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List of 188 Japanese particles 28 を (wo/o) Indicates a point of departure

No Particle Meaning / usage 29 を (wo/o) Indicates a route of a


movement/motion
1 は (wa) Indicantes the topic of a sentence
30 に (ni) Indicates a point of arrival
2 か (ka) At the end of a sentence
indicating a question 31 に (ni) Indicates an entering motion
3 が (ga) Indicates the subject of a 32 に (ni) Used together with a verb to
sentence express a purpose
4 に (ni) Indicates a location
33 と (to) Used when quoting someone
5 の (no) Indicates possession
34 と いう (to Indicates the name of
6 は (wa) Indicates a contrast between 2 iu) something
items
35 とか (toka) “something like”
7 に (ni) Indicates time or frequency
36 で (de) Indicates a limit or scope
8 へ (e) Indicates direction
37 と (to) Indicates a comparison
9 を (wo/o) Indicates the direct object of a
verb 38 より (yori) Indicates a comparison
10 と (to) Used to connect and list up 39 より (yori) Indicates superlative
multiple items
40 くらい Indicates a comparison
11 や (ya) Used to connect and partially (kurai)
list up multiple items
41 ほど Indicates a comparison in a
12 など Used with や (ya) to partially (hodo) negative sentence
(nado) list up multiple items
42 か (ka) someone, something
13 も (mo) means “too”, “either”, “also”
43 も (mo) “nothing”, nobody”, nowhere” if
14 も (mo) both…and…, neither…nor… used with an interrogative
15 に (ni) Indicates the indirect object of word
a verb 44 に (ni) Used with a verb to indicate a
16 に (ni) Indicates the surface of a change or choice
object where some action 45 をする Expresses an occupation or
takes place (wo/o suru) position
17 で (de) Indicates the location of an 46 でも Indicates emphasis
action (demo)
18 と (to) Together with 47 でも (demo) Together with an interrogative
19 の (no) Indicates an apposition word it means “anything”,
“anyone”, any time”
20 から (kara) Indicates a starting point in
48 で (de) Indicates a cause or a reason
time or place
21 より (yori) Indicates a starting point in 49 から (kara) Indicates a source such as a
time or place but more formal giver, a cause or material
than kara (20) 50 に (ni) Indicates a person who gives
22 まで Indicates a limit on time, space something or who provides a
or quantity service
(made)
51 は (wa) + Indicates the relation between
23 くらい Indicates an approximate
が (ga) an object / subjects and a verb
(kurai) amount
or adjective
24 ほど Indicates an approximate 52 が (ga) Connects two sentences with
(hodo) amount the meaning “but…”
25 ばかり Indicates an approximate
(bakari) amount 53 を (wo/o) Used with an verb expressing
emotions, it indicates the cause
26 で (de) Indicates a means or material of this emotion
27 か (ka) Indicates a choice or 54 で (de) Indicates a state / condition of
alternative something
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LIST OF PARTICLES Glory Property
55 で (de) Limits numbers 78 ばいい (ba) “all you have to do…”
56 だけ (dake) Indicates a limit on things or 79 ば (ba) Used to enumerate two or
amounts more actions or states
57 だけ (dake) Indicates a limit on an action 80 たら (tara) Used as a conjunction,
or state indicates a supposition or
condition
58 で (de) Indicates the time of
completion or expiration of 81 たら (tara) Used as a conjunction to
something indicate that one action takes
place before the action
59 でも Following a noun, means “or
described in the main
(demo) something like this”
sentence
60 も (mo) Emphasizes in a positive or 82 ところ Used as a conjunction to
negative way
(tokoro) indicate a condition that brings
61 でも Indicates two or more items as about a discovery
(demo) an example of a larger list 83 ても a conjunction meaning “even
62 ばかり Indicates that an item, state or (temo) if”
(bakari) action is a single one 84 ても Used with a set of contrasting
63 ばかり Indicates an action was just (temo) verbs and adjectives
(bakari) completed 85 ても Together with an interrogative
64 ところ Indicates that an action takes (temo) word it means “no matter
(tokoro) place, just took place or is what/where/who”
about to take place 86 ては (tewa) Indicates a condition which will
65 が (ga) Indicates the subject of bring a negative conclusion
subordinate clause when it is 87 のみ (nomi) Indicates a limit (similar to だ
different from the subject of
け dake)
the main clause
88 まで “even”, used to emphasize
66 から (kara) conjunction meaning “after” or
“since” (made)

67 ながら Indicates that an action is 89 さえ (sae) “even”, used to emphasize


(nagara) happening simultaneously 90 さえ (sae) “if only” or “as long as”
68 が (ga) Indicates the subject of a 91 のに (noni) “although”, “in spite of the fact
relative clause that”
69 の (no) Indicates the subject of a 92 ながら “although”, “though”, “but”
relative clause (nagara)
70 から (kara) Used as a conjunction and 93 とか (toka) Indicates that a list of two ore
indicates a cause or reason more things or actions is not
71 ので Indicates a strong reason exhaustive
(node) 94 たり (tari) List of two or more actions in
72 の (no) Indicates a modified pronoun no particular sequence

73 の (no) Used to nominalize verbs & 95 たり (tari) Indicates actions or states that
sentences alternate

74 なら (nara) Used as a conjunction and 96 のに (noni) Indicates a purpose or function


indicates a supposition or 97 のです (no Asks for an explanation or
condition desu) reason
75 なら (nara) Indicates a topics and is used 98 きり (kiri) Indicates a limit to an amount
as an alternative to wa (No.1)
99 きり (kiri) Indicates the last time a
76 と (to) Indicates a condition that
certain incident occured
results in an inevitable
outcome
100 とも Used with numbers and
77 ば (ba) Used as a conjunction to
(tomo) counters to mean “both” or
express a probable results
“all”

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LIST OF PARTICLES Glory Property
101 ながら Used with numbers and 124 だけ (dake) “the more… the more…”
(nagara) counters to mean “both” or
125 と (to) “about to do something”,
“all”
“trying to do something”
102 しか Used with a negative verb to
126 と (to) “even if…”, “whether… or not”
(shika) indicate limits on conditions or
quantities meaning “only” 127 なり (nari) “either…”, “whether…or”
103 しかない used with a verb meaning “to 128 なり (nari) “anything”, “anyone”, “any
(shika nai) have no choice but to” time”
104 し (shi) Used as a conjunction, 129 こそ (koso) Emphasizes the word
indicating two or more actions preceding it
or states
130 こそ (koso) Emphasizes a reason or a
105 し (shi) Used as a conjunction cause
indicating a reason
131 ては (tewa) Expresses repetition of an
106 とも Indicates inclusion action
(tomo) 132 に (ni) Joins two or more nouns to
107 に (ni) Indicates the one acting or the indicate a list of items
one acted upon 133 に (ni) Connects two or more items to
108 か (ka) Indicates uncertainty about indicate a matching or a
something contrast
109 か (ka) Indicates uncertainty about a 134 にしては Indicates a generally agreed
state or reason (ni shite upon standard
110 だの Indicates two or more items or wa)
(dano) actions of a longer list (similar 135 にとって Indicates an effect or value of
to toka とか) (ni totte) a person or thing
111 だの Indicates a pair of opposite 136 について “about”, “concerning”
(dano) actions or states (ni tsuite) something or someone
112 など “something to the effect” 137 とも…とも “can’t say whether… or…”
(nado) (tomo…
113 やら (yara) Indicates two or more items of tomo)
a longer list 138 が (ga) “even if”, “whether… or not”
114 やら (yara) Indicates uncertainty 139 は (wa) Emphasizes contrasting
115 ても Indicates an approximate limit elements
(temo) with the meaning of “at the 140 として Indicates status, capacity or
most” (toshite) function
116 とも Indicates an approximate 141 として Provides emphasis in a
(tomo) maximum or minimum (toshite) negative sentence
117 は (wa) Indicates that a number is the 142 ばかりでな “not only… but also”
higher or lowest limit
く(bakari
118 と (to) Emphasizes a number in a de naku)
negative sentence
143 だけ (dake) used to express “not
119 など Indicates examples only…but also”
(nado) 144 のみ (nomi) used to express “not only…but
120 くらい Expresses an extent of an also”
(kurai) action or condition similar to ぐ 145 なり (nari) “as soon as”
らい gurai
146 がはやいか “as soon as”
121 ほど Indicates the extend of an (ga hayai
(hodo) action or condition ka)
122 ほど “the more… the more…” 147 やいなや “as soon as”
(hodo) (ya ina ya)
123 だけ (dake) “as… as…” 148 かないうち “no sooner had”, “hardly had”
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LIST OF PARTICLES Glory Property
に (ka nai (kashira) or a question and mainly used
uchi ni) by women
171 かな (kana) At the end of a sentence to
149 ばかり Indicates the only action left to express uncertainty, a request
(bakari) do or a question and mainly used
by men
150 ばかりに Emphasizes a reason or
cause 172 な (na) At the end of a sentence and
(bakari ni)
used by men to confirm a
151 すら (sura) Emphasizes in the meaning of statement
“even”
173 な (na) At the end of a sentence to
152 など Expresses a humble attitude express a prohibition, used by
(nado) towards an item men
153 とも “no matter what”, “even if” 174 なあ (naa) At the end of a sentence to
(tomo) express emotion, used by men
154 ともあろう To express that someone did 175 なあ (naa) At the end of a sentence to
ひと (tomo something not to be expected express a desire
aroo hito) 176 の (no) At the end of a sentence to
express a question or soften a
155 どころか “far from”, “not to mention”
command, used by women
(dokoro ka)
177 わ (wa) At the end of a sentence to
156 だけに Indicates a cause or reason soften a statement, used by
(dake ni) women
157 までもない “there is no need to…” 178 さ (sa) At the end of a sentence to
(made mo indicate slight emphasis, used
nai) by men
158 ものの “but” or “although” 179 こと (koto) At the end of a sentence to
(mono no) indicate emotion, used by
159 ところで “even if” women
(tokoro de) 180 こと (koto) At the end of a sentence to
express a suggestion or
160 けれども Connects 2 sentences
invitation, used by women
(keredomo) meaning “but” or “although”
181 もの At the end of a sentence to
161 けれども Indicates a preliminary remark express a reason or excuse
(mono)
(keredomo)
182 とも At the end of a sentence to
162 が (ga) Used to soften a statement or express an assertion
(tomo)
refusal
183 ものか At the end of a sentence to
163 けれども Indicates a desire
(monoka) express a negative
(keredomo) determination, used by men
164 ね (ne) At the end of a sentence to 184 や (ya) At the end of a sentence to
confirm a statement soften a statement, request or
165 ね (ne) At the end of a sentence to suggestion, used by men
soften a request or suggestion 185 たら (tara) At the end of a sentence to
166 ね (ne) At the end of a sentence to indicate a suggestion or
indicate a reason or cause proposal
167 ねえ (nee) At the end of a sentence to 186 やら (yara) At the end of a sentence to
indicate emotion indicate a rhetorical question with
a negative implication
168 よ (yo) At the end of a sentence to
187 ぜ (ze) At the end of a sentence to add
state a strong conviction
for to sentence, used by men
169 よ (yo) At the end of a sentence to 188 ぞ (zo) At the end of a sentence to add
articulate a request or force to a sentence or to express
suggestion a question to oneself
170 かしら At the end of a sentence to
express uncertainty, a request
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LIST OF PARTICLES Glory Property