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EJERCICIOS y(1) = 20 → 𝑥 = 1; 𝑦 = 20

1. SOLUCION DE UNA ECUACION DIFERENCIAL 12


20 = 6 ln(1) + +𝑐
ORDINARIA DE VARIABLE SEPARADA. 1
𝐲 c=8
𝐀) 𝐲 ′ − 𝐲 = 𝐱 ; 𝐲(𝟐) = 𝟏 y = 6 ln(x) + 12x −1 + 8
𝐞
dy y y = 6 ln(x) +
12
+ 8 solucion particular
−y= x x
dx e
dy y dy = (6x 2 y 3 − 2𝑥y 3 + y 3 )𝑑𝑥
= x+y
dx e dy
= y 3 (6x 2 − 2𝑥 + 1)
dx
dy y + ex y 1
= ∫ ( 3 ) dy = ∫(6x 2 − 2𝑥 + 1)𝑑𝑥
dx ex y
−2
dy y(1 + ex ) y
= − = 2x 3 − 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 + 𝑐
dx ex 2
1
dy (1 + ex ) (2) − 2 = (2x 3 − 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 + 𝑐) ∗ (2)
2y
=[ ] dx
y ex 1
− 2 = (4x 3 − 2𝑥 2 + 2𝑥 + 𝑐)
y
1 (1 + ex )
( ) dy = [ ] dx −1
𝑦 = √(4x3 −2𝑥2 +2𝑥+𝑐) solucion general
y ex

1 (1 + ex )
∫ ( ) dy = ∫ [ ] dx 𝐂) 𝒅𝒚 = (𝟔𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟑 − 𝟐𝒙𝒚𝟑 + 𝒚𝟑 )𝒅𝒙
y ex
𝑑𝑦
ln(y) = −e−x + x + c = 𝑦 3 ∗ (6𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 1)
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑦
y = e(−e
−x +x)
∗ 𝑐 solución general ∫ 3 = ∫(6𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 1)𝑑𝑥
𝑦
𝑦 −2
y(2) = 1 → 𝑥 = 2; 𝑦 = 1 (2) (− ) = (2𝑥 3 − 𝑥 2 + 𝑥 + 𝑐)(2)
2
1 = e(−e
−2 +2)
∗𝑐 −𝑦 −2 = 4𝑥 3 − 2𝑥 2 + 2𝑥 + 𝑐
1
C=0.155 = −4𝑥 3 + 2𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 − 𝑐
𝑦2
−x +x)
y = e(−e ∗ 0.155 solucion particular 1
𝑦=√ 𝑆𝑜𝑙. 𝐺𝑒𝑛.
−4𝑥 3 + 2𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 𝑐
𝐁) 𝐱 𝟐 𝐲 ′ − 𝟔𝐱 + 𝟏𝟐 = 𝟎; 𝐲(𝟏) = 𝟐𝟎
dy
𝑥 2 ∗ − 6x + 12 = 0 𝐂) 𝒙𝒅𝒚 = (𝒆𝟐𝒚 𝒍𝒏(𝒙))𝒅𝒙
dx
dy 𝑑𝑦 𝑒 2𝑦 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)
𝑥2 ∗ = 6x − 12 =( )
dx 𝑑𝑥 𝑥
dy 6x − 12 𝑑𝑦 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)
=( ) =( ) 𝑑𝑥
dx 𝑥2 𝑒 2𝑦 𝑥
6x − 12 𝑑𝑦 𝑙𝑛(𝑥)
∫ dy = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥 ∫ 2𝑦 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥
𝑥2 𝑒 𝑥
y = 6 ln(x) + 12x −1 + 𝑐 solución general
𝑙𝑛(𝑥) SOLUCION DE ECUACIONES DIFERENCIALES
∫ 𝑒 −2𝑦 𝑑𝑦 = ∫ ( ) 𝑑𝑥
𝑥 ORDINARIAS
Hacemos un cambio de variable en el segundo 𝑨) (𝒙 + 𝒚)𝟐 𝒅𝒙 + (𝟐𝒙𝒚 + 𝒙𝟐 − 𝟏)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎. 𝒚(𝟏) = 𝟏
miembro: M(x,y) N(x,y)
𝑚 = 𝑙𝑛𝑥
1 𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
𝑑𝑚 = 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑦
= 2𝑥 + 2𝑦 𝜕𝑥
= 2𝑥 + 2𝑦
𝑥
Entonces:
𝑒 −2𝑦

2
= ∫ 𝑚 𝑑𝑚 =
𝑒 −2𝑦 𝑚2 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑜 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑠 ℎ𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎
− = +𝑐 1. ∃ ∅(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑡𝑞
2 2
𝑒 −2𝑦 (𝑙𝑛𝑥)2 𝜕∅
(2) = (2) ∗ −( + 𝑐) = 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 ) … (𝐸1 )
2 2 𝜕𝑥
𝜕∅
ln(𝑒 −2𝑦 ) = 𝑙𝑛((−𝑙𝑛𝑥)2 + 𝑐) = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) = (2𝑥𝑦+𝑥 2 − 1) … (𝐸2 )
𝜕𝑦
ln(𝑐 − (𝑙𝑛𝑥)2 ))
𝑦=− 𝑎). 𝑑𝑒 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 1. ( (𝐸1 ))
2
∫ 𝜕∅ = ∫(𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑥
𝑥3
𝐃) (𝟏 + 𝒙 − 𝒚𝟐 − 𝒙𝒚𝟐 )𝒅𝒚 = 𝒅𝒙 ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑥 2 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦 2 + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 )
3
𝑑𝑥 𝜕∅
(1 − 𝑦 2 ) + 𝑥(1 − 𝑦 2 ) = = 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝐸2 )
𝑑𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝑑𝑥 𝜕∅
(1 − 𝑦 2 )(1 + 𝑥) = = 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (2𝑥𝑦+𝑥 2 − 1)
𝑑𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝑑𝑥
(1 − 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 =
(1 + 𝑥) 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (−1)
𝑑𝑥
∫(1 − 𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑦 = ∫ 𝑐(𝑦) = (−𝑦)
(1 + 𝑥)
𝑥3
𝑦3 ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑥 2 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑦
𝑦− = ln(1 + 𝑥) + 𝑐 𝑆𝑜𝑙. 𝐺𝑒𝑛. 3
3 𝑥3
𝑐= + 𝑥 2 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑦
3
𝐄) 𝒅𝒚 = (𝟖𝒙𝟒 − 𝒆𝒙 )𝒚𝒅𝒙 ≫ 𝑦(1) = 1; 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑒 𝑥 = 1; 𝑦 = 1
𝑑𝑦 13
= (8𝑥 4 − 𝑒 𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 𝑐= + 12 . 1 + 1.12 − 1
𝑦 3
𝑑𝑦 4
∫ = ∫(8𝑥 4 − 𝑒 𝑥 )𝑑𝑥 𝑐=
𝑦 3
8𝑥 5 𝑥 𝑥3 4
ln(𝑦) ( −𝑒 +𝑐) ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑥 2 𝑦 + 𝑥𝑦 2 + sol. Gen.
𝑒 = 𝑒 5 3 3
8𝑥 5 𝑥
( −𝑒 )
y =c∗ 𝑒 5 𝒅𝒚
𝑩) 𝒙 = 𝟐𝒙𝒆𝒙 − 𝒚 + 𝟔𝒙𝟐
𝒅𝒙

(2𝑥𝑒𝑥 − 𝑦 + 6𝑥2 )𝑑𝑥 − (𝑥)𝑑𝑦


M(x,y) N(x,Y)
𝜕∅
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 𝑡4 − 𝑡 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝐸2 )
= −1 = −1 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕∅
= 𝑡4 − 𝑡 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = 𝑡4 + 3𝑦2 − 𝑡
𝜕𝑦
= 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (3𝑦2 )
𝑐(𝑦) = (𝑦)3
𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑜 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑠 ℎ𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎 ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑡4 𝑦 + 5𝑡 3 − 𝑡𝑦 + (𝑦)3
2. ∃ ∅(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑡𝑞
𝜕∅
= 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = (2𝑥𝑒𝑥 − 𝑦 + 6𝑥2 ) … (𝐸1 ) 𝑐 = 𝑡 4 𝑦 + 5𝑡3 − 𝑡𝑦 + (𝑦)3
𝜕𝑥
𝜕∅
= 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) = −(𝑥) … (𝐸2 ) 𝒚
𝑫) ( 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 + (𝒍𝒏𝒙 + 𝟐𝒚)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎
𝜕𝑦
𝑎). 𝑑𝑒 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 1. ( (𝐸1 )) M(x,y) N(x,y)
∫ 𝜕∅ = ∫(2𝑥𝑒𝑥 − 𝑦 + 6𝑥2 )𝑑𝑥
𝜕𝑀 1 𝜕𝑁 1
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = 2𝑥𝑒𝑥 − 2𝑒𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑥 3 + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 )
=𝑥 𝜕𝑥
=
𝑥
𝜕𝑦
𝜕∅
𝜕𝑦
= −𝑥 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝐸2 ) =
𝜕∅ 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑜 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑠 ℎ𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎
= −𝑥 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = −(𝑥)
𝜕𝑦 1. ∃ ∅(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑡𝑞
𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (0) 𝜕∅ 𝑦
= 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = ( 𝑥 2 + ) … (𝐸1 )
𝑐(𝑦) = (𝐾) 𝜕𝑥 𝑥
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = 2𝑥𝑒𝑥 − 2𝑒𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑥 3 + 𝐾 𝜕∅
= 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 2𝑦) … (𝐸2 )
𝜕𝑦
𝑐 = 2𝑥𝑒 𝑥 − 2𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑥3 𝑎). 𝑑𝑒 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 1. ( (𝐸1 ))
𝑦
∫ 𝜕∅ = ∫ ( 𝑥 2 + ) 𝑑𝑥
𝑥
𝑥3
𝑪) (𝟒𝒕𝟑 𝒚 − 𝟏𝟓𝒕𝟐 − 𝒚)𝒅𝒕 + (𝒕𝟒 + 𝟑𝒚𝟐 − 𝒕)𝒅𝒚 = 𝟎 ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑦𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 )
M(t,y) N(t,y) 3
𝜕∅
= 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝐸2 )
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑦
= 4𝑡3 − 1 𝜕𝑡
= 4𝑡3 − 1 𝜕∅
= 𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 2𝑦)
𝜕𝑦
= 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (2𝑦)
𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑜 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑠 ℎ𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎 𝑐(𝑦) = 𝑦 2
1. ∃ ∅(𝑡, 𝑦)𝑡𝑞 𝑥3
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = + 𝑦𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑦 2
𝜕∅ 3
= 𝑀(𝑡, 𝑦) = (4𝑡3 𝑦 − 15𝑡2 − 𝑦) … (𝐸1 )
𝜕𝑡
𝜕∅ 𝑥3
= 𝑁(𝑡, 𝑦) = (𝑡4 + 3𝑦2 − 𝑡) … (𝐸2 ) 𝑐= + 𝑦𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑦2
𝜕𝑦 3
𝑎). 𝑑𝑒 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 1. ( (𝐸1 ))
∫ 𝜕∅ = ∫(4𝑡3 𝑦 − 15𝑡2 − 𝑦)𝑑𝑡
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑡4 𝑦 + 5𝑡 3 − 𝑡𝑦 + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 )
𝒅𝒚 𝒙 − 𝒚𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒙 𝑭)(𝟑𝒚𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝒚𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒙𝒚)𝒅𝒙 = −(𝒆𝟑𝒙 + 𝒙𝒔𝒆𝒏𝒙𝒚)𝒅𝒚
𝑬) =( )
𝒅𝒙 𝒔𝒆𝒏(𝒙) + 𝒚 (3𝑦𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦)𝑑𝑥 + (𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0
M(x,y) N(x,y)
(𝑥 − 𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)𝑑𝑥 − (𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 𝑦)𝑑𝑦 = 0
M(x,y) N(x,y) 𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁
= 3𝑒3𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦 𝜕𝑥
= 3𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦
𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑀
𝜕𝑦
= −𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
𝜕𝑁
𝜕𝑥
= −𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 =
= 𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑜 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑠 ℎ𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎
1. ∃ ∅(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑡𝑞
𝜕∅
= 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = ( 3𝑦𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦) … (𝐸1 )
𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑀 𝜕𝑁 𝜕∅
= 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 𝜕𝑥
= 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 = 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦) … (𝐸2 )
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝑎). 𝑑𝑒 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 1. ( (𝐸1 ))
=
∫ 𝜕∅ = ∫( 3𝑦𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦)𝑑𝑥
𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑙𝑜 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑠 ℎ𝑜𝑚𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑎
𝑚 = 𝑥𝑦
1. ∃ ∅(𝑥, 𝑦)𝑡𝑞 𝑑𝑚 = 𝑦. 𝑑𝑥
𝜕∅
= 𝑀(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝑥 − 𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥) … (𝐸1 )
𝜕𝑥
𝜕∅ 3𝑦𝑒 3𝑥
= 𝑁(𝑥, 𝑦) = −(𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 𝑦) … (𝐸2 ) ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = − cos(𝑚) + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 )
𝜕𝑦 3
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑦𝑒 3𝑥 − cos(𝑥𝑦) + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 )
𝑎). 𝑑𝑒 𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑜𝑛 1. ( (𝐸1 )) 𝜕∅
= 𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝐸2 )
∫ 𝜕∅ = ∫(𝑥 − 𝑦𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥)𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑦
𝜕∅
𝑥2 = 𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝑒 3𝑥 + 𝑥𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥𝑦)
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐(𝑦) … (𝐸3 ) 𝜕𝑦
2 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (0)
𝜕∅
= −𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = (𝐸2 ) 𝑐(𝑦) = 𝐾
𝜕𝑦 ∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑦𝑒 3𝑥 − cos(𝑥𝑦) + 𝐾
𝜕∅
= −𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 + 𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = −(𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 𝑦)
𝜕𝑦 𝑥3
𝑐 ′ (𝑦) = −𝑦 𝑐= + 𝑦𝑙𝑛𝑥 + 𝑦2
3
𝑦2
𝑐(𝑦) = −
2
𝑥2 𝑦2
∅(𝑥, 𝑦) = − 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 −
2 2

𝑥2 𝑦2
𝑐= − 𝑦𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑥 −
2 2