants can take a look at the
BioRID dummy, the seating procedure and the experimental set-up according of the current Euro NCAP test procedure and get
an impression of the necessary test efforts.
Conference Topics:
„„ Accident Research Rear Impact
„„ Biomechanics of the Whiplash
„„ Regulations and consumer protection (NCAP) requirements
„„ Practical part in the ADAC technology center:
Positioning Oskar with HRMD  Introduction BioRID, handling and positioning  Sled
testing according to Euro NCAP  Euro NCAP’s evaluation of rear seat head restraints
„„ Testing technology for rear impact
„„ Numerical simulation
„„ Development strategies and solutions

DATE 15.- 16.11.2017

HOMEPAGE www.carhs.de/pkh

VENUE Steigenberger Hotel Der Sonnenhof, Hermann-Aust-Straße 11, 86825 Bad Wörishofen


PRICE 1.450,- EUR till 18.10.2017, thereafter 1.690,- EUR


International Safety and Crash-Test Regulations:

Current Status and Future Developments
Course Description safety performance across international markets. The course
Since the 1960’s, the regulation of vehicle safety performance provides a compact review of changes in passive safety
has had a major impact on vehicle and system design. As au- requirements and current priorities across the international
tomotive manufacturing has evolved into an integrated global regulatory community. Moreover, the course provides
system, understanding and anticipating legal requirements knowledge critical to understanding differences in the way
has become an immense challenge. Regulators collaborate regulators establish and enforce these legal requirements.
and diverge in how they address road-safety policy goals.
Regulatory changes in a single market can translate into Course Contents
global customer requirements. And these requirements are „„ History of safety regulation and development of legal
continuously evolving. In a compact program, this two-day regimes (e.g., self-certification, type approval, product
seminar provides a worldwide update on the passive safety liability, in-use surveillance
landscape, covering local, national, regional, and international „„ Regulatory agencies and rulemaking processes (e.g.,
policy and rulemaking developments. UN World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle
The first segment of the seminar focuses on regulatory insti- Regulations, European Commission, U.S. National
tutions and processes. By understanding the regulatory en- Highway Traffic Safety Administration, etc.)
vironment, including the trend towards an integrated global „„ Regulatory drivers and priorities (e.g., accident data,
regulatory system, businesses can better prepare for changes injury dynamics, injury assessment criteria, test tools,
that impact competitiveness and customer satisfaction. harmonization, whole vehicle approval, competitiveness,
The second segment applies this knowledge to current
and future regulatory requirements. The seminar covers „„ Types and purposes of regulations (UN Regulations,
crashworthiness (frontal, side, rear impact, etc.) as well as Global Technical Regulations, Federal Motor Vehicle
pedestrian protection and new technologies. Safety Standards, EU Regulations and Directives, etc.)
„„ Developments in crashworthiness and occupant
Course Objectives protection requirements (frontal impact, side impact,
This course informs participants of recent developments pole-side impact, full width barrier, offset deformable
and discussions within the global regulatory community barrier, mobile barrier, etc.)
concerning passive safety. The seminar explores differences „„ Vulnerable road user (VRU) protection (e.g., pedestrian
in regulatory systems and philosophies, in compliance and safety, cyclist safety)
enforcement, and in the forces behind the regulation of
„„ Safety of new propulsion technologies (electric vehicles,
vehicle safety. The course provides participants with a broad
hydrogen fuel-cells, minimum vehicle noise levels)
understanding current regulatory directions and guidance on
how to follow, and even influence, future requirements. „„ Passive safety implications of new safety technologies
(e.g., emergency call systems, collision avoidance, VRU
Who should attend? detection, automated driving)
This seminar should be of interest to anyone involved with
meeting and anticipating legal requirements for vehicle

John F. Creamer (GLOBALAUTOREGS.COM ) is the founder of GlobalAutoRegs.com and a

partner in The Potomac Alliance, a Washington-based international regulatory affairs consultancy. In

his client advisory role, Mr. Creamer is regularly involved with meetings of the UN World Forum for the
Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29). Previously, he has held positions with the US International
Trade Commission and the Motor & Equipment Manufacturers Association (representing the US automotive
supplier industry), as the representative of the US auto parts industry in Japan, and with TRW Inc. (a leading
global automotive safety systems supplier).



28.-29.06.2017 2865 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 31.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

14.-15.09.2017 2871 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 17.08.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


NCAP - New Car Assessment Programs: Tests, Assessment Methods, Ratings

Course Description In both focusses the current overall rating methods are
In 1978 the first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) was described and explained. In addition to that an outlook is
established by NHTSA in the United States. The goal was given on the roadmaps and future developments of the
to motivate competing car manufacturers to enhance the NCAP programs.
safety level of their cars beyond the minimum safety stan-
dards defined by regulations. The same approach has been Who should attend?
followed globally by other organizations (e.g. by Euro NCAP, The seminar addresses design, simulation, testing and project
IIHS, ANCAP, JNCAP, KNCAP,C-NCAP,...) Euro NCAP which engineers as well as managers who want to get a current
has been established in 1997 has taken a leading role and overview on the global range of NCAP programs with an
has significantly influenced other countries and regions. The outlook on upcoming topics and trends from an insider.
NCAP programs in many cases are highly dynamic, especially Depending on the focus of their work attendees should chose
in comparison with rulemaking activities. In order to reach the appropriate focus of the seminar.
the goal to continuously improve the safety level of cars, the
requirements need to be permanently adapted to the state Course Contents
of technology. Developers in the automotive industry need to „„ New Car Assessment Programs - overview
know about upcoming changes at an early stage in order to „„ U.S. NCAP
be able to design or equip their vehicles accordingly.
In this seminar attendees get an overview of the organiza- „„ Euro NCAP
tions in charge of the NCAP programs and become familiar
with the various test and assessment methods. „„ ANCAP
NEW  NEW  NEW  NEW  NEW „„ Korea NCAP
The seminar is conducted serveral times a year with changing „„ China NCAP
„„ Latin NCAP
Focus passive safety: Here the focus is on test and assess- „„ ASEAN NCAP
ment methods for passive safety. Frontal and side impact,
whiplash, child protection and pedestrian protection are „„ BNVSAP
discussed in detail. Tests for active safety are only mentioned „„ Global NCAP
in as far as they are relevant for the overall rating.
Focus active safety: Here the focus is on active safety
systems such as AEB or lane assistance. The tests and
assessments for these systems are explained in detail. Test
for passive safety are only mentioned in as far as they are
relevant for the overall rating.

Direktor & Professor Andre Seeck (German Federal Highway Research Institute -
BASt) is head of the division “Vehicle Technology” with the German Federal Highway Research Institute

(BASt). In this position he is responsible for the preparation of European Safety Regulations. He is also head
of the strategy group on automated driving and represents the German Federal Ministry of Transport and
Digital Infrastructure in the Board of Directors of Euro NCAP. These positions enable him to gain deep insight
into current and future developments in vehicle safety.



22.-23.06.2017 2879 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 25.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

02.-03.11.2017 2880 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 05.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Passenger Cars in Low-Speed Crashes

Course Description e.g. pre-crash sensors and which could be implemented in

In addition to the design of car structures for the protection the future, are discussed.
of its occupants at high impact velocities, requirements and
test procedures for collisions at low speeds, which massively Who should attend?
influence the design of the vehicle front, were brought to the The seminar is aimed at specialists from passenger car and
fore in recent years. light commercial vehicle development, engineers and tech-
nicians from simulation and testing, project engineers and
For the initial insurance classification of passenger cars clas- managers who want to get an overview of the requirements
sification tests of RCAR / AZT (impact speed up to 15 km/h) and technological solutions for the development of passive
are used to determine standardized repair costs. To meet and integrated safety systems for passenger cars in low-
the insurance classification tests, many vehicles are equipped speed crash.
with cross member systems that feature energy absorbing el-
ements (crash boxes), that can be connected via a detachable Course Contents
connection to the longitudinal members in the vehicle front. „„ Requirements and test procedures for low-speed crash
Additional partly conflicting requirements are added through „„ Introduction to the requirements for low-speed crash tests
the EC Regulation 78/2009/EC and the NCAP tests for „„ Legal tests
pedestrian protection. Compliance with the directive in the „„ Consumer protection tests
leg impact area is usually achieved by energy absorption in
„„ Other requirements
conjunction with a targeted support of the impacting leg in
the immediate front area of the vehicle. „„ Energy management and structural forces in the vehicle
In connection with the design of vehicles for the different „„ Load paths and structure loading
requirements, numerous conflicts occur, which often can
„„ Connections to high-speed test
only be solved at the expense of a non-optimum front end
package or increased weight and manufacturing costs. „„ Workshop for analyzing crash data and the impact of structural
design changes
Additional requirements regarding the design of the vehicle „„ Changes of structural design
front result from legislation for vehicle protection (UN R42, „„ Influence of crash sensing and restraint systems
...) and internal testing procedures of the manufacturer for
ensuring management of everyday damages for his vehicles. „„ Design of passive systems
„„ Conceptual solution approaches
Course Objectives „„ Methods for system design
In this seminar, you first get an overview on the require- „„ Conflicts of objectives
ments and regulations which have an impact on the design „„ Technological feasibility and limits
of cars for the various low-speed crash constellations. This is
„„ Discussion of integral safety systems
followed by a presentation of current energy management
in the front body structure and an introduction of technical „„ Simulation of driving maneuvers and time – distance
solutions. Based on the state of the art approaches of integral
safety are discussed. Using interactive visualization of driving „„ Potential of integrated solutions
maneuvers, possibilities and limits of safety concepts, using „„ Technological feasibility and limits

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Bachem (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences) has been in
charge of teaching and research in vehicle safety at the Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences since 2011.

Prior to joining the university he held various management positions in industry where he was in charge of
development and testing of vehicle safety functions. His last management position was head of cab body
development at MAN Truck & Bus AG. Bachem is chairman of VDI Brunswick and vice chairman of the Wolfs-
burg Institute for Research, Development and Technology Transfer e.V.



18.10.2017 2862 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 20.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

14.03.2018 3031 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 14.02.2018, thereafter 890,- EUR


Crash Safety of Alternative Propulsion Vehicles

Course Description Course Objectives

During recent years, vehicles with alternative propulsion Participants will get an overview about automotive safety for
systems have achieved an ever-increasing importance for alternative drive systems and will learn the special challenges
the automotive market. In addition to gas-powered vehicles, and solutions which come along. Participants will be able to
which have already been existing for many years on the apply test methods and safeguarding concepts and to pursue
manufacturer and retrofit market, a wide range of hybrid development strategies in a target-oriented way.
vehicles has also established meanwhile. Even for pure elec-
tric vehicles, the first acquirable products are already on the Who should attend?
market. Worldwide over 1 million electrified vehicles were The seminar addresses development and research engineers
on the streets in 2015. By decision of the German govern- as well technicians in the fields of testing and engineering.
ment, one million electric vehicles should be found driving on Due to its current relevance the course suits young profes-
German roads by the year 2020. It is clear, however, that the sionals as well as experienced engineers who want to deepen
automotive electrification cannot be stopped anymore. their knowledge in this field.
With this new technology, new challenges for vehicle safety Course Contents
„„ Overview alternative propulsion systems: gas, hybrid,
Electric shock risks on high-voltages systems, fire hazards in electric and fuel cell vehicles
case of lithium-ion batteries and risks of rupture in case of gas „„ Challenges for vehicle safety
tanks are the most important issues here. For every mode of
„„ Legal requirements and standards for safety
drive, specific drive components and their particular safety
requirements are described. In addition to common rules „„ Safety requirements for real-world accidents
and standards, specific needs based on real-life accidents are „„ Safety of high voltage systems
being discussed.
„„ Battery safety
For all relevant vehicle components the respective safety „„ Gas tank safety
requirements, safety concepts and exemplary safety initia-
„„ Fuel cell safety
tives will be discussed. The state of the art concerning test
standards, verification methods and possibilities for virtual „„ Structural safety
safety will be shown. Future trends will be presented with the „„ Safety concepts
help of current research projects and results. Practical expe- „„ Rescuing, recovering and towing of electric vehicles
rience of rescuing, recovering and towing of electric vehicles
complete the spectrum of accident safety.

Rainer Justen (Daimler AG) has more than 25 years of experience in the field of vehicle safety. After
his studies in mechanical engineering with a focus on automotive engineering he started his career in 1987
in the automotive development for Mercedes-Benz at Daimler AG. Several career milestones in the fields

of vehicle safety, project management, safety concepts and active safety / driver assistance systems made
him an expert on all relevant topics of automotive safety. Since 2008 he is working in the field of safety
for alternative drive systems. Rainer Justen is author of numerous publications and papers on this topic. In
2015 Rainer Justen received the SAE Automotive Safety Award from the American Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) for his work on the safety of Li-Ion batteries in electric vehicles.


08.-09.05.2017 3014 Tianjin, China 2 Days 4.900,- RMB


26.-27.06.2017 2907 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 29.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

06.-07.11.2017 2906 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 09.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Static Vehicle Safety Tests in Automotive Development

Course Description Who should attend?

When thinking about vehicle safety testing people first The seminar is aimed at specialists from crash-related car
think about dynamic crash tests of the full vehicle or crash body and component development, engineers and techni-
simulations performed on a sled test facility. In addition to cians from test and analysis departments as well as project
these dynamic tests, however, numerous other tests on the engineers and managers.
car body and components such as seats, steering, instrument
panel, pillars, bumpers, etc. have to be performed during Course Contents
the development of a car. At first sight, these experiments „„ Introduction
perhaps are less spectacular, but in practice they are also very „„ Static roof crush according to FMVSS 216a
„„ Static door intrusion according to FMVSS 214
The seminar provides an introduction to static vehicle safety „„ Test procedures for exterior and interior parts FMVSS
testing. Static vehicle safety tests serve the determination 201U, UN R21 & R42
of criteria to minimize injury that may occur due to an
accident. The seminar covers the entire field of static vehicle „„ Testing of seats and head restraints according to FMVSS
safety testing, ranging from biomechanical research to legal 202 and UN R17, R21 and R25
regulations and consumer protection related requirements. „„ Test procedures on seat-belts according to UN R14 and
It discusses the required test equipment (impactors, test fa- R21
cilities) and the typical load cases of the experiments. Finally, „„ Test procedures for steering systems according to FMVSS
the testing specifications, including the protection criteria are 203, UN R12
„„ Test procedures for child seat anchors (ISOFIX) of FMVSS
Course Objectives 225
After participating in the seminar “Static Vehicle Safety Tests
in Automotive Development”, the participants have gained
an overview of the static vehicle safety tests to be performed
on the car body and the components. They have acquired
knowledge about the essential procedures in Europe and
North America as well as their backgrounds and gained in-
sight into equipment necessary to carry out the experiments.

Alexander Martellucci (ACTS GmbH & Co. KG) began his professional career in physical labo-

ratories in the pharmaceutical industry. Since 1992 he is involved in the testing of components for vehicle
safety. Until 1995 he worked in the steering wheel laboratory and until 1998 he headed the airbag testing
at TRW. Since 1998 he has been with ACTS GmbH & Co. KG until 2002 as head of the component laboratory,
and since then as manager Technology & Testing Services.



26.04.2017 2872 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 29.03.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

08.11.2017 2873 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 11.10.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR


Development of Frontal Restraint Systems

meeting Legal and Consumer Protection Requirements
Course Description the efficiency of the entire system.
Belts, belt-load limiters, airbags, steering column, knee
Finally future topics such as the compatibility of vehicles as
bolster, seat… - only if all the components of a frontal
well as pre-crash preparation and prevention of accidents are
restraint system are in perfect harmony it is possible to meet
integrated into the seminar.
the different legal limit values as well as the requirements of
consumer tests. However, these requirements, e.g. FMVSS Who should attend?
208, U.S. NCAP, Euro NCAP et al. are manifold and extensive,
The seminar addresses simulation and test engineers, project
partly contradict each other, or the requirements superpose
engineers and project managers as well as the heads of
each other. Therefore it is a challenge for every development
development departments in the field of passive safety who
engineer to develop a restraint system by a clear, strategic
work on the design of restraint-systems for vehicles.
procedure; time-saving and target-oriented with an optimal
Course Contents
In this 2-day seminar this strategic way of development will „„ Identification of the relevant development load cases
be shown. You will learn a procedure how to ideally solve the „„ Procedures for the development of a restraint system
complex development task of a typical frontal restraint-sys-
tem design within the scope of the available tools test and „„ Influence and importance of individual system
simulation. Especially the importance and the influence of components on the overall performance
individual system components (e.g. belt-load limiters) for the „„ Development strategy for UN regulations and NAR
accomplishment of development-sub tasks (e.g. minimum restraint systems
chest deflection) will be covered. In addition the influence of „„ Development path for the conformance to the OoP
the airbag module design on the hazards of Out-of-Position requirements according to FMVSS 208
(OoP) situations is going to be discussed, and a possible
development-path for the compliance with the OoP require-
ments according to the FMVSS 208 legislation will be shown.
The possibilities and limits of the development tools test and
simulation will be discussed and communicated. Last but not
least tips and tricks for a successful overall system design will
be part of this seminar.
In this seminar you will become familiar with a procedure
for the successful development of a frontal restraint system.
Furthermore you will learn which development tool,
simulation or test, is best suited for the respective sub task.
Moreover you will be made aware of the influence of the
individual components of a restraint system (belts, belt-load
limiters, airbags, steering column, knee bolster, seat,...) on

Kai Golowko (Bertrandt Ingenieurbüro GmbH) has been working in the area of vehicle safety

since 1999. He started his career as a test engineer for passive safety at ACTS. Since 2003 he has been
working as senior engineer for occupant safety and pedestrian protection. Since 2005 he has managed the
department vehicle safety at Bertrandt in Gaimersheim. In this position he is responsible for component
development and validation and integrated safety.



10.-11.07.2017 2901 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 12.06.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

15.-16.11.2017 2940 Tappenbeck 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 18.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Basics of Occupant Protection in Frontal Crashes:

Mechanics, Energy Considerations, Protection Criteria and Application Examples
Course Description Who should attend?
Constant changes of requirements - in particular in the con- The course is intended for simulation engineers, systems
sumer protection tests - let the design of restraint systems engineers, project engineers, project managers and the
continuously seem more and more complex. The safety of heads of teams or departments in the crash area, dealing
rear seat occupants, for example, is playing an important role with the development of restraint systems or the analysis of
in the restraint system development today. Therefore, a deep crash data.
understanding of the complete system vehicle - restraint sys-
tem - dummy is necessary to successfully adjust the system. Course Contents
A profound knowledge of the mechanisms causing dummy „„ Mechanical basics of frontal impact
loading and the parameters influencing and enabling their „„ Dummies in frontal crash: HIII 50%, HIII 5%, Q6 and Q10
optimization is essential. In this 2-day seminar, the mechanics
of occupant restraining and the idea of energy consider- „„ Short overview of new regulations and consumer tests
ations, as well as the most important occupant protection „„ Energy considerations - force balances
criteria and strategies for their reduction, are discussed. This „„ Phases of retention: Coupling and controlled retention
knowledge is then put in a context of legal requirements and
„„ Relevant criteria for occupant protection: Mechanisms
ratings. The seminar focuses on the influence of the seat
and parameters for their reduction
belt, whereas unbelted load cases and an in depth analysis of
airbag concepts is not part of this seminar. „„ Priorities in the design of restraint systems for front and
rear seats
The seminar approaches occupant safety both from a
„„ Application examples and tips
theoretical basis as well as from the interpretation of
experimental data. Attendees will learn about the phases of
retention, the main parameters influencing occupant loading
and approaches for computing the balances of the restraint
forces acting on the occupant. Another topic of the seminar is
the rear seat occupant protection, in particular because new
dummies (Q6, Q10) will be introduced here by Euro NCAP.
The aim of the seminar is to gain an understanding about the
forces involved in energy absorption and their effects on the

Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Eickhoff (Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG) studied mechanical engineering in Hannover
(Germany) focusing on vehicle engineering and applied mechanics. Starting from 1999 he worked with
Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG as a test engineer for sled and crash tests. Since 2003 he has been project manager in

systems development (safety belt) of the same company. He was involved in the definition and assessment
of new restraint systems and he conducted feasibility studies using system simulation as well as dynamical
tests. Moreover he had a consultant role regarding restraint system design. He finished his doctoral thesis
at the Helmut Schmidt University Hamburg in 2012 on the reduction of belt induced thorax deflection in
frontal crashes. Since 2016 he has been head of the department Virtual & System Engineering, Homologa-
tion at Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG.



08.-09.03.2018 3048 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 08.02.2018, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Model Based Head Injury Criteria for Head Protection Optimization

Introduction Fully documented head impact cases can be simulated in order
The head and more specifically the brain is among the most to compute the mechanical loadings sustained by the head
vital organs of the human body. tissues and to compare it to the real injuries described in the
medical reports. It has for example been shown in Zhou et al.
Over the past forty years, a slant has been put by the biome- (1996) [5], Kang et al. (1997) [6] and more recently in King et al.
chanical research on the understanding of the head injury (2003) [7], Kleiven et al. (2007) [8] and Deck et al. (2008) [9] that
mechanisms. Nevertheless, an injury is always a consequence the brain shear stress and strain rates predicted by their Finite El-
of an exceeded tissue tolerance to a specific loading. Even if lo- ement Head Models agree with the location and the severity of
cal tissue tolerance has very early been investigated, the global the axonal injuries described in the medical report. Since these
acceleration of the impacted head and the impact duration are finite element head models exist, new injury prediction tools
usually being used as impact severity descriptors. The Wayne based on the computed intracranial loadings become available
State University Tolerance Curve has therefore been proposed for protective systems design.
since the early Sixties thanks to several works by Lissner et al.
(1960) [1] and Gurdjian et al. (1958) [2]. This curve shows the Human Head Model Development and Validation
link between the impact of the head described by the head The proposed head geometry is based on a human skull which
acceleration and the impact duration and, on the other hand has been digitized externally and internally. Membranes such
the head injury risk. Hence, after the work of Gadd (1966) [3], as falx and tentorium are based on anatomic atlas and a brain-

Figure 1 : SUFEHM (Strasbourg

University FE Head Model): skull, CSF,
membranes, brain

the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) skull interface of 2 mm thickness has been considered in order
proposed the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) in 1972. This is the to represent the CSF. Brain, CSF and scalp are modeled with
tool used nowadays in safety standards for the head protection brick elements. As a function of application, three approaches
systems using headforms. Since it is based solely on the global exist for the skull model, i.e. a rigid skull, a frangible and de-

Figure 2 : Illustration of the

children head and neck FE models
with specific structural and geo-
metrical characteristics of the 6
weeks, 6 months, 1,3,6 years old.

linear resultant acceleration of a single mass head model, some formable skull modeled by a three layered composite structure
limitations of this empiric criterion are well-known, such as with constant thickness and finally a detailed skull description
the fact that it is not specific to direction of impact and that it with non-constant thickness and taking into account the
neglects the angular accelerations. anatomical reinforcement beams. Figure 1 illustrates the skull,
A proposed alternative method for assessing head injury risk is to the CSF, the membranes and the brain structure of Stras-
use a human head Finite Element Model (FEM), which can en- bourg University FE Head Model (SUFEHM). The constitutive
able the investigation of the intra-cranial response under impact laws implemented under LS-DYNA for the different parts of
conditions. This method is well known since 1975 when one of the human head are reported in Deck et al 2008 [9] for the
the first three dimensional models was developed by Ward et material supposed to be elastic (scalp, CSF, membranes, face),
al [4]. This method thereby leads to added useful mechanical and visco-elastic brain material for the composite frangible
observables which should be closer to the description of known elasto-plastic behavior of the skull. In order to ensure that this
injury mechanisms. Hence, new injury criteria can be proposed. mechanical head model presents a realistic response under
In the last decades, more than ten different three dimensional impact it was validated against data reported in the literature
finite element head models have been reported in the literature. as reported in [9]. Validation focused on intra-cerebral pres-

sure, brain deformation and skull deformation. Anatomical

and structural analysis of the children head-neck system as a
function of age showed that the scaling down method was
applicable to children over 6 years old. For younger children,
specific geometrical and structural specifications such as
sutures, fontanels, skull homogeneity should be considered.
Figure 4: Implementation of the head injury prediction tool into a full FE approach
Figure 2 reports the head-neck models developed for the 6
considering the coupled head-protective system model in the framework of car
weeks, 6 months, 1 , 3 and 6 years old child models. bonnet or helmet optimization.

Model Based Head Injury Criteria and Applications Conclusion

In order to establish human head tolerance limits or head in- Background of head injury criteria based on single head
jury criteria, no less than 125 real world head trauma involving acceleration and on advanced head FE models are presented.
adults and children have been simulated with the above head Further, the Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model
models. Several cranial and intra-cranial mechanical parame- (SUFEHM) has been presented and validated. In an attempt
ters have been computed and correlated with the occurrence to develop model based head injury criteria a total of 125 real
of skull fracture, subdural hematoma and neurological injuries world head trauma that occurred in motorcyclist, American
respectively. It has been shown that a under 50% risk of football and pedestrian accidents were reconstructed with
subdural hematoma appears for maximal pressure of the CSF SUFEHM.
of about -135kPa, the 50% risk of neurological injury exists for
Tolerance limits to specific injury have been computed for a
an intra-cerebral von Mises shearing stress of around 37 kPa,
50% injury risk of skull fracture, SDH and neurological injuries
both, for the adult and the child. Coming to skull fracture pre-
Finally it is shown how the proposed model based head injury
diction it was shown that the relevant mechanical parameter
criteria can be applied to experimental and numerical head
is skull strain energy and that the critical value (50% risk) is
protection systems evaluation and optimization.
strongly age dependent as it varies from 0.5 J for the adult to
6 J for the youngest child. References
[1] Lissner H.R., Lebow M., Evans F.G., Experimental studies on the
relation between acceleration and intracranial pressure changes in
man, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 111, 1960.
[2] Gurdjian E.S., Webster A., Head Injury, Little Brown Company,
Boston, 1958.
[3] Gadd C.W., Use of a weighted – impulse criterion for estimating
injury hazard, Proc. of the 10th STAPP Car Crash Conf., pp. 164-174,
[4] Ward C.C., Chan M., Nahum A.M., Intracranial pressure: a brain
injury criterion, SAE, 1980.
[5] Zhou C., Kahlil T.B., Dragovic L.J., Head injury assessment of a real
world crash by finite element modelling, Proc. of the AGARD Conf.,
[6] Kang HS,, Willinger R., Diaw BM, Chinn B : Validation of a 3D human
head model and replication of head impact in motorcycle accident by
finite element modelling. Proceed. of the 41th Stapp Car Crash Conf.
Figure 3: Implementation of the head injury prediction tool into a standard Lake Buena Vista USA, pp 329-338, 1997.
test method according to the coupled experimental versus numerical test [7] King A., Yang K., Zhang L., and Hardy W. Is head injury caused by
linear or angular acceleration? IRCOBI Conference, pp 1–12, 2003
The proposed head models and injury criteria transform [8] Kleiven S (2007) Predictors for traumatic brain injuries evaluated
through accident reconstructions. Proceedings 51th Stapp Car Crash
these models to numerical head injury prediction tools with
Conference, SAE paper 2007-22-0003:81-114.
a number of possible applications in the field of evaluation
[9] Deck C., Willinger R., (2008) Improved head injury criteria based on
and optimization of head protection systems or advanced head FE model, International Journal of Crashworthiness, Vol 13, No
virtual testing. The coupled experimental versus numerical test 6, pp. 667-678.
procedure is illustrated in figure 3. Further, a full FE approach is [10] Tinard V, Deck C, Willinger R.: New methodology for improve-
possible as well when the protective system has been previous- ment of helmet performances during impacts with regards to biome-
ly modelled. In this case a virtual evaluation and optimization chanical criteria. J of Materials and Design 37 (2012) 79-88.
of the protective system is possible as reported by Tinard et
CAE Wissen by courtesy of Dr. Caroline Deck & Prof. Dr.
al 2012 [10] and illustrated in figure 4 for a car bonnet and a
Remy Willinger, University Strasbourg & CNRS, France
motorcyclist helmet optimization.


Rear Seat Occupant Protection in Frontal Impact

Course Description Who should attend?

Rear seat occupant protection has been a low priority until The seminar addresses simulation and test engineers, project
the recent introduction of safety assessment for rear adult engineers and project managers as well as the heads of
and child occupants by Euro NCAP. Now it has moved into development departments in the field of passive safety who
the focus of research and development. work in R&D of occupant restraint-systems.
In addition to the Euro NCAP requirements, further NCAP Course Contents
ratings as well as legal requirements need to be considered
„„ Legal Requirements
in the design of the restraint systems. And real world aspects
cannot be neglected either. „„ Requirements from consumer testing
„„ Dummies on the rear seat; Q6 and Q10 Child Dummies
During the 1-day seminar legal and NCAP requirements
for rear seat occupant protection in frontal impact will be „„ Relevant protection criteria for the most important load
discussed. Furthermore the dummies used in the assessment cases
will be presented with an empasis on the Q6 and Q10 child „„ Solutions for restraint system design and optimization
dummies. For the most important load cases the relevant
criteria and possible influcening parameters of the restraint
system will be discussed and explored. Finally solutions for
the design of the restraint system on rear seat will be shown.
Note: Only frontal impact load cases will be considered.

Course Objectives
The objective of the seminar is to provide an understanding
of the requirements and specifics in rear seat occupant pro-
tection, to provide the knowledge of test configurations and
dummies, and to provide a view on state-of-the-art solutions.

Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Eickhoff (Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG) studied mechanical engineering in Hannover
(Germany) focusing on vehicle engineering and applied mechanics. Starting from 1999 he worked with
Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG as a test engineer for sled and crash tests. Since 2003 he has been project manager in

systems development (safety belt) of the same company. He was involved in the definition and assessment
of new restraint systems and he conducted feasibility studies using system simulation as well as dynamical
tests. Moreover he had a consultant role regarding restraint system design. He finished his doctoral thesis
at the Helmut Schmidt University Hamburg in 2012 on the reduction of belt induced thorax deflection in
frontal crashes. Since 2016 he has been head of the department Virtual & System Engineering, Homologa-
tion at Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG.



06.10.2017 2894 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 08.09.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR


Side Impact - Requirements and Development Strategies

Course Description Furthermore it is especially interesting for project managers

In addition to the protection in a frontal impact, the protec- and managers, who deal with side impact and who would like
tion in a side impact has a fixed place in the development to gain a deeper understanding of this topic in order to use it
of vehicles. Continuous aggravation of consumer tests and for an improvement of procedures.
legal regulations, e.g. due to new pole tests (UN ECE-R135
and Euro NCAP), enhanced deformable barriers and the Course Contents
prospective introduction of World-SID-Dummies (5 / 50%ile) „„ Challenges of side impacts
are causing a need to further improve side impact protection. „„ Side impact-relevant protection criteria.
In order to achieve this enhancement, it is necessary to get a „„ Legal tests (FMVSS 214, UN ECE R95, UN ECE R135, ...)
much more profound understanding of the highly complex
„„ Other tests (Euro NCAP, U.S. NCAP, further NCAPs, IIHS, car
phenomena and modes of action in a side impact which goes
manufacturer-specific tests)
far beyond the simple application of additional airbags.
„„ Development methods and tools:
The seminar provides a comprehensive overview of today’s
„„ Crash and occupant simulation, range of application and
standard test procedures including country-specific varia-
tions, the legal regulations and the requirements of consum-
er protection as well as an outlook on changes in the near „„ Performance of restraint systems in side impact:
future. In addition, tools, measuring methods and criteria, „„ Analysis of the performance of protection and restraint
and especially virtual methods such as crash and occupant systems in side impact. Discussion of the limitations,
simulation, as well as the analysis of the performance of the conflicts and problems.
restraint systems will be discussed. Furthermore it will be „„ Development strategy for an optimal restraint system for
explained how a target-oriented use of CAE-simulation and side impact
hardware tests can lead to optimal passenger values, while at
the same time obeying to boundary conditions such as costs, „„ Target-oriented use of CAE-simulation and hardware
weight and time-to-market. A part of the workshop with tests
crash-data analysis finally deepens the understanding. „„ Workshop with analysis of crash-data and discussion of
the results
Who should attend?
The seminar addresses development engineers who are
new in the field of side crash, or who have already gained
some experience in the field of safety, as well as developers
of assemblies that have to fulfil a crash-relevant function.

Bart Paul Peeters Weem (BMW AG) studied mechanical engineering at the University of Technol-
ogy in Eindhoven with focus on system and control. Since 2003 he has worked at BMW on passive safety
development. First as Simulation Engineer, later as team leader and project referent. Since 2015 he is head
of the development of full vehicle side impact protection for BMW 1-, 2- and 3-series, MINI and BMW-i.

Stephanie Wolter (BMW AG) studied Engineering Physics at the University of Applied Sciences Mu-
nich. Since 1995 she has been working at BMW AG in different functions in the field of side protection, such
as pre-development, development of side airbags and as a project engineer in various car lines. Moreover,
she represents BMW-Group in various national and international bodies that deal with side impact and
other aspects of side protection, e.g. German Side Impact Working Group, ISO Working Groups, etc.



07.-08.06.2017 2932 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 10.05.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR

28.-29.11.2017 2933 Alzenau 2 Days 1.290,- EUR till 31.10.2017, thereafter 1.540,- EUR


Head Impact on Vehicle Interiors: FMVSS 201 and UN R21

Course Description Who should attend?

To prevent injuries resulting from impacts of the occupants’ This seminar is especially suited for engineers and technicians
heads on vehicle interior parts, these parts need to be de- who work on the development of vehicle interior parts and
signed in a way which allows sufficient deformation space to who want to become familiar with the safety requirements
reduce the loads on the head. Internationally there are two that are relevant for these parts.
important regulations regarding the design of interiors, such
as cockpits, roof and door liners: The U.S. FMVSS 201 and the Course Contents
Regulation UN R21. Both regulations stipulate requirements „„ Introduction
concerning the maximum head acceleration or the HIC in „„ Rules and regulations concerning head impact
impacts on interior parts.
„„ FMVSS 201
The objective of this course is to provide an overview of the „„ UN R21
legal requirements and to show how these can be fulfilled. „„ Development tools
The focus of the seminar is on the development process
„„ Numerical Simulation
and the development tools and methods. In particular the
interaction of testing and simulation will be described and „„ Test
different design solutions will be discussed. Typical conflicts „„ Workshop: Determination of impact locations in a vehicle
of objectives in the design - e.g. to fulfil NVH requirements, „„ Development process and methods
static stiffness, or misuse, while fulfilling the safety standards
„„ Solving of conflicts of objectives
at the same time - are addressed in this seminar. Examples of
„„ Typical deformation paths, padding materials
practical solutions will be shown and discussed.
In addition, the development according to the head impact
requirements in the overall-context of vehicle development is
described in this seminar.
In a workshop exemplary head impact locations in a vehicle
interior and impact areas on a dashboard are determined.

Torsten Gärtner (Adam Opel AG) as been working as a simulation expert since 1997. From
numerous projects he has extensive experience in the field of occupant simulation and interior safety. He is
Technical Lead Engineer Safety Analytics at Adam Opel AG. Before that he worked as department manager
for safety with Tecosim GmbH and spent 10 years in various management positions with carhs gmbh.

Karsten Wolff (Continental Safety Engineering International GmbH) studied Traffic

Safety Technology at the University of Wuppertal. During his studies he worked at BGS (Böhme & Gehring
Sicherheitstechnik) in the fields of dummy calibration and head impact. In 1998 he joined Continental Safety
Engineering International as an engineer. In 2000 he established FMVSS201U testing at Continental and in
2002 he introduced pedestrian protection testing. Later on UN ECE R21 and FMVSS201L testing was added,
followed by ejection mitigation. In 2003 he became team leader for pedestrian protection and interior head
impact, in 2009 he started leading the development and testing for FMH und pedestrian protection and
since 2012 he has been team leader of the competence center for pedestrian protection and interior head
impact. In this role he acts as a link between simulation, project and testing.



12.06.2017 2898 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 15.05.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

27.09.2017 2931 Alzenau 1 Day 740,- EUR till 30.08.2017, thereafter 890,- EUR

automotive CAECompanion

Registration at www.carhs.de
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automotive CAECompanion

Index Hinterberger, Walter 27 Pedestrian Protection 19, 20, 21, 22

Hinterhölzl, Roland 15 Peeters Weem, Bart Paul 109
A Hoffmann, Rainer 94 Pickett, Anthony 71
Active Safety 95 Honermeier, Heiko 83 Plastics 18, 66, 68, 74
Alternative Propulsion Vehicles 102 Hübner, Sandro 17 Polymeric Materials 63
Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler Method 82 Human Model 49, 106 Programming 46
B I Python 46
Bachem, Harald 101 Imprint 111 R
Backes, André 46 In-house Seminars 7 Random Loads 26
Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen 84 Intensive Training 16 Registration 111
Baumgärtner, Timo 18 Interior 48 Regulations 99
Beads 38 Interiors 18 Restraint System 17, 104
Biomechanics 106 Reverse Engineering 75
Bulla, Marian 51 J
Jennewein, Dietmar 30 Robust Design 41, 43
C Joints 56 Robustness 41
CAE 10, 16, 48 Jung, Udo 28 Rother, Klemens 24, 44
Chatzikonstantinou, Thomas 92 Justen, Rainer 102 S
Composites 15, 70, 72 Schumacher, Axel 12, 13, 34
Consistent Units 47 K
Kamoulakos, Argiris 90 Seeck, Andre 100
Crash Simulation 56, 60, 66, 72 Seminar Guide 8
Creamer, John F. 99 Karall, Thomas 72, 74
Kolk, Olaf 32 Shape Optimization 37
D Kolling, Stefan 66 Short-Fibre 68
Deck, Caroline 107 Kroyer, Robert 84 Side Impact 109
Design Maturity 17 Sizing 38
Duddeck, Fabian 43 L Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics 88
Dummy 22 Lightweight Design 13, 14, 28 Sommer, Silke 55, 56
Durability 24, 28, 93 Long-Fibre-Reinforced Plastics 74 Spindelberger, Gerhard 93
Dynamic Analysis 84 Low-Speed Crashes 101 Spot Weld 54, 56
M Static Vehicle Safety Tests 103
Martellucci, Alexander 103 Structural Optimization 35, 36
Eickhoff, Burkhard 105, 108
Material Models 57, 60, 63, 66, 72 T
F Material Parameter Identification 75 THUMS 49
Fatigue Analysis 24, 26, 28 Material Parameters 61 Time Integration 84
Finck, Maren 19 Maurer, Detlev 81 Topology Optimization 33, 36
Finite Difference Method 80 Meshless Methods 88
Finite Element Method 81 Metal 57, 60 U
Finite Volume Method 80 Müller, Gerd 95 Uncertainty 43
Fluid-Structure Interaction 91 Multiphysics Simulation 78 V
Foams 66 Vibration 30, 32
Frontal Impact 105, 108 N
NCAP 100, 104 W
G Neuber Approximation 93 Willinger, Remy 107
Gärtner, Torsten 110 Nilsson, Kenth 84 Will, Johannes 42
Gese, Helmut 60 Noise 30 Wolff, Karsten 110
Glass 50 Notch Stresses 93 Wolter, Stephanie 109
Golowko, Kai 104 NVH 30
Grand Challenge 10 X
O X-FEM 50
H Occupant Protection 105, 108
Harshness 30 Z
Operational Strength 26 Zopp, Alexander 30
Harzheim, Lothar 35 Optimization 28, 33, 35, 36
Head Impact 110
Head Injury 106 P
Heidkamp, Arno 48 Passive Safety 94
Seminar Calendar 2017
May June July August September October
1 Mo Labor Day 1 Th 1 Sa 1 Tu Automotive Safety Summit 1 Fr 1 Su
2 Tu 2 Fr 2 Su 2 We Shanghai 2 Sa 2 Mo
3 We 3 Sa 3 Mo 3 Th 3 Su 3 Tu German National Holiday
4 Th 4 Su Pentecost 4 Tu 4 Fr 4 Mo 4 We
5 Fr 5 Mo Pentecost 5 We 5 Sa 5 Tu Static & Dynamic Analysis 5 Th Vehicle Vibration p.32
6 Sa 6 Tu 6 Th Design of Restraint Systems p.17 6 Su 6 We Long-Fibre-Reinforced Pl. p.74 6 Fr Rear Seat Occupant Prot. p.108
7 Su 7 We 7 Fr 7 Mo 7 Th NVH- Background, Practice 7 Sa
Side Impact
8 Mo Crash Safety of Alternative 8 Th p.109 8 Sa 8 Tu 8 Fr & Simulation Methodology p.30 8 Su
9 Tu Propulsion Vehicles p.102 9 Fr 9 Su 9 We 9 Sa 9 Mo Design of Restraint Systems p.17
10 We 10 Sa 10 Mo Development of Frontal 10 Th 10 Su 10 Tu Pedestrian Protection p.19
11 Th 11 Su 11 Tu Restraint Systems p.104 11 Fr 11 Mo Crashworthy Car Body p.11 11 We PraxisConf. Composite
12 Fr Material Models of Composites 12 Mo Pedestrian Protection 12 We 12 Sa 12 Tu 12 Th Dummy Structures p.15
Robust Design
13 Sa p.72 13 Tu Introduction to Passive p.19 13 Th 13 Su 13 We p.43 13 Fr
14 Su 14 We Safety p.94 14 Fr 14 Mo 14 Th International Safety and 14 Sa
15 Mo 15 Th Corpus Christi 15 Sa 15 Tu Assumption Day 15 Fr Crash-Test Regulations p.99 15 Su
16 Tu 16 Fr 16 Su 16 We 16 Sa 16 Mo
17 We 17 Sa 17 Mo 17 Th 17 Su 17 Tu
18 Th p.96 18 Su 18 Tu 18 Fr 18 Mo Structural Optimization in 18 We Low-Speed Crash p.101
19 Fr 19 Mo Car Body Design for 19 We 19 Sa 19 Tu Automotive Design p.35 19 Th
20 Sa 20 Tu Analysis Engineers p.12 20 Th 20 Su 20 We Improving Efficiency and 20 Fr
21 Su 21 We 21 Fr 21 Mo 21 Th Reducing Risk in CAE p.44 21 Sa
22 Mo Material Models of Plastics 22 Th NCAP - New Car 22 Sa 22 Tu 22 Fr 22 Su
23 Tu and Foams for Crash Sim. p.66 23 Fr Assessment Programs p.100 23 Su 23 We 23 Sa 23 Mo
24 We 24 Sa 24 Mo 24 Th 24 Su 24 Tu Material Models of Plastics
25 Th Ascension of Christ 25 Su 25 Tu 25 Fr 25 Mo Interior Development p.18 25 We and Foams for Crash Sim. p.66
26 Fr 26 Mo Crash Safety of Alternative 26 We 26 Sa 26 Tu 26 Th Material Models of Metals p.60
SafetyUpDate Graz
27 Sa 27 Tu Propulsion Vehicles p.102 27 Th 27 Su 27 We 27 Fr Material Mod. Composites p.72
28 Su 28 We PraxisConference 28 Fr 28 Mo 28 Th PraxisConf. Python Pro- 28 Sa
29 Mo Crashworthy Car Body 29 Th Pedestrian Protection p.22 29 Sa 29 Tu 29 Fr AEB gramming p.46 29 Su
30 Tu Design p.11 30 Fr 30 Su 30 We 30 Sa 30 Mo Introduction to
31 We Pedestrian Protection p.19 31 Mo 31 Th 31 Tu Passive Safety p.94

Course Venue Alzenau Course Venue Bergisch Gladbach Course Venue Tianjin Course Venue Graz Subject to changes.
Find updates and additional information at
Course Venue Aschaffenburg Course Venue Shanghai Course Venue Tappenbeck Course Venue Gaimersheim/Ingolstadt www.carhs.de
Seminar Calendar 2017/2018
November December January 2018 February 2018 March 2018 April 2018
1 We All Saints 1 Fr 1 Mo New Year 1 Th 1 Th NVH- Background, Practice 1 Su Easter
2 Th NCAP- New Car 2 Sa 2 Tu 2 Fr 2 Fr & Simulation Methodology p.30 2 Mo Easter
3 Fr Assessment Programs p.100 3 Su 3 We 3 Sa 3 Sa 3 Tu
4 Sa 4 Mo 4 Th 4 Su 4 Su 4 We
5 Su 5 Tu 5 Fr 5 Mo 5 Mo 5 Th
6 Mo Crash Safety of Alternative 6 We 6 Sa 6 Tu 6 Tu 6 Fr
7 Tu Propulsion Vehicles p.102 7 Th 7 Su 7 We 7 We 7 Sa
8 We Static Vehicle Safety Tests p.103 8 Fr 8 Mo 8 Th 8 Th Basics of Occupant 8 Su
9 Th 9 Sa 9 Tu 9 Fr 9 Fr Protection p.105 9 Mo
10 Fr 10 Su 10 We 10 Sa 10 Sa 10 Tu Design of Composite
11 Sa 11 Mo 11 Th 11 Su 11 Su 11 We Structures p.15
12 Su 12 Tu 12 Fr 12 Mo 12 Mo Introduction to the Python 12 Th
13 Mo Car Body Design for 13 We 13 Sa 13 Tu 13 Tu Programming Language p.46 13 Fr
14 Tu Analysis Engineers p.12 14 Th 14 Su 14 We 14 We Low-Speed Crashes p.101 14 Sa
15 We Development of Frontal 15 Fr 15 Mo 15 Th 15 Th Virtual-based Development p.48 15 Su
16 Th Restraint Systems p.104 16 Sa 16 Tu 16 Fr 16 Fr 16 Mo
17 Fr Active Safety of Vehicles p.95 17 Su 17 We 17 Sa 17 Sa 17 Tu automotive CAE
18 Sa 18 Mo 18 Th 18 Su 18 Su 18 We Grand Challenge 2018 p.10
19 Su 19 Tu 19 Fr 19 Mo 19 Mo Modeling of Joints p.56 19 Th
Robust Design
20 Mo Introduction to Passive 20 We 20 Sa 20 Tu p.43 20 Tu 20 Fr
21 Tu Safety of Vehicles p.94 21 Th 21 Su 21 We Structural Optimization in 21 We 21 Sa
22 We 22 Fr 22 Mo 22 Th Automotive Design p.35 22 Th Lightweight Design 22 Su
23 Th Lightweight Design Strate- 23 Sa 23 Tu 23 Fr 23 Fr Strategies for Car Bodies p.13 23 Mo
Interior Development
24 Fr gies for Car Bodies p.13 24 Su 24 We 24 Sa 24 Sa 24 Tu p.18
25 Sa 25 Mo Christmas 25 Th 25 Su 25 Su 25 We
26 Su 26 Tu Christmas 26 Fr 26 Mo 26 Mo 26 Th Introduction to
27 Mo 27 We 27 Sa 27 Tu 27 Tu 27 Fr Fatigue Analysis p.24
28 Tu 28 Th 28 Su 28 We 28 We 28 Sa
29 We 29 Fr 29 Mo 29 Th 29 Su
30 Th 30 Sa 30 Tu 30 Fr Good Friday 30 Mo
31 Su 31 We 31 Sa
Course Venue Alzenau Course Venue Hanau Subject to changes.
Find updates and additional information at
Course Venue Tappenbeck www.carhs.de

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