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[Superseding the Practical and Commercial

Dutch Grammars]


1 1

J. C. JUTA & CO.


'l'o the first New-Spelling-edition.

This book was written for South Africa more than

twenty years a,qo, and published under the name of
"The Practical Dutch Gramm,ar ". When, some ten
years later, I overhauled the rolume, and brought it
up to date, the new issue was styled "The Commer-
cial Dutch Grammar". '1.'he necessity has ntJw arisen
for introducing into the worlc the simplified spelling,
and I have decided that once more the name of the
boolc shall be changed. Trust'ing that it may be
found 'Worthy uf the leadiny position it has occupied
for so long a period, I have called it " The Standard
Dutch Grammar for South Africa". As such it is
issued as a first edition, which in reality is the
The book has been thoroughly modernised. While
the stu<lent u·ill note tlw same completeness which
has marked the work from the beginning, the large
number of business men who patronise my book will
find much in it that is attractive. I 1·efer here
especiall1f to the Spealc-and-Act Exercises, which
cover the same grou.nd as those introduced into my
Elementary Dutch Grammar, but advance rather
more rapidly. The effect of these exercises has been
found to be truly marvellous; and I entertain the
hope that the11 will be of very great advantage to
future students of this volume.
The Chapter on Biisiness ~l'erms and Correspondence
has been omitted, it having been transferred to my
"South African Letterwriter ".
The Standard Dutch Grnmmar represents all that
is accepted as official in the way of simplified Dutch,
and be,ars the stamp of University and Education
Office sanction and approval. The Kollewijn spelling
has been adhered to throughout.

Wynbcrg, near Gape Town,
1st May, 1907.

A, not translated with honderd or duizend (177), Note 6.
,4.an, uses of ( 308).
Accent, where to place ( 3i'i2-354).
Adjectives (152) et seq.
endini::; of when placed before noun (124), 4.
plural endings (125), 5.
used predicativeiy, uot declined (152), II. and Obs.
agreement with noun (153), III.
when form not changed (153), Obs. 1, 2; (154), V, 1-6.
difference of meaning between inflected nud uninfl.ect-
ed, after een, etc. (153), IV.
DegrPes of Compurh:ion (155-157).
which are not compared (157), Obs. 6.
Adverbs (287), et sE.q.
of numLer, derivati•J11 of (175), XIV.
formation of (292), Obs. 1, (293), Note 2.
comparison of (292), Obs. 2, 3.
exercises on (207, 298).
Af and nee1., renderings of (295, 296).
Af and toe, use of (295).
Alphabet, vowels in use with pronunciation (15) 2, 3.
consonants in use, with pronunciation (16, 17), 4-8.
dipllthongs, with prouunciation (17), 9.
Analysis, te:-ms used ( 370, 371).
additional rules (371) 1, 2.
4.nderhaif, rendering of (175), XV.
Any, idiomatic renderings of (172), 1-5.
Article, The, ( 47), et seq.
de- and het-words ( 48).
obsolete declension of ( 48, 49).
rules for correct use, repetition and omission of (49, 50),
IV, 1-5.
where used in Dutch and not in English (50, 51), V, 1-4.
rejection in both languages (51, 52) .
.Auxiliaries, (215).
A verechts, meaning of (295).
Beide, declined forms of (171).
Bij, uses of (309).


Comparison of Alljectirns (155-157).

use of mecr and mcest (15U), Ohs. 3, 4 ..
il'regular (157), Obs. 7.
" L'Xercises on (157-lUl).
Comp;rison of se~t(mces in English, old Book Duteh, and Sim-
plificd Dutch (138).
Composition Exercise, "Planting a tree." (2G).
Conjugation of the Verbs hebben and zijn (107, 108).
of Weak Yerb leren and Strong Verb istelen (139-
of Weak Verb dansen and Strong Verb lezen (162-
Weal' and Strong (212, 213), III.
complete form of (213-215).
" of hcbben (210, 217).
,, zijn (218, 219).
,, zullen (219).
" ,. u•orden (220, 221).
,, ,, Auxiliary Verbs of Mood (227-229).
Conjunctions (321), et seq.
('onstruction (358), et seq.
Principal sentenee--position of predicate, olJject, adverbial
extension, etc. (358-301), II-XI.
Sub-ordinate sentence--position of predicate (301), XIII.
,, ,, when auxiliaries
aru joined tu princ11.a1 Y-irh (J\\2, 3C3J, X:IY, XV.
Inversion in Principal sentence (3(i3, 3G5).
,, ,, SulJ-ordinate ,, ( 365, 36f\).
Conservation, Dutch-English, general (23).
about trees (46).
"Time" (57, 58).
"Meals" (&3, 84).
"Forms of Greeting and Address" (118, 119).
"'l'he weather" (150, 151) ; "To go shopping" (151)
"Family Relations" (181, 182).
"Travelling by land and rail" (209, 210).
"Travelling by Sea" (285, 2SG).
•' "About various Artizans" (303, 304).
"Trades and Occupations'' (319, 320),
"Teaching and School" (332, 333).

J>an, use of after comparatives (157), Obs. 8.
Declension (120), ct seq.
Nominative case (121), II.
Genitive case (121), III.
Dative case (122), IV.
Accusative case ( 122, 12~). Y.
" Observations on use of cases (123, 124), VI, 1, 2.

Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns deze and die and

Possessive Pronoun onze. (124), 3.
Obsolete (125), et sPq.
of Adjectives when not preceded by defi:µing
,, word (129, 130).
of Adjectives placed after Noun (130)
Strong and Weak (130-132).
" ,, of Com]Jonnd Pronouns ( 132).
exercises on ( 135-137) .
Degene and dezeLfde, declension of ( 194), '.!.
Dezel!Ve, use of (193), Obs. 1.
Diminutives, form::i.tion of (66, 67), XIV; (339, 340j,
Door, uses of (308, 309).

Een, when declined (170).
Er, use of (195) Note.
Etymology (336), et seq.
Formation of Nouns (337-3-11).
,, Adjective8 (342, 343).
,, Verbs (343-34G).
,, Adverlls (347) .
., .. Compound Words (34fl, 350).
List of words explained according to derivation (350-352),
exercises on ( 354, 355) .

Gender of Substantives ( 85) et seq.
Real Gender IHstinctions (85), II.
Natural Gender. Feminine suffixes (86, 87), III.
Common Gend0r (ti7, SS), IV.
Rules distinguishing de-words (88-91), V, 1-24.
Rules difitinguiHhing hot-words (91-94), 1-14.
Gender of Compound Nouns (94), VI.
Words \Jclonging to both classes (do and het), with difference
of meaning (94), VII.
List of het-words not included in Rules (!)5-101).
,, exercises on (105, 106), (115-118).
Gerund, translation of (232), XIV, 1, 2.
Goed and wel, use of ( 2!)5) .

Haive and wegen, use of (305), II, Obs.
Heen, henen use of (294).

If, as if, rernlNings of (1G6), (206, 207).
Immer, nimmer, use of (294).
Interjections (334, 335).
Jij or je, jullie, use of (72), (185), Obs. 1 (a-c).

Kteansuis, meaning of (295).
May, might, might have, rendering of (204).
Men, translations of (191).
Met, use of, as Adverb (295).
Moeten, translations of (282).
Mood, ( 229) et seq.
Indicative (229), XU a.
Subjunctive (229), XU !J.
Imperative (230), XII c.
" Translation of InfiuitiYe (230, 231), XIII
Multiplicatives, how formed, meaning of voudig and vuldig
(174), XlI.
Na, nadat, daai•na, rendering of (~D!)).
Nam•, uses of (310, 311).
Names of Countries with inhabitants aml corresponding Adjec-
tives (G3), (31S).
Niet, position of, in Negative sentences (179), (361), XII.
Noch, nog, meaning of (2!)3).
Number (237), XVL
Numeral Adjective,; (lti9) et seq.
Various idiomatic expresRions (173,174), XI.
List of Cardinals aud Ordinals (175, 176),
eXPl'l'iRC on (177).
Official and Documentary Language, List oi' terms (372)et seq.
Om, uses of ( 311).
when used to strengthen te hefore Infinitive (230), Rule 2.
Onder, uses of (300, 310).
Ooit, nooit, use of (294).
Op, uses of (310).

Parsing and Analysis (367) et seq.
,, abbreviations used (367, 368).
,, example of (369).
Participles, translation of (232, 233), XIV, 3, 4.
Parts or Speech, Dutch names of (47), (367).
I•erson (237), XVII.
Plural, formation of (59) et seq.
ending ers or eren (61), VII.
different meanings of, according to termination (61), VIII
words with irregular ( 62), IX.
of words ending in heid (62) .
., ,, man (B3).
words having no singular (66), XII.
words ha \'ing no ( 64) , XI, 1-3,
words with no vroper, plurttl borrowed from synonyms
(64), XI, 4.
,, Dutch singular forms for English plurals (65), 5.
,, formation of as regards final consonants (U7), XV; when
final consonant not doubled, 1; whe.n final con-
sonant doubled (68), 2; exceptions (68, 69).
of wor<ls ending in t or s ( 69) , 3.
,, exercises on ( 71, 72), (75, 76), (SO).
Preposiiions (305) et seq.
relations pointed out by (306-308), IV.
Preposition-Verbs with unlike Prepositions in English and
Dutch, List of (312-315).
Pronouns (183) et SC'f!.
Personal, with de<'lension (183-185).
,, use of old Possessive Case (187), 8.
use of gij, i i and jij (184, 185).
Reciprocal (185), 5.
Re1\exiw', with declension (186), 6, 7.
Possessive (188, 189), V.
Interro~ntive (18!)), VI.
,, <leclension of (190), Obs. 1.
corupounde<l with Prepositions (190), Obs. 2.
Indefinite (191, 192), YIT.
Correlative (193), VIII.
Demonstrative (l!l4-196), IX.
ltela tivc with Declension ( 190-198), X.
exercises on ( 199-202) .
Pronunciation, Exerdses on (1!), 21).
Put (to), to put on, etc., various renderings of (300, 301).
Reading Exercises, 126), (45), (56), (82, 83), (104, 105),
(114, 115), (14!), 150).

Schelen, different meanings of (246), Note.
Should, rendering of (204).
Should, oug·ht to, rendered by bchorcn (281).
Some, idiomatic renderings of (171), X, 1-7.
Speak-aml-Act Exorcise, No. 1.-"Een boom planten" (24-26).
No. 2.-"Ecn huis bouwen," the

Interrogative, Negative and Neg.-
, Interrog. forms introduced ( 34-37) .
No. 3, plural forms introduced ( 42-45)
No. 4. - " De lamp aansteken .,
" (54-56).
No.5.-"'t Paard schoonrnalcen" (70),
" Imperative form introduced (71).
No. fJ.-"De was doen" (76-78).
" No. 7.-"JJe doden begrnvm:" (81. 82).
" No. 8.-"De klok opwinden"
(102, 103).
No. 9.-·'Uit rijden g.aan" (112).
indevendent sentences (1:13, 114).
" No. 10.-"Brood balcken" (133) ;
Progressive form introduced (134) ;
exercise on continuous composition
No. 11.-"De schoorsteen veg en''
" (147-149).
Spelling, when pronunciation differs from (18, 19), 1-10.
,, general rules for (27, 28), I-VI.
use of single or double vowels (28-30).
exercises on ( 31-34) , ( 38-40) .
of Compound Nouns (41).
Syllables, division of words into (21), J-4.
,, open and closed (22).
,, exercises on t 22, 23) .


Tense (234-236), XV.

Then, when translated by dan, when by toen (167).
'l'ransla ti on Exercise No. 1. ( 52, 53) .
No. 2, introdueiug jij and julUe (72-74).
No. 3. (78, 79).
,, No. 4, introducing-
First Rule of Construction (109).
Second .. ,, ,, (109, 110).
'.Chird ,, ,, ,, (110).
Interrogative, NPgative and Neg.-Interrog.
forms (111).

Translation Exercise No. 5, introducing-

Fourth Rule of Construction (142, 143).
Translation of Pres. Participle (143, 144).
Use of willen (144, 145).
Translation of certain Infinitives having
no equivalent in Rnglish (145, 146).
Translation of "when" (147).
No. G. (l!il-168), introducing-
" Transla ti on of "if" by indien or als (166).
Various translations of "then" (167).
Fifth Rule of Construction (168).
No. 7. (178-180), introducing-
Sixth Rule of Construction (179).
Translation of Pres. Participle by terwijl
No. 8 (202-209), introducing-
Various translations of "may" (204).
"will" and
..;ould" (205:• 206)."
Various translations of "if" (206, 207).
,, "to know" (207).
,. ,, ,, "used to" (208).
Seventh Rule of Construction (208).
No. 9. (270-283), introducing-
Certain idiomatic expressions (280, 283,
"Should'', "ought to'', translated by
behoren (281).
Translations of moeten (282).
No. 10. (298-302), introducing-
" Various renderings of "after" (299).
,, translations of "to put" (300, 301).
No. 11. (315-318).
No. 12. (328-332).
" No. 13. (356, 357).
Uit, uses of (311).
Van, uses of (308).
Variatives, formation of, meaning of lei and hanile (175), XIII.
Verbs, (211) et seq.
,, Weak and Strong (138, 139).
,, determ ina ti on of stern ( 211, 212) , II.
when conjugated with zijn, when with hebben (215, 216).
Transitive and Intransitive (238), XVIII.
Reflexive (238-241), XIX.
" Mixed, list of (242), XX.
" Anomalous, list of ( 243-244), XXI.
" Impersonal (245-247), XXII.

Verbs, Causative (247), XXIII.

,, Intensive (247), XXIV.
Frequentative (248), XXV.
Compound (248-249), XXVI.
Separably compounded (250).
Inseparably compounded ( 250) .
List of Compound, with different meanings according to
accent (251-252).
List of Strong (252-257), XXVII.
exercises on ( 258-270) .
Vocabulary, English-Dutch (386) et seq.
Voice (221).
Comparison between Active and Passive of bijten (221-
223), x.
Observations on Active and Passive (225-227).
Transposition from Active into Passive--use of men
(226, 227), 5 (a-f).
·when, when translated by toen, when by wanneer (147).
Whoever and whatever, translation of (192).
Will and would, rendering of (205, 206).
Wijlen, meaning of (294).
Zelden, zeldzaam, use of (204).
Zijn, comparison between its use as Copulative anti!. Auxiliary
of Passive Voice (224, 225), X, b.



(lfet Aliabet.)

1. THE Dutch alphabet consists of the same letters as

the English, but the letters c, q, x, and y are not used
in word8 of Dutch origin. 0 and h are nseu as a
compound cousonant (rh). Reep 17, § 7.

~. The following are the Vowels (Klinkers) in use:

A, pronounced as in English father,· E, pronounced as
in English con1:ey; I (written « ie" for double "i"),
pronounced as in English knee; 0, pronounced as in
EngUsh woe; V, pronounced as in French -mur,· OE,
pronounced as in English pool; EV, pronounced as in
German ode.
NO'n.-l!'or the correct pronunciation of U, UE, U and EU, it" ls
necessary to bring the lips forward. This done, for the
0-sound leave a larger, and for the OFJ-sound a small round
ovening; for the FJU-sound a hroad slit, and for the U-
sound a narrow slit between the lips.

~. Five Yowels, viz. a, e, i, o, 11, have eacl, a double

sound. \Vhcn written with the double sign, aa, ee, ie, oo,
uu, or when occurring at the end of a syllable, or when
forming a syllable by themselves, their sound is full, as
indicated in § 2; but when single, and enclosed between
consonants, their sound becomes imperfect; e.g. man (as

in German Mann); lcs (as in English test); lip) pro-

nounced as in Eng!ish; ltop) pronounced as in Englii:ih;
rirst (slightly less broad than u in English rust).

NoTE.-The e has a third souml, npproaching that of the

imperfect u. It occurs in the article de; in the fiPxion-endiugs
of the adjective; in the verhal prefixes 7HJ, gc, and ver, and
suffix en; in the plural ending en of uouns, a1Hl in unaeeent-
ed syllaLles heforn rn, n, l, p, 1·, t. 'r11e sound of this e is
hearu in the seeonu syllaLle or the English word bundle.
'fhe o likewise has a third sound, more imperfect than that
heard in hop ( vide 3). It resembles the o-sound in on,
as against that in horse. It chiefly precedes or follows the
letters rn and n, e.g. romp, tromv, rommcl, drom, mos, rlom,
madder, lonip, kom, om, under, long, zong, dron,q, wrong.
krom, as against hop, top, stop, drop, rot, hol, los, tros, ros,
jol, tol, sollcn, tornrn, dorscn.

Tmperfect i sounds almost like ii in the suffix W;: men-sc-

lik, d'icr-li7•.

4. Of the Consonants (Medeklinkers), Bis pronounced

a:;: in Rnglish bailiff; D, as in Engli:;;h dainty: K, as in
Englii:;lt caprice; P, as in Engli:;;h pale; R, as in English
error; T, as in English take; and Z, pronounced zett)
as in French; F, L, M, N, and S, as in English; H, like
EngliRh ha! and always aspirated; J, like J<Jnglish yea j
a, like ch in Scotch nicht) and loch)· V, like very soft
Engli1'h f; and W, materially like EngliRh v.

NOTE.-0 always has a guttural sound (p. 17, § 7). exr·ept

when oeeurring after n, when it souulls as in the Rnglish
wurd ring.

5. 'fhe English Y, when used in Dutch words of Greek

origin, is pronounced like English ee or i, as in synode)
syntaxis. The Dutch lJ is originally a double i) now
written i and j combined. The sound represented by this
combination, which is foreign to the English language,
lies clo:;;e to the sound of ay in the English word pay.
THE ,1L1'11.t1BE1' 17

the teeth,when pronouncing the Dutch word ... pij", being

less widely apart than for the pronunciation of the
J~nglish pay.

6. The letters u, q, and a; are only met with in words

introduced into Dutch from other languages} and are
there pronounced as in English, c being like k before
o, o, ·u, or a consonant, and likes, before e, i, and ie; t,
in such words, occurring before the ending ie (Eng. -ion),
is pronounced like s, e.g. nutiu} nation, pr. na-sit The
ending atie is by some pronounced aatsic: for instunce,
for predilcatie (predika1>ieL sermon, one may hear predi·
krutl.~ie. 'l'his pronunciation i-;hould not be enconraged.
7. C occurs in Dutch in combination with H, ch being
the representation of a guttural sound, rather sharper
than that of g. SCH, when found at the beginning of
a ·word, or as the initial letters of a stem after a prefix,
should be pronounced as a combination of s and the
guttural ch,· as schaap, pr. s-oh-aap; geschapen, pr.
NoTE.--'fhis sound of sch is retaiuetl in tlw suffix scliap.
ln certain Proper Nouns aud geographical names, where
this composite consonant occurs otherwise than ini1ially,
it is invariably pronounced like s: Stellenbosch, pr. Stel-
len-bos; Visscher, pr. Vis-ser.

8. TH is pronounced as single t, and PH like f, b,v

which sign it is now superseded.
9. The Dutch language has the following diphthongs:
Bi, formerly ai ( ag), pronounced exactly like ij; Au,
pronounced as in English stout; Ou, pronounced softer
than rw, though by many the difference is disregarded;
Ui, no equivalent in English, softer than German eu,
pronounced in the same way as u and eu (see § 2), but
with a yet wider opening of the mou1h; Aai, like ay in
Rcotch pronunciation of McKay; Ooi, full Dutch o-sound
with i-sound attached, like oh-y; Beu, full sound of Dutch
.e, ending in the sound of iv; Jeu, full sound of Dutch i,
·ending in that of ·w.


(Spelling en Uitspraak.)

Broadly speaking, Dutch should be pronounced as

it is spelled. The following are the cases in which
pronunciation differs from spelling:
1. Final b, d, and g, are respectively pronounced like
p, t, and ch, e.g. bed, pr. bet,· pad, pr. pat; lag, pr. lach.
2. The guttural sound of g is lo'st whenever n precedes
it, e.g. ding, ring, hing.
3. The initial z of zestig, sixty, and zerentig, seventy,
is pronounced like s.
4. The t before final ie in words of French origin, is
pronounced like s, e.g. konsideratie, pr. konsiderasie.
5. The sound of th is that of a single t, e.g. thermometer,
pr. ter-mo-me-ter.
G. Final t is usually left out before the diminntive
ending je. Kwast, nest and vest make l:u:astje, nestje,.
and vestje, ·which are pronounced kwasjo, 1wsje, and vosje.
7. 'l'he diminutive ending je is colloquially pronounced
ie, except when preceded by d or t; e.g. koppie (for kopje)
boelcie (for boekje) ; but mannetje, handje, etc.
8. The pronunciation of the endings de, der, and den,
is often je, jcr, and jen, in colloquial speech. De goede
man (the good man), is pronounced de gueie man; like-
wise does breder (broader) sound brejcr, and sleden
(sledges), slejen.
This is the case in:-
(Adjectives) goede, goeie (good), brede, breje-
(broad), rode, rooie (red), dodo, dooie (dead),
kwade, kwaaie (angry), etc.; whereas, oude (old),
and koudc (cold) change their d into a w: ouwe,

(Nouns) laden, laaien (drawers), leden, lejen

(members), kleden, klejen (carpets), smeden,
smejen (smiths), sneden, snejen (slices), etc.
(Verbs) laden, laaien (to load), snijden, snijen
(to cut), lijden, lijen (to suffer), leiden, leien
(to lead), rijden, rijen (to ride), etc.
9. In loose speech final n of the ending en of Nouns
and Verbs is dropped. The men were speaking together,
de mamnen spraken met elkaar, sounds-de manne sprake
met elkaar.
10. The Pers. Pron. hij, he, is often shortened into
a single i-sound in fluent speaking, lieeft hij (has he)
becoming heeft-i, and had hij (had he) becoming hat-i, etc.
NoTE.-These deflections from grammatical forms are not
commendable, though really universal. They, however, find
no place in the written language.


Pronounce according to the hints in the undermentioned

paragraphs of Section 1.
Paar, taal, haas, maat, va-der, ma-len, ta-fel, za-del;
meel, reet, geel, le-pel, ze-dig, le-ven, we-zel; diep, stier,
sliep, iets, ieder, vie-ren, hie-len, wie-den; kool, roos, pook,
troon, mo-len, wo-nen, ko-per, sto-ven; uur, muur, uw,
sluw, vu-ren, ju-bel, du-wen, mu-ziek; koek, woest, poel,
troep, moe-der, loe-ren, woe-dcnd, roe-ren; neus, heup,
deur, lrneu, sleu-ren, leu-ze, steu-nen, kleu-rig.

(Full Vowels.) Baat, ba-ten, aap, a-del; 7.eef, ste-len,
eer, e-del, vee; dienst, wie-len, iep, ie-ren, drie; roof,
do-ren, oor, o-pen, stro; stuur, stu-ren, u-ren, ruw.
(Imperfect Vowels.) Kar, slap, plat, man, stam, land,
stal, want, plan, lam; vel, mes, wet, test, net, spel, ren,
stem, pen, kers; dik, mis, lip, ik, bril, stil, kin, pit, krimp,

dirk; rnul, hulk, rum, kunst, lust, hurk, muts, dun, ruk,
wuft; bre-de, ka-le, blaf-fen, de, ge-loop, ver-haal, be-derf,
ko-pen, be-ren, val-len, rom-mel, de-det, de·sem, re-ten,
lo-pen, wan-de-Jen, krab-be-len, re-ge-ren, dof, dot, dom-mel,
los, lot, glun-dert.

Baas, bas, buur, bus, boel, boek, beek, bek; daar, dorp,
deur, doe!, dek, dak, dwaas, dwars, diep, dik, dis-tel; kaal,
kap, koor, rok, kwee, kwast; kist, kiel, ko-ren; peer, paard,
pronk, proest, pis-tool, pest, pret; raam, ram, roes, rust,
rank, rit-se-len, riet; teer, turf, troep, toorn, to-ren,
trap-pe-len; zak, zaak, ziek, zink, zulk, zool, zeem, zoet,
zwal-ken; haan, hoop, hop, hak, haal, help, hulp, hoed,
heup; jaar, jas, jood, jank, joel, jeuk, jong; goot, grot,
geul, gaas, gas, groef, gist, grim-men; vaas, vroom, voelt,
vleug, vlag, vIOk, vinnen; waan, woest, wier, wraak, wrok,

(Foreign Words.) Synode, tyrannie, hypokriet,
chrysoliet, symptoom, mythe, fysiek, fysies.
(Dutch Words.) Rijm, vijl, stijf, grijp, wrijven, lijvig,
blijken, wijzen.

Cato, koncept, recentie, canto, promotie, akceptatie,
garantie, Curai;ao, (pronounced Ku-ra-sau), Clemens,
cipier, provincie, Corinthe, Worcester.

Lach, kuch, zucht, kracht, licht, ge-zicht, ver-licht,
ge-lucht, macht, wacht, ge-dacht; schaap, schip, schut,
schop, schom-mel, schim, schat, schol, schram, schrik,
schrijn, ge-schaamd, ver-scholeu, her-scha-pen, ont-schie-
ten, blijd-schap; Rondebosch, Loubscher, Grootschuur,


'rhnis, 'thermometer, rnethode, theologie, theosofie.

:Lei, -..vei-de, reis, stei-ge-ren, fon-tein, lei-den. stei-ler,
tein; pans, kous, saus, lauw, flauw; rauw, dauw, vrouw;
liuis, rni-ken, tuin, wui-ven, dui-nen, muis, ruim, pruik;
1aai, zaai-en, lrnai, maai-en; hooi, mooi-er, strooien, tooi
en; dooi; eeu-wig, leen-wen, spreeuw, geeu-wen; nieuw,
nieu-we, krieu-wen.

( Lettergrepen.)

1. The pronunciation of Dutch words is a simple and

(!asy matter, after the sounds have been mastered. On the
111·onmHjation depends the division of the words into

3. This llivision has no connection with etymology.

No maHer how a word has been derived, compounded,
contracted or abridged, its syllables depenll on the open-
ing and elosing of the mouth when it is pronounced.

3. Perfect articulation gives perfect division into

syllables. There is no other rule.

4. Students should observe:-

(a) That one consonant found between two vowels
goes with the vowel which follows it: ltazcn = ha-::en,
leven = le-ven, ademcn =a-de-men.
(b) That of a combination of two or more consonants,
one is retained by the first vowel, whereas the remaind<>r
go with the yowel following them: dauipi!J =dam-pig,
iiohande = schan-de, korsten = kor-sten, - unless such
division should stanci in the way of pronunciation:
ernstig = ern-stig, instead of er-nstig, ambten = amb-ten,
~md not am-bten.
22 'l'lfF: S'P.-tNDARD DU'l.'CH GRA.. MMAR

NoTE !.-These rules have no referenre to cornpouud words,

which naturally keep their parts intact: plaatskaart=
plaa,ts-kaart, slagaar=slag-aar. Likewise do the suffixes
aard, achtig, and rifk retain their own letters: l<Lf-1wrd,
blauw-achtig, gunst-rijk.
NOTE 2.-The compound ch is not divided: iachcn=la-chen;
pochen=po-chcn, though in hoth cases the imperfect vowel
sound is retained, the spelling having once been poch-chen,
and afterwards pog-chen.
NOTE 3.-The other compound ng is divided, on account of the g
having been formerly sounded. This division. however, is
not in accordance with prounnciation.

Syllables-Open and Closed.

In Dutch a syllable is termed (a,) open (open), when

it ends in a vowel; ( b) closed ( gesloten), when it ends
in a consonant.
Examples of (a )--vre-de, be-te-ren, ga-de-lo-ze,
Examples of ( b )-lan-den, won-der-daad, on-ein-dig-


Break the words of the following exercises into

syllables, noticing which of the syllables are open, and
which closed:-
Lakeu, monster, paarden, stallcn, dochters, zonen,
handen, panccl, kapstok, brandwacht, kapoen, vinger,
planten, struiken, bomen, pennen, hazen, eenden, vinden,
stokpaard, ketting, wartaal, ganzen, spiegel, vragen,
dcnkPn, klinken, mengen, marktplaats, slokdarm,
llederven, gedenken, ontvangen, stamelen, regeren,
vergelden, hagelen, hergeven, oorlogen, droefenis, latafel,
'l'Hlil ALPHABET 23

ouderdom, gestorven, lessenaar, schuifgordijn, akelig,

inktkoker, plaveien, instrument, onttrekkcn, uitvinding,
overlast, blikslager.
Betoveren, gedachtenis, goedhartigheid, nauwkeurige,
bedelende, nadrukkelik, onloochenbaar, monsterachtig,
wellevendheid, anderhalve, onaangenaam, milddadigheid,
haveloze, tandcpoeier, horlogekast, overmachtig,
voorwereldlik, ontstentenis, kompanjieen, vergiffenis,
dialektiek, professoraat, rcgulatie, landarbeid, Zaterdag,
blijmoedige, llruiloftsdis, edclmoedigheid.

Keukengereedschap, kousefabriek, katoenspinnerij,
overeenkomstig, houtzaagmolen, koninginnemantel,
Israelitisme, spoorwegmaatschappijen, testamentbezorger,
:fi.losofieen, meteorologiese, onderwijzersvcrenigingen,
horlogemakerswinkel, primitiviteit, invalidein:'!tituut,


1. Hoe heLt u? What is your name?

2. nc hect Jan. My name is John.
3. Waar komt u vandaan? Where do yon come from?
4. lk kom van school. I come from school.
5. Hoe O'Ud is u? How old are you?
6. lk ben twaa.lf j,aar. T am bv<>l ve years old.
7. Is de school groot? Js tlte sehool large'/
8. Ja, er zijn zcs lcamers. Yes. there are six rooms.
9. En oolc zrs onderwijzers? And six mnsters also?
10. Teen, zeven of acht. No, seven or eight.
J 1. En hoerrel leerlingrn zijn And how many scholars are
er? there?
12. 0, meer da.n honderd, Oh, more than a hund~d.
gcloof ik. I believe.
NoTE.-ln familiar speech the questions of 1, 3, and 5 would be:
Hoe heet je? Waar kom je vandaanl' Hoe oud ben. je? Seep. 36
In South Afriea Wat is uw naarn? is the only curr<'nt
expression for, What is y<'nr imme?
24 TJI}I] E'TA.,\lJ,\RlJ DL-TCJI GR,LllJlA.R


Een /Juum planten.-To plant a tree.

1. Ik ya naar du tuin. I go to the garden.

~- lk ncem ccn graaf iu I take a l>pade' in my
mijn ltu nd. h:rnd.
a. lk spit ecn gat in de T dig a hole in the ground.
4. llc zct ecn boom in llf't I put a tree into the hole.
5. lk vul hct gat met l fill the hole with soil.
6. Ik trap du grun<l nrnt. I tread the Roil down.
7. lk haal een gi"Ctcr. I fetch a watering-can.
8. Ile tap 1rnter uit de I drinv water from the
kraan. tap.
n. lk gooi !tet ·u·atcr bij du I i hrow the water round
boom. the tree. ·
10. Zo iwrdt d,, boom So the tree is planted.

REMARK.-Thc al10Ye Pxerdsc. aud all following Speak-and-

Act Exercises, sl10ulu be made the sulJjed of action while
speaking, or speaking while acting. Tlwy are foumled on the
fact that children learn to talk by rehearsing sentenees expressive
of their actions, while these are in progress. Languages are
best and most quickly learnt in the same way: What are styled
"Subsequent Jilxercises" are derived from the "Speak-and-Act
Bxercises", and should he looked upon in the light of Grammar
work foundNl on the knowledge obtained lJy aetual ex11Prien<'e
during tlw pral'tice of the latter. 'l'hey ar<' meant to lie writte>n
as we>ll as RpokPn.


Ik gn. l1ij gnnt. lk ncem, hij neernt. Jk spit, hij spit.

T go, he goes. I take, he takPs. I l1ig, he digs.

NoTE.-The 1st pcrs. sing. present tcnsl• of all Yerbs represents

the Vl'rh-ste>m. ThP 3ru pers. sing. of' tlie same tense adds
t to the verlJ-stem, if it does not already end in t.


gaan, to go. ilcga, I go. ii;; (ltij) 11ing, I went.

nemcn, to take. ik ncem, I take. il;; (hij) nam, I took.
spit ten, to dig. Uc spit, I uig. ilc (hij) svitte, I U.ug.
zetten, to put. ik zct, I put. U; (hij) zcttc, I put.
vullen, to fill. ilcnit, I fill. ik (hij) rulde, I filled.
trappen, to treau. Uc trap, I lread. il;; (hij) trapte, I trod.
halon, to fet<'h. ik haal, I fetch. il; (hij) haaldc, I fetched.
tappcn, to draw ik tap, I draw. ik (hij) tapte, I drew.
(from a tap).
gaaien, to throw. 'ilc gaol, I throw. il;; (hij) gaaide, I threw.
warden, to be ik u:urrl, l be- ii;, (hij) ii-ere/, I lleeame.
(become). eorne.

ik bcn (hij is) gegaan, I have (he has) gone.

ilc hcb (hij hrcft) gcnamcn, I ham (he Irns) taken.
ilv heb (hij heeft) gespit, I have (he has) dug.
il,; heb (hij heeft) gezet, I have (he has) pui.
ilc hrb ( llij hccft) gevuld, I have (he has) filled.
ilv hob (llij hceft) getrapt, I have (he has) trodden.
ilc heb (hij heeft) gchaald, I have (he has) fetched.
ilc heb (hij heeft) getapt, I have (he has) drawn.
ik heb (hij hceft) geguahl, I have (he has) thrown.
ilc ben gewarden, I have been (beeome).
ldj is geu;urden, he (it) has been (l1eel'me).


The auo\·e Yeru-forms will enable the learner to speak

Exercise No. 1 ( 1) in the 1st pers. t>ing. Indicative
present; (2) in the 3rd pers. sing. Iudic. present; (3) in
the 1st pers. sing. In die. past ; ( ±) in the 3rd pers. sing.
Indic. past; ( 5) in the 1st pers. sing. Tndic. perfect;
(6) in the 3rd pers. sing. Indic. perfect.

All these exercises should be first spoken and then

carefully written. They will fix themselves indelibly in
the learner'K mind. He should thus handle gmmmatical
forms before he learns to esfaulish them by theory.

1Ie1·c follow some of the sen1cnces:


[lndfoative Past, 1st and 3rd persons singular.]

Ik ging naar de tuin. Hij ging naar de tuin.
Ik nam ePn graaf in mijn hand. Hij nam een graaf in zijn hand.
Ik spitte een gat in de grond. Hij spitte een gat in de grond.

[Indicative Perfect, 1st and 3rd persons singular.]

Ik ben naar de tuin gegaan. IJij is naar de tuin gegaan.
Ik heb een grnaf in mijn hand Hij heeft een graaf in zijn hand
genomen. gen omen.
Ik heb een gat in de grornl llij lleeft een gat in de grond
gespit. gespit.
NoTm.-In principal sentences, formed with compound tenses,
i.P. Perfect, Pluperfect and Future, the Dutch Past
Participle is vlaceu last.

lk heb een boom in mijn hand. De boom is klein.
I have a tree in my hand The tree is small.
Ik ga de boom planten. lk neem een graaf en ga naar de
l go the tree (to) plant. I take a spade and go to the
tuin. Nu spit ik een gat in de grond. Ik maak het gat
garden. :Now 11ig 1 n hole ih the gc0·Lmd. I makettlie hole
twee yoet diep. De wortel van de boom is lang. De
two feet de~·p Tue root of th.-! tree is loug. The
wortel gaat in de grond, maar de stam niet. 1fijn boom
root goes inh> the grou111l, l•ut the ;,tern not. ~Iy tree
zal mooi wordcn. Hij zal groeien. Hij zal blaren
will prett~· lJ•"'OJlll'. It will grow. It will leaves
krijgen. Hij zal nucht dragen. Ik zal blij zijn.
get. rr will fruit rear. I slrn JI glan hP.

Write ten Dutch sentences constructed with the words
given above, but different from an.r you have learnt.
Tell the lesson about "Planting a Tree", substituting
mijn broer, my brother, or mijn zuster, my sister, or de
tuinmnn, the gardener, for the pronouns given, or any of
them, varying the sentences as much as you can.



I. IN the pronunciation of Dutch words every letter is,

as a rule, sounded. A word pronounced may, therefore,
be taken as a word spelled. Some obvious discrepancies
in the presentation of vowels have been removed by the
Simplified Spelling now in vogue, rendering Dutch
Spelling easy of acquirement, after the few following
rules have been mastered.

IL Words without inflexion take their final consonant

according to pronunciation : met, with ; zich, himself:
noch, neither.

III. 'Vhen tJie final 1·mrnonrr11t o!' rr wor<l iR a hard

one, the last but one should be hard also; likewise is a
soft final consonant preceded by a soft one: nacht has ch,
becauRe it ends in t j dcugd has g, because it ends in d.

~OTE1.-This rule gives way to etymology. and is therefore not

applied in the conjugation of Yerbs: hij lc,qt keeps its g
before the t, seeing the u forms part of the stem of the Verb.
NOTE 2.-F,xceptions to this rule are reetls, already; steeds,
always; sinds, since; bereids. already, in whi<'h d is preserved
before final s.

IV. Neither words nor syllables can end in double

consonants. The English endings ff and ss, and the Ger·
man tt and nn cannot, therefore, be met with at the end
of a syllable of any Dutch ~ord.

V. 'Yords or syllables cannot end in either v or ~.

Where such endings would be demanded by derivation,
the v is made an f and the z an s: vrezcn, to fear; ik vrees,
I fear; sterven, to die; hij sticrf, he died.

Vl. Touching declinable words, the question whether

they end in d or t must be settled by declension: paard>
horsP, sounds paort, but it is written with d, because its
plural is paarden. rraag,. question, sounds vraach, but
is written with g, because its plural is vragen, in which
g, not being final (vra-gen), is pronounced soft. So also
is vreemd, strange, written with d, because of vreem-de ,·
groat, large, with t, because of gro-ter.

VII. Rules about single and double vowels.

1. The double sign, aa, ee, oo, uu, is used:

(a) When the full sound of the vowel opens a
syllable: aar, vein; eer, honour; oor, ear; uur, hour.
(b) When the full sound is closed up between
consonants: daad, deed; deeg, dough; kool, cabbage;
muur, wall.
( c) In the Verbs goo-che-len, to juggle, and
loo-che-nen, to deny.

2. The single sign, a, e, o, u, is used:

(o \ \Vhen the full sound constitutes a syllable in
itself: n-dcl, noble; e-zel, ass; o-gen, e;ves; u-ren, hours.
(u) When the full sound is heard in an open syllable:
vra-gcn, to ask; le-ren, to learn; ho-ren, to hear;
du-ren, to last.
( c) 'Vhenever the sound is imperfect: ar-moe-de,
poverty; urn, urn; dak, roof; lzut, hut; erts, ore; hok, pen.
1d) When 11. is followed by w, rendering its sound
full: ruw, rough; sluw, sly. S ~

YII. Rules about single and double /.

1. The double sign (ie) is used:
(a) When the full sound occurs between consonants:
dienst, service; mier, ant.
( b) In open syllables, when accented, or final:
mie-ren, ants; vcr-drie-tig,. sorrowful; foe-lie, mace;
bie-zon-der, particular; Ja-nu-a-rie, January; though in
words not purely Dutch, fue simple 't is preferred:
in-va-li-de, an invalid.
( c) When the full sound constitutes a syllable in
itself in purely Dutch words: ie-mand, some one; ir-dcr,
every one.

2. The single sign (i) is used.

(a) When the sound is imperfect between consonants:
dik, thick; mik-ken, to aim.
(b) In open syllables, unaccented and not final:
rnu-zi-kant, bandsman; fa-bri-kant, manufacturer. In
such cases, however, ie is admissible when the word may
be considered Dutch.
( c) In words taken from foreign languages : i-dc-aal,
ideal; i-di-oot, idiot: i-dce.. idea: in·tri-ge_. intrigue;
in-vi-te-ren, to invite (not i11-vic-tA-rr>n).
The ending ies (Eng-. ic) in i,mch words, however,
always takes ie: filologies, philological.

IX. Words of one syllable ending in the e=sound

have the double vowel:
Tee, tea;. vee, cattle; zee, sea; wee, woe; kwee,
quince; twee, two. Derivatives from these words
keep the double e: twee-de, second; zee-en, seas.

X. Rules as to the use of ei and ij.

1. A corresponding word in English or German having
two vowels, points to the use of ei in Dutch; likewise, if
the foreign cognate has one vowel, the ii takes its place
in Dutch:

Feil, failing; fontein, fountain; spreiden, to

Rijst, rice; prijs, price; lijst, list; dozijn, dozen.
2. When contraction has taken place, el must be used.
Zeil (zegel), sail; dweil ( dwegel), clout; keil
(kegel), wedge; meid (maged), ruaid.
3. Ei is used in the endings heid, teit_. and lei:
Goedheid, goodness; majesteit, majesty; allerlei, all
kinds of.
4. /J is used in the endings ij, ijn, and ijs:
Ba,kkerij, bakery; galerij, gallery; dolfijn, dolfin;
radijs, radish.
E'i. IJ occurs in strong verbs, as bijten, to bite, beet,
gebetenj blijven, to remain, bleef, gebleven.

XI. The meanings of the following words of like

pronunciation should be acquired.
Homonyms with ij and ei :-
bij, bee. bci, berry.
berijden, to ride on. l>crf'iden, to prPpare.
ijk, stamp, assizer's mark. l'ik, oak.
fijt, whitlow. fcU, fact.
hij, he. he·i, or heide, heath.
lijden, to suffer. lciden, to lead.
mij, me. llfei, ~fay.
mijt, mite. mcid, servant.
pijl, arrow. pcil, water-mark (on vessels).
rij, row. rci, choir.
rijken, rich people, kingdoms. rcilccn, to reach.
Rijn, Rhine. re1n, pure.
rijs, young twigs (collective). reis, voyage.
stijl, style, door-post. steil, steep.
vijl, file. c<' il, for sale.
vlijen, to lay fiat. !'lcirn, to flatter.
wij, we. 11·ei or u·eidc, meadow.
wijden, to consecrate. u•cidni, to graze.
wijten, to impute. u•eitcn, wheaten (adj.)
zijdf', silk. zcidc, said.



Fill ·up the blanks with single or doitble a:

V-n w-r kw-m de m-n die ik d-r z-g? Hij
From where came the man whom I the1e saw'! He
kw-m v-n de k-nt v-n de st-d. W-t z-1 ik hem
came from the side of the town. What shall I him
r-den, -ls hij mij vr-gt? R-d hem zijn -rme v-der
advise when he me asks"! Advise him his poor father
w-t te helpen. Wie k-n dit r-dsel r-den: w-t w-s
a little to help. Who can this riddle guess: what was
w-s, eer w-s w-s w-s? De m-st v-n d-t schip is
wax, ere wax wax was? The mast of that ship is
--f, de kr-cht v-n de storm heeft hem de voorl-tste
off, the force of the storm has it the previous
u-cht -f gesl-gen. Ik z-1 u voor uw str-f
night down struck. I shall you for your punishment
v-n -vond 1-ten w-ter dr-gen. De j-ger is op de
this evening let water carry. The hunter is on the
j-cht geg-n, en heeft twee h-zen en drie fez-nten
hunt gone. and has two llares and three pheasants
thuis gebr-cht.
home brought.


Ji'Ul up the blanks with single or double u:

Aan de m-r in zijn st-deerkamer hing een r-w
On the wall in his study hung a rude
kruis. Zijn die vr-chten - niet te z-r? 0 neen, ik
crucifix. Are those fruits (for) you not too sour? 0 no, I
houd van z-re vr-chten, meer dan -. D-w de
like sour fruits, more than you. Push the
1-cifersdom; open met -w vinger, S-zie. St-r -w
matchbox open with your finger, Susie. Send your
knecht om het paard van -w b-rman te h-ren. - zal
servant (for) the horse of your neighlJour to hire. You will

bet zelf moeten gaan h-ren: ik kan de knecht n-

it yourself have to go (and) hire: I can the servant now
niet st-ren. llet zal niet veel -rcn meer d-ren, of
not send.' It will not many hours more last, before
die m--r zal om liggen. Die vreemde hond, die daar
that wall will uown lie. That strange dog, which there
zo vals ligt te gl-ren, beeft n- en dan vreemde k-ren.
so falsely lies lurking, has now and then strange whims.


F'ill iip the blanks with single or double e:

H-ft de kl-fpleister de wond in het b-n van uw

Uas the sticking-plaster the wound in the leg of your
n-f g-n-z-n? Ik h-b h-t br-de papier aan smalle
cousin heal Pd? I have the wide paper in narrow
r-p-n g-sn-d-n. Br-ng mij h-t n-t dat
strips cut. Bring me the net whiC'h
d- kn-cht h-d-n v-rst-ld h-ft; ik zal
the servant to-day mcndP<l has; I shall
h-t ov-r d- h-g 1-gg-n. D- h-m-ls
it over the hedge lay. The testers
van de b-dd-n zijn n-tj-s afg-v-gd. B-rg
of the beds are neatly dusted. Put
h-t g-ld in uw v-st w-g, and-rs wordt
the money in your waistcoat by, or l'lse (will) be
h-t uitg-g-v-n. Br-ng h-t scb-rp- m-s
it spent. Bring the sharp knife
bij de kn-cht, -n z-g h-m, dat hij h-t
to tlw servant and tell him, that he the
h-ft moct vastz-tt-n. De w-t van h-t
handle must fix. The law of the
g-w-t-n van -Ike m-us z-gt h-m, dat
c·onsciei1ce of evPry man tl'lls him tL:tt
st-1-n onr-cht is.
to steal wrong is.
Sl'ELLrSG 33


' Fill up tlle blanks with single or double o:

Ik heb geh-rd, dat de r-ver de k-pman verm-rd

I h:we heard, that the rol>ber the rnerchant rnurdcred
lteeft. Het kind dr-mue van sp-ken,, die in de t-ren
has. 'J'he child dreamt of ghosts, which in the tower
w-nden. De t-venaars en g-chelaars k-nden de
lived. The magicians and jugglers could (to) the
k-ning zijn dr-m niet uitleggen.-nze v-rouders leefden
king his dream not explaiu. Our aueesturs lived
in b-ssen, en droegen -ssehuiden met de h-rens -p hun
in woods and wore ox-hides with the horns on their
h-fden. Hij geh-rzaamt u -p bel-fte dat u hem
heads. He obeys you ou (the) promise that you him •
zal bel-nen. VV-nen er -k mensen -p b-men? Ja,
will reward. Live there any people on tree8? Yi>s,
~n er zijn -k s-mmige menses-rten, die in h- len
and there are also some kinds of people, who in holes
en spel-nken w-nen. De vr-like z-n t-\·ert
:ind caves live. The Lright sun paints (by magic)
"'en sch-ne b-g tegen de d-nkere w-lken.
a pretty :1 rch agaim<t Uw dark clouds.


Pill itp the blanks with ei or ij:

Z-t O"- ber-d m- te leren r-den? W-s m- de

Are "'you prepnri>cl me to teach to ride? Rhow me the
r- bomen, die j - geplant hebt. Z-n b:-dRc~ap iR_ maar
row (of) tri>Ps, which ~-ou pl:mti>d llavP. IllS nurth is hut
~ch-n; h- iR niet waarlik bl-. W---:-n wordt pit
pri>tence; hP is not renlly merry. Wm<' is from
drniven ber-d, en az-n uit w-n. Het m-Rje zal de
~rapPs prPpnrPd. ancl vincgnr 011t of winP. TllP girl will the
r--van haar vriendinnen op een 1- Rchr-wn, Pn u de
row of her friends on a slate write, and you the

1-st dan w-zen. Ik ben bl-, dat j - die schilder-

list then show. I am glad, that you that painting
kr-gt. De h-ning sch-dt het w-land van m-n
get. The fence separates the pasture-ground from my
tuin. Als w- eerlik en vl-tig z-n, leven w- vr- en
garden. When we honest and diligent are, live we freely and
bl-. J - moet niet te veel t-d aan r-den w--den;
happily. You must not too much time to riding devote;
dat zou niet w___!.s z-n. De berg is te st-I om af
that would not wise be. The mountain is too steep to down
te gl-den.


Een huis bouwen.-To build a house.

1. Ik graaf sloten voor ltet T dig trenches for the
fondument. foundation.
2. Ik leg stenen in d(' 1 put stones in the
slotcn. trenches.
3. Ik doe cement tussen de I put eemPnt between the
stencn. stones.
4. Ik bomc nmren op het I build walls on the
fondamcnt. foundation.
5. lk laat gaten voor I leaYe boles for doors
deuren en vensters. and windows.
6. Ik leg balken over de I place beams across the
murcn. walls.
7. lk zet kappen op de I put principals upon the
balk,,n. Learn~.
R lk leg sparren over de I put rafters across the
kuppen. principals.
U. lk bedek het dak met I coyer the roof with tiles.
10. Zn icordt het hui8 So the homie is built.

Tic graaf, u graaft. Tk leg, 1J, lcgt. Jk doe, u doet.

I dig, you dig. J put, you put. I put, you put


graven. to dig. ik graa,f, I dig. ik groef, I dug.

leggen, to put (lay). '17c leg, I put. i/c legde, r put.
doen, to put (do). ik doe. I put. ik deed, I put.
bouwen, to build. Uc bouiv, I build. ik bouwde, I built.
laten, to leave (let). ilc laat, I leave. ik liet, I left.
zetten, to put (place). ik zet, I put. ilc zette, I put.
bedekken, to cover. ik bedek, I cover. ik bedckte, I covered.

ik heb (had) gcgraven, I have (had) dug.

ik heb (had) gelegd, I have (had) put.
ik heb (had) gedaan, I have (had) put.
ik heb (had) gcbouwd, I have (had) built.
ilc heb (had) gclaten, l have (had) left.
ik heb (had) gezet, I have (had) put.
ik heb (had) bedekt, I have (had) covered.

The Verb "to put" is differently translated, according to the
nature of the action. This will be more fully explained later on.
The student should notice that (1) placing in a lying position
(like a stone on its broad, flat side) is "leggen"; (2) placing in
an upright position (like the principals of a roof) is "zetten ;"
while "to put" with reference to liquids is mostly translated
by "doen".
The second person singular "u" takes the same form of the
Verb as the third person singular "hij" requiring a "t" after the
Verb-stem in the Indicative Present.


Present. Imperfect.
Ik graaf, I dig. Jk grocf, I dug.
u grnaft, you dig-. u groef, you dug.
hij graaft, he digs. hij groef, he dug.
Ik heb gegraven, I have dug-.
u hccft gegravcn, you have dug
hij heeft gegraven, he has <lug
Pluperfect. Future.
ik had gPgravcn, I had <lug. il< zal grai·en, I shall dig.
u ha(f, ,qegraren, you hail i!ng. 11 :al vrarPn, you will dig.
hij had gegrnren, he had dug. hij zal graven, he will dig.

Future Perfect.
ilc zal gPgraren ltebbcn, I shall have <lug.
'!~ zal gegraren hcblwn, yon will have dug.
hij zal gegraren hebben, he will have 1lug.

OBSERVAT!ON.-ln familiar speech (to inferiors, lJrothers,

sisters, special frienlls, servants, pupils) you is translated jij
instead of u. When speaking to parents, s111Jeriors, seniors, or
strangers, u should Ile the only Pronoun us<'d. Another form of
jij is jr, which is employed whPre tl1ere is 110 emphasis. Tlle
Possessive Pronoun to !JP used with "u" is 'll1l' (your), whereas
with "jij" it is jouw (with emphasis) and je (without emphasis).


Speak and write the sentences of Exercise No. 2 in the

1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons Singular of the six tenses of
the Indicative l\1ood.
Do the same with the sentences of Exercise :N"o. 1.


The sentences given in the above Speak-and-Act

Exercises may be turned into questions by placing the
Pronoun after its Verb.
Exercise 1.

1. Ga ik naar de tuin?
4. Zet ik een boom in het gat?
8. Tap ilc water uit de lcraan?
10. lVordt de boom zo geplant?

Exercise 2.

1. Graaf ilc slnten vo01· het fonrlament f

5. La at ii;; gatem i:oor deurrn en 'CCnsters?
JO. lV01"dt ltet huis zo gelwutcrl?

Speak all the sentences, given or derived, in the

Tnterr_ogutive form.



Assertive Sentence:-/k neem de gruuf.

Negative Sentence:-Jk necm niet de graaf
Jlc neem de gmuf niet.
Assertive Seutence:-Jk neem ecn graaf.
Negative Scntence:-/k ncern gccn urauf.

Singular and. Plural .

. As;,;ertive Sen tenet- :-Jk bouw het huis.

Negative Sentence:-/lv bouw nict lwt huis.
llv bo tt w het lrnis nict.
A,.,sertiYe Sentence:-17c bouw de ltuizcn.
Xegative Sentenee:-Jk /Joule niet de huizen.
Jl;, bouw de huizen nict.
Assertive Sentence:-llv bouw /tuizen.
Negative Sentence:-Jk bonw gcen huizen.

0BSERVATION.-As shown above, the :N'egative form of an

Assertive sentence may he rendered in two ways aecording to the
emphasis of the speaker's words. Where the Indefinite Article
"een" is usPd, the word "geen" is employed for "nict een",
before Singular as well as Plural ~ouns.


An Assertive sentence iR put into the Negative-

Interrogative form by rendering it Negative, and then
placing the Pronoun after the Verb, as, for example:
Assertive:-Jk leg d,e balken 011 de 1nuren.
Jnterrogative:-Leu ilv de balkcn 011 de muren?
Negative :-Tk leg de baUr.cn niet op de rnuren.
Negative-Int. :-Leg ilc de balkc:n nict op de muren?



Fill up the blanks with single or double a:

De bekw-me tuinier is bezig, de t-kken v-n de

The skilful gardener is busy, the branches off the
bomen te k-ppen. J-n, geef mij mijn regenm-ntel eens
trees to chop. John, haml me my waterproof just
-n. In een huis vindt men k-mers, r-men, k-sten,
(on). In a house finds one rooms, windows, cupboards,
tr-ppen, en op een huis een d-k. Kl-dden m-ken
staircases, and on a house a roof. Blots (to) make
is j-mmerlik slordig. Wij kw-men n- -cht uur in
is exceedingly untidy. We came after eight o'clock in
de -vond -n. W-t een n-cht vol b-nge
the evening (on). What a night full (of) anxious
zorgen ! De m-nen van onze p-rden zijn zw-rt. De
cares ! The manes of our horses are !Jlack. 'l'he
m-n schijnt t-ns -Ile n-chten en de zon -Ile d-gen.
moon shines now all (the) nights and the sun all (the) days.


Fill up tlte blanks with .'!ingle or double u:

Ged-rende die paar -ren hadden wij heel wat te

During those few hours had we a good ueal to
verd-ren van onze b-ren. Het g-re weder heeft
endure from our neighbours. The colO. weathe1· has
onR belet, de mcid om vr-C'hten te st-ren. De
us prevented, the serv1rnt for fruit to send. The
m-ssen en zwal-wen zijn nooit r-stige nab-ren. H-r
sparrows and swallows are never quiet neighbours. Hire
een rijtuig voor een - r en vraag hoe d-r het zal komen.
a vehi<'le for an hour, and ask how mu<'h it will be.
D-nne Rtof iR niPt zelden d-rzamer dan grove
Thin material is not seldom more lasting than <·oarse

en r-we. U zal -w st-rse k-ren eenmaal

and rough. You will (for) your sour moods once
l1ez-ren. Geen m-ren verd-ren der -ren geweld.
sorry be. No walls endure of the hours (the) force.


]t'ill up the blanks with single or double e:

Niet t - 1-v-n om t - -t-n, maar t - -t-n om

Not to live for to eat, but to eat for
t- 1-v-n, is -n guld-n r-g-1. In d-
to live, is a golden rule. In the
l\iidd-1-uw-n 1-fd-n d- -d-1-n in trots-
Middle Ages lived the nobles in proud
kast-1-n. Ond-r h-t sp-1-n bl-k h-t, dat er
castles. During the playing appeared it that there
v-1 ont-vr-d-n-n war-n. De sch-p-n van de
many discontented (ones) were. The ships of the
z-var-nd- mog-ndh-d-n -v-nar-n -lkand-r
sea-faring powers vie with each other
in st-rkt-. -cht- witt- b-r-n word-n all-n in
in strength. Real white bears are only in
koud- str-k-n aang-troff-n. K-m-1-n kam-1
cold regions found. Camel and camel
zijn nam-n m-t g-lijk- b-t-k-niR.
are names with like mPnniug.


F'ill tip the blanks with single or double o:

Wie -ren heeft -m te h-ren, die h-re. L-pend - f

, Who ears has (for) to hear, let him hear. Flowing or
str-mend water is het gez-ndst. De vr-like spr-ngen
running water is (the) wholesomest. The merry antics

van de eekh-rntjes in de h-ge b-rnen vermaakten -ns

of the squirrels in tlw lli~h trees amused us
allen. Hoe k-rnt het, dat de g-ten z- slecht 1-pen:
all. How <·omps it, that the ~ut1t>rs so badly run:
wat kan de -rzaak zijn van zulk e<'n d-rl-pende
wl!a t c·au the r·a use lie of s1wh :i 11ersistent
ver::>t--pping? De d-rn heeft de-pen w-nd -ntst-ken
Qbstru<'tion? '.l'ho thorn has the oven wound iufiamed.
Gel-f hem uiet weer; -p mijn w-rd u beh-rt hem
Believe him no1 any more; upon m~· word you ought him
niet te gel-\·en. Abrik-zen, framb-zen en st-fperen
not to trust. AririPots, rasplJerrit>s and stewing pears
zijn -verhePrlike vruchien.
nre delicious fruits.


Fill up the blanks iritlt ei or ij:

Z-n r-s langs de R-n beeft h- in v-f weken ten

His trip along the Rhine lrns he in five W!l!'ks io (an)
-nde gebracht. H--ne vreugde en ware bl-dschap
end brought. Pure joy arnl true gladness
kunnen b-de in pal-zen en hutten gesmaakt worden.
can both in palaPes and hnts enjoyed be.
W- ber-·kten de top van de berg juist b-t-ds, om de
"\Ve reached tlie top of the mountain ju~t in 1ime, (for) the
7.0n boven de gezicht-udPr te zien r-zen. ;u --d vl- -talll:
sun alJove the horizon to see rise. Shun tla ttery:
h- voert meestent-ds tot v-nzer-. Tot zulke
it leads mostly to hypol'risy. Of snch
r-mcl.ar- is h- evenmin in staat,nls het p-nzend hr-u
had verses is he as little eapa l1Jp as tlw pensiYP hrain
van 7,-n vader tot het voortbrengen nm dergel-ke
of his father of the produetion of sLwhlike

Spelling of Compound Nouns.

XII. :\lost compounds combine their constituent

parts without altering the form of either part, causing
them to appear as one word, no hyphens being used:
st al and deur form staldeu,r, stable-door: 8chroef and
draaier form schroefdraaier, screw-driver.
In some cases, however, slight changes in ibe first
part of the compound may be no~iced:

1. If the first part ends in e, this e is generally

dropped; aarde arld appel, form aardappel, potato.

2. Principally to facilitate pronunciation, some words

(mostly Yerb stems) drop their final d when com-
pounded: rijtoer, from rijdtoer, drive; zijraam, from
zijd1·aurn, side-window; leiband) from leidband, lcading-

3. ~ouns taking the double plural ending ers or eren)

drop the additional s or en, and retain the original plural
form in er when compounded: hoendcrhok, fowl-house;
ciermand, egg-bm~ket.

J. 'l'he first pa.rt of a compound frequently takes the

letter s either (a) as :i sign of the genitive case, or ( b)
to bring out a plural meaning, or ~ c) for the sake of


(a) Tinwicrrnansgereedscltap, carpenter's tools;

bruidslvlced, bridal dress; dorpskerk, village
(b) Meisjeskleren) girls' clothing; jongcnsboek.
book for boys.
( e) Nclwidsrechtcr) arhi ler; schutshecr, protector.

NoTE.-Tn words where the letter s denoting a plural is followed

lJy the initial s of another word, it is dropped; e.g. mcisjcs
anu schuol form mri8jcselwul.

5. Other compound forms join their two parts together

by e. This letter originally represented a singular
meaning, but is now accepted as representing a plural
as well. Paardestaart, therefore, representing in the
first part of the compound an evident singular, and
boekeka8t, representing an evident plural, both have e.


[Exercises 1 and 2 repeated in Plural Form.].


1. Wij gaan naar de tuin. We go to the garden.

2. Wij nemcn ecn graaf in 1'Te take a spade in our
onze hand. hand.
"\Ye dig a hole in the
3. Wij 1:1pittcn r.;cn gat in di'
grund. ground.
4. Wij zctten ecn boom, in \Ye put a tree into the
het gat. hole.
G. Wij vullen hct gat inut We fill the hole with soil.
6. Wij trappcn de gru11d "Te tread the soil down.
7. Wij lwlen een gicter. We fetch a watering-can.
8. Wij tappcn irater uit de "\Ye draw water from the
lcraan. tap.
9. Wij gooicn het icater bij "\Ye throw the water
de boom. ronnd the tree.
10. Zo 1FOrdt de boom · ~o the ir<:>l' ii; planted.

More Plurals introduced.

1. Wij gaan naar de tuincn We go to the gardens.

2. Wij nemen graven in \Ye take spades in our
onze handen. handR.
:t ffij 8pittcn gaten in de \Ye dig holes in the ground

4. Wij zetten bomen in de We put trees into the holes

5. Wij vullen de gaten met We fill the holes with soil.
6. Wij trappen de grand We tread the soil down.
7. Wij halen gieter.~. \Ve fetch watering-cans.
8. Wij tappen water uit de \Ve draw water from the
lcranen. taps.
9. Wij gooien water bij de \Ve throw water round
bomen. ihe trees.
10. Zo worden de bornen ge- ~o the trees are planted.
Wij gaan, zij gaan. Wij nemen, zij nemen.
We go, they go. We take, they take.
Wij spitten, zij spittcn.
We dig, they dig
OBSERVATIONS :-All the vtnral Person-forms of the Indicative
Present take the form of the Infinitive Verb. When, however,
gij or u is employed for tbe Pronoun 2nd Pers. Plur. the Verb
takes the form of the 2nd. Pers. Sing. XotiPe that julUc, you, is
familiar, u, you, l10lite, and gij, you, employed in pulpit language.
The 2nd sentence should read: Zij ncmen grai•cn in hun
handen-when the 3rd person Plural is employed.

Wij gingen. we went. juUfo ginucn, you went.
Wij namcn. we took, jttllic namrn, you took.
Wij spittc:n, we dug, ju71ic spitten, you dug.
1Vij zottcn, we put. jnllic zctten, yon put.
Oij ( u) vuldet, you filled. zij ha al don, they fetehed.
Gij (u) haaldet, you fetched, zij taptrn, they drew.
Gij (u) taptet, you drew, zij gooiden, they threw.
Gij (u) gooidet, you threw, zij 1•ulden, they filled.
De bomen werden, the trees were.

Wij (zij) zijn gegaan, we (they) h:Jve gone.
Wij ( zi.i) hebben genomrn, we (they) have taken.
lVij (zij) hebbcn gespit, we (they) haYc dug.
Wij (zij) hebben gczet, we (they) have put.
De bomcn zijn geworden, the trees have been.

1Vij (zij) u"arcn ycgaun, we (tltPy) lrnd go1w.
Wij (:ij) Trndd<'n genumcn. we (thPY) harl takH1.
Wij (zij) hadd<'n gcspit, we (they) hall dug.
Wij (zij) haddcn ge:::ct, we (thPy) had put.

Wij (dj) zullcn ga<Ln, we shall (they will) go.
Wij (dj) Z'Ullcn ncnwn, we shall (they will) take.
Wij (zij) zullen SJJittcn, we shall (they will) dig.
De bomcn zitllcn icordcn, the trees will lie.

Future Perfect-Plural.
Wij (zij) rnllcn gcgaan zijn, we shall (they will) have gone.
Wij (zij) zullen gcnurnrn hcb1wn, we shall (they will) have
Wij (zij) zullcn gespit hcbbcn, we shall (Uwy will) have dug.
De born en z nllcn l/<'11'onlcn :::ijn, the trePs will have l>ecu.

OBSEBVA'IIO:N' :-YPrbs expressing l'hange of plaee (like gaan)

form their com1mu11d tenses liy the help of the VPrb "zijn", which
is "to be", though in English "to have" is translated for it.


1. Wij gra-1:cn sloten voor ·we dig trenches for the

de fondmnenten. foundatious.
2. Wij legycn 15lenen in de '\Ye p;:t R1ones iuto tl.te
slotcn. trencl.tes.
3. Wij doen cement tu~scn ·wP put rement hetween
de stenen. the RtoneR.
4. Wij bouwcn murcn op \Ye buil<l wallR on the
de fondamcnten. foundations.
5. Wij latcn gatcn voor We 1Pave holes for doorR
deurcn en venstcrN. and windows.
6. W1:j lcggen balkcn oi;er ·we lay lwamH across the
de muren. wallR.
7. Wij zctten kapprn op de "\Ye put principals upon
balkcn. the beamR.
8. Wij leggen sparren over "\Ye put raftPrR acrosR the
de lwppcn. pri11eivalR.
9. Wij hcdckken de daken We cover tbP roofs with
met pannen. tileH.
10. Zo worde11 de huiz<'n So the houHes are built.
gebouwd. s


Wij groet'Cn, we dug, ZtJ gruerrn, they dug.
Wij legden, we put, zij lcgdcn, tltPy put.
Wij <ledcn, we put, zij dedrn, they put.
Wij bouicdcr~. we built, zij buuu:den, tlwy built.
Wij lietcn, we left, zij lictcn, they left.
Wij zetten, we put, zij zctten, they put.
Wij bcdekten, we covered, z·ij bedelt1tcn, they coverefl.
De huizen werdcn, the houses were.

Wij (zij) hebben gcgrai·en, gelcgd, gcdaan, gcbuuu·d, gr7atin,
We (they) have dug, put, vut, built, left,
gczet, bedekt.
put, covered.

Wij (zij) hadden gegraven, gclcgd, gcdaan, ge/1ouwd, gelatcn,
We (they) had dug, put, put, built, left,
gezet, bedekt.
put, covered.

Wij (zij) zullen graven, lcggen, doen, bouwen, laten, zetten,
We shall (they will) dig, put, put, build, leave, put,

Future Perfect-Plural.
Wij (zij) zullen gegraven, gelegd, gedaan, gcbouwd, oelaten,
We shall (they will) have dug, put, put, built, left,
oczet, bcdelct hcbbcn.
put, coverecl.

"''anneer wij een huh> willen bouwen, graven wij eerst
When we a house wish (to) build, clig we first
sloten voor de fondamenten. In die sloten worden stenen
trenches for the foundations. In those trenches are stones
gelegd. Sommige stenen zijn rond en andere vierkant. Een
laid. Some stones are round and others square. A

huis dat op een fondament staat, kan niet zakken. De

house which on a foundation stands, can not sink. The
stenen worden met cement aan elkander gebonden. Op het
stones are with cement to each other bound. On the
fondament bouwt de metselaar de muren. Hij laat gaten
foundation builds the mason the wnlls. He leaves holes
in de muren, en de timmerman zet deuren en ramen
in the walls, and the carpenter puts doors and windows
in die gaten. Op de muren wordt een dak gelegd. Eerst
into those holes. On the walls is a roof laid. First
legt de timmermnn balken over de muren, en dan bouwt
puts the carpenter beams across the walls, and then builds
hij daarop bet houtwerk van het dak. Het dak wordt uit
he thereon fue framework of the roof. The roof is of
kappen, sparren en pannen gemaakt. Somtijds heeft een
principals, rafters, and tiles made. Sometimes has a
dak leien, somtijds ijzer platen, en somtijds ook riet.
roof slate, i:>ometimes iron sheets. and sometimes also thatch.

1. Jlecft u 1r<'l cens ccn boom Have you ever plantE>d a
gcplant? tree?
~- 0 ja, bij 1:erschillende ge- Oh yes, on several occasions
3. lVil u mij een van die ge- Will you mention one of
legenhedcn opnocmnn? those occaRions?
4. Ecnmaal plantte ilc ecn boom Once T plantoo a tree on my
op rlc rerjaardag i·an mijn mother's birthday.
5. Die boom is misschien 1Jan 'l'hat tree must be full·
al grout? grown by this Ume?
6. Ja, u·aarlilt, en er is de hele Yes, indeed, and all day
da,q schaduu; ondf'r. there is shade umler it.
7. Zou dat geen gucd plckje Would that not be a good
zijn roor ren tuin?ank? spot for a garden seat?
8. Er staat cen hecrlike tuin- There is a delightful seat
bank ondcr met ccn tafel- under it with a tahle in
tje crvour. front of it.
0. lVat soort ran boom mag What kind of tree may it
dat u:cl zijn? be?
10. 't ls een soort cypres met It is a kind of cypress tree
zware stam. with a heavy trunk.


( R.ededelen.)

'l1HERE are ten classes of words, called R.ededelen, Parts

of Speech.

They are: 1. Het Zelfstandig Naamwoord, the Noun

Substantive; 2. Het Lidwoord, the Article, or Dis-
tinguishing Adjecth'e; 3. Het Bijvoegelik Naamwoord,
the Adjective; 4. Het Voornaamwoord, the Pronoun;
;l. Het Telwoord, the .Numeral Adjective; G. Het Werk~
woord, the Verb; 7. Het Bijwoord, the Adverb; S. Het
Voegwoord, the Conjunction; 9. H et Voorzetsel, the
Preposition; 10. Het Tussenwerpsel, the Interjection.

The Article.
(Het Lidwoord.)

I. Articles (Lidwoorden) are words placed before a

Noun to indicate wh<'ther the :N"oun has a definite or an
indefinite meaning.

II. There are two Articles: the Definite Article, bet

Bepalende Lidwoord, and the Indefinite Article, bet
Nief=Bepalende Lidwoord.

III. There are two Definite Articles, de and bet, which

are used with Nouns in accordance with ancient Gender-
distinctions, de standing for the :'.\I:uwuline and FP.minine,
and bet for the ~enter Oender.

In order to be ahle to understand the lit0rature of

Holland, students ought to make themselyes familiar
with ihei:-m distinctions, though no longer observing them
Nouns are, under the system of Simplified Grammar, •
merely divided unto two classes, one class being used
with the Definite Article de, and hence called De=words;
and the other being mmd with the Definite Article bet,
and hence called ffet=words. Under the new system
both these .Articles are indeclinable, the ab!Jreviated form
't being largely m;ed for bet, and de for the Plural of
both. In connection with the choice of these Articles,
no gender-distindions are any longer observed.

The Indefinite Article has but one form, viz. "een"

for all Nouns.

Important Obscrvation.-ObsoJcte Declensions.

Formerly both the Definite and Indefinite Articles W€'re
dedinable, appearinp; umler different forms for the expression
of Grammatic-al Gender, Kumber, anu Case. Their various forms
may h€' seen from the following Declensions :



( Enkclvoud). ( 111 cen•o u IL.)

Norn. dr man, the man. Norn. de ma11n<'n, the men.
Gen. aes rnons (or v<Ln den Gen. de,1• nwnncn (van da
man), of the man. nwnncn), of the men.
Dat. den man (or o.nn den Dat. den manncn (aan de
man), to the man. manncn), to the men.
Acc. den man, the man. Acc. de monnr n, the men.


(En/rclroud.) (Mccrvoud.)
Norn. C<'n mon, a man. Xom. manrwn, men.
Gen. ccns mans (ran cmicn Uen run inannrn, of men.
man), or a mnn.
Dat. ucnen m11n (aa11 cem·n JJut. urrn munnr n, to meu.
rnan), to n. man.
Acc. cencn man, a man. Acc. rnannen, men.

SI::>Ul:LAR. l'Ll RAL.
\ Enl<clroul/.) (JiU'r/"OUd.)

:Norn. de rrrmir, the woman. Xom. de tTou1cc11, the women.

Den. de1· t•ruuw (nm d<' Ueu. 1for 1-ruu1cen (ran de
vruu 1c), 01' tlle woman. rrouu:cn), of the women.
Dat. dei· rrouw ( aan de Vat. den 1·ruu u·en ( aan de
croi~1c), to tlle woman. v rouicen) , to the women.
Acc. de rrouu·, the woman. A<"C'. rh rrouu:rn, the women.

(Enl.:elrnud.) (ill eerro ud.)

Xom. eene 1;rfJ1ur, a woman. .:'\om. ·vruu wen, women.
Gen. ccrwr tTouw (·v.an eene Gen. ran crouu:en, of women.
vrouw), of a woman.
Dat. eener vrouw (aan cene Dat. .aan i:rouwc:n, to women.
vrouw), to a woman.
Ace. <Jcrw i:ruuw, a woman. Acc. vrouwcn, women.


(Enkclvoud.) I M crrrond.)

Norn. het kind, the child. Norn. de kindcrcn, the children.

Gen. des kinds (·can het Gen. dcr kinderen ( i:an de
kind), of the child. lcinderen), of the children
Dat. hct lcind (aan hct lcind) Dat. den kindcren (u,an de
to the child. kind.cren), to the children.
Acc. het kind, the child. Acc. de kinderen, the <'hildren.
(En/eel voud.) (lJleervoud.)
Norn. cen kind, a child. Xom. lcindercn, children.
Gen eens kinds (van cen Gen van kinderon, of cllil<lren.
kind) , of a child.
Dat. een kind ( aan ecn lcind) Dat. aan kinderen, to children.
to a child.
Acc. een lcinrJ: a f'hild. AC'<'. kin<.lcrcn, f'hildren.

IV. The following rules regulate the correct use,

repetition, and ornission of the article.
1. ~ouns may reject the Article, when such omission
causes no ambiguity: De koeien, paarden en sclwpen Z'ijn
ulle vcrkocht.. the cows, horses, and sheep have all ht>en

2. The Article must always be left out before the

second of two nouns referring to one and the same per-
son : H ij wcrd de vriend en verzorger van die arme kin-
deren) he became the friend and guardian of those poor
3. 'l'he Definite Article is left out after the words alle,
all, and beide) both: A.lle mcnsen moeten sterven, all men
must die; Beide vogels zijn ontsnapt) both the birds have
4. It is customary to repeat the Article: (1) If one
Noun is singular and the other plural: De moeder en de
dochters zijn hcdcn aangekomen) the mother and the
(laughters arrived today; (2) In emphatic expressions:
Beide de goedcn en de kwadcn zullen er onder lijden) both
the good and the bad will suffer by it.

5. The Article is omitted before the names of

professions: De jongen wil timmermun warden) the boy
wants to be a carpenter.
NoTE.-Poets often make use of the abbreviated ferm d' for de
before Xouns beginning with u vowel:
"D' oncindighcid in 't cindig. stoff'lik hulscl;
De Godd'lilr,hcid in 't zondig, mens'lik 'i:lees."

V. The Article is required in Diitch where it is not

used in English:

J. With Nouns representing a class:-

Man is mortal, de mens is sterfelik.
'l'he language of animals, de taal van de dieren.
2. Before the names of:-
Meals :-We were at breakfast, wij zaten aan het
Diseases :-He has had small-pox, hij heeft de
pokken gehad.
Seasons :-tlpring is a happy time, de lente is een
vrolike tijd.

Streets:-He lives in Burg Street, hij woont in de


Mountains:-We ascended Table Mountain, wij

klomrncn de Tafelberg op.

Religious sects :-He was converted to Christianity,

hij werd tot het Christendom bekeerd.

Arts and sciences :-Ile studies history, hij

bestudeert de geschiedenis.

3. Before Proper Nouns preceded by Adjectives:-

Little Charles is ill, de kleine J(a,rel is ziek.

4. Before Abstract Nouns when taken in their whole

Youth, de jeugd)· old age, de ouderdom; life, het
levenj death, de dood; eternity, de eeuwigheid;
nature, de natuur ). creation, de ·schepping.

In some colloquial expressions Nouns occurring after

Prepositions reject the Article both in English and
Dutch. The instances do not always correspond in the
two languages :

Rejection in Dutch but not in English: naar land)

to the land; naar wal, to the shore; naar stal,
to the stable; op stal, in the stable; op straa_t, in
the street; op zolder, on the loft; op zee, on the
sea; in Jiu.is, in the house; met toestemrning, with
the consent; op belofte, on the promise; op aanbod,
on the offer.

Rejection in English but not in Dutch: naar de

gevangenis, to prl.son; naar de kerk, to church;
naar ltet hof, to court; in de kerk .• in church.

Rejection in both languages: naar school, to school;

naar zee, to sea; naar bed, to bed; op school, at
school; in bed, in bed; te paard_. on horseback;
tc voet, on foot; te huis ( thuis), at home; per trein,
by train; op borgtocht, on bail; op aanvraag, on

OBS}~RVATJON.-There is a tendPncy ohservable in South Africa

in favour of augmenting the numb<>r of these instances. One
hears peovle say: ik ga naar lcrrl•, I am going to clrnrch; lt'ij is
crrnn op lwogto, he is fully informed a bout it. Thougll the
tendency may not be directly reprehensible, it tends to widen the
gap e:idsting between the Dutell of Holland and that of South


l'IOTE.-All Kouns are distinguished as de-words or hel-words ..

bird, vogel (de) stiek, stole (de) plate, bord (het)
cupboard, least (de) lion, leemo (de) is, is.
room, kamer (de) sky, lticht (de) large, groat.
cage, kooi (de) book, boeli; (lwt) mine, van mij.
sun, ~on (de) house, huis (het) in, in.
garden, tuin (de) forest, u·oud:. (het) broken, stuk.
stable, st al ( rle) pendl, votlood (hct) on, op.
ta hle, tufrl ( r/e) lamll, lam (hot) small, klein.

'l'hc bird is in the cage. 'l'he plate is in the cupboard.

'J'be pencil is on the table. The book is mine. The sun is
in the Hky. The house is in the garden. 'I'he house is
small, the garden is large. The stick is broken. The lamb
is in the stable. The lion is in the forest. The pencil is in
tlle eupboard. 'l'he lamb is in the garden The cupboard
is in the room. The pencil is in the room. The plate is
small; the table is large.

honnet. hoed (de) door, rleur ( rlc) not a, gcrn.
umhr<>lla, paraplu (de) horse, puar4 (hel) never, nooit.
street. straat (de) earringe, rijtuig (het) often, dikwels.
cnp, mu ts (de) ehilu, kind! (het) warm, warm.
P~1H7't:3 UF f:JPEEOII

:summer, ;,omer (de) wheel, icicl (hct) my, rn·ijn.

hat, hoed (de) uut, niet. red, rood.
study, studcerkamcr (de) ill, zicll. :ind, en.
dog, hund (de) always, altijd. rouud, rond.
expeusi 1•e, diu ttr. it, het, 't.

A stable and a horse. A carriage and a wheel. A

·Carriage is expensive. A wheel is round. A bonnet and
a cap. A bonnet is not a cap. A hat and a stick. ls an
umbrella never red? The child is ill. The dog is often in
my study. 'rlte house is in (the) Ilum!Jert Street. It is
.always warm in (the) summer.


mother, 111ocdcr (de) trl'e, /mom (de) long, lang.

town, stad (de) heat, hitte (de) great, groot.
!Joy, jongcn (de) window, i:cnstcr ( het) high, hoog.

The cage of the bird. The bonnet of the mother. The

wheel of the carriage. The child's cap (cap of the child).
~l'be door of the stable. The pencil of the boy. The boy's
umbrella. The door of the study is small. The window
of the room is large. The street of the town is long.
The heat of the summer is great. 'rhe tree of the forest
is high. The wheel of the carriage is round.


paw, klauw (de) page, uludzijde ( rlc) sore, zcer.

winter, ltintcr ( dn) Learn, straal (de) dirty, ruil.
hot, ltcct.

'rhe mother's umbrella (the umbrella of the mother)

is broken. The lion's paw is sore. The page of the book
is dirty. The sun's beam is long. The boy's hat is dirty.
1.'he bird's cage is not round. The mother's child is often
ill. 1.'he door of the cupboard is small. The sun is hot in
(the) summer. The child is always ill in (the) winter.
1.'he hat of the boy is on the table. The book is on the
table in the study. The horse in the stable is mine.


De lamp aansteken.-To light the lamp.

1. Ik neem de kap van de I take the shade from the

lamp af. lamp.
2. Ik haal ook het glas a/. I remove the chimney
3. Ik draai met de schroef I turn up the wick with
de pit op. the screw.
4. Ik strijk ccn lucifer aan. I strike a match.
5. lk houd de vlarn bij de I holu the flame to the
pit. wick.
6. Ik blaas e'!:en in het gla8. I just blow into the
7. Ik zet het glas weer op I put the chimney back
de lamp. on the lamp.
8. Ile schroef de pit wat af. I turn (screw) the wick
down a little.
9. Ik zet de kap voorzichtig I put the shade on care-
op. fully.
10. Zo wordt de lamp aange- So the lamp is lit.

OBSERVATION.-Some Compound Verbs are introduced here, the

parts of which remain separate as shown in tile above sentences,
except in the Past Participles which occur in Compound Tenses.


Ik neem af, I take off. ik haal af, I remove.

jij (u, hij) nrcmt af, you jij ( u, hij) ha alt af, you
take (he takes) off. remove (he removes).
ik draai op, I turn up.
jij (u, hij) draait op, you turn (lie turns) up.


Infinitive. Present. Imperfect.

afnemen, to take off. ik ncem af, I take ik nam af, I took

off. off.
<ffhalen, to remove. ilc h aal af, I re- ik haalde af, I re-
move. moved.
opdraaien, to turn up. ilc draai op, I turn ik draaide op, I
up. turned up.
aanstrijken, to strike. ik strijk aan, I ik streek aan, I
strike. struck.
houden, to hold. · ik houd, I hold. ik hield., I held.
blazen, to !Jlow. ilc blaas, I !Jlow. ilc blies, I blew.
opzetten, to 1mt on. ilc zct op, I put on. ik zette op, I put
afschroevcn, to screw ik schroef af, I ilc schroefde af,
down. screw down. I screwed down.
aansteken, to light. ik steelc aan, I ik stale aan, I lit.

Perfect and Pluperfect.

ik heb (had) afgenomen, I have (had) taken off.

ik heb (had) afgehaald, I have (had) removed.
ilc heb (had) opgedraaid, I have (had) turned up.
ik heb (had) aangcstreken, I have (had) struck.
ik heb (had) gehouden, I have (had) held.
ik heb (had) geblazcn, I have (had) blown.
ik heb (had) opgezet, I have (had) put on.
ilc heb (had) afgcschrvcfd, I have (had) screwed down.
ik heb (had) aanuestolcen, I have (had) lit.


lk zal afnemen, afhalen, opdraaicn, aanstrijlcen, houden,

I shall take off, remove, turn up, strike, hold,
blazen, opzettcn, afschroeven, aanstckcn.
!Jlow, put on, screw down. light.

Future Perfect.

Ile zal afgenomen, afgehaald, opgerZraaid, aangestreken, ge-

l shall have taken off, removed, turned up, struck,
houden, geblazen, ovuezet, afueschroefd, aangestolcen hebben.
held, blown, put on, screwed down, lit.
;;1; 'Pllhl STA").-JURD JJL-TVll GRA_JlJLIR


1. All the sentences of Exerch;e No. 4 may now be

Sl'oken (and written) in all the Per1:<ons of all the 'reuses
of tile Indicative Mood. This should he done.
'rhe students will be perfedly guided by the following
three sentences, one v•ith a Simple Verb, one with a
Compound Verb, and one (the concluding one) because
of its peculiar construction (Passive Yoice).

fi. Ile huud de rlain liij dr Jiil. fi. lk ltidrl a:c rlam bij de pU.
S. Ile schro<'f d<' pit ·1cat af. s. lie sr:hrucfde de pit wat af.
10. Zo ·u·onlt de lamp aanye- 10. Zu 'lN'rd de lamp aange-
stoleen. stolwn.


.i. Ile heb de • . • • yehourlen.

5. lk /lad de . . . . gehouaen•
8. Ile lrn/i rfr . . • . af(lC- 8. lie had de . • • • afge-
schru1·fd. scll rocfd.
10. Zo is de . • . . rwnpc- 10. 7,o u·as de . . . • aange-
stulcen gCH"Onlan. stuken gmrordcn.

1''L"'l'l RE. FrTrRE PERFECT.

5. Jk wl de • • . . hourlrn. fi. Jk zal de • • . gchouden

&. Ile zal de . • . • af- lwbben.
8ahron·r·n. S. Ile zal de . • • afgesohroefa
10. Zo zal . . aan_grJstolccn hebben.
word en. 10. Zo za,l • • • aangostolcen
geworden zijn.

2. Speak and write all the sentences (1) in the Inter-

rogative form, (2) in the Negative form, (3) in the
XegatiYe-Interrogative form.


· [Mad<> up of the above-in story-form.]

~fijn moeder zei mij dat ik de lamp in de voorkamer

.:\ly motlwr told me that T the lamp in the parlour
moest aam;tpken. lk ging daarom naar de voorkarner met
should light. l went therefore to the parlour with

een doos lucifers in mijn hand. Daar stond de groter

a box (of) matches in my hand. Tlwre stood the large,
nieuwe lamp in de hoek op een zijtafel. Ik ging er been,
new lamp in the corner on a side tahle. l went to it.
en nam er eerst de kap af. 'foen haalde ik er bet glas
and took first the shade off. Then remow<l I the chimney
ook af. Ik streek een lucifer aan en maaktc zo een vlam.
also. T stru<'li: a match and made thus a flame.
De vlam bracht ik bij de pit tot hij vlam -vatte. Toen
The flame brought I to t'he wick till it fire canght. 'l'hen
draaidc ik de pit wat af, want de vlam was te hoog.
turned I the wick a little down, for the flame was too high.
Daarna blies ik in hot glas om bet warm te maken.
After that hlew I into the glass (for) it warm to make.
Vlug zettc ik bet glas op de brander, en maakte de pit
Qui<'!dy put I the chimney on the burner, and mane the wick
weer wat hoger. Ten laatste zette ik de kap weer
again (a) little higher. Finally put I tlw shade again
voorzichtig op, en daarmee was mijn werk gedauu.
carefnlly on, and with this was my work done.


Tijd. Tini.e.

1. Hoe laat is ltd'! What time is it?

2. Jlet is tien 1wr. Itis ten o'clock.
3. Jict is k1rnrt roar l'ijf. Ttis a quartPr to five.
4. Ilct iS lrnlf-ZC'l'Cll. Itis half past six.
5. Hd is ticn rninuten Ol'Cr Itis ten minutes past eight.
6. Hoo laot sin at u op'? \\'hat time do you rise?
7. Jk, bcn altijd op tcgcn zcs L am always U!J l;y six
u11r. o'do<'k.
8. Ji oc la at ontl1ijt '!l? ·what time <lo 3'0U take
9. Wij ontbijtcn noot na acht \'i'c never take J;reakfast
u.ur. later than eight o'clock.
10. 'l'egun tu•cc 11111· zal ik Mj T sha11 call on you about
1i aankomcu. two o'dock.

11. De stoomboot vertrekt om The steamer sails at noon

twaalf uur vandaag. to-day.
12. Gaan zij iedere r!Jag naar Do they go to school eve1·y
school? day?
13. Zij uaan dageliks behalre They go every day except
's Zaterdags. Saturday.
14. Aanstaande week zal ik Next week l shall be gone.
vertrukken zijn.
15. Mijn verjaardag i·a/t in de My birthday is next month.
volgende maand.
16. Wij hcbben reeds veertien We have been waiting for
Jagcn op ·u gcwacht. you for a fortnight.
17. Kom over drie dagen terug. Come back after three days.
18. Mijn rnder is juist vijftig My father is just fifty years
jaar oud. of age.
19. De wn uaat in de winter The sun rises late in winter.
laat op,
20. Do zun g,aat in dn winter The sun sets early in winter.
rrocy under.
After sunset the stars make
21. Xa ;onsonduryang lwmcn de
their appearance,
stcrrcu tc i-oor8chijn.
We started on our journey
22. 1Vij bcgunncn onzc rcis v66r
lwfore daybreak.
hct aanlirekrn i·an de dag,
Half an hour after I had
23. Toen ik crn half uur wcu
left, my brother came
was, kwam mijn brocdcr
The baltlP was fought on
24. De vcldslag 1rrrd de 1:01·011 rn
the twenty-i>eYeuth of
t1J"intigstr Jlaart gelererd,
25. 17c 1·erj11ar op de laatste .:\fy birthday is 011 the last
Februaric, day uf February.
26, Londen, 2 JJfd 1884, London, ~ml l\Iay, 1SS4,
27. "11-a mijn duod zal u alle.~ After my 1leath everything
duirlc:lik icordcn. will l1ecome dear to you.
28. Orennorgcn liuup ik u 1crcr The •lny after to-morrow
to zion. l l!OJ)C to see you again.
2!). J7c bcn <'orgistercn gcrrillen. r. had a fall the day !Jefore
30. Is 1i te laat nan de trein Were yon too late for the
grkomenl' train?
31. lk u·as juist bijtijds, maar I was just in time, l>ut the
17<' trrin iras te 11rorg. train was too early.



( M eervoudsvorming.)

I. THE endings of the plural in Dutch are s ('s), en, n,

and ers ( eren).

II. In s ends-

1. The Plural of all Diminutives: huisjes, small

houses; boompjcs, small trees; deurtjcs, small doors.

2. The l'lural of words of more than one syllable

ending in el, em, en, er, aar, ier, and aard: eU~els,
acorns; bezems, brooms; varkens, pigs; blakers, candle-
sticks; handelaars, merchants; winkclicrs, shopkeepers;
veinzaards, hypocrites.

3. The Plural of foreign words used in Dutch, except

when they end in a, o, or u: bals, balls (dances); datums,
dates; dames, ladies; horloges, watches; tantes, aunts.

NOTE.- Words are regarded as "foreign'", whieh have not either

through Jong use, or through change of spelling, been incor-
porated with tbe language as Dutch wortls.

III. In 's end the Plural forms of all foreign words

which retain their original spelling, and end in a, o, or u:
massa, mass, rnassa's » echo, echo, echo's; paraplu,
umbrella, paraplu's; cadeau, present, cadcau's.
CO 'l'IiE S'1 1.l"J:.'IlARJJ DU1'Cll GRAlllllL1R

IY. In en ends the Plural of-

1. All Dutch monosyllables, with the exception of the

Ra, pl. rrws, mast-yard; vla, pl. vlaas, custard; kok,
pl. koks, male cook; oom, pl. ooms, uncle; maat,,
pl. rnnats_, comrade; mnn, pl. mcms, husband;
knecltt, pl. knechts, male servant; zoon, pl. :zoons,

2. All Dutch words of more than one syllable which

do not fall under rule II. 2, as:
Avonturcn, adventures; adi)oknten, advocates;
presentcn, prm;ents; figuren, figures; rivieren,

3. Words ending in ee and ie, with a direresis on the

e of the plural ending; rce, roe; reeen ,· zce, sea, zeeen;
idee, idea, idecen; knic, knee, knieen; kopie, copy,
kopieen; lelie, lily, lelieen.

V. In n ends the Plural of-

1. All Dutch ·words ending in e mute: gedaante,
shape, gedaanten; ziekte, illness, ziekten; hoogte,
eminence, hoogtcn.
1\'oTE.-South Afrimn Dutch <"ommnnlr <"llanges this 'Tl into an s.

VI. Either in s or en ends the Plural of some words

in el, er, en, em, and of many derivatives in aar, or, eur,
and those in ier, whieh express the names of persons.
vogels, birds; bezems, brooms; dienaars ..
servants; direkteurs, directors; offiaicrs. officers;
professors, professors; or vogclen, bezemen,,
oj]iciercn, etc.
NOTE 1. -or some words allo\Ying of both endings, only the form
in s is eollof[nial: J1ric ruyf'ls l'lf<'VCn 7!orrn uns huis, three
1.Jirus ar<> flying ahoY<' our house; De t'O{JclC'n drs hemels
hcuflcn ncstcn, the fowls of the air have nests. The latter S ~
expression is Bible language.

NOTE 2.-Mark that professional names which end in or take the

accent on the last syllable but one, lJoth in the singular
and the plural: professor, Plural professors, profess6ren;
d6lctor, dokt6ren.

VII. The double plural ending ers or ereil is

adopted by the following Nouns, all being bet=words:

blad, leaf, bladers or bladcren.

ei, egg, eicrs or dcrcn.
gelid, rank, ycledcren.
gcmoed, mind, vcmoedcren.
goo cl, goods, yoederen.
ho en, fowl, lwentlcrs.
ka lf, calf, kalvcrs or kalveren.
kind, child, kindcrs or kinderen.
lam, lamb, lammers or larnmcrcn.
lied, soug, liederen.
rad, wlieel, radcrcn.
rund, cow or ox, runders or runderen.
spaan, chip. spaanders.
volk, nation, volken or vol/wren.

NOTE :-This douhle ending is not an original one. As in German,

so also in Dutch, the Plural of :Neuter :Nouns was formerly
formed uy er. '.l.'o 1.his plural ending it became customary
to add the endings used for tlie other genders, viz., s nrnl en,
whieli custom has created 1.he double forms ers and eren,
now in use. ln compound words the old endiug er still
expresses a real plural: kinderkamer, nursery; hoenderholc,
fowl-house; eierrnand, egg-basket.
The old Plural is used with a singular meaning in
spaander, chip, and in the Cape Dutch forms een hoender,
a fowl; cen eier, an egg.

VIII. Some homonymous words bring out their

different meanings in the plural. Such are-
l<'IRST t:iccmw

been, bt:rt('n. legs. beendcrni, bones.

blad, blaclen, leaves of bladeran, leayes of
liooks. trees.
delcen, delcens, hlankets. drlccnen. deaC'ons.
heiden, h('irlens, gipsies. lwidenen, heathen.
hemel, hemels, cano11ies. hemclen, heaveus.
kleed, lilecVen, earvets. 7cle1Zeren, clothes.

knecht, knechts, man- knechten,* slaves.
letter, letters, letters. lctteren, Ji tera tu re.
lidmaat, lid ma ten, mcmhPrs (of ledematen, limbs (of
a church). the body).
man, mans, husbands. rnannen, men.
middel, middels, waists. middelen, means.
redcn, rcdens, ratios. redenen, reasons.
rif, rifjen, cliffs. rev en, reefs of a sail.
spcl, spellen, llooths. spclen, games.
studie, studies, sketches. studieen, studies.
tafel, tafels. tables. tafelen, tahlPS (of
the law).
vader, vaders, fathers. vaderen, ancestors.
tMrnn, tcl•ens, signs. tekcnen, miracles.
ioortel, icortels, roots. icortelen, carrots.
zoon, zoons, children of zonen, natives of the
one family. same ('()Ulltry.

*NOTE.-ln composition knechtcn only should be used: krijgs-

knechten, soldiers; dienstknechten, male servants.

IX. A few words have an Irregular Plural form:

smid, smith, smeden. rif, reef, rev en.

split, slit, spleten. lid, member, leden.
stad, town, steden. schip, ship, schepen.
vlo, flea, vlooien. koe, cow, 7wcien.
rede, speech, redenen. zo, .sotl, zooien.

NOTE 1.-Smids, smiths, and zoden, sods, are likewise usetl.

NoTE 2.-The i in the plural forms of koe and do is the h of their

German cognates. The singular form vlooi is current in
Holland, and koei in South Africa.

Words ending in heid (old Dutch hede) take heden:

u:aarheid, truth, waarheden j zaligheid, bliss, zaligheden.

NoTE.-This ending corresponds to the old English head: Godhead.

Godhcid; and the modern hood: childhood, kindsheid.

Words compounded with man commonly take the

plural lieden, the colloquial form of which is Jui: timmer-
man, carpenter, timmerlieden (timmerlui); jonkman,
bachelor, jongelieden (lui). The plural mans or mannen,
is, however, used as well.-Engelsman, Englishman, has
Engelsen j likewise Fransman, Frenchman, Fransen.
Buiirnian, neighbour, take8 buren.
The plural of armvol, armful, and handvol, handful,
is armvollen and handvollen. The English "spoonful "
has no equivalent in Dutch: two spoonfuls=twee lepels
The words as, ashes, leven, life, and bod, bid, are
always used in the singular: Hij heeft tweemaal een bod
i·oor zijn huis gehad, he has had two bids for his house.
Y,ij hebben er het leven bij verloren, they have 'lost their
lives in it. In composition, however, leven is used in the
riural: Het heeft veel menselevens gekost, it has cost
many lives.

X. The contents of the foIJowing table should be

carefulJy noted:

In Holland live the Hollanders. A Hollander speaks Hollands.

,, En.']clana ,, ,, En.acls~n ,, Engelsman Engels.
,, Schotland ,, ,, Sclwtt(n ,, Selwt Engels.
,, lcrland ,, ,, leren ,, ler FJngels.
,, Franlcrijli; ,, ,, Fransen ., Pransrnan Frans.
,, Duitsland ,, ., Duitsers ., Duitser JJ1;its.
,, l'ruiscn ,, ,, J'ruiscn ,, Pruis Vuits.
,, Zicitscrlu nu ,, Z 1Gitsers ,, Zwitser Duits of
,, ltalie ,, ,, ltulianen ,, ltaliaan lt11li11ans.
,, Spunje ,, ,, Spanjanrden ,, Spunja.ard Sparms.
,, Portugal. ,, .. PortupPzcn ,, Portu.']ces l'orfttgees.
,, BelgiiJ ,, ,, Bel[Jen ,, Belg Vlaams.
,, Dcnemarken ,, Dcncn ,, Deen Dcens.
,, Nouru·crrcn ,, Xoonrcgers .. N oorwcger Nooru·cegs •
,, Zv:cdcn Z1ceden ., Zweed Zweeds.
,, Rusland ,, ,. R u,8sen ,, flus Russies.
,, Grlekenland ,, Grieken ,, Gricli; Grielcs.

.Iu China live the Chinczcn. A Chinecs speaks Chznee11.

,, Japan ,, ,, Japanc-:cn ,, .fapunn'S Japanccs.
,, l>erzie ,, ., Prrzcn ,, Prrs Pnrzi<'s.
,, fn{li/, ,, ,, i'fidfrrs lndii!r lnclies.
,, Egypte /1lgyptcnarcti ,, JiJyyptcnaar Egypties.
,, Xaj)'raria ,, ., KajJ'ers ,, Ka.ffer Kaffers.

OBRERVATJONs.-InrliCr is "Inrlian"; lndiaan is "red Inr1inll".

The people of Europa, Europe, AzW, .Asia, A.frilca, Africa, Arucrilrn,
Amerieu, .ciustralii!, Australia, are e:tlletl Eurupeaan, Eurupeancn,
lDuropPans; A.~iaat, 1 ~ iaten, Asiatics; .tmnrilcaan, Ainc1'ilva111•n,
Amerimns: .1 ustralier, A ustraliers, Australians; Afrilcaan.
Afriltancn, Africans.

The white inhalJit.:.mts of South Africa are stylt>.d Afrikaners.

Those of Cape Colony in particular are ofteu ealled Xapcnaars.

XI. The following wo1·ds have no plural form:

1. Proper Nouns, except when they designate different
individuals of the same family name: de Hu,go's_, members
of the Hugo family.

2. Names of Materials, except when they express

particular kinds, or certain specified quantities or pieces:
wateren, rivers or seas; broden, loaves; zouten, chemicals;
wijnen, kinds of wine.

3. Abstract Nouns, except when they express a

variety: deu.gden, virtues; schoonheden, beauties; be-
vallighedcn, graces; aangelegenheden, matters.

4. The following which, having no Plural form of their

own, borrow that of synonymous words:
aanbud, aanbiPdir1,0. offer, aanbirdin.ven.
bedro,q, bellrieyerij, deceit, bedril:!ynri1en.
bclcy, belcgcri1111, siegP, bcle!ICring<:n.
do cl, flol'/cinde, pnrpos1', doel<'inde11.
eer, er-rlw ici.is, honour. eerbml'ijzen.
gedrag, 11< rf ray in:1, conuuet, ge<.lraginJICll.
genot, rw11ietin11, 1Jlt'HS1lrf', .ornictingcn.
gevoel, genJr'len, feeling, gCJ;QC/{ 118.


go weld, yeu•clclenarij, violerH·e, gcwClldcn'lrijcn.

//UO[I, l'<'l'U'U1'h fiil[J, hope, l'l r1raeh tin!len.
jnlry, inltlf/C, c1Pposi1, inlnqr 11.
l>rijg, oorlog, war, ourlugen.
J.:unde, lmndiyltcid, kuowlPdgP, k1111di,ohc'rlcn.
leer, lcring, tloc•triue, lcringen.
oonrrcl, ourdrcli·rli ing, juclgrrnmt, oonleclrcllin(ICll.
rarul. rruulgcrin.(l, a<lvke, rnallgc'l:ingcn.
ruuf, rovcrij, robl1l'ry, ror1·ri icn.
spot, spritferni i, inoekin~, spottcrnijc11.
strijd, !JCl'CCht ( tu:·ist), fight, gai·ech tl'n ( twist<'n).
troost. rerfroosNng, eonsula tiun, l'ertroostinr1r11.
.tw·ijfel, ticijfelinr;, doulit, twijfelin•1cn .
vcrclrict, verclrictclikhrid, :lurrow, rerdri.r·tel i/Mieclen.
zege, zc11epraal, vietory, .::eµcpralen.
zcgcn, :·r·rwning, l1Jessin~. .~rge111in,qcn.

5. The following expressions bring to light the use of

Dutch Singular forms for English Plurals:

gooil ti<li11g1>-gonde tijding. to be trampkd upon (under

bad nPws-s7rdit nii:uws. foot)-ondcr de 1•oi:t ralcen.
high wagNJ-hoog loon. [Formerly: rnuir'r rlc voeten]
matlrnmatics-meetkunde. tu raise (of an army)-op de
physies-sclwilcunde. ncen lircngen. L'l'he Sing. of
a pair of trousers-ccn nroPTv. hcen is a llct-word.]
a pair of scissors-e"n srhaar. the wall is two feet high-de
a pair of bellows-cen blaasbalg. muur is (l('l'C roet hoog.
a pair of pirn·ers-een nijvtang. I have two pairs of hoots-ik heb
a pair of speetacles-een bril. twee paar sclwencn.
a pair of tongs-cpn tang. the parcel weighs t11ree pounds-
io get a bl'ating (!1lows )-slaag hot po.k ll"eegi drie pond.
krijgen. [Sing. of "blow" the desk eosts four pounds-
is slag, Plur. slagcn, abbre- de lesscnaar kost vier pond.
viated to slaog.] he is twelve years old-hij is
• twaalf jaar oud.

Olls1£1WA~'ION.-'.l'hP. last five sentences should receive special

-attention. :\:feasure, number, weight, expense, also agl', are only
expressed l•Y Singular words, that is, as long as those words are
purely Duteh. It is eorreet to say: De~e bani• is drfr EL tang,
this !Jench is three yards long. It would be wrung to say other-
wise. Yet, using the Eng. word "yard", onl' would have to say:
Dcze bank. is llrir' YAKDR Tang. r~ikPwise: Dcze jas kost twinti{}
-Gl LDEN, hut: dcrti,q SHILLINGS.

XII. The following words have no singular:

gebroedm s, brothers (in a corn- mazclen, meu:iles.

merl'iul firru). unkostcn, e:qrnuse.
hersenrn. brains. onlustcn, uisturbance.
inkomstcn, revenue. oudcrs, parents.
kolcn, coal. vokken, small-pox.
k()sten, t•ost. toebcrcidselen, preparations.
ledematcn, limbs (of the bodr). t 1crzvncn 1 heel!-l.
lic<Zen, people. V001'01ldC1"S, :u1eestord.
mancu, mane. znden, customs.
maniercn, manners. zemclcn, 1.Jran.

Also the names of several mountain ranges and groups

01" islands:
do J'yrenr>ciln, the Pyrenees; de Apenijncn, the Apennines; a.e
Az1Jr<'n, the Azores; de JJiolulclccn, the J\Ioluccas.

XIII. Diminutives-Verkleinwoorden.
Diminutives are extensively used in Dutch for the
expression of the idea of smallness, inferiority, or
pitiableness, or, generally, to bring out the notion that
any object is diminished in any prominent attribute or
quality. The use of these words is very common, so
much so, indeed, that certain objects are never given their
proper name except with the diminutive ending attached,
as, for instance, meisje, girl, kopje, cup, schoteltje,
saucer, baadje, jacket.

Diminutive forms will be fully treated of in the chapter

on Etymology.

The principal Diminutive endings are: je, tje, etje,

pje and kje.

The Plural of all Diminutive forms ends in "s".

Je is used after words ending in t, k, f, s, ch, p, d, or
g: hut, hutje, hut; tak, takje, branch; schaaf, schaafje,

plane; vis, visje, fish; Zach, lachje, laugh; schop, schopje,

shovel; stad, stadje, town; dag, daagje, day.

OnsERVATION.-In these examples the meaning of the

Diminutives would be as follows: a small hut, plane, fish; a twig
(for branch) ; a smile (for laugh) ; a child's wooden toy-spade
(for shovel) ; a village (for town) ; whereas een daagje would
be used as an indefinite portion of auy day, as for instance: J7;,
wii daar wet eens een daagje doorbrengen, I should not mind
spending a little time there. The range of ideas and shades of
meaning expressed by Dutch diminutives is very great.

Tie is used when words end in a vowel or diphthong:

sofa, sojaatje, sofa; koe, koetje, cow.

Tje is further used after words ending in I, n, r, or w,

preceded by a vowel or diphthong; ziel, zieltje, soul; toon,
toontje, tone; boer, boertje, peasant; zwaluw, zwaluwtje,

Pje is used after most words ending in m: halm,

halmpje, stalk; duim, duimpje, thumb.

Btje is used after words ending in b, I, m, n, r, or ng,

preceded by an imperfect vowel: tob, tobbetje, tub; tol,
tolletje, top; kom, kommetje, basin; kan, kannetje, jug;
ka1·, karretje, cart; ding, dingetje, thing.

Kie occurs in a few words, in which final g is hardened

into k by pronunciation: koning, koninkje, king; ketting,
kettinkje, chain.

X.IV.-Final Consonants with regard to the Formation

of the Plural.

1. A final consonant, occurring after a full vowel or

diphthong, is not doubled before a plural ending: boek,
book, boeken,· ruit, pane, ruiten.
The same rule applies when an imperfect vowel becomes
full in the plural, as in the following 28 NouJTB :-


/Jad, bath, /JUd{,n, badjc.

bl ad, leaf, /Jladivn, lilrwdjc.
dag, day, daycn, waayjc (aagje).
dale, roof, dal.~cn, rlakjc.
d'p,l, valley, rlalcn, t/.alletjc.
gat, hole, ya ton, gaatje.
glas, glass, qlazen, ylaasje.
graf, grave, !frai·cn, grafjc.
pad, path, vaden, 1iaadjc.
rad, wheel, rarl('ren, rrwdje.
slag, blow, slagcn, slag}<'.
staf, staff, staccn, staafjc.
rat, barrel, vatcn, raatjc.
i:crdrag, treaty, rcrdragcn, renzragjc.
bevel, command, bcvclcn, bcvcllctjc.
vebed, prayer, ycbcdcn, gcl1cdje.
gebrek, fault, [Je/Jrekcn, gebrckjc.
spcl, game, s11ctcn, s11clletjc.
trcd, step, treden, trccdje.
weg, way, :reg en, wcgje.
god, god, god en, godjc.
hof, court, haven, hofje.
hol, den, holen, hollctje.
lot, lot, lotcn, lootje.
slot, lock, slotcn, slootjc.
oorlog, war, oorlogen, oorlogjc.
schot, shot, schotcn, schotjc.
her tog, duke, hcrtogen, hnrtogje.

2. Nouns ending in a consonant, preceded by a short

vowel, which retains its imperfect sound in the plural,
double their final consonant: bok; goat, bokken; hak,
heel, hakken; blok, block, blokken; kat) cat, l~atten. This
doubling of the consonant serves to close the first
syllable and to open the second, thereby preserving the
imperfect vowel sound.


1. Ch (final) is never doubled: kuclt, cough, kuchen; glim-

lach, smile, glimlachen.
2. When the final consonant is prel'edcd !Jy an unaccented i or
c, it is not doubled, so as not to change the accent;

pcrzik, veach, perziken (not perzilckcn); m6nnilc, rnouk,

1111!n11ilcc:n (not monnfklccn) ; dreu11ws, dwarf, llrr;nmcs<3n
(not drrurncsscn); hat:ilc, lmwlr, luidlwn (not l111rikken).
The ernliug i.'l, however, does not fall under tllis rule. sclcre-
taris, secretary, selcrct6riss<'11; c1!n11is, se!ltf'nce,

OBSERVATION.-RulPS 1 and 2 ll]lply tu the formation of the

In1initive forms of Yerlis, wllmie stem hns a short YO\Yl'l: IJ11l'1cc11,
to bake (stem /min ; also to tile tlexion-forrn<i of AdjL•ctive~: !loru,
.stupid, 1lonune.

3. Nouns ending in f or s, change f into v and s

into z:
(a) When preceded either by a diphthong, a full vowel,
or one which becomes full in the plural, e.g. duif, pigeon,
duiven ,· liaas, hare, hazen. Except filosofen, philosophers;
fotografen, photographers; kousen, stockings; kritisen,
crosses; struisen, ostriches; pausen, popes; spiesen,
(b) When preceded by a consonant, f changes into v,
except in the two foreign words triomfen, triumphs, and
nimjen, nymphs.
The s only changes into z when preceded by l, m,
and r: halzen, necks; gemzen, chamois; laarzen,
boots; also in the following words in ns:
Lenzen; lenses; bonzen, bounces; ganzen, geese;
trenzen, snafiles; grenzen, boundaries; griJnzen,
grins; oijnzen, tributes; donzen, downs (feathers);
likewise the Verb glanzen, to shine.
Walsen, walses; polsen, pulses; kaarsen, candles;
kersen, cherries; koersen, courses; pcrsen, presses;
schorsen, barks (of trees) ; fioersen, Yeils
(figurative), are exceptiom;.
No'l'E.-Tlle l'ause of this C'huuge of fiual leitl·r~ must lie fuun<l
in tlle origiuitl form of these words. 'J'hey fnl'merly emled
in re :rnd zc, l1ut Llroppe<l their filial c: duii-e, i oze (the
plural of which was naturally duiven, roznn), became duiv,
rooz, and afterwards duif, ruos, the hardPning of final v
and z tending to fadlitate the pronuneiatiou.

't Paard sohoonmaken-To groom the hor1<e.
1. 's Morgcns ga ik naar de In the morning I go to the
stal. stable.
2. Ik zoek de roskarn en de l look for the curry-comb
borstel. and the brush.
3. Ik gebruik de roskrun I use the curry-comlJ fo1~
voor het lijj van mijn the body of my horse.
4. Ile bcwceg de rosknm I move the curry-comb to
hccn en 'teecr ov!Jr het and fro over the skin.
5. Met de borstal niaak ik With the brush I clean the
de kop !Jn de paten head and legs.
6. Voor de manen en stanrt For the mane and the tail
gebruik ik ecn kam. I use a comb. ·
7. Ik was de paten en I wash the legs and feet
voeten met water. with water.
8. Ik vlccht de maanhoren. I plait the mane.
9. Ik vccg het stof van rnijn I wipe the dust off my
paard of met ecn horse with a cloth.
10. Zo wordt lwt paard So the horse is groomed.
gaan-ik ga, ik giug, ik ben gegaan, ik was geg:rnn, ik zal gaan, ik
zal gegaan zijn.
zoeken-ik zoek, ik zocht, ik heb gezocht, ik had gezocht, ik zal
zoeken, ik zal gezocht hebbfln.
gebruiken-ik gebruik, ik gebruikte, ik heb gebruikt, ik had
gebruikt, ik zal gebruiken, ik zal gebruikt hebben.
bewegcn-ik beweeg-, ik hewoog, ik heb bewogen, ik had bewogen,
ik zul bewegen, ik zal bewogen hehhen.
scboonmaken-ik maalt schoon, ik maakte schoon, ik heb schoon-
gemaakt, ik had srhoongr·mankt, ik zal sehoon-
malrnn, ik zal schoongemaakt hebben.
wasscn-ik was, ik waste, ik heb gewassen, ik had gewassen, ik
zal wassen, ik zal gewasseu hebben.
vlechtcn-ik vlecht, ik vloeht, ik lleb gevlochten, ik had gevlochten,
ik zal vlechten, ik zal gevlochten hebben.
afvegen-ik vceg af, ik vcegde af, ik heb afgeveeg<\, ik lrnd af-
ge"eegd, ik zal afvegen, ik znl afgeveeg-d hebben.


1. Speak the above sentences in all the persons of

every tense of the Indicative Mood.
2. Speak the sentences in the Negative Form.
3. Speak the sentences in the Interrogative Form.
4. Speak the sentences in the Negative-Interrogative
5. Speak the Exercise, replacing the Pro!).. ''ik" by
the words de knccht) the man.
6. The Imperative Mood, in which no Pronouns are
used, employs, for the Singular, the form of the 1st pers.
sing. Present, and, for the Plural, the form of the 2nd
pers. sing. Present. Knowing this, it is possible to speak
the above Exercise in the Imperative Mood, as follows:
Speaking to one person.-Speaking lo more than one.
1. Ga naar de stal. 1. Gant naar de stal.
2. Zoek de roslrnm. 2. Zoekt de roskam.
3. Gellruik de roskarn. 3. Gebruikt de roskam.
4. Beweeg de roskam. 4. Bewecgt de roskam.

7. Rehearse the former Speak-and-Act Exercises in

the Imperative Mood, Singular and Plural.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES.-Taaloefeningen.

Write the Plural forms of :

Paard) horse; merrie) mare; lcalf) calf; kuiken,
chicken; hoen, fowl; haan) cock; hen, hen; schaap, sheep;
ooi, ewe; ram, ram; volk, nation; 1nan, man; wind) wind;
storm, storm; schip, ship; ei, egg; mand) basket; zoon,
son; vader, father; last) burden; lepel, spoon; vork, fork;
mes, knife; lade, drawer; bord, plate; inktpot, inkpot;
pen, pen; papier, paper; vloeipapier) blottingpaper; boek,.
book; bladzijde) page; kalender, calendar; ma and, month;

week, week; jaar, year; dug, day; mi1wut, minute;

kwartier, qum·ter; kluk, clock; u:ijzer, hand; slinger,
pendulum; muur, wall; kamcr, room; tufcl, table; stoel,
chair; lamp, lamp.
Paal, pole;· drrwd, wire; i;<.:hroef, screw; spijker, nail;
hmnrr_. hammer; boor, gimlet; bcitcl, chisel; zaag, saw;
timmcrman, carpenter; mctselaar, mason; troffel, trowel;
sr·lz ictlood, plummet; lwak, square; u;aterpas, water·
level; Jcruiwage11, wheelbarrow; sch op, shovel; graaf,
spade; hark, rake; i;ehof/cl, hoe; bloem, flower; struik,
bush; lteei;ter, shrub; grond, soil; perk, plot; bed, bed;
pad, path; buom, tree; blad, leaf; knop, bud; twijg, twig;
tah, branch; wortel, root; huis, house; dale, roof; raam,
\vindow; kumer, room; waranda, verandah; keuken,
kitchen; stal, stable; bad, bath; gang, passage; portaal,
lobby; trap, staircase; leuning, rail; trcde, step; zolder,
loft; plafond, ceiling.


ik bcn, lam. ik heb, I have.

jij bent, thou art. iij hcbt, thou hast.
hij i.s, he is. hij /1<'<'fl, he has.
zij is, she is. .:ij hrrft, she has.
hct is, it is. /1.rt herft. it has.
ii is (polite form), you are. n !tccft (polite form), you have.
wij zijn, we are. irij hcbben, we have.
gij zijt, you are. vij hebt, you have.
jullie zijn, you are. jullic hcb/Jcn, you have.
zij zijn, they are. .~ij hob/Jen, they have.

OB8EltVATlON.-·with regard to the different trans-

lations of the Vcrb-forn1 in the 2nd person Singular and
Plural the following rule should be adopted by the student:
To il\fcriors (little children. young pupils, servants, etc.)
·close friends, brothers, siHters and cousins, Hay: Sing', jij or
je bent, jij or jt> hcbt; PJur. jullie zijn, julUe hcbbcn. 1

1'o parent,;, ;;trangers, and all su1wriorF, say: Sing.

u i.~, ·u. /weft; Plur. u zijt, u hcbt.
Never use yij zijt, gij hcbt in speaking·. You will lintl it
in books. and !war it from pulpits aucJ platforms; you m11y
al!'!O n1eet it in ('OJ"l"t'~]JOlldencP.


My, rnijn; his, zijn; her, ltaar; your, uu·; thf'ir, hun; om-.
unzc l hefore i;lc-words), ons ( 1.Jefore het-wor1ls 1.

I have a pencil. You have a carriage and a hor::ie.

\Ye haye a house. The ::itudy has a door and a window.
The child has a book and an umbrella. The hor~e has
a i:;table. You have a cupboard in your house. He is in the
room. You are in your i:;tudy. Are they in the carriage?
They have .a table in the~r room. · The lion has a cage in
the garden. His stick is on his book. Onr horse is in the
street. The sun has heat in (the) summer.


'This, l~czc (before de-words). dit (before hct-words 1 ; that, die

(lwfurt> lie-words), r7at(l.H'fore hct-worrls); lady, lfam1 (de); or, uf

Is thi::; carriage mine? llave you her bonnet or her

cap? We have his pencil and bis book. Are you in her
room? Ile is in hiH room. lH mother in her room? That
lady is in her study. Child, you are dirty. He has the
wheel of onr carriage in the stable. 'rhe dog is in their
garden: it ii:; mine ('t is mijne). 'fhe lady and the child
are in their room. The mother and the boy have a bird in
a cage. The door of our stable is broken. A door of a
cupboard is never large. We have a child: it is often ill.
In (the) summer the days are long.


school, school (de). long'er, /.anger. yes, ja.

slate. lei (de). many, vccl. also. onlr.
two, tu-<'<:. 011, U.f/11. there, daar.
five, vijf. hurnlrecl. ltuuden7. thousand, duizcnd.
than, dun. those, clie. are there, zijn er.

NOTE -Words in brackets [ ] are not to be translated.

The chickens are in the garden. Two of our hens

have chickens. In the school we have inkpots, books, and
slates. On the table there are forks and knives. Have you
blotting-paper in your books? Years are longer than
months, and months are longer than days. Are there
leaves on the trees, and buds on the shrubs? These books
have many pages. We have two windows in our kitchen.
The lobbies in those houses are large, and the staircases
high. The boy has many eggs jn his basket. His father
has [a] thousand sheep, and my uncle has five hundred
ewes. Have you [any] screws or nails for me? Yes,
and also a hammer and a gimlet.


sister, zustcr (de). why, waarom. me, mij.

brother, lirocdcr ( rln). ouly, maar. no, neen.
bedroom, slaapkamcr gOO(}, voed. more, mecr.
parents, OUd<'rS (de). very, zccr, heel. !Jut, maar.
kit<'hen, keuknn (rle). one. rcn. where, waar.
soil, grand (de). all, al. these, de::e.
roof, dak (het). for, rovr. mine, de mijne.

You have two horses in your stables. \Vhy only two?

Staircases have steps and railings. ·we have more
flowers in our garden than you. Yes, but I have more
shrubs in mine. How many (hoeveel) bedrooms are
there in your house? One for my sisier, lwo for m,v
brothers, one for my parents, and one for me. Have the
children [got] rakes and hoes? ~o, but the boys have
spades. Carpenters use (gebruiken) chisels, saws, and
hammers, and masons use trowels, squares, and a plum·
met. The buds on the trees are large. I am on the roof
of our house. Where are you, mother? I am in the
kitchen, my boy. Is the soil in his garden good? Yes,
the soil in all these gardens is very good.

GR.AMMAR. EXER.ClSES.-Taaloefeningen.

Fill up the blanks, putting Nouns in the Plural:


Onz- koe-- en onz- schaap- lopen in de wei-.

Our cows and our sheep run in 1he meadows.
Waar zijn d- mens-, die gisteren hier waren? Eend-
·where are the people, who yesterday here were? Ducks
en gans- zijn zwemvogel-. Leeuw-, beer-, tijger-,
and geese are swimming birds. Lions. llears, tigers,
wolf-, vos- en kat- zijn alle dieren, die vlees eten.
wolves, foxes, and cats are all animals that i'lesh eat
Olifant-, kameel-, os-, bok- en schaap- eten
Elephants, camels, oxen, goats and sheep eat
geen vlees, maar plant-. Op onz- reis- hebben wij
no flesh, llut plants. On our journeys have we
stad-, dorp-, rivier-, beek-, sluis-, brug-, markt-,
towns, villages, rivers, llrooks, sluices, l1riugcs, markets
kerk-, toren-, schip-, en zo voorts (enz.) gezien. De
churches, towers, ships, an<l so forth (etc.) seen. 'l'he
voornaamste· deel- van huis- zijn de fondament-, de
principal parts of houses are the foundations, the
rnuur-, de venster-, de deur-, de schoorsteen-, en de
walls, the windows, the doors, tlw chim1wys, and the
<Iak-. Schip- hebben kiel-, roer-, mast-, anker-,
roofs. Ships have keels, helms, masts, anchors,
zeil-, vlag- en ra-.
sails, flags, and yards.


Dez- vis- wonen in de noordelike zee--. Op

These fishes live in the 11orthern seas. At
punt-, waar de golf- van twee oceaan- elkander
points, where the waves of two ocl'ans Pach other
ontmoeten, zijn die golf- zeer hoog. Heb jij muis- of
meet, are those waves very high. Ila ve you mice or
rat- in de val- gezien '? De bos- zijn vol eekhorentje-
rats in the traps sPen? 'l'he woods are full (of) squirrels
•u THE &'l'A.:'.I D~illD DUTCH GTU:JlMAn

en aa11-. De eekhoren- i:;telen de ei- uit de nest-

and moukl'ys. The squirrels steal the eggs ont (of) the nests
van de vogel- in de hoge boom-. .:.\1cerkat- !even in
of t hP llirds in the higli trees. .Marmosets live in
gat- in bet ,·eld. Wij ontdekten gisteren drie echo- in
holPs iu tlw fielcl. We 1liseo>erpd yesterday three eehoes in
de berg-. De dal- z1Jn vol bloem-, en al de
the moun1ai11s. 'l'he vnlle~·s are full (of) fiower8, and all the
struik~- hebLen knop-. De land- zijn in provincie-
shrulJs ha\'e IJuds. The eountries are into provinces
verdeeld, en die weder in wijk--. De dame- hebben de
divided, and those ngnin i11to wards. The ladies have the
fotografie- in album- gezet. Dez- kind- zijn in
vhotogrnphs into albums vut. Tltesc ehildrcu are in
hun hoop- teleurgei:;teld. Ik kau uw-· aanbod- niet
tlicir ltopes disa ripointctl. I can your offers not
aannernen. Drie stoornboot- zijn vergaan, en honderden
aC'cept. Three stl'amcrs are wrc<'kc1l, aud hundreds
mens- omgekomen.
(of) people perislied.


De was doen.-'l.'o do the washing.

1. Jk gooi imrm u:att.:1· ill l pour hot wn1er into tlte

de 'U'U87)((liC. w:udlinp; tub.
2. lk dov er het ru.ilc lDU8- l put the dirty washing in.
f!O<.Jd fo.
3. 1 k smrer :::;el'p rwn d• l rub suap 011 to ti1e i:;oiled
vuile plckkcn. spoiR.
4. Ik 1crijf de plrkken 11it ruli out ill<> spotR on the
op hrt ieasbord. waio;hing board.
5. Ik s7wf'l de stukkcn in I rinse the pieces in the
d<' bulic. tuL.
G. 1 k luw 7 ]l('f INl8f/Oed i 11 rim;p thP washing again
srhonn u·u ter door. in t•lean water.
7. Ik hang hct gnl'd op I hung the waio;bing out on
lijnen te drogen. lineR to dry. S

8. lk strijk het fijne goed l iron the fine linen

glad. smooth.
9. lk rnangel het grove goed I maugle the coarse linen
gelijk. 1m100Lh.
10. Zo wonlt de u·as gcda,(tn. So the washing is <loue.


gooieu-ik gooi, ik gooide, ik heb gegooid, ik had gegooid, ik zal

gooien, ii' zal gegooid helJlien.
doeu-ik doe, ik ueell, ik lle!J gedaan, ik bad geuaan, ik zal lloen,
ik zal ge<laan hel1llen.
s111eren-ik smeer, ik smeerde, ik heh gesmeerd, ik had gesmeerd,
ik z:i 1 smercu, ik zal gesmeerd helJbc11.
wrijven-ik wrijf, ik wreef, ik heb gewre' ea, ik hall gewrcveu, ik
zal wrij1·Pn, ik zal gewre1•e11 helihen.
spoelen-ik spoel, ik spoelde, ik heb gespoeld, ik had gespocld,
ik zal spoelen, ik zal gespoelu helJlJe11.
doorhalen-ik lrnal door, ik haalde door, ik heh uoorgellaald.
ik Jmu uoorgellaald, ik zal doorhalen, ik zal door-
gehaald hehhen.
hangen-ik haug. ik hing, ik heli gehangen, ik lrnd geha11ge11, ik
zal llaugen, ik zal gehangen !Jeh!Jen.
strijlrnn-ik strijk, ik streek, ik heb gestreken, ik had ge,n:reken,
ik zal strijken, ik zal g<>str<:'ken heblJen.
mangolen-ik maugel, ik maugelde, ik hcb gemangeld, 11' had
gemangeld, ik zal mangele11. ik zal gemaugeld helJl1eu.


· 1. Speak the above Exercise in the 2nd person singular

of all the tenses-first with jij or je, then with u.
2. Speak the above Exercise in the 2nd person plural
of all the tenses-first with jullie, then with u, finally
with gij.
3. Speak the Exercise in the singular and plural forms
of the Imperative ~food.
4. Speak the Exercise, substituting "De Wasvrouw ",
the washerwoman, for the Pronoun "nc ",and alternating
these words again with the Pronoun "zij })' she.

The same Exercise extended and combined.

Wanneer (when) er (there) wasdag (washing day) is,

maakt de meid (servant girl) 's morgens vroeg (early)
aUes (everything) klaar (ready). Zij kookt (boils) water,
en gooit emmers (buckets) vol (full) in de balie, die
(which) op de achterplaats (back yard) staat. Dan
(then) haalt (fetches) zij het vuile goed uit de kamers
(rooms), en gooit het alles in de balie om te weken (to
soak). Na (after) enige (some) tijd (time) smeert zij
zcep aan de vuile plekken in het goed, slaat (beats) het
lieen en weer door het zeepsop (lather), en wrijft de
'l:Uile plekken op het wasbord uit. Vaarna (afterwards)
spoelt zij de stukken in een andere (other) balie, waar
SChOOn u;ate1· in staat (stands). flan is hct goed Schoon
(clean), en hangt zij het uit op lijnen in de titin (garden) .
om te drogan. De wind (wind) droogt het daar (there),
en dan neemt (takes) zij het a/ (down). Zij zoekt
(selects) het fijne goed uit, en brengt (takes) het naar
de waskamer (laundry) om het te strijken. Het andere
'wordt gcrnangeld, en op (in) die (that) manier (way)
glad gemaakt. JJaarmce (with that) is de was gedaan
voor (for) de week (week).


sugar, suikrlr (de). journey, reis (de). for sale, te koop.
oats, ltai•er (de). l'offee, kujJio (de). one, een.
glove, lwndscho{Jn (de). tie, das ( rlr). taller, gruter.
tea, tee (rlc). hat, hoed (de). give, gcof.
shirt, hemd (het).

NoTEs.-Words giYen as example'3 to spedal rules are not reveated.

Leave words in [ ] untranslated.
'l'rnnslate words in parenthesPs.

How many loaves have you? I have five loaves. Have

you two spoonfuls of sugar for me? A handful, if you

like ( als je wilt). Those Englishman are taller than

these Frenchmen. My neighbours are carpenters and
masons. Our horses have oats, and our cows bran and
water. Give me five pounds [of] tea, and two pounds
[of] coffee. The boys have two dozen nibs. 'fhese walls
are [a] hundred feet high. One child has (the) smallpox,
and two children have (the) measles. There are great
(grote) preparations for his journey. Shirts, stockings,
ties, gloves, and hats are for sale at Scott Brothers (bij
de Gebroeders Scott) in (the) Plein Street.


woman, i·rouw (de). mouse, muis (de). broken, yebroken.

shop, tl'inkel (de). mole, mol (de). strong, sterlr,.
sea, zee (de). rat, rat (de). outside, l·uiten.
tooth, tand (de) . lanrt, land (ltet). new, ni<J1tw.
key, sleutel (de). girl, meisje (het). on, in.
boot, schoen (de). rabhit, konijn ( het). along, langs.
<'arpet, tapijt ( het).

'Ve have two uncles, two aunts and five nephews.

The women are in the shop, and their husbands are out-
side. The roots of the trees are long and strong. The
tree has [a] thousand leaves, and my book has only [a]
hundred leaves. The bones of his legs are broken. All
the rooms have new earpets, and tiie girls have new
clothes. The songs of your children are new [to] me
(rnij nfottw). The watch has many wheels. We have
[a] hundred lambs and many fowls also. The ships are
on the sea, and the towns are on (op) the land. There
are [two kinds of meat] (two meats) on [the] table.
We have sods along the paths in our garden. These
doors have locks and keys. Children have many faults.
There are holes in those walls. The heels of my boots
are high. Cats, rats, mice, rabbits, and moles have sharp


-write out the Plurals a;nd Diminutives of:

W andeling, walk; schop, shovel; haard, hearth;

kachcl, stove; bla leer, candlestick; kandelaar, candlestick;
tropee, trophy; zenuw, nerve; knie, knee; zee, sea; lijf,
body; korset, corset; pees, sinew; ei, egg; blad, leaf;
dale, roof; bol, globe; les, lesson; rno1nbakkes, mask;
wnnis, sentence; schijf, disc; laars, boot; slof, slipper;
pantoffel, slipper; zool, sole; dans, dance; krun.~, wreath;
rcarken, pig; koe, cow; kalf, calf; big, young pig; os, ox:
giraffe, girafie; tobbe, tub; schans, trench; du if, dove;
doff er: male pigeon: kolonie, eol011.v; ambac:htsman,
artisan; pcrz,ik, peach; druif, grape; peer, pear; havik,.
hawk; mus, sparrow; kolibri, colibri; krakeling, cracknel;
genot, pleasure; zege, victory; bcdrog, deceit; goedheid,
goodness; gcbergte, mountain range; 8tudie, study: lid-
maat, member or limb; rif, reef, carcass; vlees, meat;
tin, tin; ijzer, iron; smid, blacksmith; wortel, root, carrot;
lnndschap, landscape; genie, genius; tocrnooi, tourna-
ment; dame, lady; dokter, physician; soldaat, soldier;
lwrlogc, watch; gelid, rank; berin, she-llear; rla, custard;
kanarie, canary; oom, uncle; been, leg, bone; papegaai,
parrot; spcl, game; filosoof, philosopher; struis, ostrich;
nimf, fairy; ncus, nose; els, awl; her tog, duke; graaf,
count; koningin, queen; zoon, son; do moor, dunce; vlag,
flag; glas, glass; teen, toe, osier; waranda, verandah;
bies, rush; menagerie, menagerie; hypotheek, bond;
mikroskoop, microscope; idee, idea; telegram, telegram;
piano, piano; meermin, mermaid; twee, two; drie, three;
zes, six; negen, nine; vijf, five; zeven, seven; mil, zero;
op8tcl, composition; diktaat_. dictation; preek, sermon;
reden, reason.
FOR11L4'1'1UX OF 1'11JiJ PLURAL 81


JJe doden begraven.-To bury the dead.

1. Wij leygen ltd lijk in de \Ve place 1he corpse in the

kist. coflin.
2. Wij sohrocrcn liet deks<'l \Ye Hcrew the lid on to
op de kist. the coflin .
.::!. lflj zettcn ltd lijk in de \Ye put ihe corpse in the
lijktvayen. hearse.
4. Wij stappen udzter de \\"e walk behind the hearse
lijkkocts n u 1i r he t to the cenwtery.
.5. Wij drageu de lijkki8t \\' e can.r the eollln to the
naar ltet yraf. grave.
6. lVij ::ettcn de kist op de \Ye put the coffin on the
balkcn orer de groe1:e. heams over the grave.
7. lFij li<'ldcn de kist met We lift the coffin up with
tuuu:en op. ropes.
8. lVij t rckkrn d(' balkrn \Ve pull away the beams
onrfor dP kist iceg. from under 1.he coffin.
9. Wij latcn de kist in de \Ve let ilte coffin sink into
gr()Cr<J z11kkcn. the grave.
10. Zo begra1:en 10ij de doden So we bury the dead.


leggen-ik leg, legde, hell (hnd) gelegd, zal !Pg-gen I gPlegd

sehroeven-ik schroef, schroefde. heb (had) i!esehroefd, zal
schroeveu ( geschroefd helJlJPn).
zetten-ik zet. zeitP. heh (had) gezet, zal zetten ( gezet hebben).
stappen-ik stnp, staptfl, heh I had) gestapt, zal stttppPn (gPstapt
dragen-ik llraag-. <lroPg, heh (had) gedragf'n, :1al <lrageu ( ge-
flrn gen hPhben).
liehten-il' li<'ht. lil-httP, hPlJ (hall) g<Jlicht, zal li<'hten ( gelieht
helihe11 \.
t1•ekken-ik trPk, trok. hPh lhacl) getrokken, zal trekken (g-e-
trokken helibeu).
latun ik laat, liet, heh (had) gelaten, zal la ten ( g0laten hebben).
bcgi·aven-ik hegraaf, begroef, heb (had) begraven, zal begrnYen
( begra ven helJben).

NoTE.-Hcnceforth Verb JUxercises will lie giv!'n in abbreviated

form. Students are advised to write them out for them-
selves. ('ompleting them at the same time. Their success
lies in a thorough knowledge of Dutch Verhs.


1. Speak the Exercise in the 3rd pers. plural of all the

tenses of the Indicative Mood.
2. Substitute the names of persons, i.e. in (2) and (3)
dc lijkbezorgers, the undertakers; in (5), (6), (7) and (9)
de dragers, the bearers; in (8) de doodgrai1ers, the grave
diggers; and in this way multiply the speaking exercises.
3. Speak the Exercise in the Interrogative, Negafive,
and Negative-Interrogative forms.
4. Introducing Conjunctions to link the sentences
together, students may have noticed in the work following
on Exercise ~o. 5, that the subject is placed after the
Verb in such cases. The Conjunctions likely to fit are
the following: eerst, first, daarna, afterwards, da.n, then,
vervolgens, subi:mquently, cindeW;, or ten laatste (ten
siotte), finally. ·when speaking in the Past 'L'ense, "then''
should be translated by "toen", not ''dan."


Gisteren stierf mijn oudste zuster. Zij was lang ziek

Yesterday died my eldest sister. Shl' had long ill
geweest aan de koorts, en eindelik stierf zij. ~fijn
been of the fever, and at last died she. l\Iy
moeder en ik kleedden haar aan voor de kist. De kist
mother and I dressed her for the euffin. The coffin
werd door de lijkbezorger gemaakt. Van avond zal het
was by the undertaker made. To-night will the
lijk gekist worden. Vandaag ZIJn er veel
body put into the coffin be. To-day have (there) many

vrienden het lijk komen zien. Het was in 't wit gekleed,
friends the body come to see. It was in white dressed,
en er lagen witte bloemen om heen. Ilet leek,
and there were lying white flowers round about. It seemed,
of Anna lag te slapen. Morgen zal de begrafenis zijn.
as if Amm lay sleeping. To-morrow will the funeral be.
Het graf is al gemaakt op 't kerkhof. Het is
The grave has been already made in the churd1ya rd. It is
zes voet diep. Vader en moeder, en mijn broers en
six feet deep. Father and mother, and my brothers and
zusters gaan mee naar bet graf. Anna had daarom
sisters go along to the grave. Anna had for that
gevraagd. Wij zullen allen achter de lijkkoets !open.
asked. We will all after the hearse go,
want de afstand is zo klein van ons huis naar de
because the distance is so small from our house to the
begraafplaats. De predikant gaat met vader vooraan in
cemetery. The minister will go with father in front of
de lijkstoet (lijkstaatsie). Er zullen acht dragers zijn,
the funeral train. There will eight bearers be,
maar geen rijtuigen, behalve de lijkwagen. Bij bet graf
but no carriages, except the hearse. At the grave
willen wij een gezang zingen, eer de kist neergelaten
shall we a hymn sing, before the coffin lowered
wordt. Dat zal plechtig zijn.
is. That will solemn be.


Maaltijden. l\Jeals.

1. Heoft n ontbeten? Have you ha!l your break-

2. Nog niot; wij ontbijtcn ge- Not yet, we usually have
woonlil,; om 9 uzir hreakfast at fl o'clock.
3. Wit u nu cen /;op kotfie Will you take a cup of coffee
gebruiken? now?
4. Dani,; u; ik waoht lievcr tot No, thanks ; I prefer waiting
het ontbijt. till breakfast time.
5. Wil u bij mij lcomcn dinercn? Will you come and dine
with me?

6. Danl~ u; ik ben reeds ttit; 11- I am invited out, thanks very

'1.iraayd. llll!Cll.
7. Jiorn dan moryon toch kojjie Well then come to luncheon
1lrinken om l uur, of tomorrow at 1 o'clock, or
or,,·µ1·1 en om !) uur. to supper at 9 o'clock.
8. Gccf rnij een bord soep. Give rue a plate of soup.
9. Go<Jf mij ccn stukje yeln adon Give me some roast beef and
vlccs en wat radijs. some radish.
10. ls de biefstulv malsf Is the Leefsteak tenuer"?
11. Kan ii•: u dicnen rrlf't wat Can 1 help you to some mutton
!JCStoofd sclwperlees f stew'/
12. Mag ilr. u ccn stulcjc gcbradcn ~fay I give you some roast
heestei:lccs go1·1·n! !Jeef?
13. lk wii graag iets van die I shuulu like some roust duck
qe/J1wlen ccnrl en wat and green peas, please.
!JI ucnc er ten ncmcn.
14. Welke yrocntc mag ilc u aan- 'W!tn 1 vegetables can I offer
uicdcn! you?
15. Ge.~tuofdeaa1·dappelen en Mas::ied potatoes and cauli-
uloemlcool, als 't u lilieft. ilower, please.
15. Zal u ·wijn of l!ier veuruifoen! Will you take wine or beer?
17. Gccf mij con glas stout. Giye me a glass of stout.
18. Er zijn poddmgcn, taarten Tlwre n re rrn utliugs, tarts and
en vastij1·n; ivat mag ilc ii pies ; which shall I pass you?
HJ. 1V11t app<'ltaart en 1'la. Some apple-tart and custarll.
20. Voor dessert zijn er rozijncn For dessert there are raisins
en u.rrwndelen, r1c1nber. and alrnomls, 11reserved gin-
appcls, sinaasappcls (lc- ger, np[Jles, oranges, pine
111oenen), anannsNen en apples and figs.
21. Blicft ·u tee of lvojfic na het Will you take tea or co!Iee
et.en! after 11iu11er 'l
22. Eon klein lvo}Jje stcrke lvo/]ie, A small cup of strong co!Iee,
als 't ·u bl1eft. pl1!aSC.
23. Vetlcicst u /tot zondcr rnclk Do ~ ou prefer it without milk
r•n suilccr? au cl snga r "/
24. Olwlrnlade 11cliruilc ilc wn<lff I ta! e clrncolate witbont sugar
s11il•er, maar nouit tee of llut never tea or coffee.
25. Ger/ mij Itel lirood ecns aan, PaRs me the !Jread, please.
als "t 11. /Jli<'ft.
2<l. Ile liourl mu liam met cirren I like ham ancl eggs for break-
ruor on I liijt. fast.
1.7. Zou 1t mij de Tcaas 1rl/len May I trouble you for the
1/(/11(/('l"('/I ! d!CCRl''i
28. lJlct gcnoegen. With pleasure.



(Het aeslacht van Zelfstandige Naamwoorden).

I. THE GENDl!Jlt of a Noun marks the sex of the person

or animal indicated by it. Formerly, Gender marked the
way in which "Nouns, together with their attendant words
(Articles, Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Adjectives
of quality or number) were declined. There used, there-
fore, to be three acknowledged Genders, the l\fasculine,
Feminine, and Neuter, not indicnting Hex, and conse-
quently including all words, whether names of persons,
animals, or inanimate things. These distinctions are
still met with in literature, but are not any longer
acknowledged in the Simplified Language. \Vhat remains
of Gender distinctions is, first of all, the distinction
marking sex, which can only refer to names of persons
and animals; and, secondly, the classification of all
other words into two groups, called De=words and Het-


1. -~fames of male persons and male animals are

Masculine, as: koning, king; broeder, brother; leeuw,
lion; stier, bull.
3. Names of female persons and female animals are
Feminine, as: keizerin, empress; W<.LS'l.'romv, washer-
woman; berin, she-bear; lwe, cow.
J~XCEPTIONS: hct wijf, the woman (term of contempt). Jlet
urine mens, the poor creature, is used of women, though
mens is Masc.

3. When the male and the female animal have each a

separate name, but there is a third name indicating
either, this third name is a hct-word, as: de ram, ram,
:Maisculine; de ooi,. ewe, Feminine; het schaap, sheep,
Neuter. De haan, cock, Masculine; de hen, hen,
Feminine; het hoen, fowl, Neuter.

EXCEPTION. 'l'he word hond is a dc-woru. though it has reu

for the male and teef for the female.


The Natural Gender of persons and animals is indicated

by their names.

The suffix es makes Peminine names of persons from

Masculine ones: dichter, poet, dichteres, poetess; zanger,
singer, zangere8, lady singer; dienaar, servant, dienare8,
(female) servant.

The ending in does the same: konin_g, king, koningin,

queen; keizer, emperor, keizerin, empress; gemaal, con·
sort, (Fem.) gemalin.

It also derives names of female animals from those of

males: lecuw, lion, leeuwin_; wolf, wolf, wolvin; beer,
bear, berin.

The suffix ster makes Feminine names of the stems of

Verbs, where the masculine suffix would be er: bakker,
baker, bak8ter; naaister, needle-woman ; schoonmaakster,
charwoman. Zangster is used for "goddess of song".

Either ster or es is added to male appellations ending

in aar: dienaar, servant, dienares; lettgenaar, liar,
leugenaarster; bedelaar, beggar, bedelaarster or bedelares.

The following distinctions should be note<l:


man, man. vronu', woman. dief, thief. di01:cgge, female

man, lrnsb1mc1. vrouw, wife. thief.
vader, father. mocder, mother. hcngst, stallion. rnerrin, mare.
:won, son. dochtcr, daugh- kater, he-cat. kat, sb.e-cat.
ter. ha.an, cock. hen, hen.
brui(d'e)gom, brnid, bride. raru, ram. ooi, ewe.
bridegroom. doffcr, cock- ro11if, hen-pigeon.
oom, nncle. tante, aunt. pigeon.
neef, uevhew, nicht, niece, bul(sticr) ,lmll. koc, cow.
cousin. cousin. bok, buck. hinde, doe.
monnik, monk. non, nun. bOk, he-goat. gcit, she-goat.
heer, gentleman. dame, lady. wocrd, dral,e. ecnd, duck.
knecht, man- meid, maid. beer, male-pig. ze·ug, rnw.
servant. ganzcrik,gander. gans, goose.

Animals are further distinguished as rnannetje, male~

wijfje, female, as:
M.annctjcs-olifant, male elephant; wijfjes-lcarrwel, female camel.


Words which, according to their signification, may

denote either a Male or Female person or animal. are
said to be of common gender (gemeen geslacht). These
1. Names of persons and animals ending in ling.·
lieveling, darling; vreemdeling, stranger;
nesteling, nestling; vluchteling, fugitive; hok-
keling, stall-fed calf; Oosterling, Oriental.

2. Names of persons ending in noot or genoofr

echtgenoot, consort; landgcnoot, fellow-country-
man; speelgenoot, playfellow; reisgenoot, fellow-

3. The following words: bode, messenger; d-ienst-

bodc, servant; gids, guide; getuige, witness;
wees, orphan; lidmaat, member of a congre-
gation; erfgenaam, heir; gade, consort.

V. For distinguishing between de=words and bet.

words the following R.ules are given:


1. Names of treeR: cik, oak, wilg, willow ... den, fir, spar,
:Scottish fir, linde, lime-tree.

2. Names of fruits, plants, grains, and flowers: ja.smijn,

jessamine, geranium, geranium, rogge, rye, perzik, peach,
11Cer, pear, tarice, wheat.

Graan, grain, is a hct-word,

3. Names of the parts of trees and plants: sohors,

bark, soh-il, peel, twijg, twig, tronk, trunk, bast, bark.

Blad, leaf, is a 7wt-word.

4. Names of mountains and rivers: de Mont Blanc,

.!\font Blanc, de Nijl, the Nile.

5. :~fames of seasons, months and days: her/st,

autumn, JJfaart, March, Zaterdag, Saturday.

Jaar, year, sekocn, season, and um·, hour, are het-words.

n. Nanws of Rhips: driemaster, three-masted ship, sloep,

sloop, boot, boat.

F'regat, frigate, jacht, yacltt, and the word schip, ship, are

7. Names of the parts of ships; ra, yard, stang, bar,

kiel, keel, rnast, mast, boeg, bow.

Roer, helm, zeil, sail, ruim, hold, and delc, deck, are Tiet-words.

8. Names of coins: stuiver, penny, gulden, florin, pen-

ning) penny, daalder, dollar.

1•0111/, sovPreign, is a het-word.

9. Names of precious stones, when they indicate single

pieces, as: De diarnant in deze ring, the diamond in this
ring. When they have a collective meaning, they are
het-words: Het diarnant van 7itid-Afrika: 1he diamond
of South Africa.

10. Stems of Verbs expressing an action: slaap, sleep,

glirnlach, smile, val .. fall, eer, honour, zorg, care.

11. Stems of Verbs naming an instrument or tool: val,

trap, zaag.• saw, boor, gimlet, plocg, plough.

12. ::-\terns of Verbs ending in st, or with st added:

twist, quarrel, oogst, harvest, dorst, thirst, troost, con-
solation, last, burden, rust, rest, gunst, favour, komst,
arrival, dienst, Rervice.

13. Names of the letters of the alphabet, ·figures, and

musical notes: de o, the o, de vijf, the five; de fa, the fah,
de al/a en de omega, the alpha and the omega.

14. Monosyllabic names of the parts of the human

body: hcup, hip, long, lung, kin, chin, maag, stomach,
arm, arm, neus, nose, rug, back, voct, foot, hiel, heel,
teen, toe, nek, neck, hals, neck, tand, tooth, mond,
ruouth, baard, beard.

Oor, ear, oog, eye, vel, skin. been, leg, hoofd, head, hart,
heart, lijf, body, are het-words.

15. Names of musical instruments: piano, piano,

trompet, trumpet, harp, harp, viool, violin, triangle,

Klarirr, piano, and oryd, organ, are het-words.

lG. Many names of materials, exclusive of metals:

£ijde, silk, franje, fringe, leant, lace, watten, wadding,
melk, milk, boter, butter, lcaas, cheese, siroop, syrup, snuif,
snuff, su-il:er, sugar, kool, coal, tee, tea, wol, wool, rnep,
soap, zwavel, sulphur, kamfer, camphor, gom, gum, hars,
resin, aluin, alum, azijn, vinegar, wijn, wine, kalk, lime,
mostcrd, mustard, tabak, tobacco, room, cream, honing,
honey, koffie, coffee.

ll'ntcr. water. brood, hread, and Mer, !1PPr, are llct-words.

17. Names of instruments ending in el, er and aar:

sle·utcl_. key, ltarner, hammer, lessenaar, desk, griffel,
slate-pencil, schoffel, 110e, sikkrl, sickle, gaffel, pitchfork,
ladder, ladder.

lS. 'Vm·d::; in m, em, rm, Im, end and oml: ri<'m, thong,
bezem, broom, worm, worm, zalm, salmon, ochtend,
morning, arond, <:>Yening, bloem, flower, kiem, germ.

Raa111, wintlow, :rnfl srlH'nn, S<'l'Pen, are 711'1-words.

19. Words in dom, when expres::;ing a .~tatc or con-

dition, as: wasdom, growth, adeldum, nobility, rijkdom,
riches, oiiderdom, old age.

20. \\'ords in schap, expressing a state, a condition,

'Or a r:ollection: blijdsrha.p, joy, rekenschap, rendering
of account, manschap, crew, jongelingschap, collection
of young men.

21. Words in ing, whether derived or not derived from

Verbs: ketting, chain, rotting, cane, ring, ring, tekening,
drawing, bedoeling, meaning.
22. vVords ending in gd, cht, t, e, ij, ie, uw, nis, heid,
teit, uur, ier, ts: deugd, virtue, kracht, strength, markt,
market, vreugde, joy, heersclwppij, dominion, knie, knee,
schaduw, shadow, begrafenis, funeral, ioaarheid, truth,
majesteit, majesty, natuur, nature, rivier, river, koorts,
fever, plicht, duty, nacht, night, tocht, journey, geest,
Licht, light; 1richt, l>aue; rec ht, right; am bt, profession;
ambacht, trade; schrift, writing; gcleide, escort; getij (de),
tide; eind ( c), end; iceb (be), weu; lwnoilie, <'Ouncil;
cv.angcUe, gospel; genie, genius; 1•onnis, sentence; vuilnis
( vullis), dirt; and getui,qcnis, evidence, arc het-words.
NoTE.-Getuigenis, testimony, is a de-word.

23. Foreign words in aan, ant (and), aard and ont:

orkaan, hurricane, oecaun_. ocean, foliant_. folio Yolume,
tulband, turban, standaard, standard, tabbaard, gown,
horizont, horizon.
24. Foreign words ending in as, eet, ot, iek, ier, teit,
uut, and uur: rnatrus, mattress, kmneet, comet, kalot,
cap, rcpubliek, commonwealth, rivier, river, majesteit,
majesty, natu1lr, nature, minwut, minute.
Schavot, S<"affold; kolielc, colic; harnas, armour; kompas,
compass; moeras, swamp; forrnulier, formulary; le wartier,
quarter; pa pier, paper; avontuur, adventure, and figuur,
shape, are het-words.


1. The class-name of animals which have a separate

name for the Male and Female: paard_. horse, rund, bull
or cow, hoen, fowl.
Hond is a dr.-wortl.

2. The names of the young of animals: kuiken,

chicken, vculen, colt, larn, lamb, kalf, calf, welp, whelp.
Kind, child, and wi<:ht, infant, fall under this rule.

Bi!!, formerly biggc, young pig, is a de-wor<l.

3. Names of countries, towns, and places: het oude

Rome old Rome, het machtige Bngdand, rnigMy En~land.

The word stad, tow11, is a dc-wor<l.

4. All diminutives: kindje, little child, raarnpje, small

window, hondje, pup, klcintje, little one.

Wor<ls in el for.rncrly rN•ognise<l as dimiuuth'Ps are dc-wor<ls:

druf)pel, drop; kruimcl, ('ramb; cikcl, acorn; l~nnlib('l, knob.

5. Words expressing a collection of objects, even if

their nature marks them as de-words: Zeger, army, dozijn,
dozen, geld, money, bos, wood, gras, grass, graan, grain.

Zwerm, swarm; stnet, train; tronp, troop; bcnde, band; vloot,

ftcet; kitdd(', ftock; schaar, crow<l, are de-words.

6. Words. which begin with ge and end in te, when

they express a collection: gcvogeltc, all the birds, ge-
becntc, all tlte bones belonging to a skeleton.

When such words have not a collective meaning, they are

dn-words: de gedaohte, thought.

7. All words ending in seJ and derived from Verbs:

dek8d, lid, handvatscl, handle, plooisel, frilling.

Stijfscl, starch, is a de-word.

8. Names of materials, especially metals: katoen,,

cotton, linnen, linen, vlas, flax, fiuwccl, velrnt, ijzer. iron, S 1
goud, gold, zilvcr, silver, brood, bread. 1

9. Words of foreign origin ending in er and e/: a.rtikel,

article, orgel, organ, offer, sacrifice, venster, window,
cijfe1·, figure, klooster, convent, meitbel, piece of furniture.

10. Stems of Verbs with the unaccented verbal prefixes

be, ge, ver, and ont: bedrag, amount, verlof, leave,
ontbijt, breakfast.

Verkoop, sale, is a de-word.

11. Infinitive Verbs, and further all parts of speech

used as Nouns: het leven; life, het voornemen, the inten-
tiou, het voor en tegen, the pro and con, het hoe en
1,1;aarom, the why and wherefore.

12. '-Vords in dom, indicating a collection, or the name

of a country or state: Christendom, Christianity, mens-
dom, the human race, hertogdom, dukedom.

Notice that Christendom, Christianity, means the <·reed of

Christians; whereas Eng. "Christendom", the collective body
of Christians, is in Dutch Ohristenheid.

Heidendom means both "heathenism" and "heathen" iu a

collective sense.

13. Words in schap, indicating a profession or an

estate: priesterschap, priesthood, graafschap, earldom,
landschap, province. Also the words: gezantschap,. em-
bassy, genootschap, society, gereedschap, tools, and
gezelschap, company.

14. Foreign words in aal, aat, eel, ent, et, oen, oor:
portaal, portal, kanaal, canal, klimaat, climate, karaat,
carat, kasteel, castle, prieel, summer-house, parlement,

parliament, talent, talent, !corset, corset, lw.rpoen, har-

poon, kantoor, office, plantsoe.n. plantation, seizoen,
season, musket, musket, bekkeneet, skull.
J(aneel, cinnamon, is a de-word.

NoTE.-Of all these words the last syllable is accented.


All Compound Nouns follow the gender of their last

part. Examples: huis is a het-word, and deur 'is a de-
word, therefore lmisdcur is a de-word; tafel is a de-word,
and klced is a het-word, therefore tafellclccd is a /wt-word.
There are a few words, however, whose gender has
changed in composition: blilc is a de-word, but ogenblilc,
moment, is a 7iet-word; stip is a de-word, but tijdstip,
date, is a 7zct-word; kant is a de-word, but vierlcant,
square, is a het-word; lwf is a de-word, but kerkhof,
churchyard, is a lzet-word; vonk is a de-word, but rood-
vonk, scarlatina, is a het-word.

VII. Some words belong to both classes (de and het)

with a difference of meaning in either case:
de bal, ball, globe. llct /Jal, dance, ball.
de blilc, look. het blik, tin.
de diamant, diamond (single lwt diamrint, diamond (stone).
de hof, garden. het hof, court.
de lcurk, cork (stopper). l!Pt lcurlc, cork (material).
de maai, time. hct inaal, meal.
de morgen, morning. hct murycn, land-measure.
de pa<l, toatl. llct vad, path.
de patroon, employer, cartridge. llet patroon, pattern.
rle punt, point, full stop. llet pimt, subject.
de slav, blow. Tiet slag, trap, kind.
de stof, material. lict stof, dust.
de vlclc, stain. hct i·lclc, hamlet.

List of ordinary Bet-words not included in the rules.

A. bekken, basin.
beschut, partition.
aam, awm. /Jeslag, seizure.
aanbod. offer. bestand, truce.
aanderiken, keepsake. /Jewind, government.
aange.~icht, countenance. bier, beer.
aantal, number. biljoen, billion.
aanzicht, view, appearance. biljart, billiards.
aanzoclc, request. bilj~t, ticket.
aas, carrion. bit, bit.
abuis, mistake. bitter, bitters.
adres, address. blad, leaf.
.advics, advice. blilc, tin.
afscheid, farewell. blind, blind, shutter.
afschrift, copy. bloed, blood.
afstel, neglect. blok, block.
alckoord, agreement. blijk, proof.
akcont, accent. bod, offer.
alarm, alarm. boek, hoolr.
album, album. bond, confederation.
alfabet, alphabet. bont, fur.
allooi, alloy. boora, border, board.
altaar, altar. bord, plate.
ambat!ht, trade. borde.~, landing.
ambt, profession. bos, wood.
artker, anchor. brcin, brain.
antwoord, answer. brocd, brood.
appel, appeal. brood, bread.
archie.f, archives. 1n~d gc t, budget.
arrest, arrest. buffet, buffet.
artilcel. article. buis, jadrnt.
azuur, azure. buitcn, villa, country-scat.
liureel, office.
11uslcruit, gunpowder.
bad, bath.
bakcn, beacon. cadcau, present (also
balckes, face. spelled-lcado).
balkon, hakony. cement, cement.
barnboes, bamboo. charter, charter.
banltet, banquet. <:ijfer, figure.
-Oanlcroet, bankruptcy.
basalt, basalt. D.
'lied, bed. dale, roof.
brcld, image. dal, valley.
been, bone, leg. dcliat, debate.
becst, beast. debct, debit.

debiet, sale. enthucsiasme, enthusiasm.

decg, dough. epistel, epistle.
de el, part. cpos, epic poem.
deficit, ueficiency. erf, yard.
defelct. defect. erratum, erratum.
dck, deck. erts, ore.
depot, uepOt. ctgrocn, aftermath.
desert, dessert. ctma·1l, period of 24 hours.
dicht, voetry. ctui, ease.
dicct, diet. eu eel, evil.
d ier, animal. crangclir, gospel.
dicragc, vixen, shrew. cvcnwicltt, !Jnlance.
dilctaat, uidation.
dincc, dinner. .I!'.
ding, thing.
diploma, diploma. faljiet, bankru11tcy.
disk on to, discouut. fccst, feast.
dispu ut, dispute. feit, fact.
dividend, dividend. fcstoen, festoon.
docl, aim. jiaslw, fiasco.
doll, doek. jiguur, figure.
domoi1i, domain. floors, crape.
domiciiie, domicile. focdraal, ease.
domino, dominoes. funds, fund.
dons, dowu. formulici-, formulary.
doorzir:ht, sagacity. fornuis, furnace.
dorp, Yillage. fort, fort.
fl;ru h, <'!regs. Prans, French.
duel, duel. fregat, frigate.
duct, 1iuet. frcsl.-o, fresco.
dui11, clown. fret, ferret.
Duits, Gerrnau. front, front.
gaas, gauze.
edikt. edict. gala, gula.
eel t, callous. galjocn, galleon.
efjckt, effect. galon, galloon.
ei, eg-t_;. garcn, cotton.
ciland, isln.nd. gai·nituur, trimming.
eind, t>ml. gas, gas.
eiicit, white of egg. gat, hole.
eksarnen, examination. gc/ia,ar, gesture.
ekscmplaar, copy. gebcd, prayer.
ekscrpt, excerpt. .Qcliit, set of teeth.
elcskuus, excnsf'. gebrclc, want.
ekstrakt, extract. gcdeclte, part.
elastirl,;, Tnrtill rubber. geding, lawsuit.
email, euamel. gcdrocltt, monster.
embargo, embargo. gcrl.ultl, pn.tience.
Engels, English. gchnkt, minced meat.
enkelvoud, singular. gehalte, quality.

vehucht, hamlet. Ti eer, ltost.

gclaat, countenance. heft, handle.
gelag, bill (for food lwU, happiness.
or drink). hcimwee, homesickness.
geld, lllOlll'Y· hck, gate.
gelid, rank. hcmd, shirt.
geluk, happiness. lwrstel, recovery.
9dijk, right. h crt, cleer.
gcmocd, mind. heal, aid.
genie, genius. hocn, fowl.
gcniep, secret. hof, court.
genocgcn, satisfaction. hole, kennel.
genot, enjoyment. Jiol, hole, <len.
gcrecht, court of justice. Jiollands, Dutch.
gcrci, things, apparatus. hoofd, head.
gcrucht, rumour. lwoi, hay.
gespuis, rahble. horlogc, watch
getouw, loom. 1w1trast, support.
gctuigenis, evidence. hotel, hotel.
getij, tide. hozanna. hosannah.
gei-cst, hilt. huis, hom;e.
gcwaad, dress. hulsel, cover, pod.
gewa_q, mention. h1,me'ur, disposition, temper.
gctt'ei, entrn il s. h 11 welil;;, marriage.
geweld, violence.
gewcst, province.
gezag, authority. I.
gezin, farnily.
gift ( i·cr_qift), poisou.
id'ee, idea.
gilde, guild.
idioom, idiom.
glazuur, enamel.
individu, individual.
goea, goods. ingewand, entrails.
gordijn, curtain. inkomen, income, revenue.
graan, grain.
insekt, insect.
graf, grave.
instinkt, instinct.
gras, grass.
interdikt, interdict.
.!Jrauw, rabble, mob.
interim, interim.
gra,vcel, gravelstone.
inzicht, view.
grcin, grain.
ltalirwns, Italian.
gros, gross.
item, item.
gnlis, clust.
_gymnasium, gymnasium.
H. J.
haar, hair.
hallcluja, hallelujah. j1w1-, year.
halster, halter. ;arht, yacht.
Jio,rmonium, harmonium. }ak, jacket.
.harnas, armour. Jammer, misery .
hart, heart. ju11u, ~·oung.
hecht, haniile. jubilee, ju!Jilee.
J1ef'/ul, uuin:-rsc. juk, yoke. '

K. kruit, gunpowder.
kuras, cuirass.
kaf, chaff. kwaad, evil.
kaliber, calibre. kwart, quarter.
kameleon, chameleon. kwartier, quarter.
kanon, cannon.
kanton, canton. L.
karrnijn, carmine.
karmozijn, crimson. labyrint, labyrinth.
karnaval, carnival. lakmoes, turnsol, lacmus.
karton, pastelJOard. land, land.
kla,u-ier, piano. Latijn, Latin.
klced, robe. lawaai, noise, row.
lcleinood, jewel. lazaret, lazaretto.
klimop, creeper. leder, leather.
kluu;en. clew, IJall of thread. Zedikant, bedstead.
kloen, ball. lecd, harm.
klooster, convent. leen, fee.
knoflook, garlic. lekkers, sweets.
kodicil, <'odicil. lemrncr, blade.
kollege, college. libel, libel.
kolick, colic. lichaam, body.
koloriet, colouring. licht, light.
komitcc, committee. lid, member.
kompas, compass. lied, son~.
komplot, plot. lief, weal.
koncept, draught. lijf, hody.
koncilie, couneil. lij]C, ('Ol'DSC'.
1conflikt, conflict. lint, rililion.
kongrcs, <'Ongress. lis, loop.
konfijt, ,iam, preserve. logi<'s. hon rel.
konlclarc, cc:Jncla ve. loolc, leek.
konserf, preserve. loon, reward.
/;;ontakt, contnct. lornjct, pince-nez.
7wntrast, contrast. lot, lot.
konvooi, ronvoy. luik, shutter.
1conijn, rabbit. Zuttel. little.
1coord, corn.
kordon, rorLlou. M.
1costuum, costume.
1cot, sty. maal, meal.
koiitcr, eoulter, share. magazijn, magazine.
koZ'ijn, frame. manifest, manifesto.
1crea tuur, crea lure. manuslcript, manuscript.
1crediet, rredit. rna-slcer, mask.
kreng, dead animal. ma.rimum, mnximum.
kriel, small fry." merlaljon, medallion.
kroost, rhildren. mededogen, 'Pity.
krot, dirty hole. medium, medium.
kruC'ifirr, erurifix. meer, lake.
kruid, herh. rneori·oitd, plural.
kruis, rross. menu, menu.

merg, marrow. oor<l, place.

mcrlc, mark. oosten, east.
messing, brass. opium, opil1m.
meubcl, pieee of furniture. opontlwnd, delay.
mi<ldcl, waist, means. uprucr, uproar.
rniddlen, middle. ovstel, essay.
miljoen, million. opzct, purpose.
minimum, minimum. opzicht, respect.
ministerie, ministry. oralccl, oral'le.
miralcnl, miracle. oranjc, orange colour.
model, model. orgaan, organ.
mocras, marsh. orgcl, organ.
moes, broth. ovcrschot, remainder.
monopolie, monopoly. oi·erwicht, overweight.
monster, monster. ovcrzicht, superintendenct!.
mos, moss.
motief, motive. P.
motto, motto.
mozaielc, mosaic. paard, horse.
mud, muid. pad, path.
museurn, museum. pal•, par<:el.
mysterie, mystery. palcis, palace.
pand, vl0dge, pawn.
N. panorarrw, panorama.
pantheon, pantheon.
nadir, nadir. pardon, pardon.
nat, wet. paradijs, paradise.
nazoek, Rearch. park, park.
Nedcrduits, Dutch. part, portion.
Nederlands, Dutch. pascha, pasha.
nest, nest. paslcwil, ~arnpoon.
net, net. vaspoort. passport.
nicuws, news. pcil, watt>rmn1·k.
niveau ( nivo), level. pcrron. rnilwny platform.
nommer, numher. perspcktief, perspective.
noordcn, north. plafond, ceiling.
notemuskaat, nutmeg. plateau, plnteau.
numnwr, number. plebs, the people.
nut, use., plcirlooi, plea.
plcin, plain.
o. plezier, pleasure.
pocdcr, powcler.
obstak~l, obstacle. pond, pound.
offer, sacrifice. postuur, posture.
ogenblilc, moment. potlood. pencil.
onbr·uik, disuse. prcstigo, prestige.
onmens, monster. vrincipe, pri11ri11le.
ons, ounce. prisma. prism.
ontzag, reverence. pridlege. privilege.
onweer, thunder. proces, process.
oou, eye. produkt, product.
oor, ear. profiel, profile.

pru Ji jt, profit. sch ild, shield.

projcktiel, projectile. schip, ship.
protest, vrotest. scltot, shot.
protokol, proiocol. schrift, writing.
proza, vrose. sch ulm, foam.
publiek, pulilic. sein, signal.
puin, liuilding rubbish. sckrcct, secret.
purpcr, purple. scminarle, seminnry.
sicraad, ornament.
R. slot, Joel;:.
slijk, mud.
ra,am, window. slijm, phlegm.
ral1nt, renate. smeer, smudge.
rad, wheel. smout, grease.
rag, eobweb. sop, juke.
1·ak, rack, shelves. sric11ce, suvper.
ra)lport, ieport. soei:cnir, souvenir.
n1 s, raee. Spaans, Hpanish.
ra1•ijn, ravine. svan, team.
recht, justice. spek, liaeon.
reef, reef. s11cktalccl, scene.
regime, regime. spcl, play. game.
1·r.11ister, register. spit, spit
relc, rack. split, slic.
rckicest, request. spog, spittle.
rclnas, report, statement. S)IOOIC, ghost.
relief, relief s1nwg, spittie.
reptlel, 1·epiile. stcl, set.
reserroir, reservoir. sticht, bishopric.
rcspijt, respite. strand, beach.
riet, reeds. stro, straw.
rif, reef. stuJ.·, piece.
roer, helm. stuur, helm.
rus, steed. subjckt, suhject.
ruim, space. sulcces, sucC'ess.
rumocr, noise, tumult. symptoom, symptom.
rund, cow or ox.
Russies, Russian. T.
rijk, dominion.
rijtuig, carriage. tableau (tabla), tableau.
ta /lift, carpet.
s. ta ricf, tariff.
tclcen, sign.
salaris, salary. tempo, time (in music).
saldo, balance. tcrras, terraeP.
salon, saloon. tcrrcin, ground, plot.
salvo, salute. tlll'atcr. theater.
sap, sap. tllcma, theme.
srharnier, hinge. tocrnooi, tournnrnent.
schavot, scaffold. toestcl, apparatus.
schema, scheme. toezich t, supervision.
scherm, screen. touw, rope.

trajckt, traject. rnvrstcl, proposal.

travczium, trapezium. COOJ'l'lll, Ol'l'lHTCHCe.
trottoir, side walk. vvorwerp, object.
tuig, tackle. vuilnis, rubbish.
tij, tide. vullis, rubbish.
type, type. ruur, fire.
u. w.
uiterlilc, exterior.
. wuas, hazP.
uitschot, refuse. u:ammes, jacket.
uitstck, projecture. want, rigging.
uitstel, postponement. u;avcn, WPapon.
uitwas, growth, excres<'ence. was, "ax.
uitzet, trousseau. waterpas, water-level.
uitzicht, view. web, we\J.
uur, hour. wed, fol'll.
wc1lcr, weather.
v. wee, wo~.
iccr/c, w•)rlc
1·aa,ndel, banner. 1rr~stc11. wPst.
i•aarwcl, far<:'well. if"icht, iufaut.
'i:a/c, subject. ·tcicl, wheel.
1·alies, kuapsadc trier, seaweed.
vat, barrel. wild, ~amc.
vce, cattle. windas, windlass.
vccn, moor. wonder, wonfler.
·vel, skin. wovnl, word.
veld, field. wra/c, wn·ck.
ven1Zcl, sqnad.
'l:cnijn, poison. z.
verdrict, sorrow.
vcrs, poem, verse zaud, seed.
'verslag, areonut. zaal, saddle.
vcrstand, mind, understanding. :::adel, sacldlP.
vet, fat. zand, sand.
veto, veto. zePl, straps.
vicrlca,nt, square. :::cgcl, seal.
vin]et, vignette. zcil. sail.
vizier, visor, bead sight zenith, zenith.
vlas, flax. zercntal, 11nml1er seven.
vlclc, hamlet. zog, milk.
vlics. fleC>ee. zttidcn, Routh.
'&lot. raft. z11i1·el. hutter ancl cheese.
vocht, moisture. zttlt, pickled food.
vod, rag. z11·aa rel, sword.
vnc1Z:Or, foflcler. zieam, tinder.
i1oer, fodder. zwcnt, sweat.
volume, Yolurne. zu·rrk. sky.
vonnis, sentence. zu·ocrd. \'ind.
vont, font. zwijn, swine.


De klok opwinden.-To wind the clock.

1. Ik zct een stocl under de I put a chair under the
eetkamer klok. dining-room clock.
2. Ik klirn op de stocl. I mount the chair.
3. Ile open hct glas v66r de I open the glass in front
w-ijzerplaat. of the dial.
4. Ik zet de sleutel in het I put the key into the
rechtergat. right hand side hole.
5. Ik wind hct loopwerk op I wind the movement.
6. Daarna wind ik ook het Afterwards I also wind
slagu·erk op. the striking.
7. Ile tik aan de slinger orn I touch the pendulum to
het in beweging te set it in motion.
8. Ik beicceg de Zange wij- I move the long hand to
zer orn de klok gelijk put the clock right.
te zcttcn.
9. lk slidt hct glazen kr.stje I close the glass case
ffccr toe. again.
10. Zo icordt de klok opg('- Ho the clock is wound.


zettcn-ik zet, zette, heb (had) gezet, zal zetten (gezet hebben).
klimmen-ik ldim, klom, ben (was) geklommen, zal klimmen
(geklommen zijn).
oponcn-ik open, opende, heb (had) geopend, zal openen (g-eopend
windon-ik win<l, wond, heb (had) gewonclen, zal winclen (ge-
wonden bebben).
tikken-ik tik, tikte, heb (had) getikt, zal tikken (getikt hebben).
bowcgcn-ik beweeg-, hewoog, heb (had) bewogen, zal bewegen
( bewogen hebben).
toesluiten-ik sluit toe, sloot toe, heb (had) toegesloten, zal
toesluiten (toegesloten hebben).
opwinden-i!( wind op, wond op, heb (had) opgewonden, zal
opwinden ( opgewonden hebben).


Speak this Exercise in all the tenses and persons of the

Indicative Mood.
Speak it also in the Imperative Mood.

Make the sentences Interrogative, then Negative, then

again Negative·Interrogative.
For the sake of yet further multiplying the sentences
(which is the great object of these lessons), put all words
into the plural which lend themselves to it, as follows:-
1. Wij zetten stoelen onder de eetlcamer klokken.
2. Wij klimmen op de stoelen.
3. Wij openen de glazen v66r de wijzcrplaten.
4. Wij zctten de sleiitcls in de rcchtergaten.
5. Wij winden hrt loopu·erk op.
G. Daarna windcn wij ook hct slagwerk op.
7. Wij tilcken aan de sUngers om het in beweging te zetten.
8. Wij bewegcn de lnnge wijzcrs om de lc/olclcen gelijk te zette11 I·
!l. Wij sluiten de glazen lcastjes weer toe.
10. Zo 'Worden de ldolcl<cn opgewonrlen. I'
Sentences may likewise be spoken in any tense and
person with the diminutive forms of most of the Nouns. I
AU.vi<'<' to the St.udent.

Studen1s liave by now seen enough of these Speak-and-Act

exereises to begi11 constructing them on their own responsibility.
They will lle found ex<'eedingly benefir·ial. Even the limitecl
vocabular~' now at the stullent's !'ommand, will enable him to put
a number of sueh cxerciRes together. Besides, he can avail
himself of the vocabularies at the end of the book to obtain a
larger range of words. 'J'he obje<'t in all the Exercises should
be, to string some actions (not necPssarily nine) together, and
put one conr·lucling sentence after them, expressive of the action
to which the others lead up.
Likewise may students make a beginning in telling easy matter
in story form, which ls another mighty lever for obtaining
:fluency of speech in a limited period of time.

[AJ1ont Clodrn.]

Er zijn in ons lrnis drie dingen, die de .tijd aanwijzen.

There are in our house three things whieh the time show.
Het eerste is een groot uurwt>rk dat in rle eetkarner hangt.
The first is a large timPpiere whi<.'h in tlt<' dining-room Jiang:;;
llet is een klok van rle oude soort mPt kettingen en
It is a <'lock of the olrl tyve with chains and
gewichten. Ilet is een erfatuk van de familie. Wanneer
weights. lt is an heirloom of the fnmily. Wilen
de klok afgelopen is, trekken wij de gewichten op aan de
the clock run down is, vull we the weights up hy the
kettingen, en dan loopt hij weer. llet tweede ding, dat
ehains, and thl'll rnns ii :igain. '.file second thiug, wllieh
de tijd wijst, is de pendule in de voorkamer. Deze klok
the time marks, is the timepiece iu the drawing-room. This clod'
is veel fijner, en past in een marmeren voetstuk. Hij
is much more delku1e. and fits in a marl.Jle hase. It
heeft geen kettingen, maar veren, en wordt met een sleutel
has no chHins, I.Jut springs, an<l is with a key
opgewonden. Hij slaat de uren, halve uren, en kwartieren.
wouAd. It strikes the hours, half llours Ull(l quarters.
Mijn moeder heeft hem present gekregen op haar
l\fy mother it (a) present got on her
trouwdag. De pendule staat onder een glazen stolp om er
wedding-day. The tim<'piece stands under a glass eover (for) it
het stof uit te houden. Ilet derde ding dat de tijd wijst,
the <lust out of to kel'P· The third thing whi<'h the time marks,
is vaders horloge. Dat heeft ook een veer, maar het werk
is father's watch. That has also a fipring, hit the works
erin is zo klein, dat men· de Lele k!ok in zijn
in it are so small, that one th<' eutirP eloek in !lne's
vestzakje k~m dragen. ~omtijdH lopPn de klokkPn vMJr,
waistcoat po<'l,et <·:111 earry. RometimL'S rm1 111P <.'lo< ks fast,
eu !:-1omtijdl:' ook achirr. nan rnoeten zij gPlijk gezet
and sometimes also ,;low. 'l'hen must they right put

worden. Een horloge wijst de sekonden, minuten en 11ren,

hi>. A watch marks the seconds, minutes, arnl hours.
en vier en twintig uren makPn eeu dag. .\ls de dag om
and four and twenty hours make u day. Wlleu the <lay past
is, moet het borloge opgewondPn worden, umar de grote
is, must the wakll wound be. lmt the big
klok Rlech1R eenmaal in de week, Pn de pendule sleeht~ om
clock only on<"e in a wcel;:, an<l the timi>pie<'C only once
de ve<~rtien dagm.
a fortnight.

GR.AMMAR. EXER.CISES.-Taaloefeningen.

Olassif y the ]allowing Nouns as de-icords or het-words;

then write out their Plural and Diininntfrc forms.


Duif, pigeon; mttis, mouse; walvis, whale; tijger, tiger;

hut, hut; noot, nnt; oeeaun, ocean; oclitend, morning;
loop, walk; wrdrrn, race; Woensdag, ~Wednesday; j)forirt,
l\farch; zu:aluw, swallow; ulijdschap, gladness; goedheid,
goodness; ge1ccer, gun; rneisye, girl; jongcn, boy;
koningin, queen; lwest, cough; schaaf, plane; lade,
drawer; hrnner, hammer; dorp, village.


Haan, cock; kuiken, chicken; sticr, bull; kalf, calf;

ladder, ladder; sleutel, key; 'l:rcugde, joy; slag, blow or
trap; val, fall or trap; spinnckop, spider; bark, barque;
trap, kiek or staircase; tocvoegsel, addition; rnensdom,
human race; hyena, hyena; plooisei, frilling; Dricnd,
friend; gevangenis, prison; paard, horse; gros, gross;
last, burden; geboornte, collection of trees.


Hoop, hope; bal, ball; rijst, rice; vis, fish; lent;Je,

spring; aap, ape; zes, six; herfst, autumn; schacht, shaft;
lecen, life; ouderdom, old age; dienst, service; schoffel,
hoe; gctuigenis, testimony; vriendsohap, friendship;
koliek, colic; gedans, dancing; g,eivicht, weight;
ontvangst, reception.
Vierkant, square; hart, heart; maal, meal; toneel,
scene; smoersel, unguent; minuut, minute; kurk, cork;
fregat, frigate; morgen, morning; rust, rest; horizont,
horizon; zalm, salmon; kaneel, cinnamon; Oostenrijk,
Austria; droom, dream; gebed, prayer; vlek, stain;
ioattcn, wadding; gids, guide; landschap, landscape;
sc:lwvot, scaffold.

E{l'press the Feminine form of the following MasouUne

l'ijand, enemy; onderwijzcr, teacher; vink, cock-finch;
kamccl, camel; brui( de) gom, bridegroom; raadsman,
<.'OunRellor; rncester, master; dicnaar, servant; haan ,cock;
boekhouder, book-keeper; monnik, monk; beschermer,
protector; sprekcr, speaker; ram, ram; leugenactr, liar;
llas, badger; slaaf, slave; vricnd, friend; rnetgezel, com-
panion; oorn, uncle; hengst, stallion; ivoerd, drake; bok,
he-goat; aap, monkey.


I'oogd, gua1·dian; icandclaar, walker; voetganger,

pedestrian; beer, boar; beer, bear; bi·ocder, brother;
bakker, baker; graaf, count; doff er, pigeon; mecrkat,
marmoset; tijger, tiger; bcdricger, deceiver; zanger, sing-
er; icolf, wolf; mus, sparrow; keizcr, emperor; neef,
nephew; reiziger, traveller; knecht, man-servant;
pcrtoom, godfather; gemaal, consort; bok_. buck; stier,
bull; hecr, gentleman; schrijvcr, author; dichter, poet.
THiil {liiJNDiiJR OF SUB ST A.NTIVIilS 107


"hebben", to have, and "zijn", to be.

Onvolmaakt Tegervwoordige Tijd.-Present Tense.

ek heb, I have. ik ben, I am.
jij hebt ( u hcefi), thou hast. jij bent or zijt ( u is), thou art.
Jiij ( zij, het) heeft, he (she, hij (zij, het) is, he (she, it) is.
it) has.
wij hebben, we have. wij zijn, we are.
jullie hebben ( u, gij hebt), you ju llie djn ( u, gij zijt), you
have. are.
zij hebben, they have. zij zijn, they are.

NoTE.-Each of these verbs is its own auxiliary. See next tense.

Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd-Perfect Tense.

4k heb gehad, I have had. ilo ben geweest, I have been.
jij hebt ( lteeft) geh ad, thou Jij zijt ('It is) geiceest, thou
hast had. hast been.
liij heeft geha&, he has had. hij is geweest, be has heen.
wij hebben gehad, we have wij zijn gewccst, we have
had. bePn.
juUie hebben ( u, gij hebt) fullie zijn ( u. gij zijt) geweest,
gehad, you have had. you ha ,.e been.
zij hebbcn geha,d, they have zij zijn geweest, they have
had. bPen.

Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd.-Imperfect Tense.

ilo had, I had. ilc was, I was.
jij haclt (u had), thou hadst. Jij waart ( u was), thou wast.
hii had, he bad. hii was, he was.
1,oii hadllen, we bad. wij u:aren, we were.
jullie hadden ( u, gij hadt), julliu 1raren ( u, gij waart),
you had. you were.
zij hadden, they bad. zij waren, they were.

Volmaakt Verleden Tijd.-Pluperfect Tense.

ik had g<·had, I had had. ilo was geu·pest. I had been.
jij hadt ( u h,ad) gehad, thou Jij u:aart ( u was) gewecst,
hadst ban. thou hadst heen.
hij had gehad, he had had. hij u:as gflweest, he had been.

wij harlden gehad, we hau had. u;ij warcn gc1crcst, 've had
jullie ha,ddcn (u, gij hadt) jullie waren (u, gij waart)
gcharl, you had l.trtd. gciccest, you had been.
zij haddcn gcltad, they had zij 'Waren gcu;eest, they had
hau. been.

Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd.-Future Tense.

ik zal hebbcn, I shall have. ilo zal djn, I shall be.
jij zult (1.t zal) hebl1cn, thou jij zu1t ( u zal) zijn, thou wilt
wilt have. be.
hij zal hcbben, he will have. hij zal zijn, he will be.
wij zullen hebben, we shall wij zullen zijn, we shall be.
juUie zullen ( u, gij zult) jullie zullPn ( u, gij zult) zijn,
hebbcn, you will haw>. you will be.
zij zullen hebbcn, the~· will zij zullcn zijn, they will be.

Volmaakt 'l'ockomcn<le Tijd.-Future Perfect Tense.

ik zal gcl!ad hclibrn, r shall ilo zal gnr·C'c·st zijn, I shall
hnve had. have been.
jij zult ( u zal) gehail hcbben, jij zitlt ( u zal) geweest zijn,
thou wilt have hau. thou wilt have been.
hij zal gclwd hebbC'n, he will hij zal gcwccst zijn, he will
have hnd. have heen.
wij zullrn ocltad hcbben, we wij zullcn {lei.cecst zijn, we
shall hnve had. shall ha vP hePn.
jullic zullen ( u, gij zult) gc- jnllie zullen ( u, gij zult) g(',-
had he/JIJC'n, you will have iceest djn, yon will have
had. been,
zij zullen gr.had hrbhrn, they zij zul/cn ,oc1.rC'cst zijn, they
will haw hac1. will have J1een.

Oebiedende Wijs.-lmperative Mood.


laat mij hebben, let me have. laat mij zijn, let me be.
heb, have (thou). wees, be (thou).
laat hem hebben, let him have. laat hem zijn, let him be.


laat ons hebben, let us have laat ons zijn, let us be.
hebt, have() e). weest, r:rijt, l.Je I ye).
laat hen (ze) let tl1em have. laat hen(ze)zijn, let them be.
hebben, 87


First Rule of Coustruction.-When in a Principal Sentence the
· Verb consists of two parts (auxiliary and past participle),
the auxiliary is retained in the position oPcupied by the
English Verb, and the Past Participle forms the last word of
the sentence.
This rule may only be broken when, various extensions or a
subordinate sentence intervening, the distanPe between the
two parts of the Verb ifl rendered greater than is consistent
with clearness.
NoTE.-For the words of these and all the following translation
exercises the student is referred to the English-Dutch

I have a friend. I have [had] a friend (had). I had

a friend. I had [had] a friend (had). I shall [have] a
friend (have). l shall [have had] a friend (have had).
You are my friend. You have [been] my friend (been).
You were my friend. You had [been] my friend (been).
You will [be] my friend (be). You will [have been] my
friend (have been). Let us [be] friends (be). Be (sing.)
my friend. Be ( plur.) my friends. Let him [have] a book
(have). Let me [have] a hat (have). Let us [have]
courage (have). 'fhou hadst [had] a sister (had). Yon
had [been] to (naar) Cape Town (been). They will
[have] the pleasure (have). She· had [had] a message
from her uncle (had). My aunt had [been] to Wynberg
(been). Be quiet, chj.ldren.
*In these and all further translation exercises words given in
braC'kets [l are meant to be left out, whereas those in parentheses
() are supplied for translation.

Second Rule of Constrnction.-In Infinitive phrases the Verb
stands last.

[To be] young (to be). [To have] parents (to have).
[To have been] in the street (been to have) . [To have

had] a horse (had to have). To be obedient is good. It

rn good [to be] obedient (to be). To have brothers is
pleasant. It is pleasant [to have] brothers (to have).
'.J'o be obedient is to be good. To have parents is to be
rich. To have a friend is to have a treasure. 'fo have
been rich is to have had friends. 'l'o be sickly is to be
much at home. To have been ill was painful to (voor)
him. 'l'o have health and to be diligent is to be happy.
ll was good of you to be in the street. It was kind of him
to have bread and tea for us.


Third rule of Construction.-Jn Subordinate Renten<>es tlw Yerb

stanus last. When such a sentence has a ll'ngtlly <>xteusion,
the verb may he placed in front of it, but may nci·cr lie in
front of the direct object.

The child is happy, because it [is] obedient (is).

One (Men) has friends, if one [is] rich (is). I asked
( i-rocg) the girl why she [had] so little work (had). The
boy would (zou) work in the garden, if he [had] a spade
(had). I am rich because I [have] parents (have). The
girl was poor, because she [had been] ill (had been). I
should have gone out (uitgegaan Z'ijn), if I [had had]
a horse (had had). lie would be tired if he [had been]
at (op) school (had been) . I asked the man where he
was going (hcenging). He answered (antwoordde) me
that he [was going] to Cape Town· (was going=ging).
The harvest is small, as the weather [has been] bad (has
been). Ask (Vraag) the boy, whether he [had] a horse2
yesterday1 (had). She told (zei) me that she [was]
very (erg) tired 2 last night1 (was). I told my brother
that the cows [were] very thin (were). He asked me if
I [had had] a message from my uncle (had had). She
told me that she [had been] sickly 2 [for] a long iime 1
(had been). My brother told me that ihe poor man
[could] not work (could=kon), because he [had] no
(geen) tools (had).

How to translate the Interrogative, Negative, and

Negative=lnterrogative Forms.

:N" o Auxiliary being used for the rendering of these

forms, they are for all Verbs as simple as in English they
.are with the Verb "to be".

Do I have? = have I? = heb ik?

I do not have = I have not = ik heb niet.
Do I not have'/ = have I not? = hcb ik niet?
Are you? --= ben* je? or, is u?
You are uot = jij bent niet, or, u is niet.
Are you not? = /Jen jP. nict? or, is u niet?

This rule applies to all Verbs .

.:\oTE.-'l'he Interrogative "did." followed 1.Jy an Infinitive, is

frequently translated. by the Perfect Tense: e.g., Did you see
him'! = have you seen him? Heb je (hrcft u) hem gczien?

*In 1.he Interrogative Form the final t of the second person of

Yerhs is dropped., that is, llel'ore jij (not gij). If for
other reasons this Pronoun follows its Yerll, the effect is


llave you an uncle? Yes, I have two uncles and two

aunts. Are you young, my boy? Yes, sir, quite young.
How old are you? I am twelve. Are yon not older, John?
No, sir, I am just twelve. Did you have breakfast
afterwards? I>id you have a horse yesterda,v? :N"o, I had
a bicycle. "\Yere you not tired last night? A little, yes,
but not much (erg). Did his uncle have (tile) fever?
His uncle had (the) fever, and his aunt too. Will he not
(yet) have had a (not a=geen) message [yet]? Ile will
not have had a message before twelve o'clock. Did she
uot have much pain? N"o, not very much. Are you
obedient to your parentR? I am always obedient to my
parents and ieachers. Will you be in school to-morrow?
I shall be in school at nine o'clock.


Uit rijden guan.-To go for a ride.

1. De stalknccltt haalt mijn The stable boy fakes my
rijpaard uit de stal. riding horse out of
the stable.
2. Bij poctst lzet op inct He rubs it up with a rag.
ccn lap.
3. Hij zet het paanl de Ile puts a bridle on the
toom an11. horse.
4. lJan lrgt Mj !wt zadel op Then he puts the saddle
zijn rtrg. on to iis back.
5. Hi j gcspt hct zadcl met Ile straps the saddle down
con buikgordrl rnst. with a girth.
6. Hij vcrandert de 8fijg· He changes the stirrups
beiigcls naar mi j n a c c o r d i n g to my
rnaat. measure.
7. Hij rnaakt de kinkctling He fastens the curb chain.
8. Hij lcidt ltct vaard nrwr He leads the horse to the
de voordcur. front door.
!.l. H ij hoirrlt de toom vast Ile holds the bridle while
tcru:ijl ik opstijg. 1 mount.
10 Zo ga ik uit rijdcn. So I go for a ride.

halen-ik haal, h:wlde, heh (had) gehanld, :r.al halen (gehaald

poetsc-n-ik poets, poetste, heb (had) gepoetst, zal poetsen
(gepoetst hebhen).
zctten-ik zct, zette, heh (had) gezet, zal zC'tten (gezet hellllen).
leggen-ilc leg, legde, heb (had) gelegd, zal leggen (gelegd
gespen-ik gesp, gesptc, heh (had) gegespt, zal gespen (gegespt
verantleren-ik verander, veranderfle, heb (had) veranderd, zal
veranderen (veranderd hebben).
maken-ik maak, maakte, heb (had) gemaakt, zal maken
(gemaakt hebben).
Jeiden-ik leid, lPidde, heb (had) geleid, zal leiden (gcleid
houden-ik houd, hield, heb (hall) gehouden, zal houden
( gehouden hehtien).
gaan-ik ga, giug, ben (was) gegaan, zal gaan (gegaan zijn).


H the student has taken the hint and begun

-constructing his own Bxercises, he should now try to
proceed to form new sentences (other than continuous
Bpeak-and-Act Exercises). Let him, however, take
warning, not to go beyond the ordinary every-day things
he sees about him. What is most needful in
language-study is to express the common experiences of
life, and yet it is mostly there that the ordinary learner
commonly fails.


(Built ou the above Yerl>s).

Ik haul ecn bard uit de kcu- I fetch a plate from the

kcn. kitchen.
Heh je Jan gehaald om te Did you fekh John to go
yau n wandelen? for a walk?
Wanncer komt hij zijn geld When will ltc come for his
halcn? money?
Haal mij toch een glas water, Please fetch me a glass
ik heb dorst. of water: I am thirsty
Hij zal niet tcrugkornen, eer Ile will not return, before
hij zijn graad gehaald he has taken his
heejt. degree.

De mcid poctst rnijn moe- The servant girl is black-

ders 1whoenen. ing my mother's shoes
De vogels poetscn 's morgens The birds trim their fea-
hun vcrcn. thers in the morning.
Hij heeft de plaat gepoctst. He has disappeared.
Die soldaat llccft de knopcn That soldier has cleaned
van zijn jas opgepoeti:;t. the buttons of his
tunic .
.Je moet wnd11ag de d0ur- You must ]JO!ish the door-
krwppen poctscn, t)u n- handles to-clay, Aan-
nic. nie.

De klri11c lwckcn ltcb ik op I put the small books

rfo tafel neergPlegd. down on the table.
Df' grotu bucken heh ik OTJ I have put the large books
de plankcn !W~<'t. on the shelves.
Zet je hoed op, en leg die l'ut on your hat, and put
handsclzoenen weg. away those gloves.
Waar kan ik die shillin!J 'Yhcre can I have pnt that
gelegd hebbcn ! Hhillinp; down?
Je hebt hem zrkPr in je zak You must have put it into
gcstokc11. your pocket.


[A bout Horses. l

Toen ik vroeger in 't onderveld woonde, hield ik heel

'Vheu I formerly up-countrr was living, kept I quite
wat paarden. :.\1ijn stal was altijd vol. Daar hield ik
a number of horses. My stable was al"·ays full. 'l'here kept I
mijn twee karpaarden, mijn rijpaard, en een paar ponies
my two cart-horses, my riding-horse, and a couple (of) ponies
voor de dames. De andere paarden waren in het veld,
for the ladies. The other horses were in the veldt,
en kwamen maar nu en dan thuis om wat opgevoerd en
and came only now and then home (for) a little fed up and
schoongemaakt te worden. Het was prettig zo veer
cleaned to be. It was nice so many
paarden tc houden. Hier in 't bovenlrrnd gaat dat ni.et, om·
horses to keep. Here up-country it does not do, because
dat alles hier zo veel geld kost. 's Morgens uit rijden
everything here so much money takes. In the morning for a ride
te gaan, is omtrent de gezondste lichaamsoefening. Men
to go is ahout the healthiest (bodily) exercise. One
ademt dan zuivere lucht in, en de hele dag voelt men de
breathes then pure air, and the whole day feels one the
uitwerking van zo'n rit. Waar zal ik ooit weer zu1k
effect of such a ride. Where shall I ever again such

een rijpaard krijgen als mijn Fleetfoot was? Er was

a riuing--horse get as my Fleetfoot was? '!'here was
geen fout aan hem. Zijn vel was als zijde; zijn
no fault in him. His skin was like sill{; his
maanharen en staart waren lang en golvend; hij boog
mane and tail were long and waving; he arched
zijn nek zo edel en fier, en had znlk een prachtige gang.
his nPck so nobly and proudly, and had such (a) beautiful action.
Jammer, dat hij zo kieskeurig was. Hij wou alleen zijn
(A) pity that he so particular was. He would only his
baas dragen, en gooide iedere andere ruiter van zijn rug.
master carry, and threw every other rider from his back.
\Vaarschijnlik was dat, omdat zijn meester zelf hem
Probably was that, because his master himself him
gcdresseerd had. llij deed nooit een verkeerde stap, en
broken in had. He made never a false step, and
was op een ongebaand pad even betrouwbaar als een
was on au unmade road as reliable as a
muil. Zijn draf en galop waren even gemakkelik, en
mulP. His trot and canter were equally easy, and
zijn stap was lang en gelijk. Het ging mij aan het hart,
his step was long and even. It went me to the heart,
toen ik hem verkopen moest, want ik hield van Fleetfoot
when I him sell had to, for I was fond of Fleetfoot
als van een vriend.
as of a friend.

GR.AMMAR. EXER.CISES.-Taaloefeningen.

Fill up the bla,nks in the following exercises by

~nserting de or bet before Nouns, and supplying any
other word or ending missing.


- koper van Zuid-Afrika wordt in Wales gesmolten.

The copp<'r of South Africa is in ·wales smelted.
- Vrijstaat was - republiek. - haver zal in - midden
The Free State was a republic. The oats will in the middle
llG 1'Jlhl !:>1'AK1JA!UJ IJU'l'CH GRAMiJlAR

van - zomer rijp zijn. Deze man klaagt altijd over

of tile summer ripe be. 'l'his man comvlaius always of
- gebreken van - ouderdom. Lukas, - Rchrijver
the infirmities of (the) old age. 8t. Luke. tlie author
van - derde evangelie, was - dokter. lk kan u -
of the third GosveJ, wns a pllysidau. l <·ai1 you the
juisie tijdstip van - gebeurtenis niet zeggen. -
exaet Llate of the en'nt not tell. The
gPnootschap ;,·an scl10ne kunsten heeft - prijs voor -
assoeiation of fine arts has a prke for the
beste tckening uitgeloofd. - kerkl10f ligt aan - voet
best <lrnwing offered. Tl1e elrnrchyard liPs at the foot
van - berg. Bij - tijding van - aankomst nm haar
of tlle mountain. At the news of the arrival of her
moeder straalde - kleine meisje - blijdschap uit
mother shone (to) the little girl the jo~· out of the
ogen. Na - dood van Koning ·wmem - derde· werd
eyes. After the death of King William the Third was
- Groot-Ilertogdom Luxemburg van - kroon van
the Gran<l-I>uchy of Luxemlwurg from the f'rown of
Holland gescheiden. Er is - grote zwerm sprinkhanen
Hollanct separated. There has a large swarm of loC'usts
over - eigendom van - magistraat getrokken; ze hebben
over the property of the magistrate pnssed; theJ· have
al - gras en - mielies afgevreten, zo dat - vee
all the grass and the mealies eaten off, so that the <'nttle
nu geen voedsel heeft. Toen - Melrose gisteren
now no food have. As the :\Ielrose p~sterday

middag -haven van Liverpool uitstoomde, is -

afternoon the harbour of Liverpool was steaming out, she
tegen - Australi~se boot aangevaren, die daar. voor
with the Australian boat collided, wllirh there at
anker lag; het is aan - tegenwoordigheid van geest
anehor was riding; it is to the prese1we of mind
van - eerste stuurman te danken, dat - beide schepen
of the first officer owing, that (the) both ships
er zonder grote schade afgekomen zijn.
without great damage come off have.


Deze schrijf- heeft met haar eerste boek grote

This authoress has with her first J1ook great
opgang gemaakt. - opera-zanger- zal zichzelf op -
success hau. '.l'he opera-singer will hers<>lf 011 the
piano begeleideu. Door - val uit - boom heeft -
piano ac(·ompany. Through the fall out (of) the 1n•e has 1he
man zich aan - been verwond. Hagar, - dienst-van
man himself on the leg wounued. Hagar, the ::;erYant of
Sara, trok met haar zoon - woesiijn van Arabie in. lk
Sarah, went with her son the desert of Aru.llht into. I
heb met - zwarte draad - patroon van - kant op -
h.we with a black threau the vattern of the laee 011 the
witte zijde aangegeven. Door omvallen van -
wltite silk indicated. Through the cavRizing of the
olielamp is er - grote vlek op - marmeren vloer
oil-lamp is :i large stain on the nmrhle floor
van - gang gekomen. - schip is onder geleide van -
of the rm ssage come. 'l'he ship is undl•r guid111H'e of au
ervaren loods veilig in - haven aangeland. Er
experienced pilot safely in the harllour an-iyeu. There
bestaat - grote overeenkomst tussen - klimaat en -
exists a great similarity between the climate aud the
voortbrengselen -van - Kaap Kolonie en - Zuiden van
products of the Cape Colony and Uie ~outh of
1,,:uropa. Bij - onlangs gehouden schietwedstrijd
1~nrope. At the recently held shooting-match
heeft - zoon van - oude baron- - palm van -
has the son of the old baroness the palm of the
overwinning weggedragen. - -, die men van St.
victory carried off. The servants, which one from St.
Helena invoert, zijn niet altijd van - beste slag. - -
Helena imports, are not always of the best sort. The Queen
van Groot Britannie draagt tevens titel van
of Great Britain bears at the same time the title of
van Indie. bedelaar- die van morgen
Empress of India The beggar-woman who this mornlng

aan - deur was, deed zulk - roerend verhaal van -

at the door was, gave such a touching account of the
dood Yan haar dat mijn tranen in -
(1ea1h of her hus!Jand, that (to) my mother the tears in the
ogen sprongen. - glas voor - rumen is met
eyPs came. The glass for the windows is with a
diamant gesneden.
· diamond cut.


lf'ijze t•Hn yroeten <'n l!'o1•ms of greeting and

aanspr<'kf'.n. address.
1. Oocdc 11wrw·11, mijnhcer. Good morning, sir.
2. Oocdc arond, mcrroutr. Good eYeniug, madam.
3. JI oc gaat het 11? How are you?
4. Hoe raart u! How do ~·ou do?
5. Reel tcl'l, danl;; u. Quite well, thank you.
6. Zo tussnnlicidc, dank u. Middling, thank you.
7. Jl;, lwn i-andaag nict w lleel I am not so well today.
8. Ile vocl me heel onwcl. I feel very unwell.
9. lk voel me erg ziel;;. I feel quite ill.
10. Wat scllcwlt u? What is the matter?
11. lk heli zwarc hoofdpijn. I have a had headache.
12. Dat spijt me. I am sorry for you.
13. Adieu; tot wcerziens. Goodbye, till we meet again.
14. Mag ik het genoegcn hebben, May I have the pleasure of
u te vergezellcn? accompanying you?
15. Hoe heerlilc zijn de avonden We are haYing delightful
dezcr dagen, 1:indt u nietf evenings, don't you
think so?
16. Zullen we nict nog een eindje Shall we not go a little
verder wandelen? furthPr?
17. Met gcnoegcn: de wandeling With pleasure: the walk
doet me goed. is doing me good.
18. Is u i·an plan, naar de Do you intend going to the
3pl1n11""n1tr(J to gaan van theatre tonight?

19. "fl- con, rnij dunkt hct stuk zal No, I don't think the pla~­
niet ainusant zijn. will IJe an am using one.
20. ll'aar z1tllen u·c <fan heen- WherP l"hn 11 we go then?
21. Kanr <le upc,·n; hoc lean u To the opera, how can you
nog twijfelcn? IJe in doubt?
22. Heeft u ·ran de dood van Di<l yon hear of the death
mevrouw B. gehoor<l? of Mrs. B.?
23. Ja, ilc lien daar vandaag Yes, I called. there to-day
gaan lrnndolcren. to express my sympathy
24. H eeft u ccn prettigc dag Did you spend a pleasant
gehn<l liij rnijnhecr A.? day with Mr. A.?
25. Hoe zou het anders kunnen? How could it be otherwise?
26. lk fcliGiteer u ircl met u.w 1 wish ~·ou many happy re-
geboortedag ! turns of your birthday.
27. Veel heil met het nieiiwe A happy new )·ear to you!
28. Ila rte We, aanlc. Many thanks.
29. 17.; bcn u zccr verplicht. I am much olJliged to you.
30. Jlr, lien zeer gevoclig vuur de I appreciate the honour very
ccr. much.
31. Zou u mij ccn gunst willen \Vould you do me a favour?
32. Van hartc gaarnfJ, als ilc het I shall be most happy if I
kan. can.
33. Doe het toch vooral niet ! Pray, don't do it!
34. Heeft u mijnheer G. een Have you called upon Mr. C?
visite gernaalc.t?
35. Tk heb mijn naamfoaartje I left my card, because I
achtergelaten, want ik found him out.
vond hem niet thuis.



I. THE changes of form Lo which Articles, ~ ouns,

Adjectives and Pronouns are subject, are together called
their declension.

NOTE.-As far as Nouns, and Adjective Words

(including Articles) are concerned, most of their
flexion=forms have ceased to be acknowledged
in the Simplified Grammar. However, for the
sake of obtaining the right understanding of
all grammatical forms met with in literature,
they are all here given, with due observance
of what is obsolete, and what current.

Declension expresses Gender, Geslacld; Number,

Getal; and Case, Naamval.

The grammatical or word Gender, i.e. the way of

declining a Noun was formerly distinguished as:
Masculine, Mannelik; Feminine, Vrouwelik; and
Neuter, Onzijdig.

There are two numbers: Singular, Enkelvoud, and

Plural, M eervoud.

There are four Cases: Nominative, Nominatief;

Genitive, Genitief; Dative, Datief; and Accusative,
Accusatief-more commonly calleu: eerste, tweede,
derde en vierde Naamval, first, Recond, third, and
fourth Case.
1. The Subject of a sentence is in the Nominative
Case: De bond blaft, the dog barks.

2. The name of a person or thing addressed, de

aangesproken Persoon - Latin Vocative - is in the
Nominative Case; Jonyens, let op! Boys, pay attention!

3. The Verbs zijn, to be, worden, to become, heten,

to be called, blijven, to remain, schijnen, to seem, Jijken,
to seem to be, and blijken, to appear to be, take the
Nominatfre Case before and after them.

flij is mijn vriend =be is. my friend.

flij lijkt een vr.eemdeling =he seems a stranger.
Hij wordl soldaat =he becomes a soldier.

NoTE.-'J'he student shoul!l notice that the suhject and the person
named by the predicate of whieh these VerlJs form part.
are the very same. They are two names for the same
peuon, linked b~ a Copulative \'erb, tlie meaning of which
exvresses no attioll.

4. A Noun in apposition to a Nominative case is like-

wise in the Nominative case: Jakob, de oude tuinier, is
gekomen, Jacob, the old gardener, has corp.e; llij woont
bij mij als vriend, be lives in my house as a friend.


The Genitive Case expresses p,ossession, relation,
descent, or part of some whole.


Possession: Mijn vaders huis, my father's house.-

This is now commonly expressed as: 111 ijn vader
z'n huis.
R.elation: De stralen der zon, the sun's rays.-
Now: De zon z'n stralen.

Descent: De kinderen onzer tante, our aunt's

children.-Now: Onze tante haar kinderen.

Part of a whole: Een bete broods, a bit of bread.-

This expression, being idiomatic, remains as it


1. The person or thing profiting or losing by an action,
is in the Dative Case: Geef mij dat mes, give me that
knife; O'ij doet mij verdriet aan, you cause me grief.

2. The Personal Pronoun when nsed instead of a

Possessive Pronoun, is in the Dative Case: Hij wast zich
de handen, he washes his hands, for: hij wast zijn handen.

The Direct Object of a 'rransitive Verb is in the
Accusative Case: De metselaar boiiwde een huis, the
mason built a house.

2. The Verbs: noemen, to call, heten (trans.) to call,

schelden, to ca 11 (names), 111aken, to make, prijzen, to
praise, bevinden, to find to be, achten, to com.::ider, zich
betonen, to show oneself, zich gevoelen, to feel oneself,
zich tekenen, to sign oneself, are followed by two
AccusatiYe Cases. lk teken mij uw dienaar, I sign
myself your serrnnt; Hij 11oemt mij z:ijn vriend, he calls
me his friend.

XoTE.-OhserYe that the Personal Prououu and the N"oun

follo"·ing it are iu n1ivosition, and, therefore, in the same

3. Every Noun governed by any Preposition is in the

Accusative Case: De kat ligt op de stoel, the cat lies on
the chair.

OBSEHVA'l'ION.- lI! oltl Dutch some Prepositions governed the

Genitive, and others the Dative case. '!'his fad is traceable in
the following expre::iF-ions : -

Genitive: binncnslmis, inside the house; tussondcl•s, between

decks; ondershands, und0r hand; buitenstijds,
unseasonably; voorshands, for the time being.

l>ative: mettcrtijd (met <for tijd), iu time; tcr ore /;omen (te
<IC'/' ore), to <'Orne to one's 0ars, to h0ar; onrl<'r r·dr, under
oath; bij mon<lc, lJy verlJal message; 1•ali gucl/rn httize,
of gootl fawily; met dien verstande, 011 eoudition; fa
gemoede, <'OJlS('iPntiously; uit clirm hoofdr, on that
account; tc gocrlcr 11rc, at an auspkiou~ moment.

4. Nouns expressing time, tijd, weight, gewicht,

measure, maat, or value, waarde, are in lhe Accusative
Case: De appel kost een stuiver, the a[Jple costs a penny.
Het pakje 'Wee[Tt een pond, the parcel weighs one pound.

5. A Noun in apposition to an Accusative Case is

likewise in the Accusative Case: Ik roep Willem, de
lwetsier, I am calling William, the driver. De naam van
Alexander de arote als veroveraar, is alom bckcnd, the
name of Alexander the Great, as conqueror, is universally

VI. Important Observations on the Use of Cases.

1. The special form<; once observed for the Possessive

and J)ative Cases are now wholly discardefl. 'rheir places
are supplied hy the Nominative Case with Prepositions.
(ride Chap. III, where the first forms of declension are
Of the father, des vaders, is now ·van de vader, or de
vadcr z'n.
To the father, den vadcr, is now a(l.'n cle vadcr, or
voor de 1:acler.
'rhus: ik ko('ht mijn rader ecn paarrl, is now ik
kocht rrn paard t'oor mijn 1 ader. 1
124 TIIE STA_>WARD DU'L'Cll GR,lJJ.l{, l R

2. Practically, there is now no other case-form than

the first (Nominative). Instead of the declensions of
old, we now say, and write as well: de man, the man;
van de man_. of the man; aan de man, to the man: c!r: man,
the man. And again, ecn man, a man; va.n een man, of
a man; aan een man, to a man; een man, a man ;-and
so on, regardles" of gender-distjnctions.

3. 'l'he Demonstrative Pronouns deze (Neuter form

dit), this, and die ("Xeuter form dat), ihat, and the
rossessiYe Pronoun onze (Nenin form ons), our, follow
the declension of the definite article de (Neuter bet),
the, in having one word for dr-words, and another for
het-words, the former being used before Plurals as well.
Other Adjective words have but one form, used before
both classes of words, and undergoing no change in the

We thus say:
(Sing.) de, dr:zc, die, ouzc (8iug.) het dit, dat, ons
boom. hui8.
(Plnr ) cl(', df'Z('. dir, onw ( Plur.) de, d(':::c, clir, onze
bomen. huizcn.

But without any change:

(Sing.) m17n, zijn, haar, uw, hun boom or huis.
(Plur.) mijn, zijn, haar, uw, hun bomen or huizen.

4. All Adjectives take e before any Nouns, whether

de=words or het=words, Singular or Plural, except in
the following case:

The Adjective takes no e before the Singular of het-

words, when preceded by one of the following eight words:
een, a (an); geen, no; enig, some; elk. each: ieder,
every; zeker, a certain; menig, many; welk, which.

NoTE.-This is likewise the case after the Numeral Adjectives

i•cel, wat, and sommi{l.

Een, geen, elk, ieder, mcnig, A, no, each, eYery, many a,

welk J.:lein h'.in<Z, enz. which small child, etc.
Wat fris u:atcr. Some fresh water.
Veel ven-1 brood. :Huch new hread.
Sommig wit meel. Some kiml of white flour.
Compare ltet lacitste uoelr,, the last book, with een prettig boek,
a nke hook.

5. Adjective words used as Nouns take the ending en

in the Plural when referring to persons, and e when
referring to things. Such are cle anderen or andere,
the others; sommigen or sommige, some; velen or vele,
many; de mi jnen, my people; de mijne, mine (of things).

VII. The following Declension-forms are obsolete in

South Africa. They are here given so that the student
may recognii:;e their meanings when he meets them in
his reading.



lilrikclnnul. Sin,qular.
1 nv. de, dezc, di<', onze goede ;vom. the, this, that, our good
i·ader. fn1her.
2 nv. des, 1fnzes, dfens, onzes Gen. of the, this, that, our
goe11en vadcrs. gootl father.
3 nv. den, dezen, dien, onzen Dat. to the, this, that, our
gucilcn radar. good father.
4 nv. den, dozen, dien, onzen Acc. the, this, that, our good
17oeden 1:ader. father.

Mecrvoiicl. l'lural.
1 nv. d·e, dczc, die, onzc goede Nom. the, Lhese, those, our
i·adcrs. gootl fathers.
2 nv. dC1', rlf'Zl'I', dir'r, onzer, Gen. of the, tl1ese, those, our
goelle cadcrs. gootl fathers.
3. nv. den, dczen, llien, onzen Dat. to the, these, those, our
guerfcn vallers. good fathers.
4 nv. de, deze, die, onze goede Acc. the, these, those, our
va<lers. good fathers.



Enkelvoud. Singiilar.
1 nv. de, deze, die, onze oude Nom. the, this, that, our old
tante. aunt.
2 nv. der, dezer, dier, onzer Gen. of the, this, that, our old
01tde taute. aunt.
3 nv. der, dczeP, die,., onzer Dat. to the, this, that, our old
oude tante. aunt.
4 nv. de, deze, die, onze oude A.cc. the, this, that, our old
tante. aunt.

Mecriioua. Plitral.
1 nv. de, drize, die, onze oude Nom. the, these, those, our
tantes. old aunts.
2 nv. der, dczor, dier, onzer Gen. of the, these, those, our
oude tantes. old aunts.
3 nv. den, dozen, dien, onzcn Dat. to the, these, those, our
ouden tantes. old aunts.
4 nv. de, doze, die, onze oude Acc. the, these, those, our
tantes. old aunts.


Enkelvoud. Singular.

1 nv. het, dit, dat, ons kleine Nom. the, this, that, our small
kind. child.
2 nv. des, <lazes, dicns, onzes Gen. of the, this, that, our
kleinen kinds. small child.
3 nv. het, clit, <lat, ons kleine Dat. to the, this, that, our
kind. small child.
4 nv. het, dit, dat, ons kleine Acc. the, this, that, our small
kind. c>hild.

111 ccrroud. Plural.

1 nv. de, drze, die, onze klcine Nam. the, these, those, our
kindercn. Rrnft II
2 nv. der, rlez,cr, dier, onzer Gen. of the, these, those, our
klcine lcinderen. small children.
3 nv. den, dozen, dien, onzen Dat. to the, these, those, our
lcleinen lrindoren. small children.
4 nv. de, dri::e, die, onze kleine Acc. the, these, those, our
kinderen. small children.



Enkekoud. Singular.
1 nv. dezelfde man. Norn. the same man.
2 nv. deszelfden mans. Gen. of the same man.
3 nv. den.zeifden man. Dut. to the same man.
4 nv. denzelfden man. A.cc. the same man.

Enlc.elvoud. Singular.
1 nv. dezelfde 1irouw. Norn. the same woman.
2 nv. derzclfde vrouw. Gen. of the same woman.
3 nv. derzclfde vrouw. Dat. to the same woman.
4 nv. dezelfde vroiiiv. Ace. the same woman.

Enlwlvoud. Singular.
1 nv. hetzelfde Tlind. Norn. the same child.
2 nv. deszelfdcn Tcinds. Gen. of the same child.
3 nv. hetzclf!le kind. Dat. to the sn me child.
4 nv. ltetzelfdc k'ind. A.cc. the same child.

~IEERVOUD t>oor de drie ge&lachtcn.

Plura! for the three genders.
1 nv. dezclfde mannen, i-rom.oen, kindcrrn.
2 nv. derzelfde mannen, vrouwcn, ldndcren.
3 nv. dcnzelfden mannen, vrouu•en, ki>ulaen.
4 nv. dezelfd·e mannen, vroiiwen, kindercn.

Enkclcoud. Singulur.
1 nv. een, mijn, uw, zijn, haar, Nom. a, my, your, his, her,
hnn grute hond. th<'ir large dog.
2 nv. eens, mijns, uu:s, zijns, Gen. of a, my, your, his, her,
haars, huns, groten their large dog.
3 nY. eenen, mijnen, 11wen, Dut. to n, my, your, his, her,
zijnPn, lwren, hun- their large dog.
nen, grotcn hond.
4 nv. eenen, mijnen, uwen, A.cc. n my, your, his, her,
zijnen, /wren, hun- ' their large dog.
nen, grotcn hund.



Nnlcclt"oull. S inf!ular.
1 nv. eene, mijne, uzce, zijne, Som. a, my, your, his, her,
hare, l111nne, witte their white cap.
2 nv. cenei', mijne1', uu:er, Gen. of a, my, your, his, her,
zijnm., har<!r, lm11ne1', their white cap.
u·itte muts.
3 nv. eener, 1nijn<!1', uwc1', Dat. to a, my, your, his, her,
zijnPI', hare1., hunne1', their white cap.
wittu muts.
4 nv. ecne, mijne, uu·e, zijne, Acc. a, my, your, his, hei;,
hare, /I zmne, zr•·itte their white cap.

lfokel voud. Sinf!Ular.

1 nv. een, rnijn, u w, zijn, ltaar, Nam. a, my, your, his, her,
hun oud ( <') huis. their old house.
2 nv. ccns, mi ins, uics, zijns, Gen. of a, my, your, his, her,
haars, iluns, auden their olrl house.
3 nv. ecn, rnijn, uu·, zijn, haar, Dat. to a, my, your, his, her,
/tun aud(c) lzuis. their old house.
4 nv. ccn, mijn, iru:, z·ijn, haar, Acc. a, my, ) our, his, her,
/tun aud(e) huis. their old house.

JJl rmnllilc. Masculine.

1 nv. -, mijnc, u1ce, zijne, Nam. - , my, your, his, her,
hare, hunne, flrofe their large dogs, etc.
ha11dc11, enz.
llrouu:elik. Feminine.
1 nv. , mijne, uice, zijne, Nam. - , my, your, his, her,
hare, hun11c witte their white caps, etc.
rnutscn, enz.
01djdifl. Neuter.
1 nv. , rnijne, uwc, z11ne, Nam. my, your, his, her,
hare, /!wine oude hui- their ol1l houses, etc.
zcu, cnz.


I'LUllAL of Een oud h uis, et<·.

1 UV. ottrle ltui.zen. :Vom. old houses.

2 nv. oudei· lt uizcn, or rnn Gen. of old houses.
nude l111izen.
13 nv. ouden huizvu, or Ufl/l Dat. to old houses.
nude huiz·vn.
4 llY. 011lie huizen. 4cr. old htlllSf'S.

~ouuH may be preceded by an Adjectiye without any

defining word. In this case the Adjective, being the
first word, used to some extent to take the declension of
the Article.

FJnkclroud. Singular.

1 11v. oiulu wi in. Yom. ola wine.

2 nv. mulen lf'tJns (or vun Gen. of old wine.
ouden wijn).
3 nv. ouden (or aan ouden) nat. to old wine.
4 uv . .oullen wijn. .ice. ol<l wim•.

M<'ervoud. Plural.

1 nv. oude u:ijnEn. Som. old wines.

~ nv. ouder (or ran oude) Gen. of old wines.
3 nv. our/en (or uan oude) Dat. to old wines.
4 nv. oude wijnen. •lrr. old wines .


FJnkf'lroud. Si11!fu/ar.

1 nv. fijne leant. Xm11. fine lace.

2 nv. ran nine lrnnt. Gen. of fine lal'e.
3 nv. ann fijne lrnnt. Dat. to fine hlr·f'.
4 uv. fij1w l;ant. .kc. fine ln<'e.


2'tfcervoud. Plural.
1 nv. fijne kantcn. Nom. ·fine laces.
2 nv. fijner kanten, or van Gen. of fine laces.
fi1ne lcanfen.
3 nv. fijnen kanten, or aan Dat. to fine laces.
fijne lcanten.
4 nv. fijne kanten. Acc. fine laces.


EnkeZvoud. Singular.
1 nv. helder licht. Nom. bright light.
2 nv. van hcldcr licht. Gen. of bri;rht light.
3 nv. aan holder licht. Dat. to bright light.
4 nv. heZder licht. Acc. bright light.

Mcrrrnud. Plural.
1 nv. heldcre Uchtcn. Nom. bright lights.
2 nv. helderer lichtcn, or van Gen. of bright lights.
heldcre lichten.
3 nv. heldcren lichtcn, or aan Dat. to hright lights.
heldere lichten.
4 nv. hcldere lichtcn. Acc. bright lights.

In titles, attributive Adjectives are placed after the

Nouns• which they qualify. Their declension, however,.
used not to be affected by their position, e.g. :

Enlrnlvuud. Sinrmlar.
1 nv. l'f'trr de Grote. No111. Pe1Pr the Great.
2 nv. Peters des (Jroten. Gen. of Peter the Great.
3 nv. Peter 1/en Groten. Dat. to PPter the Great.
4 nv. l'etr1· d<'n Groten. Acc. Peter the Great.

Ily far the most Masculine and Neuter Nouns used te>
fakes as a sign of the Possessive (Genitive) case. These
were said to belong to the Strong Declension (Sterke
Verbuiging). Some few, however, formed their Possessive


case in ·en, belonging to what was called the Weak

Declension (Zwakke Verbuiging). Such were:-
1. The Masculine wo:r;ds: mens, man; hecr, gentleman;
'•iorst, sovereign; graaf, count; prins, prince; hertog,
duke; pro feet, prophet; nar, clown; and pau.s1 pope.
2. The Neuter word: hart, heart.

3. All Adjectives used as Nouns, and the Possessive

Pronouns: de wijze, the wise man; de goede, the good
man; de mijne, mine.
Their declension was as follows:-

Enlcelvoiid. Singular.
1 nv. de vorst. Nom. the sovereign.
2 nv. des vorsten. Gen. of the sovereign.
3 nv. den vorst. Dat. to tho sovereign.
4 nv. den i·orst. Acc. the sovereign.
1 nv. de goede. Nom. the good one.
2 nv. des goeden. Gen. of the good one.
3 nv. den goede. Dat. to the good one.
4 nv. dJen goede. Acc. the good one.
Meervoud. Plural.
1 nv. de iiorsten. Nom. the sovereigns.
2 nv. der vorsten. Gen. of the sovereigns.
3 nv. den vorsten. Dat. to the sovereigns.
4 nv. de vorsten. Acc. the sovereigns.
1 nv. de goeden. Nom. the good.
2 nv. der goeden. Gen. of the good.
3 nv. den goeden. Dat. to the good.
4 nv. de gocrl<'n. Acc. the good.

De mijne, mine, or my 'own; de uwe, yours, or your

own; de onze, ours, or our own, etc., were declined as



Enkclroud. Enkelrnud.

1 nv. d(', mijnc. 1 nv. de mijne. 1 nv. hct mijne.

2 nv. des mijnen. 2 nv. d'er mijnc. 2 nv. ran het mijne.
3 nv. den mijne. 3 nv. dcr (or de) 3 nv. het mijnc.
4 nv. den mijne. 4 nv. de rnijnc. 4 nv. hct mijrw.

Mcerrour7 i-oor de drie gcslachte11.

(Plural for tile three genders.)

(Meaning Persons.) (Meaning Things.)

1 nv. do rnijnen. 1 nv. de rnijne.

2 nv. dcr mijncn. 2 nv. doi· rnijno.
3 nv. d<'n mijnen. 3 nv. den mijnen.
4 nv. de rnijncn. 4 nv. de mijne.

Compound Pronouns (i.e. Pronouns, the first part of

which is the definite Article) likewise followed the Weak
Declension: dcgene, he, or whoever; dezelfde, the same;
dezulke, such an one. Example:-


Enkeli:oud. Enkel,,;01id. JiJnlcelvourl.

1 nv. dczel[rr.e. 1 nv. dezelfde. 1 nv. hotzelfdc.

2 nv~ des:::eTfden. 2 nv. dorzelf(f(',. 2 nv. des:::eTfdcn.
3 nv. rlanzelfrfe. 3 UV. der::elfdc. 3 HY. het~clfd(',.
4 nv. denzelfdc. 4 nv. dczelfrle. 4 UV. het:::clfrto.

Me<'rt'OUd ,,;oor allo gcslaehten.

(.Meaning Persons.) (Meaning Things.)

1 nv. dezelfder1. 1 nv. 11czelfde.

2 uv. derzelf!Trn. 2 nv. dcrzelfdc.
3' nv. d0en~e1fden. :{ nv. rfcnzelfden.
4 nv. dc:::eTfdr•n. 4 nv. dezelfde.


Broud lJakkcn.-To bake bread.

1. Ik 'llwng <'('It bu k 111ccl l mix u l>aHin of flour with

met 1n1trl'. watPr.
2. Ik clne <'r zrnt ,;1111nl<'I'[} l add a liiile yem;t to it.
3. Ik kneed lll't met mijn 1 knead it with my hands.
han<lrn door elkunrlcr
4. lk zic 1urn du b lazan r Hee l>y ihe lmhbles when
wrm11cc1· lwt klaor is. it iH ready.
G. lk sm<'<'I' tic lrnkpunnen 1 oil the baking pans with
rnet gcsrnolft:n rct. melted fat.
6. lk doc lwt d<'l'!J in de l put the dough into ilil'l
pam1c11. pam1.
7. Ik 1-:nijd <r <'Cll puar rnuh:e a eouple of m
strczw11 in met ccn risiouH in it with a
mes. knife.
8. Ik ;whuif de pan11<'n in T sl10ve the pans into the
de ovc11 om te bal.:kcn oven to hake.
!), n. kcrr de lJrndc11 in de I turn the loaves in rhe
panncn om. pans.
10. Zo 1cordt hct broo<Z gc- Ho the bread iH baked.


mengen-ik meng, mengde, helo (had) gemengd, zal mengcn,

(gemcngd hebben).
bijuoen-ik doc bij, dt>cd hij, heh (had) bijgeO.aan, zal bijdoen
(bijgedaan llebben).
knmlen-ik kneeLl. knt>ctlde, l!eb (had) ~elmeed, zal lmeden
( g-eknee<l behheu).
zion-ik zie, zug, lleb (had) gezien, zal zit>u (gezien llehheu).
s1ueren--ik smel'l', smeprde, heb (had) gt•smPPr<l, zul smerPn
( gesmeerd hebl1en).
snijtlen-ik snijr1, sneN1, heh (had) gesne<kn, zal snijden
(gesneden hehben).
schuiven-ik Echuif. schoof, beb (had) gpsd1oven, zal schniven
( ges<·lwven hebben).
omkl•ren-ik kPt>l' om, keerde om, heh (hacl) omgekeerd, zal
0rnl,eren ( omgekeerd hehheu).
bakken-ik bak, bakte, heh (had) grhakkrn, znl bald1:en
(gehakken hcbhen).


1. In addition to the usual repetitions of the above

sentences in the various tenses and persons (which should
never be omitted), the student should construct a
number of senicnces containing different parts of the
Verbs of this Exercise.

2. It should be noted that the continuity of action

expressed by the Progressive Form in English, is
diJierent.ly (and variously) expressed in Dutch.

Verbs have no Progressive Form. Other expressions

are provided to take its place, as follows:

1. I am reading-ik ben aan het lezen.

2. I am writing-ik ben bezig te sohrijven.

or simply :-ik lees, ik schrijf.

3. I was reading when he came in, ik was aan het

lezen, toen hij binnenkwam.
or simply :-ik las, toen hij binnenkwarn.

4. He is always reading-hij is rnaar altijd aan het

or simply :-hij leest maar altijd.

5. Is he going? gaat hij a.l?

6. He had gone, but he is coming back-hij was weg,

maar hij komt al terug.

7. Have yon heard about the fire? Yes, r· have

been hearing about it-Heeft n van de brand
gehoord? J a, ik heb er al van gehoorrl.

With this matter before him, the student should make

some sentences with the help of the above Verbs, intro·
ducing the Progressive Form.

3. It should now be possible to branch out into contin-

uous sentences, strung together in the form of a
composition, as for instance:

Kom (come), Minnie, wij gaan eens (just) een brood

(loaf) bakken van morgen (this morning). Wil jij het
deeg kneden, of zal ik het doen? Ik heb het meel hier in
de bak,· geef (give) mij maar (but) wat (a little) warn~
wa.ter. Het water moet niet kokend (boiling) zijn (be);
ik moet er (it) mijn hand in (into) kunnen (be able)
steken (to put). Is er nog (still) zuurdeeg in de bottel?
Kijk tooh eens (just have a look). Er was gisteren (yes-
terday) nog (still) wat (a little); en ik geloof (think)
niet, dat ik het gebruikt (used) heb.
This composition should be completel, or another
written wholly in the student's own words.

GRAMMAR. EXERCISES.-Taaloefeningen.

NO'rE.-Ju the declension of AdjPctives thP spelling rule holds

good, that when the last syllallle has au imperfect vowel
which is to be preserved, the final consonant must be
doubled: stil, quiet, stille; cWc, thick, dilcke.
A dash after an Adjective does not always mean that an e
shoul<l be supplied.


Fill up the blanks in the following sentences:

Ik heb - lang- brief van - trouw- vriend
I have a long letter from my faithful friend
Dntvangen. Op - eerst- avond na - slag bezochteu
re<"eii; ed. On tlw tirst evPuing afh'r thP battle visited
wij - toneel van - vresclik- strijd. In - dicht--
we the scene of that terrible conflict. In the dense
bos onder - dor- bladeren verborgen, lag - giftig-
bush under the dry leaves hifl.den, lay a poiso11ons
adder. - boog-, pracbtig- lrnis is door - beroemd-
adder. This high, beautiful house was by that famous
1:1() TITE l'!T.LVIURD nrrTl'll GR4J!JfAR

engcls- arcl1itekt gehouwd. !<:1· liep - :mn- kin(l

]£uglisl1 ar<'hit<'<'t lmilt. '!'her!' W!'llt n poor ('hild
Iangs - stil~ straten; - rijk- dame gaf het geld. In
alon~ the quiet etrPL•1s; the ri<'h lad~· gaYL' it uwnPy. In
- schoon- klimaat - - zuidelik- landeu ii;; het
the lJe:rntiful <'limate of the soutlt!'l'll mnntries is it
gemakkelik gezond te ZJJn. -l'raai-rijtuig van -
en i;;~ lll'altlty to hi'. The fiuc rn rriagp of the
koning was met zm; prachtig- paarden uei;;pannen. Jk
idug was by Rix svlernlid hor~Ps •lrawn. l
wil u - Rchrikkclik- afgrond, - ontzaglik- kloven,
want ~ ou this krril1lc ahyss. tllcSL' tremPrnlons g;on~es,

snel- stroom, en trots- llergspitsen tonen.

this quick stream, and these µroml mountain peaks (to) show.
Menig- onschuldig- hart is verleid geworden door
Many mt innoeent heart has SP<lnrPrl lieen h~·

slecht- gezelschap.
l1ad eornpany.


Om - inhoud Yan - lichaam te herekPnen, iR bet

F'or the contents of a liody to ('alculate, is it
nodig lengte, - ureedte, en - hoogte ervan te
ueressary the leugth, tlw hread1.h, arnl thP hPigllt of it to
kennen. In welk- landen vindt men hoogst-
know. In which country finds oue The highest
bergen, - snelst- rivieren, en - grootst- meren?
mountains, the most rapitl riYers, antl the largPst lakes?
Iloe oud was - man, die gisteren door zulk - groot--
II0w old was tho man, who yesterday hy snrlt a lnrg!'
stoet van mensPn ten grave gedragen werd? Hij was de
crowd of peoplC' to the grave hornC' wn s? He was the
oudst- man nit - heel- stad, en moet ver in - negentig
oldest man of the whole to,vn, :mil must far oYer ninety
geweest zijn. Als - - koeien nam· - "'Pide zendt. zal ik
heen haye. If you your cows to tlw field sPnrl. shall I
ook z<'nden. Enig- jaren geleden hebben --
mine also Sl'nrl. Romp ~'C'ars ago ( hn YP) the

l!'ra1u;en vreselik- oorlog gevoerd tegen

l•'n'n('b a terrible ww· eurriell on ag;uinst the
Duitsers, doch - laatst- hebben schitterend-
GPrmans, lmt The latter (have) a brilliant
overwinning behaald.
Yi<'lory gained.


D- tempel van ~alomo, - groot-, wijz- koning, is

'l'lw temple of 8olomon, that great ( aml) wise king, has
door - - -- koningen van - bahylonies- rijk vei·woest
hy one of the kings of ti1·~ Rn hyloniau empire rleslroye<l
gewordPri. - kanwel wordt in - noordelik- deel van
llPen. TllP ('a llll'l is i11 tlw nortlJPrn pa rt of
A frika, en in veel landen van A11iP p;evondeu; -
Afri\-:1. aml in many eom1trll'S of Asia founrl; he
- - nm - nuttigst- huisdieren. hard-,
is O'lL' of the most useful ,·:omestk aninmlE. 'l'he hard,
drog- stammen - - born en zijn met fris-, week-,
dry trunks of tllP tr<'»':l arf' wifh fresh. soft,
groen- mos bedekt. 7,al u opnoernen, wat -
;..~Tt\eu moss l'OYPn•1l. Hlmll (to) you t•numernte what I
op lang- reis gezien heb? Groot- steden,
011 tlrn t Joug journPy &~1'-~H have~ Large towns,
prachtig- dorpen, veel- wild- dieren, opgesloten in
lle:rntifnl Yillages, m:rny 'liltl nnim•tls, loeked up in
eng- kooien, hr:eed -, ~mel stromPnd- rivieren, waar
nanow 1·agl'~. hro:1ll, rnpi1Hy flowing rivers, wher~

rijk ver:sier·d- !Jootje:s op ronddreven, talloo:s - groen-

1·khly lle<·urated boats 011 ttoated ahout, numl.Jerless green
weivelden, heerlik schoon- kerken, - stalen !Jrug
meadows, <lPlightfully beautiful ehurehes, a stPel brillge
van meer dan mijl Jang, en meer dergelijk-
of '"lllOl'P than a mile loug, a nd mm P stwh
wonderlik- <lingen, waanan men zo menig- verlwal in
womlerfnl tlli11gs, of whir·n nup s•i many an fH'l'01lllt in
sdwolboeken lee-;t.
schoolbooks realls.

The student is recommended to study the following


Englieh The water of the river trickles through the

ha rd ground.
Old Book Dutrh Ilct zratcr der riricr :::ijpelt door den
harden grand.
Sim1ilified I>utch JI ct 11·.atcr ran de rit>ier zijpelt door de
harde ,qrond. Or-de rfoier z'n
watar, etc.
Ji;ngllsh No one has ev<'r troudeu the !Jottom of
this terrible abyss.
Olcl Book Dutch .Yicmand heeft ooit den bodem dezes
1:reeselijkcn afgronds betreden.
Simplifieu Dutrll Y-icrnan1l hecft ooit df' bodcm van deze
1·resclil'e afgrond bctredcn.
Have Jou eonsiuerell the action of the
s11n's heat on the leaves of this tree'/
Olcl Book Dutch flcbt gij de werlcin.q dc1· wnn!'warmte
op de 7Jladercn drzrs linoms na-
11 e{I rum ?
Simpllfit•<l Ilukh 11' rft 11 de u:erking rnn 1lc zonrwu:annte
op de /Jl.urcn van daze boom naueuaanr
Eng-!ish I have intimated the king's pleasure to
~·our olll father. ·
Old Book Dutd1 lk lirli 111C1 n uudcn ruder den wil dee
kouings /Jclcend ucmaalct.
Simplified Dutd1 llc hf'/i 111.r oudc rnder 1/c ieil 1•an de
leaning (or-de koning ::: 'n wil)
l1elcend gcmaalct.


'rhus far, in the fl.peak-and-Act ExPrrises, Verbs have

l>een introduceu promiscuously, the stnrlcnt noticing much
divPrsity in the formation of their principal parts, yet
reim1ining ignorant of the tules guiding such formation.
It is thus that a child acquires his mother tongue; so
also the learner should acquire the elements of a foreign
language. Acquisition of word-forms should precede

The time has now come to explain to ilie student that

there are two great classes of VPrbi:;;; one, ealleil the
Weak Conjugation, keep their stems intact throughout
the entire conjugation, merely adding a suffix or prefix:
to such stems to mark Moods and 'l'enses; the oilier,
called the Strong Conjugation, introducing vowel-
changes into their stems.

Of thei;e two great classes examples will now be given,

which the student i,;hould study carefully, though he may
be already acquainted with much of what here follows.


learn, and the STRONG VERB "stele11 ", to steal.
Stems " Jeer" and " steel".
Indicative Mood.-Aantonende Wijs.

Present Tense-Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

ik leer, ·I learn. ilv steel, I steal.
jij (je) leert, thou !earnest. jij (jr\ sf('c/t, thou stealest.
hij (u) leert, he learns. llij ( /1 \ st('<Jlt, be steals.
wij leren, we learn. 1rfj st,,lcn, we Rteal.
jullie leren (gij l('crt), you jullie sf('len (yij stcelt), you
le:1rn. steal.
zij lercn, they learn. zij stclen, they steal.

Perfect ~'ense-Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

ilc hcb gelccrd, I have learned. ilc ltcb rwstolen, I have stolen.
jij (je) lzebt geleerd, thou jij (jr) hcbt gcstolcn, thou
hast le:irned. lmst stolen.
hij ( u) lweft gcleerd, he bas lzij (u) lzcrft gestolen, he has
learned. stolen.
wij hebb('n gelcerd, we have wij hrtibrn gesfnlen, we have
learned. stolen.
jullie Twblrnn ( gij 71 r71t) .fullie hrliben (gij hebt)
gelrrrd, you have l<'arned. gestolen, you have stolen.
zij hebben gclrcrcl, they have zij heb7ien uesfn7en, they have
learned. stolen.

Imperfect Tense-Onvolmaakt Yerleden Tijd.

ik lccrdc, I Jparuecl. ik stal, 1 stolP.
jij (je) lcerdet, thou learneust. jij (jc) staalt, thou stolest.
hij ( u) lrcrdP, he leanu•1l. hij ( u) stal. lte stole.
w'ij leerdcn, WL' learm•tl. lt'ij st11/en, WP stole.
jullie lf'crc1e11 (gij /('(Tcletl, ju/lie st11lc11 (.uij staalt),
you l<.>arnetl. you stole.
t:ij /ccrclen, tliPy lP:tt'Hed. zij stalen, tht•y stole.

Pluperfect Tense-Volmaakt V erleden Tijd.

ilc had gelcerd, 1 ha cl learned. ii· had aestolen, T had stolen.
jij ( je) hadt gelccrcl, thou jij (je) harlt gestolen, thou
h:H1St lea l'llPO. hadst stolC'n.
hij (ii) had gelecra, hP har1 /iii (u) had gestolen, he had
learned. stol~n.
wij haddrn uelrerd, WI' had 1/'ij harlden gcstulen, we ha<l
learnPu. stolen.
ju71ir. hadden (gij hadt) ge- jullic ha!ldcn (gij hatlt) ge-
lcerd, you had learned. stole11. you had stolen.
zij hn<lden gelecrd, they had :i.i luuldrn gestolcn, they had
lear1wcl. stolf'n.
Future Tense--Onvolmaakt Torkomende Tijd.
ik zal lercn, T shall Imm. ik zal strlen, I shall steal.
jij (jc) zuzt leren, tllon wilt jii (je) zult st<'len, thou wilt
lPnrn. steal.
hij ( u) zal lcrcn, ltp will Jpnrn. hij (u) zttl stden, h<> will
irij z11llcn lrrcn, we shall Jen ru. u•ii zullrn sic/en, we shall
jnllin zullcn ( yi i zult) leren, jullir zull!'11 ( gij zult) stolen,
you will !Pnni. you will stP:l l.
zij ~11771'11 lrren, tltt•y will IPan1. zij :·11/lrn stelen, they will

FntnrP Pe1·fect TenRe-Folmrrnkt Torko11wnde Tijd

ik zal yelr!'rd ltPlilJl'n, I shall ik zal gestolen Tiell/Jen, I shal.
ha n• lP:i ruPr1. lm VL' stolP11.
jij (jc) zult uclrrrcl lwhlJl'11, jij (j<') zult gestolen hebben
1.hou wilt lmvP Jparn0d. thou wilt haYP stolen.
h ij ( u) wl gefrw1 cl he/Jbcn, hp hii ( 11) zal aestolen hebben,
will lmn· learue(l. he will have stolen.
1dj zullen ge7rrrc1 hr/1lwn, \\ <' td.i zulll'n grstolen ltebben,
shall Im v0 l<.>,1r11L•(\. we shall have stolen.
jullie zullcn I yij zult) aelrrlll j11/7ie zul7c11 ( gij zult) ge-
l!c/1/)('n, you will havP stolcn l!rbbcn, you will
Jenrn<'fl. have stolen.
zij zullen gelc<'rcl hcbbrn, tltp~· zij zullen gestolen hcbben, S o.
will have kar1w!l. 11wy will have stolen. i1'

Subjunctive Mood-Aanvoegende Wijs.

Future Tense-Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd.

ik zou leren, I should learn. ilv zou stclen, I should steal.
jij (je) zoudt leren, thou jij (je) rwiult stolen, thou
wouldst learn. wouldst steal.
1tij (u) zou lercn, he would hij ( u) cou stelcn, he would
learn. steal.
wij zouden lercn, we should wij zoudcn stelen, we should
learn. steai.
jullie zouden (yij zoudt) jullie zouden (yij zoudt)
leren, you would learn. stelen, you would steal.
zij zouden leren, they would dj zouden stolen, they would
learn. steal.

Future Perfect Tense-Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd.

i'k zou gelecrd hebbcn, I should il" zou gestolen hebben, I
have learned. should have stolen.
jij (je) zoudt gelcercl hrbbcn, jij(je) zoudt gestolen hebben,
thou wouldst have learned. thou wouldst have stolen.
hij (u) zou geleerd hcbben, hij (u) zou gcstolen hebben,
he would have learned. he would have stolen.
wij zouden gelecrd hebben, we wij zoudcn gcstolen hebben,
should have learned. we should have stolPn.
jullie wudcn (yij zoudt) gc- jullie zoudcn (yij zoudt) ge-
lecrd hebbcn, you would stolen hebben, you would
have learned. have stolen.
zij zouden geleerd hebben, zij zourlrn gestolen hebben,
they would have learned. they would have stolen.

Imperative Mood-Oebiedende Wijs.


laat mij lcren, let me learn. laat mij stelen, let me steal.
leer, learn (thou) . steel, steal (thou).
laat hem lcren, let him learn. laat hem stelen, let him steal.

laat ons lercn (leren wij), let' la at ons stelen ( stelen wij),
us learn. let us steal.
leert, learn (ye). stcelt, steal (ye).
la at hen leren ( leren Z'ij). iaat hen stelen (stelen zij),
lPt them learn. let them steal.

Infinitive Mood-Onbepaalde Wijs.

Present Tense-Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

(te) leren, to learn. ( te) stelen, to steal.

Perfect Tense-Yolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

geleerd (te) hcbben, to have gestolen (te) hebben, to have
learned. stolen.
Future Tense-Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd.
te zullcn lcren (no equi- te zullen stelen (no equiva-
vulent). lent).
Future Perfect Tense-Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd.
(to) zullcn geleord hebben (no (te) zullcn gestolen heliben
equivalent). (no equivalent).
Present Participle-Tegenwoordig Deelwoord.
lerende, learning. stelencle, slealing.

Past Participle-Verleden Deelwoord.

gelcord, learned. gc.stole11, stolen.

Like "leren" conjugate the Weak Verbs: spelen,

speelde, gespeeld, to play; delen, deelde, gedeeld, to divide
(to share) ; leven, leef de, geleefd, to live; bouwen, bouwde,
gebouwd, to build; vertellen, vertelde, verteld, to tell.
Like " stelen " conjugate the Strong Verbs: slapen,
sliep, geslapen, to sleep; nemen, nam, genomen, to take;
roepen, riep, geroepen, to call; geven, gaf, gegeven, to
give; mefrn, rnat, gemeten, to measure; wegen, woog,
gev.:ogen, to weigh.


Fourth RulP of Construction.-·When a Subordinatf' 1::-ientence
precedes the Principal one, the construction of the latter
is inverted, i.C'., the Verb is placed h!'fore its Snbjf'ct. If
the Vi>rb consists of two varts, the Auxiliary only precedes
the subject. and the Principal Verll closC's the Rentence (see
first rule).

Notic·e here the need of the conmm, for separating two Verbs
which belong to different ->euteuces.
Leave out words !Jetweeu [], rrn1l translate words in ().

If you [have learned] that long lesson (have learned),

(can=kan) you [can] go. If he had a book, (would) he
fwould] learn the alphabet. When I asked your uncle
to tell that story, (said) he [said] that he had told it
already. When dogs [are] young (are), (are) they [are]
Uvely. If the man has stolen the money, (is) he [is] a
thief. After (nadat) he had weighed the parcel, (gave)
he [gave] it to the boy. If my sister has no pain, (sleeps)
she [sleeps] very well. Because the man was ill and
poor, (was) he [was] miserable. When I was rich, (had)
I [had] many friends. As I had 110 horse, (<'ould=kon)
I [could] uot go. If I had had a garden behind the
11ouse, (would) I [would] [have been] glad (blij) (have
been). As the boy had a spade, (worked) he [worked]
in t.he garden. When my uncle's horsPs (the horses of
my uncle) had much grass, (were) they [were] fat. If
the child had been at (op) school, (would) it [would]
have been tired (have been). If he asks for (om) the
inkpot, (will) my mother [will] give it (him) (give).
When i.he child has played [for] an hour, (will) it will
[be] satisfied (be).


'Translation of Present Particlple.-l'resent l'artil'iples are

nu·p]y used. They are t.·:ws1ate<l m vrrriouti wa)·s. The
following rendering should !JP noted first.
Having a !Jook, the hoy is happy=ns the boy has 11 hook,
he is harirn·=daai· a:e jong1n crn boolc 111·cft, is hij
yelukkig. ·
BPing ill, the child was at homE'=as the ehil<l was ill. it
was at homP=daar het kind ziclc teas, was hct thuis.

Ilaving parents, (is) the child [is] happy. Having

books, (was) the boy [was] contented. Being small,
the girl had little work. Having a spade, the boy

worked {werkte) in the garden. Being obedient, the.

child was happy. Having been ill (as he had been sick),
the man was poor. 'fhe poor man being ill, was (he)
miserable. The boy, having tools, was (he) happy. The
child having been (as the child had been) at (op) school,
was (it) tired. The weather having been bad, the harvest
was small. Having had rain, the trees had leaves.
Having no bread, the children were hungry. The cat
having had milk, was (i<be) contented. My horses were
fat, having had much. grass. Your cows were thin~
having had no forage.


Let us build three houses here. "Why three? 'fhere

is room for four. There is no room for four houses on
this small piece of ground. ·would he have stolen the old
horse if there (er) had been .a young [one] ? .If you tell
me this, I shall not ask you again. ''\That will he ask
me? He will ask you to give up the key which he gave
(has given) you. This is the little bird i.hat built its
pretty nest among the green twigs. How long did the
dog live? It (he) lived five years. I had a horse once
which was twenty years old. If your uncle built (has
built) on the new piece of ground, I will build on the old
[one]. He has not built yet; but he will build on the
large new piece of ground next to the old inn. Because
he wanted to (wilde) play in the afternoon, he learned
his lessons in the morning. You have had the money
in your pocket; why did you play (played you) with it

NOTE.-" To like to" and " to want tu·· are botll rendered by
" 1dllen, wilde, uewUd ".

The boy wants to learn tho:;;e difficult words. Yes,

but he does not want to ( wil . . . niet) [learn] his
lesson for bis teacher (not leam). I should like to-

tzoti . . . willen) ask you for (om) the paper. The old
man did not want to ask for money. \Yould you like to
ha ye a large house and a pretty garden? I should like
to have many good llooks. He wants to give all his
money to the poor. Give me those roses! No, I do [not]
want to (wil . . . niet) [give] you those roses (not give);
they are too pretty and too frosh. Do you want to have
more ink? Who would not [like to be] rich and happy
(like to be)? I should not Llike to lluild] in this street
(like to build) ; there are already too many large houses.
Ile wanted to call his father, but he was not in his room.
The carpenter wants to measure the table. Let him first
measure the height of the door.


Observe the translation of certain expressions, which are

uuu·kc-d in the above conjugations as having "no equivalent".

Ilij hoopt te zullen slapen--he hopes that he will sleep.

Hij rnrwacht tc zullen bouwcn--he expects that he will build.
llij dcnkt te zullcn lcomen-'.-he thinks that he will come.
Hij gelooft morgen beter te zullen zijn-hc believes that he
will IJe !Jetter tomorrow.
Hij zegt om een uur daar gewccst te zullen zijn-he says that
at one o'clock he will have !Jeen there.
Hi.i belooft zifn lessen dan gelecrd tc zullen hebbe11-he
1n·omises that then he will have learned his lessons.

NoTE.-'l'he latter part of these seutenres nmy also be made to

follow the r<;nglisll rendering: Ilij /Jelonft, dot hi i r:ijn lessr·n
dan :rnl gelccrd ltebbcn.

She hopes that she will live. l expeet that I shall call
you. They think that they will eome to-morrow- He
promises that he will have giYen the money. She believes
that she will be ill to-morrow. Having slept, the child
wmi much better. Let the bird live, boys! Having built
14<l THE 8TJ.. Ynxrm Df'TCH GR.1MJLtR

a strong castle, the king was safe. John and Henry1

share the marbles! J~et them also share the money! Let
us tell the story of that fearful fire to our parents. The
carpenter expects that he will lmild threP large hom~es.
The girl believes that she [willl one day [be] ver~; rich
(will be). Let us measure these sticks; they are long
and sirong. Do not always play, children! Let them
play now; they will (the next hour) learn their spelling
u1pelles) [the next hour]. Charles, call the servant,
1 want to [ask] him something (ask). Yes, father, I
shall call him.


NoTE.---l'orreet drniee l1ctwecn the various PXJH'Pssions taking

the plaee of the l<J11g-Jish l'rogressive Form, is noi an easy
rna1tPJ'. :\fu<'h practice will be required on the stmlent's
part to know what partieular form is most snitahle. 'rhe
following sC'ntP11ees are snppliPd with numhPrs referring
to tlie examples of Jl. 1::14.

The woman is weighing (2) the meat. He was calling
(2) his father. The child was sleeping ( 110 Progr.) all
(the whole) day. He was telling me (1) about (van)
his mother, who [is] dead (is). We have been learning
(5) our spelling, and we have been playing (1) in the
room. '!'he thief has been stealing (n) again. The good
dog was still living (no Progr.) Did you call me? No,
I was calling (no Progr.) your brother. How long did
your Rister sleep? She slept [for] three hours. She is
alwnyi:< sleeping ( 1) when ( uls) I wa11t to go out (uit-
gacm). Will you be measuring the carpet ( Gaat u
mi88chie11 het tapijt mcten)? l have measured it already,
but T shall measure it again. ·was the masou building
(1) the houi:<e'! He ha8 been building (no Progr.) two
houses on the main roail, and [now] he ii:< building (2)
(now) a third. Were you telling him (1) about that
crow with the large wings? Tell me that too. I will
tell .rou by and by.

NOTE.-The word "when"' is translated uy •·toen", when an action
is expressed in tlle Past Tense, vurvurtinp; tu name a fa<'t
which has occurred unoe.
In se11ten<'l'S, the Yerh of which is iu the Present or JJ'utnre Tense
or in the Pust Tense expressing a hal!il or regularly occurring
event, the word "when" is rendered hy "1ranneer" or "als".

You were sleeping ( 1) when ( toen) I called. My

father was measuring the door ( 1) when ( toen) I gave
him the letter. You play when (wanneer) you must
learn (must=moet). He had the letter in his hand
when (toen) he was playing (1). When (wanneer) will
vou call the cat? I called the cat when I was in the
passage. ·when you divide the marbles, you must
(moet) call me. When the postman had weighed the
book he gave it to me. Were you building iJie wall (2)
when I [saw] you (saw, zag)? Yes, I was building the
wall ( 2) when you called me to (om te ) measure the
door. When did the tllief steal the money? lie stole
the money at (om) 5 o'clock. Were you sleeping (1)
when he stole it? He took it when we were in [the]
house, but we were all sleeping. Was be dividing (2)
the marbles when you asked him to play? Ile always
gives me his books when he plays.


De schoorsteen vegen.-To sweep the chimney.

1. De schoorsteenveger 'l'he chimney-sweep throwi,;
gooit zijn pak op de down his pack in the
achterplaats neer. yard.
2. Hij zct ccn ladder tcgcn He puts a ladder up
het dak op. against the roof.
3. Hij lclimt op de lePr He goes up the ladder fo
naar de srlworstern. the ehinmev.
4. Hij laat crn hardc bczcm He lets dow~ a lrnrcl
r111 n Nm to mr in r7 r broom br a rope into
. pijp ncer. the flue.

5. Zijn maat wacht ondcr Ilis mate waits for the

op de bezem. broom below.
6. H ij knoopt een twee de He ties a second rope to
touw aan de bezem the broom.
7. Zij trekken sarncn de They pull the broom up
bezcm op en neer door and down through the
de schoorstccn. chimney together.
8. Waar zij bij kunnen, What they can reach, they
krabben zij sclwoo·i scrape clean with
met ijzers. irons.
9. Zij vegen al het roet op 'rhey sweep up all the soot
in een zak. into a bag.
10. Zo wordt de schoorsteen So the chimney is swept.


gooien-ik gooi, gooide, heb (ha<l) gegooi<l, zal gooien (gegooid

zctten-ik zet, zette, heb (bad) gezet, zal zetten (gezet hebben).
klimmen-ik klim, klom, heb (ha<l) geklornrnen, zal klimmen
(geklommen bebben).
neerlaten-ik laat neer, liet neer, heb (had) r.eergelaten, zal
necrlaieu (neergelaten hebben).
wachten-ik wacht, wu<'htte, heb (had) gewacbt, zal wachten
(gewacht hebben).
knopen-ik knoop, knoopte, heb (had) geknoopt, zal knopen
(geknoopt hebben).
trekken-ik trek, trok, heb (had) getrokken, zal trekken (ge-
trokken hebben).
krabben-ik krab, krabde, heb (had) gekrabd, zal krabben (ge-
krabd hebben).
opvegen-ik veeg op, veegde op, heb (had) opgeveegd, zal
opvegen ( opgeveegd bebben).


Of all the Verbs which have thus far been used in the
Speak-and-Act Exercises, the leading features have been
given in the Verb Bxercises.
·what should now be done is:
1. Make a list of all these Verbs, writing down their
Infinitive, Past Tense, and Past Participle forms.

2. Observe any alterations in the stems (which are

shown in the Past Tense), and mark such verbs J:3trong,
whereas all those whose l::jtem-vowels have remained
unchanged, should be marked Weak.

3. Among the Strong, some will be noticed whose

stems undergo a greater change in the Past Tense than a
mere vowel-alteration. Such Verbs are, for example:
gaan, ging, gegaan; komen, ku·am, gekomen; zijn, wa,s,
geweest; hebben, had, gehad. These should be marked
Irregular, or Anomalous.


Ik wil u eens vertellen wat mij gisteren

J want to you just (to) relate what to me yesterday
Qverkomen is. Ik was op weg naar het dorp Vredefort.
happened (has). I was on my way to the town (of) Vredefort.
Ik reed in een kaapse kar, en had mijn koetsier bij
I was driving in a. Cape cart, and had my driver with
mij. Omtrent het middag uur zagen wij een lange,
me. About the midday hour saw we a long,
:zwarte streep aan de horizont op de bergen liggen, die
IJlacl{ strip at the horizon on the mountains lying, which
zich scheen te .bewegen, en, daar de wind naar ons toe
itself seenwd to move, and, as the wind towards us
was, kwam hij in onze richting. Mijn koetsier zei mij,
wns, was ('Oming it in our dire('tion. My driver said to me,
dat dat hagel was, en dat wij ons moesten
that that hail was. and that we oursdvf's nrnst
klaar houden voor zwaar weer, al scheen de
reu<ly holu for heavy weather, although shone the
zon nog zo helder. -nrij reden verdel', en na een
sun evPr so brightly. We drove on, .iml after :m
uur kwam de streep zichtbaa1· nader, en werd'
hour was l'Oming the strip yisibly nearer. an1l hernme
-0.e wind kouder. I'lotseling begonnen er hagelstenen
the wind ··older. Suddenly hegan there hailstones

te vallen, en binnen een paar minuten moesten wij de

to fall, and withi11 a t'Ouple of minutes had we the
kar stilhouden, zo vreselik was de storm. De paarden
<'art (to) s1op, so terril>IC' was the stot·m. 'l'hC' horses
lieten de koppen hangen, en wij maakten ons toe,.
let their heads hang, and we f·overed ourselves up,
zo goed wij konden. ~ooit in mijn leven had ik zo'n
as well as we Pould. Xever in my life' had I such a
hagel bui gezien. Hij duurde maar tien minuten, maar
hail storm seen. It lusted only ten minutes, but
toen de zwarie streep voorbij geschoyen was, lag de hagel
wl!en the hlack strip past moved had, Jay the hail
twaalf duim dik om ons heen.
twelve ind1es thiPk rouuct ns ahout.


Ilet Tf'ecle1•. The \Veathor.

1. De lucl1t. is liczwllct. '.l'he sky is cloudy.
2. lrc zullr·11 0111rc·cr l•rijgcu. We slrnll have a thunder-
3. De do11der ratelt: Tiet on- ThP thunder roars; it
·icccrt. thund~rs.
4: Iiet liclzt; zag u. 't u:ecrZicltt! There is lightning; did you
see the lightning?
5. D·ie lilil.,semstraal was erg That flash of lightning was.
fel. very vivid.
6. Het weer lrlaart op; 't 1rnl The weather is clearing;
morgen rnooi weer zijn. it will he fine tomorrow.
7. Wat <'rn pnu·lttiuc regeu- What a splendid rain!Jow !
boog !
8. Wat roor weer llccft u op ·w1c What sort of weather did you
reis gehad'? haYe on your journey?
9. Guur, stormaehtig weer. Rough, stormy weather.
10. Er heeft een llardc, door- Tl!erP has been a strong,
drinpcndc •lf'ind. g<'waaid. piercing wind.
ll. De idnd ltceft een aantal The wind has blown a
sclloorstrne11 afgru:aaid. numl1er of chimneys
12. De tcill(/ is yaun liggen. The wincl has nlmted.
13. Het rrrf<'nf lwrrl. lt is ra ini11~ hard.
'J4. IJct is erg lcouil; hct /111g<'lf, It is very cold; it hails,
snrcuirt, •1-riest. suows, freezes.
15. De sn<·cmr is uan hot The snow is melting.
smelt en.
lfi. De rfri<'r is b<'rtorcu. The river is frozen.

17. Het i:riest d~at lzet kraakt. It is 1'reeziug very hard.

18. /J(lt is /Juitengeu:uun kou<l. It is extremely cold.
10. De rori,qe zcinter icas bie- Last winter was vartirularly
zunder streng. severe.
20. Het is 1111 zarl1t weer. This is mild weather.
21. De zon sohijnt. The sun is shining.
22. De maan gaat 1:Mi ai;ond The moon rises at eight
om acltt uur op. o"cloc·k to-night.
2::l. lT'e heblwn, ll<:crlik, /wlrnor- \Ye a re ha' iug delightful,
lilc, 111ooi iceer. «hnrming, tine weather.
24. Gisfer<'11 was het triestig, YestPrday it was gloomy,
somber, onaangenaam, dull, disagreeable,
1;eranrl'erlilc. changeable.
25. Ilet is hiei' roehtig rn naar It is llm up and dismal here
in de winter. in wintPr.
26. De hittr in de zomer is The heat is h•rrible iu the
vreselilr op de vlalcten. plains in summer.
Nam• de TVinkels Gaan. To go Shopping.
1. Laat ons d>ifJ u:inlccl binnen- Let us go into that shop~
gaa n -ilc lteb rerscheidene tlwre are sevPral things
dingen nudig. I want.
2. Ilr- zou graag irnt hocacn wU- I should like to sPe some
lcn zien. hats.
3. Deze zijn naar dr laatste 'l'hesP arP 1llP newest style,
smaak, mijuhcer. sir.
4. Laa,t ons u·at zwart lalcen Show us some !Jlack cloth,
zien, als 't u blir•ft. 11lense.
G. Dit is niut fijn genuog. This is not fine enough.
6. Wat lrnst hot? What is the pri('e?
7. U heeft geen keus. You have no selection.
8. De prijs is te hoog. The prire is too high.
9. Ile moet een vaar hand- I want a pair of gloves.
sohoen1m hobbon.
10. Dit vaar is te · groat : ifu This pair is too large : I
draag nommor 7. wear No. 7.
11. 1Ieeft 11 sterke leren sohoe- Have you strong leather
nf'n? boots 'I
12. Die zijn te lang, te nauw, te Those are too long, too
lcort. 11arrow, too short.
13. Jk houd van lage halvlcen. I like low heels.
14. Het fatsoen lieralt me niet. I don't like the shape.
Hi. Laat 111r eens wat zakdnoT.-on Rhow me some handkerrhiefs
en dasscn zien. :uH1 somc ties.
16. Wil 11 mij 11w brste zijden Gan I see some of your best
paruplu's irijzcn? silk nm!Jrellas?
17. ·wat /cost d('zcf What is the prire of this one?
18. Yijfticn shillin,Qs, mijnhoer. ll'ifteen shillings, sir.
l!J. Ile zou gmag 11·itte linnen I wish to see some white
boorden en manchetten linen collars and cuffs.
20.' Zo is hot ge_noog; aanfu u. 'J'hat will uo; thank you.


(Het Bijvoegelike Naamwoord.)

I. Adjectives denote distinguishing attributes or

qualities of persons and things: de trouwe vriend, the
faithful friend; het witte papier, the white paper.

II. Adjectives may be used attributively and

predicatively. An Arljective used attributively,
Attributief Bijvoegelik Naamwoord, is connected
directly with its X oun: de warme koj]ie, the warm coffee.

An Adjective used predicatively, Predikatief

Bijvoegelik Naamwoord, is connected with its Noun by
means of some form of one of the Copulative Verbs
(Koppelwoorden): zijn, to be; worden, to become;
blijven, to remain; heten, to be called; schijnen, to
seem; Jijken, to seem to be; blijken, to appear; e.g.
Hij is goed, he is good; Zij blijft trouw, she remains
faithful; Dat heet mooi, that is called pretty.


1.-The Adjective, when used preuicath ely, is not ileclined, but

it may be inflocted to express Degrees of C'omparis,111: Die buu111 is
hooy, rnaar deze is hoye1., tllat tree is high, I.mt this one is

2.-0thPr Vt>rbs besiues those meniicn1e<l alJove ma~· be

:wcompaniPd hy an Aujective used prcdi<·atively, whL•lJ. 11amely,
such Adj<•ctivf' rPl'ers to a ~om1, and not to the ad ion Pxprt>ssed
by the Verh; e.g. De dcur is 1n·11in gesehilderd, the LIOL'l has
'l'HE ADJE01'1YE 153
been painted brown. Here, obviousl~, "llrown" does not r1)fer to
the uetiou of painting, llut qualifies "O.oor"; it is therefore, not
an AdvPrh, !mt an Adjective.

III. The Attributive Adjective agrees with the Noun

to which it is attached in gender, number, and case, even
though the agreement is no longer expressed by flexion-
endings. (See Chapter on Declension.)


1.-The Adjective never changes its form when it follows its

Noun directly, instead of directly preceding it. This was of
frequent occurrence in the Dutch of former timPs, ]Jut is found
rarely now. Fadcrlief=dmr father; lcinrllicf=dear child; 8tatcn-
Gencraal=Rtates General (Bouse of Assemllly), are surviving

2.-Wheu the Inflefinite Article "een" stands hetweeu the Noun

antl its Adjeetive: Hoc icijs cen man, how wise a mnn; 'l.'e groat
een 11crlics, too great a los8; Zo 'L"room cen vrouir, so pious a

IV. After the words een, a; geen, no; enig, any; elk,
every; ieder, each; menig, many; zeker, certain; and
welk, which, when occurring before the name of a male
person, the Adjective, by its being either declined or not,
applies the same quality with a different meaning to. the
person to whose name it is attached.
The uninflected Adjective in such a case refers to those
qualities which pertain to the profession or office of the
person; the inflected AdjectiYe refers to his inner
qualities as a man, irrespective of the name lie bears:
een goed koning, a good king; ccn goede koning, a good-
hearted king; ccn knap schoenrnakcr, an able shoemaker;
een knappe schoenmaker, a good-looking shoemaker;
een groat koopman, a merchant who has a large business ;
een grate koopman, a tall merchant; een oud soldaat, a
s9ldier who has been long in the service; een oude
soldaat, an old man who is a soldier.

NoTE.-ccn oudsoldaat means a former soldier; likewise does

cen uudleerling mean a foru,er pupil.

V. The following kinds of Attributive Adjectives

never change their form:

1. Adjectives denoting a material, and which end in

en; e.g. een zijden japon, a silk dress; gouden horloges,
gold watches.

2. Adjectives of three or more syllables, when they end

in en; e.g. een afgelegen plaats, a lonely place.

NoTE.-'l'his rule may !Je taken as optional, when the Adje("tive is

precPded hy de, die, or deze. The same may be said of a
similar rule regarding the Comparative Degrees of Adjectives
which arc frequently taken as indedina!Jle when pre('eded by
<'Cn and geen.

3. Adjectives which by means of the ending er are

derived from the names of places, villages or towns; e.g.
de Kamper boot, a steamer plying between Kampen and
some other town; de Rottcrdarnrner rnarkt_, the market
of Hotterdam.

Norn.-The 0nding er is not the usual eudiug for .\Jljectives

derive([ from names of places. The common emling is s :
lira11f11rtse s<'hapen, Herrnfort shPep; wcllinplonse icijn,
Wellin11:ton wine.

4. AdjectiYeR which end in lei or Jiande: a,llerlei vee,

all kinds of rai ile; allcrhandc boeken, all kinds of books.

5. The two Adjective::; recliter, right, and linker, left,

be<;ause they uen•r Htand a lone, but form part of, .md are
written togeilwr with the Noun which they qualify; mijn
rcclttcrhand,. 111)~ right hand; Z'ijn linkcrbeen, his left leg.

6. 'l'be Adjective "eigen ", when it is taken in the

meaning of dezelfde, the same: Hij stierf op de eigen
dag, waarop zijn broedcr geboren werd, he died on the
same day on which his brother was born.

NOTE 1.-If eigen is taken in the usual meaning of "own'', it

is dedined in the ordinary way: mijn ci_qcne zuster, my
own sister.

NOTE 2.-If two or more Adjeclives are uttaclicll to one Noun,

together expressing lmt onn quality, tile Inst of these Adjec-
tives is declined and the others remain unclmng<>rl: Holland
hreft ccn rood,, 1cit en blauzce rlafl, Holland has a red, white
and blue flag.


(Trappen van Vergelijking.)

Objects may possess a quality absolutely or compara-

tively. Absolute possession is exprPsserl hy the Positive
De~ree, Stel/ende Trap, i.e. the unchanged form of the
Adjective: lliijn les .ZS lang) my lesson is long.

Comparative possession, i.e., possession in comparison

with other objects having the same quality, is expressed
in two ways:

1. By the Comparative Degree, Vergrotende Trap,

which indicates that an object possesses the like quality
with another, only in a higher degree: Hct paurd is groter
dan dr koe, the horse is bigger than the cow.

3. Ry the Superlative Degree, Overtrefiende Trap,

which indicates ihat one object posse8ses some quality
in a higher degree than any other object to which it is
compared: Ondcr alle bloemen is <]Pze de mooiste) among
all flowers this is the prettiest one.

The Comparative Degree is formed by anding er to the

Positive form of the Adjective: groot, groter.. great,

The Superlative Degree is formed by adding st to the

Positive form of the Adjective: groat, grootst, great~
NoTE.-lu forming the comparative of Adjedives ending in f or
s, also of those which change a double vowel into a single
one, or a single> final consornrnt into a double, take note of
the rules for ihe formation of the plural of Nouns.

1.-AdjectiYes ending in 1•, and in a vowel (except e mute and i)
form their comparative by adding der, instead of er: ver, far,
verdcr; na, near, nad:er; blo, timid, bloder .

. 2.-Adjectives in s form H1eir suverlative hy adding t, instead

of st: 1cijs, wise, il"ijzer, 1eijst (not 1cijsst); fris, fresh, frisser,

R-llire1·, mm·p, arnl 11i<.mst, most, may not, as a rule, be used

in Dutch for the formation of the degrees of comparison. The
endings er aud st are added, irrespective of the numher of
syllables. In one <'ase, however, the ending st of the superlative
stands in the way of easy prouundation, namely in woestst,
most desolate, which should !Je mc('st wocst.
4.-'l'here is a case in which the word mccr must invariably be
used to indicate the Comparative degree, viz., when two qualities
attributed to one and the same ohjef"t are compared, e.g., Deze
taf('l is mccr enig dan mooi, this table is more unique than pretty;
Een koe is rnecr nuttig dan gczellig, a cow is more useful than

NoTE.-.Mccr and rJJ('('St must also !Je employed in the comparison

of the Past l'artidples used as predicate AdjeC'tives: Zij is
meer 1·ermoc·id dan haar hroeder, she is more tired than
her brother; JJfijn schocncn djn de rnccst rcrsletcn van alle,
my boots are the most worn-out ones of all.

1\.-1n using superlatives, the student should be careful about

the artirle that precedes the AdjectiYe. When we speak of
different objects among which one stands prominent, the article to
be chosen is de or het according as the Noun requires, and the
suprrlative ends in ste: De mooisf(' stad 1:an de .oanse omtrclc, the
finest town of tlie whole neighhourhoorl; II et ninw:ste bock, dat
ik hezit, the newest book I possess. ·when, however, parts of the
same thing are eomparefl, the superlative ends in st, and the
article preceding it is hot in all cases: Aun .de zuidzijde is de stad
het 1nooist, the town is prettiest on the south side; De ziekc is
's murgcns het zwakst, the patient is weakest in the morning. S 10
6.-Some Adjectives from their nature eau have uo Degrees of
Comparison. Such are :

(a) Adjectives which indicate a material: ccn zijden japan,

a silk dress.

( b) Adjectives whose meaning is complete in the Positive

Degree: dood, dead; stom, dumb; ledig, empty; lucht-
dicht, air-tight; splinternieuw, brand-new; gitzwart, jet-
lilack; ontclbaar, innumeralJle; overaltegenwoordig,
omnipresent; drieiinig, triune; bloedrood, blood-red;
almachtig, almighty; aards, earthly; engels, English;
trans, IJ'rench, etc.

~c) Adjectives derived from Adverbs: voormalig, former;

dagelilcs, daily ; trapsgewijze,
gradual ; schriftetilc, in
writing; mondeling, oral.

7.-A few Adjectives have an irregular comparison:


uoed,* good, beter, best.
kw a ad, bad. erger, erg st.
veel, much. meer, meest.
weinig, little, minder. minst.
vroeu, early, vrocger (eerder), vroegst ( eerst).

*NoTE.-The old Positive Degree was bet or bat=goed, which is

still found in the word Betuwe (bat ouwe, good soil), also
in betovergrootvader, grandfather's grandfather,· and in
betweter, wiseacre.

8.-After comparatives tlan, than, must be used, and not als:

Hij is rijker dan ik, he is richer than I.

OR.AMMAR. EXER.CISES.-Taaloefenlngen.

Write out the Degrees of Comparison of the following

.AdjecUves :


Groot, great; zwart, black; glad, slippery; klein, small;

lwog, high; laag, low; rond, round; dik, thick; lang, long;

diep, deep; bont) gaudy; vlak, level; krorn, crooked; vu-it,

dirty; bleek, pale; droog, dry; mooi, fine; breed, broad;
steil, steep; dicht, close; druk, busy; vroeg, early; dun,
thin; laf, insipid; wit, white; lzeet, hot; koel, cool; echt,
real; dood) dead; vroom, pious; koud, cold; fiink_,


Boos, angry; gclijk, even; groj, coarse; geleerd, learned;

vies, dirty; dor, dry; stcvig, firm; vals,. false; gouden,
gold; lief, dear; broos, frail; gek, mad; bekend, known;
duur, expensive; beroemd, celebruted; doof, deaf; le1:e1ul,
alive; ko8tbaar_. eostl;v; dwars, oblique; 1rifs, wb;e; jraai,
pn•tty; erg. bad; schuin, slanting; glan:::ig, glossy; snhcef,
awry; moe, tired; lui, lazy; bemind: loved; pikzwart,
pitch black; vlijtig, diligent; kras, firm; ongstig, anxious;
schuw, shy; spits, pointed; magcr, thin; braaf, honest.


l'erslctcn, worn out; landelik, rural; zijdcn, silk; aards,

em·thly; aangcuaam, agreeable; verteerbaar, digestible;
noar, disagreeable; blo, timid; lcvenloos, lifeless; doornat,
drenched; be/ward, hairy; blozcnd, blooming; gr:ccrd,
honoured; klaar, clear; vrolik, merry; ijselik, frightful;
snceuu:wit, snow-white; laat) late; getand, indented;
lci•rnslu.~tiy,. merry; na) near; oppassend, respectable;
oeku:aam, clever; troest, wild; almachtig, almighty;
t'eerkrachtig, elastic; vcrlcpt, faded; stttk, broken;
opreeht, sincere; 1nensclik, human; bcgrcnsd, bounded;
gemctr:n, measnred; beprocfd, iried; schittcrcnd,
brilliant; akelig, dismal; glooirnd, ~loping; vcrlzeiien,
raised; brccdgcrand, broad-brimmed.
'l'HE r1DJEO'l'IVJJJ 159

Fill up the blanks in the following ea:ercises:


-- paars- lint van - hoed ziet er ilets uit. Toen

The violet rihhou of rny hat looks faded. When
ik te Aliwal :N"oord wa:,i, nam ik dageliks bad in
l at Aliwal Xorth wnR, took 1 rluily a hath in
- warm- l>ron-. D- taal Yan - dageliks- leven
the hot springs. 'l'he 1:111gnagP of the everyday life
noemt men - omgangstaal. - wit- en zwart- paard
ealls 011e the eolloquiul language. The white aml hluC'k horse
van - postrijder heeft zijn poot gebroken. Arusterdam ]s
of the lrostri<ll'l" has his leg broken. .\.mRtPr!lnm is
QP paal- gehouwd, die door - drai:i- grond tot op -
on piles l.Juil1, whieh through the marshy soil on to the
onde1·ligge11d- vast- lnag heengedreven zijn. Ik lorn niet
nntlerlying firm lnyer driven !lowu are. 1 ean not
zoveel in - man zien, mij zeer alledaag-- lijkt hij -
so nnll'h in tlw man Sl'e. to me looks lw a Y•'n' f'ommon
mens. Bij - ros- gloed die - brand vm·sprei<lde,
pPrson. In the ru<lfly glow whid1 the firP east,
liPp - arm- man wanhopig naar de zijn- .
rau (almut\ thl' [Joor man in uespair for his wife null children
ir zoeken. .\Iiju rnder is - kras- man; ofschoon hij -
looking. ;\Jy father iR n vigorous man: t11011glt lrn a
tijdgenoot rnn uw grootvader is, wandelt hij nog elk-dag
l·ontempornry of yonr granr1fa1l!Pr is, walks he still l'Yl'l'Y day
uur. Als - jong- mensen zich op - lJros-
(for) au hour. If tl1e.se yonui: Jll'O]l!e thl•rnseh·es 011 the brittle
iJs wagen, gaan Zl.J - gewi:,i- doo<l tegemoet.
ice Yl'lltlll'l'. µ;o they a Cl'rtain death to lllf'C't.


- wom·den - - wijz- z1Jn als goud- appel- op

'!'he words of the wise :u·p like golrleu npples on
zilver- schaal-. Yan - plafond bingen groott--
silver dishes. J<'rom the «l'iliug 1n•rp Irnnµ;ing large

kristal-- kroonlampen af, die zaal met ~

crystal candelabra dowu, whidt the hall with a
toverachtig- lich t vervulden. vreemdeling droeg
fairy.Jike light filled. 'l'he stranger wore
- zwaar- goud- ring aan - middelvinger - - recht-
a heavy gold ring on the middle finger of his right
hand. Zet beid- raam- wijd open, er is
hand. 'l'hrow (the) both windows wide open, there is
een vuns- lucht in kamer. groot- steen-
a stuffy smell in the room. 'l'he large stone
vaas- op stoep v66r huis zijn van -
vases on the verandah in front of our house are of the
fijnst- aardewerk. Sinds - neef naar - univcrsiteit
finest earthenware. Since your cousin to the university
gegaan is, is hij - verwaand- -weter geworden, met
gone is, has he a conceited wiseacre become, with
wie ik lief- niets meer te doen wil hebben.
whom I rather nothing more to do will have


- paard behoort · tot edeler- diersoort dan

'l'he horse belongs to a nobler kind of animal than
koe. vrocg- bezitter van landgoed
the cow. 'l'he former owner of this estate
stamde in - reeht- lijn van Lodewijk - Eerst- af.
descended in the direct line from Louis the First.
- jong- boer ontving ons met - eigen- gastvrijheid1
'l'he young farmer received us with the same hospitality
die vader gekenmerkt had. Bij onderzoek
which his father eharacterised had. At the inquiry
bleek, dat Kompanjie schip aan
(it) appeared. that the Company the vessel to an
onervaren kapitein had toeyertrouwd. Bij - flauw-
inexpericnce<l cuvtain had entrusted. By the faint

schijnsel - - lantaarn zag ik - man met ras-

glimmer of my lantern saw 1 a man with quick
schrcden dwars - veld oversteken; en toen hij naderbij
stevs atlnrnrt the field cross: and wheu he nearer
kwam, lierkende ik - stap van - eigen- vader.
came recognised I the step of my ow·11 father.



(On § IV.)
'.rhe good-looking son of our schoolmaster has become
an able carpenter. Louis the Sixteenth of France was
a good man, but not a good king. The blacksmith in the
village is a former soldier. There is a very old soldier
in the hospital. The captain who called (een visite
maakte) last night, is a soldier of long 8tanding. There
is not a good doctor in the town. Any good-hearted
doctor would have had pity on that poor woman. No
had clerk ever makes a good ~anager. Jl.fany [a] great
man is not duly appreciated until (dan) after his death.
My uncle Henry is such a tall man that he goes by the
name of Goliath. This poor man was a great merchant
-0nce, but he failed in business and since then has never
been able ( heeft . . . kunnen) to get on. Of late years
Austria has been a faithful ally to (voor) Germany.
'fhis young man is but (nog rnaar) a young mason.


(On§ VI.)
The soap-manufactory is the highest house in the town.
Your brother is more diligent than mine (de

mij11c). The rfrer was deepest where we attempted to

c"I"oss. Colonial coal is not so dear as foreign coal. In
many parts of South Africa the scenery is more grand
than pretty. 'fhe almond-tree blossoms first of all the
trees in om garden. This bread is the least palatable
that (dat) I have tasted for a long time (in langc tijd).
A more faithful dog than mine I h:;tve never seen. Your
dress looks more worn than your cloak. This young
barrister is the most learned of all his colleagues. Our
dog harked loudest as ( tocn) we neared the gorge. King
Solomon was the wisest man of his time. The horse is
liveliest when it has heen in the stable (op stal gcsfoan
hecft) [for] a few days. 'fhe wildest (woest) parts of
tlie country are the least fertile (sup. of onvruchtbaar).
Figs are among ( behorcn tot) the most wholesome [of]
fruits. Of all these lamps this [one] is the least expensive~
[A] cheaper cloth than the one (hctgecn) you have, is no
good ( dcngt n·iet). A more terrific thunderstorm than
yesterday's ( clie van) I have never witnessed.

CONJUGATION of the WEAK VERB "dansen", to.

dance, and the STRONG VERB "Jezen", to read.

Stems "dans" and "lees".

Indicative Mood.-Aantonende Wijs.

Present 'l'ense.-Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

ik dans, I dance. ilc laes, I rl'ad.

jij (je, 'It) danst, thou dancest. jij (je, u) leest, thou readest.
hij danst, he dances. hij leest, he reads.
wij danscn, we dance. wij lczen, we read.
julUe dansen (gij danst), you jullic lezen (gij leest), you
dance. read.
zij dansen, they dance. zij lezcn, they read.
'l'JlE ADJEOTll'E 1()3

Perfect Tense.-rolrnaakt Tegenu:oordigc Tijd.

ik /te/J gcr/anst, [ httVP (l:tllt'Pl.l. ii." ltcl1 gclC'zeu, 1 hnve read.

jij (jo) lrnbt ycd!anst. thou jij ( jr) held gelezcn, thou
luu;t dnnf•erl. hast rearl.
hij (11) ltr•eft gcdanst, he has hij (it) hecft g<'lezen, hP has
dnuced.. l'P:Hl.
i11·lj ltcbben gedanst, we lrnve 1dj ltcbbrn g<'lezen, we have
!lanced. rPn<l.
j11llir hebben (gij //c/Jt) ge- ju/lie hcblien I glj ltebt) ge-
danst, you Im VP danred. lez<'n, you have read.
zij ltabbcn gcdanst, they have zij hc717>rn 11< lf'zen, they have
11.nnced. react.

J mperfect 'l'ern;e.-Onvolniaakt Verleden Tijd.

ik danstn, I uanced. ik las, l re:t(l.

jij (je) danstet, thou clnnceclst. jij (jc) laast, thou readest.
hij ( u.) danste, he dnneed. hij (it) la.~, he read.
•irij dansten, we danced. wij luzc1t, we read.
jullie 1lansten (gij 1lanstet), ju/lie la::: en (ylj laast), you
you danced. read.
zij danstc:n, they danced. zij la:::r•11, 1lley read.

Pluperfect Tense.-Volmaakt Verleden Tijd.

ilc had gcdanst, i had da1we<l. ilc hall <Jl'lr:zen, l hall read.
jij {je) hadt getianst, thou jij (je) hadt gelezcn, thou
hadst danred. hadst rea<l.
hij ( u) ha<l uedanst, he had flij (u) had gelPzcn, he had
danced. read.
wij haddcn gedanst, we had u'ij halldcn gclc:::rn, we had
danceu. rearl.
jullie ha.d<lcn (gij hadt) gc- jullie hadllcn (gij Tladt) gele-
rlanst, you had danced . zcn, you hall read.
:zij had!dcn gedanst, they had zij hadden grlrzen, they had
daneeu. rend.

l!,uture Tense.-Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd.

ik zal dansen, I shall dance. ilc zal lezcn, I shall read.

jij (je) zult dansen, thou wilt jij (je) zult lezen, thou wilt
dancf'. read.
hij ( u) zal rlansen, he will hij (it) :za.l le:zen, he will read.


wij zttllcn dansen, we shall wij zullen lezcn, we shall read.

jullic zullen (gij zult) dan- jullie zullen (gij zult) lezen,
sen, you will dance. you will read.
zij zttllen dansen, they will zij zttllen lezen, they will read.

Future Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Toelcomende Tijd.

ik zal gedanst hebben, I shall ik zal gelezen hebben, I shall
lla ve danced. have read.
jij (je) zult gcdanst hebben, jij (je) zttlt gelezen hebben,
thou wilt have danced. thou wilt have read.
hij (u) zal gedanst hebben, he hij (ti) zal gelezen hebben, he
will have danced. will have read.
wij zttllen gedanst hcbbcn, we wij ziillen gelezen hebben, we
shall have danced. shall have read.
julUe zullen (gij zult) gcdanst jullie zullen (gij zult) gelezen
hebben, you will have danced hebben, you will hav~ read.
zij zullen gedanst hebben, they zij zullen gelezen hebben, they
will have danced. will have read.

Subjunctive Mood.-Aanvoegende Wijs.

Future Tense.-Onv. Toek. Tijd.

ik zou dansen, I should dance. iii; zou lezen, I should read.
jij (je) zondt dansen, thou jij (je) zoudt lezen, thou
wouldst dance. wouldst read.
hij ( u) zou dansen, he would hij ( u) zou lezen, he would
dance. read.
wij zouden dansen, we should wij zouden lezen, we should
dance. read.
jullie zouden (gij zoudt) dan- jullie zouden (gij zoudt) lezen,
sen, you would dance. you would read.
zij zouden dansen, they would zij zouden lezen, they would
dance. read.

Future Perf. Tense.-Volm. Toek. Tijd.

ik zou gedanst hebben, I ik zou gelczen hebben, I should
should have danced. have read.
jij (je) zoudt gedanst hebben, jij (je) zoudt gelezen hebben,
thou wouldst have danced. thou wouldst have read.
hij (u) zou uedanst hebben, he hij (u) zou gelezen hebben, he
would have danced. would have read.

wij zouden gedanst hoblxn, we wij zouden _qelczen hebben, we

should ha VP danced. should Ila ve read.
jullie zouden (gij zoudt) ge- jullie zoudcn (gij zoudt) ge-
danst lwbben, you woulc1 lczcn he/Juen, you would
b,ave danced. have read.
zij zou<len gcdanst hcbben, they z·ij zoud,,n v0lezen hebben, they
wonld have danced. would have read.

Imperative Mood.-Oebiedende Wijs.

Singular .-Enkelvoud.
laat mij dansen, let me dance. loat mij lrzrn, let mp read.
dans, dance (thou). ices, read (thou).
la.a.t hem 1larisen, let him danre. lrwt hem lczcn, let him read.

Pl ural.-Jl!eervoud.
laat ons dansen, let us dance. la11t ons lcz·en, let us read.
danst, ·dance (ye). lecst, read (ye).
lfiat hen danscn, let them /aat hen lezen, let them read.

Infinitive Mood.-Onbepaalde Wijs.

Present Tense.-Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.
(te) dansen, to dance. (te) lczen, to read.

Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

gedanst (te) he/Jben, to have gelezen (te) hebben, to have
danced. read.

Future Tense.-Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd.

(te) zullen dansen (no equiva- ( te) zullen lezcn (no equiva-
lent). lent.

Future Perfect 'fense.-Volmaukt Toekomende Tijd.

(te) zullen gedanst hebben (no (te) zullen gelezen hebben (no
equivalent). equivalent).

Present Participie.-Tegenwoordig Declu·oord.

dansenae, dancing. lezende, reading.

Past Participle.-Verleden Deelwoord.

gedanst, danced. uelezen, read.
lGli TllH !S'i'AXJJ.IRIJ Dl!T('Jl CJR.Lllll.lR

Like dansen conjugate the 'Yeak Verbs: kloppcn,

kloptp,, geklopt, to knock; straffcn, .~trafte, gestraft, to
punish; gisscn, gisir', gcgist, to guess; blaffcn, blafte,
geblaft_, to bark; lwkkr.:n, hakte, gehal~t, to chop; misscn,
mistc, gemist, to miss, to spare.

Like lezen conjugate the Strong Verbs: wijzen, wPes,

geu;rzmi, to show, to point out; verliczcn, iwrloor, ver-
loren, to lose; genczcn, genus, gcnczcn, to cure; prijzcn,
prees, gevrezcn, to praise, springen, sprang, gesprongcn,
to jump; rijzcn, rces, gcrczen, to rise.


NoT~:.-'I'ranslatc> if h~· inclien or als, the shurtPr word llPiug

sometinws i1rcferrcll.

Can you spare [me] one of these new pencils? Yes, I

shall give you one (er . . . een), because you ask me for
it (er . . . om). If these girls dance in their room, they
will he punished. Did you call (Have . . . called) your
own dog or (the) mine? I have called mine three times,
but he doPR not hear, for he is barking at (tegen) another
dog. If you lose your books, will the teacher punish you?
lie praised the little boy when he had learned that long
verse. If the man had chopped the wood, I should have
asked him nothing. Can you guess why he called me?
Would she lose all these plants if it should freeze (froze) ?
Read, children, and tell me what is (staat) in the lette1·.
Let me knock at (aan) the door. If you give me the
medicine, it will cure me. Tf they had shown the money,
the thief would have stolen it. If you had guessed the
con tents of the letter, would you have read (voo1·ge-
lezen) it to your friend? Do not bark so, old dog, your
voice is hoarse with it (er van).
J'JI 1'J ADJEU'l'Jl'N W7


NoTI£.-"'l'hen" is translated by "dan'', when introducing

a conclusive sentence, following a conditional one:

If he goes, thl•u I must stay, 11/s hij .oanl, flan mo0t ilc

Suppose he had saiu so, then you woulU have answered,

rcronderstf'l dr1t ltij dit gezeyd had, daJL zou j<' yeant-
woon~ hebbt·n.

"Then", when an Adverb of Time, is translated by "dnn"

with the Present and Future tenses, and by "toen" with
the Past tense.

I go to the lmker, and then to the lmtcl1er, ik ua naar de

/Jalrl.:cr <'n <Ian naar' rlc slayer.

Ile will come, and then I shall hear it, hij zal 1.;omen, en
dun zal ilc het /wren.

She ran to her mother and then fainted, zij licp 1wur /war
mo<ldCI' toe, en rif'l toen flauir.

In the latter meaning it may usually be trauslatetl by daai·1w as

well, especially wben there is a clear sucee&sion of events
in voiut of time.

·'fhe boy asked his friend {om) to play with him, and
then they ran about in the field. I shall miss you when
you are gone (·weg) , for then I shall have no one to (om ..
te) play with me. Were they all praising the girl that
night {avund)? They praised hrr very* [much], and
showed me her beautiful prizes. ~When the shopkeeper
weighed the sugar, he found out his mistake. He will
measure the ground first, and then he will build a large
dwelling-house on it (er op). Were the children sleeping
when you called them? No, they were not sleeping any
more, they were playing; the girls had dolls, and the boys
*NoTE.-This "very" is !Jest translated by "erg". The real meaning
of "erg" is "bad(ly)". but in sentences like the above it
represents ''very much" : Ik heb mij erg gcamusoerd, I muused
myself very much.

had marbles. One boy was chopping wood for his mother
in the yard, and the eldest boy was sitting reading (te
le:::cn) in a corner of the dining-room. \Yould you like
to go to the post-office first ( eernt), and then to the
station? I should rather ( liever) go to the station first.
You want to show me the pictures, my little boy? Having
lost her money, the pOO'r wom:m was in grea1- distress.


Fifth Rule of Construction.-~When the object (direct or

indirect), or an adYerbial extension stands first in a prin-
dpal senten('.e, the su!Jjcct is placed after the predicate.

Yesterday (showed) my brother [showed] me the new

house. Five pounds (gave) the man [gave] for the old
donkey. Him (called) be [called], not you. To dance
(R.ule 2) [on] that night (avond). wonld lrnYe been [a]
shame. (It) to have missed [it], would haye been to have
lost it. Now that my mother is gone (weg), my all
(alles) is gone. The passage (would) you [would] not
measure for me, (said) you [said]; why not? (The)
life on earth is pleasant to (voor) some people, but
miserable to many. At school I learn, in my bed I sleep;
when I am at table I eat, and when (I am) in the garclen,
I play. That you must ( moet) not ask me, for how can
(l~an) I tell it you? Would the thief have stolen your
money, if you had given him some bread? Work [you]
must (you) whether (of) you are rich or (of) poor; all
people must work. After the battle the soldiers divided
the spoil amongst (onder) them (zich). Behind the
house is a large garden with many valuable fruit-trees.


Numeral Adjectives, though taken in Dutch as a

separate part of speech, are real Adjectives expressing a
quantity. 'l'hat quantity may be defined or not, hence
the distinction between Bepaalde Telwoorden, Definite
Numeral Adjectives and Onbepaalde Telwoorden,
Indefinite Numeral Adjectives. Besides expressing a
quantity, these Adjectives may also point out the place
a. certain ohject takes in a series, hence the distinction
between HoofdgetaJJen, Cardinal Numbers, and R.ang~
getallen, Ordinal Numbers. The place or order may again
be defined or not. The distinctions are shown in the
following table:-

Telwoorden.-Numeral Adjectives.

la. Bepaulde (definite).

1. Jloofdgetallen (Cardinal") \ l>. Onbepaalde (indefinite).
I a. Bepaalde (definite).
Z. Ranggetallen (Ordinals) ·( ll. On/Jepaalde (indefinite) •


1. a..-een, one; twee, two; twintig, twenty; beide, both;

1. b.-Veel, much, many; alle, all; enige, some, any; wat,
some; weinig, little, few; sommige, some; geen, no
!. a.-eerste, first; derde, third; 11ijftigste, fiftieth, etc.
i. b.-hoeveelste, which (in the order); zoveelste, such an
one (in the order) ; laatste, last; middelste, the
middle one.
Sentences on 1. h.
Dc::n mnn ltccft cnigc huizcn tc /coop, this man has ~ome
houses for sale.
Hij lteeft vcel nieuwe boekc11, he has many new book3.

8nmmig<' <Zagen heb ilc te vcel lessen, on some days I have

too many lessons.

Er zijn vrcn appclr:n aan de boom, there are 110 npples on the

JI crft 11 al/r (al de) ci<'rcn in rlie mun<l? have yon got all the
l•ggs in that basket?

XoTE.- ~If the woru allc is followeu by tht> Definite Article or

a Demonstrative Pronoun, its form is unuedineu, e.g., ilc heb
al (not allc) Ile l111izen yetclll, I lrnve l'onntell all the houses.

Sentences on 2 b.
Dr lwcrcrlstr: plaats /weft uw broc<ler in !Tc lclusr whi<-h pince
has your hrother in the class?

C zr:yt, !lat rlit l1rt twinti.ostr l>nrl• isl ii• 1rist 11ict rlat hct al
hct zn1·rclstc was. you say that thh; is the twt>ntkth lJoek?
l tlitl uot know Wt' llatl got so far ou (literal rernleri11g
is impossible).

/let 111i!lrlelste l111is i11 lie straat i8 lief 111ijnr>; tlH' midrlle one
of tlw l1011sPs in the strPPt is milw.

NoTK-Xu111. ,\<lj. hoth clelinite a11Cl iutlefiuite, like all .\clje<'tivefl.

may lie usPd as XounR, nml tnkP n Plnrnl: relc eersten ;·ullcn
rlc laatstcn zijn, many (that are) first slrnll lie last ; 80111 mi11cn
rudrn <lit a11n, a11!.lrrcu 11·11t uwlrrs, sollll' alh'isP this. othPrs
SOIJ1Pthi11;..:: l'ISC'.

Yl IL Cardinals are not declined except "<Jen", one

t mmall.v a1·c·PJ1 tPd to di Rt inguh;Ji it
from the inclefinite
m-tiele rcn), and beide.

E{n, moreover, iR not declined wlwn it occurs in com-

bination with another cardinal: ren en twintig jaren,
twenty-one yearR. For thiR the form eenentu·intig is
used aR well. ~When preceded lly the Definite Artide or
a Demomitrative Pronoun, it iH dediued like an Adjective,
and even takes a Plural: ,lan rle ene kant zuu ih er wel
lust in lrnbbcn, in oue way l Hlwuld like it; nc cncn zeggen
dit, rl<' umlcrcn llat, some Ray this and others that.

NoTE.-All <"ar!linals have a plural form when used as the names

of arithmetieal figures: Schrijf vier i:ijN'n, op uw l<ii, put
down four fives on 3·our slate. llier stuuu ltr('(: encn, here
yon see two ones.

OBSERYATION. - Ilon(fr>r!.lcn and rluiz<'nrl<'n, rPal Sullstantives,

though treatPd as Alljel'tives, neYer change their.t'orm: Jiond<'rden
urcn N'I', lrnndreus of hours distant.

Heide, meaning "both", has only a plural form.

Heferring to persons, the :N"orn. and Acc. cm~e of it are
beiden: lk heb rnn bcidcn cvcnvecl vricnddikhcid onder-
vondcn, I have experien<'ed eqnal kindneHH from both.
But when referring to thingH, or· when m;cd to riualify a
Noun, these case:,; are beide: Li<'ht en duiNternis zijn mij
beide ecen u:clkorn op lrnn LJ('urt, light and darknesi:; are
both equally welcome to me in their turn; rnijn beide
brocder.~ .-::ijn rlood, hoth my hrotherH tire dead. 'rhere
is likewiRe n Ocmitive form in use, whirh is written
beider; e.g. Heider oorrlecl iN mij ci-en l'Uitiy !f<'Wccst,
the opinion of botll l either of them) llaH hePn alike
nHPfnl to me.

lX. The indefinite Cardinals, aR well a:,; the definite

and indefinite Ordim.tls, are all declined like commo11
Adjectives. \Yhen uHed i:;epuratel,v, and referring to
perHonH, th0y all iake n in the plnral, but they drop this
11 when tlw:r refer to iltings.

X. Notice the following idiomatic renderings:-

\ a) <)f the word Some.

1. Before X arnes of ~laterials, or Colleetive X ouns: some

tea., irat tee_; sorne fuel~ u·ut bnuufJwut; Hollie money,
·1cat yeld~·-likewiRe before Plnral Xomrn (in
colloquial Ht;de) : some appleR, wot aJJpr'len.

NoTE.-Ern fwrtj<>, literally "a little hit", is likPwise 1rne1l before

materinls. sonw (a littll') wakr. ecu b<'<'fj£ iratrr; some
cake, <'<'11 /)('f'fjr lvocl; ;--arnl !'<'n paar, a f'ew, or ecn .~tulc
of irat, hl'fOl'l' plurals: sornP fPW shPP]l, 1'r'11 11arir srt1a1wn;
so11w (a few) stones, 1·1·11 st 111' of 1rat str·n('f1.

2. Before plural words: some houses, enige ( een paar)

huizen; some cows, enige ( een paar) koeien.

3. With the meaning of "a little": l\fay I give you some

(a little) of this? mag ik u hiervan iets (wat) geven?

4. "With the meaning of "a few": Some (a few) of these

birds are green, enkcle van deze vogels zijn groen.

5. To point out "kind" or "sort": Some flour is good,

and some is not, sommig meel is goed en ander
nfot; Some (kinds o.f) people can do that, and others
not, sommige mcnscn kunnen dat, en anderen niet.

NOTE.-The principal idea of enige is "number", and of sommiue

" various kinus".

6. Signifying "several" : We tarried there some days, wij

vertoefden daar verscheidene dagen.

7. In its most indefinite signification: l should like to

give him some (kind of) reward, ik zou hem graag de
ene of anderc beloning geven; Some day I hope to see
you again, de ene of andere dag hoop ik u weer te

(b) Of the word Any.

1. In questions : Have you any books? heeft u ( ook)

boeken? Are there any children in the lane? zijn er
ook kinderen in de laan?

2. In negations: Have you those pears? ::N"o, not any,

Heeft u die peren? Neen, geen enkele; He had not
any money with him, hij had volstrekt geen geld bij
zich. s 11 I

3. With emphasis, before a Singular Noun: You must

come in any case, gij moet in ello geval komen.
With emphasis, before a Plural Noun: I expect you
under any circumstances, ik zal u onder alle omstan-
digheden verwachten ). the safe is proof against any
attacks by thieves, de brandkast is bestand tegen
alle aanvallen 1:an dieven.

4. In a general sense: Ile did as well as any boy could

have done, hij deed het zo goed als een jongen het
maai· kan.

5. Before an Adjective: Any other horse would have

kicked, ieder ander paard zou geschopt hebben.

XI. Mark further the foIJowing expressions:

1. At one o'clock, om een uur.
2. At half-past two, om half-drie.
3. At a qual'ter to four, om kwartier (kwart) v66r vier.
4. At a quarter past six, orn lcwartier over zes.
5. At twenty minutes past eight, om tien minuten v66r
6. At twenty-five minutes to ten, om vijf minuten over
7. At about five o'clock, omstreeks (orntrent) vijf uur.
8. Some six pounds, een pond of zes (een unaccented).
9. Some twenty years, een jaar of twintig (this way of
expression is not customary for nnmuers higher than
10. Some hundred books, een honderd boeken.
11. Some few sheep, een sclwap of wat.
12. Some fifteen young tree:;, een stuk of vijftien jonge
bomen. CGse ongeveer or omtrent before large

1-3. About a fortnight, een veertien dagen (een dag of

14. About four weeks, een vier we ken (een week of vier).
15. About fifty bags of rice, een vijftig zakken rijst.
16. Some eight days, een aoht dagen (een dag of aoht).
l 7. Chapter four, hoofdstuk 11ier or het vierde hoofdstuk.
18. The tenth verse, vers tien or het tiende vers.
19. J~ondon, the twelfth of ~Iay, Landen, twaalf Mei (no
other form is used).
20. Manchester, December 31st, 1821, Manchester, 31
Des<>mber 1821.
21. What day of the month is it? de hoeveelste is het
22. This paper is sold at ten shillings a ream, dit papier
wordt verkovht tegen t·ien shillings per (or de) riem.
23. l'cns for sale, four a penny, pennen te koop, vier voor
een stuiver.
24. The two of us, wij tweeen.
25. The whole of us, wij allen.
26. I saw all four of them, ik zag hen olle vier.
27. Only the three of them are going, zij gaan maar met
hen drieen.
28. We four were alone, wij vieren waren alleen.
29. Twenty of them will climb the mountain, zij gaan met
hen twintigen de berg op.

XII. Common Adjectives are formed from Cardinal

Numbers by the addition of voudig or vu/dig, meaning
''fold". Such Adjectives are called Verdubbelgetallen
(multiplicatives): twcevoudig, twofold; viervoudig,
fourfold; menigvuldig, manifold; veelvoudig, manifold.
They are treated like ordinary Adjectives.

XIII. By means of the endings lei and hande (both

.obsolete Dutch words, meaning " kind " or " sort "),
Adjectives are forrued from Cardinal Numbers; these,
however, are indeclinable. On account of their meaning
they are called Soortgetallen (Variatives): enerlei, of
the 1mme kind; velcrlei, of various kinds; allerlei, all sorts
-0f; tweeerlei, of two kinds; zesdcrlei, of six different
kiuds; honderderlei, duizenderlei, etc.

XIV. 'I'here are also a few Adverbs derived from

Cardinal Numbers by means of the endings maal, werf,
and keer, all meaning "time " or " turn ". They are
called lferhalingsgetallen (in English, Adverbs of
Number): drfornual, driewerf, driekeer, three times;
.eenmaal, once, etc.

J\'oTF; 1.- .llaal and 7wm· are also used as Su!Jstautives: Ile de
horn drie malrn op c<"n dug, I see him three times in one
<lay; lk heb hem roor ite derde lceer geu:aarschmod, I have
warne<l him for the third time.
J\'OTE 2.-Like maul and 7we1., the word rels wns formerly used
to exvress time or turn. It is very sel<lom hear<l now lmt
in 011f' <'outradion, whid1 the studeut must n<'eds he
:t('<1naintetl with, viz., erds, pro110mH'<'d cru.s. a c·outJ·;u·tion
of een rC'is, once.

XV. One and a half is transla te<l anderhalf (in

8outh African Dutch, cen en een half). 'fhe meaning of
this is "one whole (not expressed) and the other half".
In the same manner derdehalf, two and a half; vierdehalf,
three and a half; vijfdehalf, four and a half; and zesde·
half., fiye and a half, are made ui:o;e of, though less

XVI. List of Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers.


een, one, de or het eerste.

twee, two, tweede.
·drie, three, " derde.
vier, four, vier de.
vijf, five, " vijfrle.
six, ",, zcsde.


zeven, seven. de or het zei•ende.

acht, eight, achtste.
neg en, nine, ncgcndc.
tien, ten, tiemle.
elf, elev~n. elf de.
twaalf, twelve, twaalfde.
derticn, thirteen, dertiende.
vcertien, fourteen, vrerticnde.
vijftien, fifteen, 't:ijftiende.
zestien, sixteen, zestiende.
zcrentien, seven tet>n, zc1:entiende.
achttien, eighteen, achttiende.
negentien, nineteen, ncgcnticnde.
twintig, twenty, tzl'intigste.
een en twinti,q, twenty-one. cen en flcintigste.
twee en twintig, twenty-two, twee cnl twintigste.
drie en twintig, twenty-three, dric en twintigste.
dertig, thirty, dertigste.
veertig, forty, i·certigstc.
vijftig, fifty, vijfti,qstc.
zestig, sixty, zestiyste.
zerentig, seventy. zrv,.ntigstc.
tachtig, eighty, ta ch tigstc.
negentig, ninety, ncgentigste.
honderd, a hundred, 7wnderdste.
hondcrd een, a hundred and honrlera en eerste.
honderd twee, a hundred and honderd en tweede.
hondcrd tien, a hundred and honderd en tie11de.
twee honderd, two hundred, tu:cc 7wnderdste.
twee honderd two hundred and twee honderd en
Mn, one. ecrste.
t1r<'c honif rrd two hundred and twee honderd en
ticn, ten. tiende.
drie honderd, three hnnderd, drie honderdste.
vier honderd, four hundred, 'Cicr honacrdste.
duizend, a thousand, duizendstc.
dwizend en ecn, a thousand and d tlizcnrZ en eerste.
dui.'<!muz en twee, a thousand and
duizend en tweede. '
duizcnd en tien, a thousand and duizend en tiende.
duizend een hon- one thousand one duizenrl een hon-
hundred, derdstf'.
two thousand, tu·er duizendste.
tv:ec duizend,
tien duizend, teu thousand, " tien duizendste.
een miljoen, a m1l!ion, miljoenste.

~OTE 1.-0rilinals up to 20th, except ec1'ste and arhtste, are

deriYe1l l•y the suffix cle; the remaitHler all take the ending
XOTE ~.-Jiiljoen is a Xoun: ecn miljocn stcrren, a million of
XoTE :~. -Be careful not to write adtttien with one t. Its <'0111-
JlOSitiou demands a douhle t.
NOTE 4.-::\fark acht, achttien, arnl tachtig. The t in this
latter word is prefixed.
NOTE 3.-A (or oue) hunrlred, and a (or one) thousand 8hould
simply be translated honden1 (not ccn lwndord), and
cluizencl (not een duizend).
Noni (i.--In summing up, translate first, second, third, fourth,
fifth, sixth, ete., only by ten eerste, ten tweeclc, ten derde,
ten vierrtc, ten t"ijfde, ton zts<le.
In South African Dutch eerstcns, t1reedens, dcnlcns, rier-
dens, etc., are used as well.


(On Writing out Numbers.)

·write out in words the numbers given below, noticing
~pecially the following points:
Unlike the English:
(a) Vijf lwnderrl twee; drie hondC'rd fW'intig=fiYe hundred
and two; three hundred and twenty.
( b) Vijf en t icintig=twenty-five.
(c) Duizcnd=one thousand; hon<Zerd=one hundred.

Like the English:

(a,) JJidzcnd en een, duizend en tu·intig=a thousand and one,
a thousand and twenty. ·
( b) De honrlerd en cerste, de honderd en ticintigstc=the one
lrnrnlred and first, the hundred and twentieth. De hon-
clerd twintigste is used as well.
(c) Eon mifjuen en een=a million and one.

5340; 3003; 525; 1,000,001; 720,540; 4400; 505; 8808;

7,070,070; 6,006,006; 9,900,099; 1,001,100.
Write oiit the Ordinals derived from the above Cardinal



Some ten of our young rose-trees are frostbitten ( dood-

gerijpt). Give the child some hot milk to drink. The
battle of Waterloo was fought on the eighteenth of Juner
eighteen hundred and fifteen. A party of twenty young
men went up the mountain together. ~ome few sheep
among the lot were poor, but all the rest were in splendid
condition (zcigen er biczondcr goed uit). I should like
to give this poor !Joy some reward for his honesty. The
merchant showed me a few samples [of] Java coffee, the
best of which (waa,rvan) is (wordt) sold at (voor)
eighteen pence a (the) pound. After we had spent about
a fortnight at (aan) the seaside, my mother was taken
(became) so ill that all of us had to (must) return home·
( naar huis). I did not have any mistakes in my dictation
today. The last house in the street is my brother's (that
of-). There are two kinds of seed in this bag. This
man has received a fourfold reward.


'fhis parcel weighs a pound and a half. The child

was punished twice today. There are various kinds of
books in our school library. The painter painted the wall
three times. For some reason or other the child had not
done her work. May I give you some of this meat? Yes,
thank you (if you please= als 't u belieft). In less
than ten minutes there were hundreds [of] people at the
scene of the fire. What day of the month was (it) yester·
day? It was the twenty-fifth. 'I'he letter was dated:
Rotterdam, June 22nd, 1894. Are there any children
that have no pens? Some of the fowls had their wings
clipped (werden gekortwickt). Some of the sugar (which)
we have had from that shop has been very bad. I gave
the child some cake and sent her home. Some advise me
TllE ADJEC'l'JVE 179

to go by rail (per spoor), others to take the steamer; and

being a stranger (as l am-), l do not know what will
be best.


Sixth Rule of Construction.-Thc position ol' niet in negative

sentences is mostly the same in Dutch as iu Muglislt, only
in Dutch "niet" follows the diri>ct object. lf such object
is preceded by "a'', "not ... a", niet is trnuslated by the
distinguishing Adjective gecn.

Did he not tell you a story? He did not take the

money from my eldest brother. We did not play in the
garden, but in the dining-room. Lions do not live longer
than elephants. When we travel in the mountains, we do
not sleep in tents, but in caves. Did the medicine cure your
poor mother? Did the children learn all their lessons in
an hour and a half? Did he have any stories to tell? He
iold (er) some (een paar), but not many. Did you not
ask him to weigh the meat? The boys did not play (with)
marbles, when they were in the field. Did not your
grandfather live till (tot) the house was built? The
teachers did not praise the children when they had done
(gedaan) their work, but they punished them whenever
it was not done. I should not have taken the books, if
I had not asked him. The dogs would not have barked
at ( tegen) the boys, if they had not played in the street.


Tra_nslation of Prc!:lent Participle. 11.-Present Participles

arc secondly translated by means of the Conjunction terwijl 1
while :-Take care, she said, laying her haurl ou his shoulder,
pas op, zei ze, terwijl ze haar hand op zijn schoudcr legde.

Do not make a mistake in telling him (while you tell

him) the story. Th dog barked at (tegen) me, showing
(while he showed) ( l iet zien) his teeth in between ( tussen

in). Asking the shop-keeper to show him some boots, he

_stole the laces. Dividing tbe apples amongst (under) her
children, the mother lost (er) one. She walked up and
down her room, learning her lesson. Corning up to me
( naar mij toe), the stranger handed me this letter. Read-
ing over the sentence, l discovered my mistake. Playing
with the hatchet, the little boy hurt his hand. Looking
for shells on the beach, I found this pretty gold ring.
Oh, my brother, [she] cried (riep) (she), running towards
him and embracing him. Taking up her bundle of sticks,
the old woman walked off.


An Irishman was in (had once) want of money. He

thought he would go [and] steal. Looking about in his
house, he found an old rusty pistol. He took the weapon
and went to a spot where (the) farmers used to
(plachten) pass on [their] way (naar) home from (the)
market. Placing himself behind a large tree, he waited
(transl. he placed . . . and waited) till someone .came
past. After half an hour a cart appeared, in which
[there] sat an old farmer. The thief jumped [from] out
his hiding-place (te voorschijn), and made for (ran to-
wards) the horse. Grasping the reins, he levelled the
pistol at the farmer's head, and cried "Your money or
your life!" Tb e farmer replied, "Do not kill me; let us
rather make an agreement. I give you my money, and
you give me that pistol." Hereupon the thief handed over
his weapon, and the farmer handed over his purse. The
thief ran off with his prize, but the farmer jumped down
from his cart and ran after him (hem achterna). He
soon overtook him, and seizing him by his collar, exclaim-
ed (he), ":N"ow my money, or your life!" "Oh," cried the
Irishman, "shoot a way ( schiet ma.ar toe), there is no
.Powder in my pistol!"


Ji'amiliebetl'el.:ki'l'lgen. Family Uelations.

1. Deze O'ude heer is ltct Tllis oltl gentleman is the

lwofd van de familie. head of the family.
2. Lei·en uw onders nog? Are your parents still
3. Mijn vader leeft nug, l\Iy father is aliw, hut my
maar mijn moeder is mother died some years
reeds enige jaren dood. ago.
4. Heeft u veel famiUebetrek- Jiil ve you many relations?
5. Zeer weinig na/Jestaanden. Yery few near relatives.
6. lk heb eon oom in Amerika I ha vc an uncle in America
en versehoidenl3 nevcn in pnd several cousins in
Indie. India.
7. Hoe is die jonge man aan How is that young man
u verwant? related to you?
8. Jlij .is mijn neef, en dit Ile is my n€'pliew anu this
jonge mcisje is mijn nicht. young girl is my niece.
1). Miin tante en nichten lcomen My aunt and cousins are
vandaag. coming today.
1.0. Onze dochter en schoonzoon Our daughter and sou-in-law
zijn gisteren aanqfkomen. arrived yesterday.
11. Mijn oom .schrijft icdere J\ly uncle writes to his child-
week a,an zijn k·inderen. . ren every week.
12. Mijn schoonvader gaf mij dit My father-in-law gave me
boelc, en mijn schoon- this book, and my mo-
moe<Ver zond mij een ther-in law sent me ·a
horloge. watch.
13. Wanncir zuUen mijnheer When are l\Jr. ::u. and Miss
M. en mej1iffrouw K. K. to be marrietl?
14. De gelwden zijn verlcden The hanns were published
Zon(lag afgelezen. last Sunday.
1.5. Haar grootouders ltel!bcn IIP.r grandparents have sent
lwstbare geschenken ge- valuable presents.

16. Mijn overgrootouders leven My great-grandparents are

nog. still alive.
17. Is die hcer familie van uf Is that gentleman a relation
of yours?
18. Hij is een verre blocdverwant He is distantly related fo
van mij. me.
19. Met wie is tiw tantc gc- Whom has your aunt mar-
trouwd? ried?
20. Met Kapitcin Innes, haar Captain Innes, her second
achterneef. cousin.
21. Is ii op de briiiloft gcweest'! Were you at the wedding?
22. Ne<ln, maar mijn schoonzus- No, llut my sister-in-law
tcr is er gcweest. was there.
23. Zij zal een uitstekende vrouu She will make an excellent
zijn. wife.
24. Mijn broeders en zusters zijn My brothers and sisters are
allen getrouwd, en wonen te all married and live in
London. London.
25. Hebben zij kinderen? nave thf'Y any children?
26. Mijn oudste brooder heeft My eldest brother has five
vijf zoons en twee tweeling- sons and two twin
dochters. daughters.
27. Mijn moeder houdt heel veel My mother is very fond of
van haar kleinkinderen. her grand-children.
28. Is mijnheer R. weduw- I9> Mr. R. a widower?
29. Ja, zijn vrouw is vcrleden Yes, his wife died last year,
jaar gcstorven, en heeft cen and left one little girl of
dochtertje van vier jaar en· four years and a baby
een kindje van pas een paar of only a few months
maanden nagelaten. old.


(Het Voornaamwoord.)

I. A Pronoun, Voornaamwoord, as the name indicates,

stands for a Noun, that is, takes the place of a Noun.

II. The kinds of Pronouns in use in Dutch are-

Persoonlike (Personal).
Betrekkelike (Relative).
Vragende (Interrogative)
Onbepaalde (Indefinite).
Bepaling aankondigende (Correlative).
Aanwijzende (Demonstrative).
Bezittelike (Possessive).

III. Personal Pronouns. The Personal Pronouns are:


Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.

ik I. wij (we), gij (ge), jij (jc), u, gij (ge), jullie, u,
we. thou. you.

Singular. Plural.
hij, zij (ze), het, he, she, it. zij (ze), they.

IV. The Pronouns of the first and second persons have

no distinction of gender, but those of the third person
have. Their declension is as follows:


1. nv. I, il•. we, irij, tee.

Eerste Mann., 2. uv. mine, .1~djner, ours, onzcr, ons.
{ Vr. or Onz m1;11.

1 3. uv. me, mij, me.

4. nv. me, mij, me.
us, ons.
us, ons.
1. nv. thou, gij, gc; you, gij, ge;
jij, je. jullie.
Tweedo r JJfann., 2. nv. thine. uwer, yours, ttwcr; ran
\. Vr., or Onz. uu·; ran juu jullic.
{ 3. nv. thee, 11; jou, jc you, u; julUe.
4. nv. thee, u; juit, j~ you, u; juUie.
l. nv. he, hij. they, zij, ze.
Derde. Mannelik.

l 2. nv. his, zijr:;-r,

3. nv. him, hem.

4. nv. him, hem.

1. nv. shP, zij, ze.

theirs, hunner,
tl!Prn, hun, ze.
them, hcu, z·e.

Derde. Vrouwelik. r2. nv. hers,

harcr, Like
l 3. nv. her, haar, ze. Singular.
~ 4. nv. her, lzaar, ze.
1. nv. it, het. Like
Derde. Onzijdig. 2. nv. its, zijns, zijn. the
{ 3. nv. it, h<'t. Masculine
4. nv. it, het. Plural.


1.-The old form of the 2nd Person Singular, du

(tbou), possessive case dijn (thine), is obsolete. The
disappearance from the language of this Pronoun has
created a difficulty, which has been hinted at before. The
following rules should be adopted:-

(a) In books, correspondence, and public speaking g11

(or ge) is used, singular and plural, with Verb in
2nd person. More and more the use of this Pronoun
is being restricted. As long, however, as the Bible
has it, and no other Pronoun is admissible in
addressing God in prayer, it will retain its place in
the language. ·

(b) In polite speaking use u, singular and plural, with

Verb in 3rd person for Singular, and (mostly) in
2nd person for Plural. This Pronoun, which is an
abbreviation of the old UEdele (a form used of old
by serfs in addressing the nobility), is now being
largel.r used for corrPspondence purposes, replacing
( c) In familiar talk to l·hildren, brothers, sisters, and
clm;e friends, use je (with emphasis jij) singularr
with Verb in 2nd person, and jullie, plural, with
Verb in 3rd person.
2.-Ik is usually pronounced 'k, and often written so.
Hij is often pronounced i, especially after words ending
in t, but in writing remains hij. Ge, je, and we, being
soft forms for gij, jij, and wij, are very commonly used,
both in speaking and writing, when no emphasis is
required. H et is mostly shortened to 't.
3.-Personal Pronouns agree with the natural and
not with the grammatical gender of the :Nouns to which
they i·efer: Dat rncisjc ltecft !war bork 1.:cdorcn_: dj (not
het) is erg verclrietig, that girl has lost her book; she is
very sad.
4-.-Personal Pronouns ahm agree in number wi.th the
K ouu for which they stand, even in the case of Collective
:Kouns: Toen de bende dit hoordc, ging hij (singular)
uitccn, when the crowd heard this, they dispersPd.

5.-Ellrnnder or elkaar, malkander or mekaa,r, meaning

"each other'' or "one another", are called Reciprocal
Pronouns, Wederkerige Persoonlike Voornaamwoor=
den, becaui-;e their meaning indicates that the action of
the Verb with which they stand, passes continually from
one person to another: 7,ij slaan elkandcr, they heat each
other; Zij bedriegen elkander, they deceiYe one another.
NoTE.-When usPd flS al.Jove, these Pronouns have neither u
Xorni11ative nor u Possessive ease. ThPy may, however, 1.Je
used as AtljN•1.i; e Pronouns indieating- possPssion, in which
cas0 the~· tnk!' a Genitive form· Wij rerl1rug<'n ans in
cllcanders gezelseliaz;, w0 tll'light in f'aPh otller's company.

6.-Zich, one's self, is the Reflexive Pronoun,

Terugwerkend Voornaamwoord, of the 3rd Person
(Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter), only used in 3rd
and 4th cases, while for the Reflexive Pronouns of the 1st
and 2nd Persons the Objective cases of these Pronouns
are used. This applies to Hefiexive Verbs only.
ik was mij, I wash myself.
gij wast u, you wash yourself.
jij wast jou, you wash yourself.
u wast u, you wash yourself.
hij wast zich, he washes himself.
zij wast 1::-ich, she washes herself.
het irast zich, it washes itself.
men wast zich, one washes oneself.
wij wassen ons, we wash ourselves
.Qij irast u, you wash yourselves.
jullie ivasscn jc (jullie), you wash yourselves.
u u:ast ii, you wash yourselves.
zij wassc:n zial1, tlwy wash themselves.
NOTE 1.-Xotice partiPularl~· that "l myself'", ek. when otherwise
used, is translated by ilc zclf, and not ilc mijzelf, etc., e.g.
I go myself, ik ga zclf; She will do it herself, zij zal het
zelf docn. The addition of the Pronoun :::elf with Reflexive
(like above) forms is admissihle, !mt serves to apc•entuate
the menning, so that i1 should only lw added where emphasis
is required. "~lust I go nml wash myself?" should
therefore lie n•utle1·ed, Jloet iJ; 111ij gaan wasscnt unless
then• is auy question of 'not wnshing some one else', in
wllic-h c-ase :ilou() it should lie: Jfoet ilr mijzclf gaan wassen!'
with fnll emphasis on the wortl ";:p/f".
NOTE 2.-\Ylwu tlw Reflexive l'ronouu forms the preposition-
object of tlw \'Prh, tlle 1 >utch expression f'Orresponds with the
l<Jnglish om>.
HP sn itl 1o himself, h ij ::::<'i liij ziahz·f'/j.
T thought to myself, ilc dach t 1Jij 11w:l'lf.

7.-Declension of the Personal Prononn with the word

1 nv. ik, g-ij, hij zelf. I myself. ik, gij, zij zelf, I myself, etc.

2 vau mijzelf, uzelf, llC'm-

ni'. van mijzelf, uzelf, haarzelf.
zPlf, et<'.
3 nv. mijzelf, uzelf, hemzelf. mijzelf, uzelf, haarzelf.
4 nv. mijzelf, uzelf, lwmzelf. mijzelf, uzPlf, haarzelf.

1 nv. ik, gij, hetzelf, I myself, etc.

2 nv. van mijzelf, uzelf, hctzelf.
3 nv. mijzelf, uzelf, hetzelf.
4 nv. mijzelf, uzelf, hetzelf.


1 nv. wij, gij, zijzelven (of persons)-zijzelve (of things).

2 nv. van onszelven, etc.
3 rw. ons, u, hunzelven,
4 m:. ons, u, henzelven. ,," --zezelve.

Not only Personal Pronouns, but also Nouns may take

this word zelf to render their meaning more emphatic:

De IJroeder zelf de zuster zelf het kirnl zelf.


de broedPrs, zusters, kindercn zelven,-de lloekL·u zPlve.

NoTE.-:\Iark the difference between this word and the word

zclfs, meaning "evE>u", whi!'h is often confused with it.

8.-The Possessive case of Personal Pronouns is now

rarely used, but is met with in some time-established
expressions (geijlcte tcrmen), such as: gedenk rnijner,
think of me; erbarm u zijncr, ham pity on him; de
meesten hunner, most of them; velcn uwer, de meesten
uwer, many of yon, most of you; Uwer is hot koninkrijk,
Thine is the kingdom.

Sometimes the Possessive case of Personal Pronouns

is found compounded with another word, so as to form
an Adverbial phrase: Ik doe het uwentwege, om
uwentw'il, wwentlzalve, I do it for your sake. The t in
these compounds is inserted for the purpose of
facilitating pronunciation.

NO'.I:E.-Write: 11;, Tum 1r beider l'l'iend, I am a friend of both of

you (not-uwm· /J('ider vrir•nd, nor---uw beidrr vriend);
hun aller brooder, n brother of them all (not: 1t1m1w1· aller

NOTE 2.-The English doul>lc Possessive is not used in Dutch:

"A friPnd of mine" is translated cen vriend 'l°an mij, or een
van mijn rriendcn. ''At my aunt's" should be rendered:
bij mij tantc aan huis, "At the butcher's" is simply: bij de

V. Possessive Pronouns, Bezittelike Voornaam=

woorden.-For the Possessive case of Personal Pronouns
two different forms have been given. The second of
those forms is that of the Possessive Adjectives, from
which again the Possessive Pronouns are formed.
Hence we have:
Possessive Adjectives:
mijn, my; uw, joitw, thy; zijn, his; haar, her; onze,
our; uw, fullie, your; hun, their (Masc. and Neut.);
haar, their (Fem.).

Possessive Pronouns:
De mijne, tle mijne, hct mijne, de mijne or mijnen, mine.
De uwe, de uwe, het uwe, de uwe or uweu
De jouwe, de jonwe, llct jouwe, de jouwe or jouwen, } thine.
De zijne, de zijne, het zijne, de zijue or zijuen, his.
De hare, de hare, het hare, de hare or lmren, hl'rs.
De onze, de onze, het onze, de onze or onzen, ours.
*De uwe, de uwe, het uwe, de uwe or uwen, yours.
De hunne, de hunne, het hunnc, de hunne ur hunnen, theirs,
De hare, dc hare, het hare, de harp m· haren, theirs, F.

*Jullie cannot take the declined form of the possessirn pronoun:

van jullie is usetl instead; as: De boelccn zijn ran jullie, the books
are yours.

1.-Possessive Pronouns may be used as Adverbial
expressions of place in connection with the Preposition
te: Zal ik 11 tc rnijnent of te mvent ontmoeten? Shall
I meet you at my house or at yours?
NoTE.-Mijnent is thc oltl natiYc case of mijn with t added for
the sake of euphon~'. 1t also oc<'urs in rnijnentwege, on S l2.
my behalf, and m'ijnenthalve, for my sake.
2.-PossessiYe Pronouns referring to more than one
person, must be in the plural: Jlijn brQcder ell zuster
docll bun jaarliks rcisje, my brothe1· and sister am
making their yearly trip; U en ik lwbben ons werk
klaur, you and I have finished our work. U en hij hebt
beiden uw zin, ~·on and he both have what you wanted.
It will he Reen from these examples that in :,meh e:u;es
the 1st person predominates O\'er the ~nd, and the second
over the third; likewise the ~lasculine gender over the·

YI. Interrogative Pronouns, Vragende Voornaam~

woorden. Tlwse are: 'tcic! 1cat? wclk? lwcdanig e<'n'! icut
voor ccn?

Wie, who, inquires after personR;

lVat, what, inquire,; utter things;
Welk, translates 'whielt' in the expression "which
Welk, which, or what, is an Adjective P1·onoun in-
11uiring into the nature of its Koun;
Hoedanig een (plur. lwedanige) aud wat voor een
(plur. icat vour), trmrnla1P •'what kind of", ·•what
sort of".


lr fo is daar? ·who is there?

lrat valt daar? What falls there'!
\l'dk 'Van de bocke11 1ril n hclibcn? 'Yhieh of the
llooks will you have?
1Vclke li01nen warden omgcltakt 1 "'hich trees are
to be cut down?
Wat voor een (hoedanig een) rnens is hij? "ilat
kind of a· man is he?
Hoedanige stenen (wat voor stenen) zijn het, waar-
'l.'an 71 ij spree kt? What kind of stones are they
of which he speaks?


1. Declension of Interrogative Pronouns:

1:uor ae drie
Enkelvoud. bJnkelvoud. Enl.:elvoucl. Geslachten.
1nv. wie, wie, wat, wie.
2nv. wiens, van van wie, waarvan, wier, van
wie, wie.
3nv. wie, aan wi_e, waaraan, wie.
4nv. wie, wie, wat, wie.
1 nv. welke, welk, welke, welk, welke.
2 nv. van welke, van wclkc, van welk, van welke.
3nv. welke, welke, aan welk, welke.
411.l'. welke, welke, welk, welke.


Enkelvoua. llf<'erroull.
1 nv. wat voor een man, 1 n i-. voor mannen.
2 ni:. van wat voor een man, 2 nv. van wat voor mannen.
3 nv. aan wat voor een man, 3 nr. aan wat voor mannen.
4 nr. wat voor een man. 4 nt'. wat voor rmumen.

2.-Notice that bet (Pers.), dit and dat (Demon.),

and wat (Interr.) can never be used after Prepositions.
New compounds are therefore formed as follows:
With het, the word becomes er, and has the Preposition
annexed: erin, eruit, etc.
With dit, the word becomes hier, and has the Preposi-
tion annexed: hierin, hieruit, etc.
Likewise those with dat, become daarin, daaruit, etc.
And those with wat, become waurin, waaruit, etc.
Whenever things, and even animals, are referred to,
these compound forms are used rather than the separate
Pronouns, as : H et paard waarover (not over hetwelk)
ik sprak, the horse of which I spoke; De bloemen waar-
1:an (not van welke) ik zoveel houd, the flowers, of which
I am so fond. In the case of names of persons, these
compounds should not be used.
'.l'IIE l'R0.1WUN 191
VII. Indefinite Pronouns, Onbepaalde Voornaam ..
woorden.-Indefinite Pronouns give a name to what
is either unknown or too little defined to receive any
special name. They refer to persons as well as to things,
to names of objects as well as to names of materials.
Most of them stand alone, and one requires a Noun after
it. To the former belong: men, one, iemand, somebody,
niemaud, nobody, sommigen, some people, iets, some-
thing, niets, nothing, een, one, someone, geen, no one,
alwie, anyone, alwat, anything; the latter is zeker, a

Notice the following :

Dezc en gene, one and another (some people) ;

Deze of gene, some one or other;
De een of ander, some one or other;
De een of de ander, one or the other;
H et een of ander, something or other;
Het een of het ander, (the) one thing or the other
Het een en amler, some tl}ings.

In the following examples, the different translations

<>f men should be specially noticed :
111cn moet daar altijd Zang wachten, one has always
to wait a long time there;
Men moet oppassen voor natte voeten, you should
beware of damp feet; ·
Jlen spreekt gewoonlik te veel, people usually speak
too much;
Jien zegt wel eens, dat oorlog goed is, they say
sometimes that war is a good thing;
111en heejt mij tweemaal bedrogen, I have been twice
Men zcgt, it is said.
1.-The Pronoun men can only be m;ed iu the Xom.
cmm, mid is conRequentl.r the subject of the sentence in
which it iR founJ. Being a l'rououn of the :Jrd person, the
Possessive and Hetlexirn l'ronouus referring to it must
be those of the same person, as:

Door ::ich tc n·rl uau kotulc n1 uuttiylteirl lilo()f tr strllc11,

bru.arlcclt men zijn yczu1ulheid, hy Pxposing onesdf too
mnd1 to l'olfl :mfl damp \vt>ather, one injurt>s one's hPnlth.

2.-Xotice that the Pronoun one, occurring after an

AdjectiYe, is not translated:

I hnve n dog, arn1 a good onl'. ik Itel! cen lw11r/, en m·11 guc!lc.
Here are t\vo lionks, hoth new ones, /tier :::ijn tiree /J()r'/.:nn,
bl'irlc (a/le twee) uicutrc.

:t-Whoever and whatever are translated by wic

ook and 1cat ook, likt>wise which(so)ever by welkc ook,
how(so)ever by llor ook, and where(so)ever by tcaar
ook, the "'ord "oak'' being Reparated from its Pronoun,
and placed jnst before the Verb of the sentence.

1T'at ltij ool• rlort, wlrntever he floes.

\l'ie Item dat uok z·eyt, whoever tells him that.
ll'aar llij u uulc mucht trcjfcn, wherever he might meet you.

4.-The Indefinite Pronouns icmand, niemand, iets,

nicts, and w11t, together with the Adjectives 1.ceinig, veel,
eniy, gecn, and heel zrat, when followed by an AdjectiYe
of qnaliiy, cause this Adjectirn to end ins (genitiYe), as:

1cmand 'l:rccmds, any strangers?

11irmond1 'l:rnemcls, no strangers;
irts yocds, anything good?
11iets uiezunrlers, nothing particular;
H"ei11ig nic1w·s, littl<' 11ews;
rcf'l lnrnads, mueh t>Yil ;
rniy 11ie11ws. an~·thing new?
vcr·11 yoelfs, 11otlli11g good;
/l('r/ irnt slcchts, a good deal of I.mu (things).

Y 11 I. Correlative Pronouns, Bepaling aankondi=

ge11de Voornaamwoorden, are distinguished from all
othPr l'rououns hy the necPHHity of their being followed
11y a complenH•nt in the form of an .\djecli\'e Hentence,
in order to rernlPr their meaning compleiP.

l. 'fhey an• collcrted from among the l'e1·s01ial,

Jn<leiiuite, and l>emom;tratiye Pronouns, but perform
.a disiinctly 1litTerent funci ion.

Hij, die tei;redcu is) is yclukkiy, he "'ho is content, is

happ~'· llerc the person represented by the pronoun hij
only lw('omes known i o the hearer, after the Adjective
::;entence deiining that per:w11 has liee11 added. H ij,
therefore, is here not a Personal, bnt a Correlative

'.l'he l'ronoum; lielonging to this class arc: hij, he; die,

diegenc, that one; de:::e, this one; drtt, lwtgene, aud dat-
gcnc, that, the thing ('yhich); degene, the one; dczelfde,
Jwt.zelfdc. the Rmue; zulken, such; zoda11igc11, RtH:hlike
(ihe lattpr.1.wo only u:o;ed in the IJlural).


Degenen, die 8chuldig bcnonden ,u·crdcn, zijn allen

gestraft. those that were found guilty, have all
been punished.
Rij sprak mij over hetgeen, dat u hem vertcld hccft,
he spoke to me about what (the thing which) you
told him.
Die kunnen allen rnstig zijn, die er yeen deel aan
genomen hebbcn, all those may feel at ease, who
have taken no part in it.

J .-Dezelve iR a Peri:-mnal Pronoun of the third person.
It is obsolete, and now only occurs in old documents.
Its declenRion is like that of rlcyene. When, however,
dez:elve occurs in the Possessive case before a Noun, it
takes the form of deszelfs for the Masculine and Neuter
singular, and derzelver for the plural and the Feminine
singular, as: Jfrt deszelfs toestemrni11g, with his con-
sent; in derzelver behoeften voorzien, to provide for their

2.-Declension of the pronouns degene and dezelfde:


Mannolilc en rrouirelik. Onzijdig.

1 n i-. dege1w. dezplfde; hetgeen, hetzelfde.
2 nv. van degene, dezelfde ; van hetgeen, hetzelfde.
3 nr. aan degeue, dezelfde; aau hetgec>11, hctzelfde.
4 nv. degeue, dezelfde; hetgeen, hetzelfde.

"Voor Personen. "Voor Zalcen.

1 ni-. degenen, dezel1'de11; dezelfde.
2 ni'. van dC'genen. dezelfden ; van dezelfde.
3 nv. a an !1Pge11e11, !lezelfden : aa11 dezelfde.
4 m•. degenen, dezelfden; rlezelfde.

IX. Demonstrative Pronouns, Aanwijzende Voor ..

naamwoorden. These define the place of persons and
objects spoken about, indicating whether the distance
between them and the speaker is greater or smaller. They
are: deze, (neut.) dit, this; die, (neut.) dat, that; gene~
(also) gindse, (neut.) ginds, yonder.


1.-The Genitive singular, Masculine and Neuter of

die used to be diens, with an n inserted. This was not,
however, the original form, the 2nd case being dies, as
may be seen from the expression "wat dies meer zij"
(what there be more of it), for "et cetera".

2.-There are other old forms of the second case

singular of die, in the Masculine and Feminine, viz ,
des and der, which are now principally found in com-
pound words: een deskundige, a person knowing about

it (an expert); desgelijks, likewhie; deswege, on account

of; desniettemin, yet; desniettegenstaande, notwith-
standing; desverkiezende, so electing (choosing) ; der-
holve, therefore; dergclijke, such.
3.-Both of these forms (des and der) may occur as
separate words: Wij zijn des gewis, we are certain of it;
Hoeveel van uw kinderen heejt u verloren? Wij hebben
er (der) reeds vier verloren, How many of your children
have you lost? We have already lost four (of them).
This er (uneducated people will make it der) stands
for a Noun understood after a Numeral Adjective.
NOTE.-On the use of er:
El' (Pronoun) takes the place of the logical subject in
sentences which have an Intransitive Verb, thereby
rendering such sentences more fluent: Er gcbeiirde heel
10at die avond, many things happened that evening.
It occurs before numerals, when the Noun by which they
should be followed is understood: Heeft u vecl boeken? Ik
heb er tien. Have you many books? I have ten (books).
OnsERVATll>N.-Tn South African Duteh the first er is replaced
by daa1', and the secoml omitted: Duar gcbeurt veel, much
happens; Heb j'ij 1:eel osscn? Jk heb twintig, Haye you many
oxen? I have twenty. Both errors are due to the influence of
English on Llle local Dutch.
As an Adverb of place, it is the translation of Eng. "there":
Is u in de kerk geivcest'! Ja ili; ben er gewcest. Have you
been in church? Yes, I have been there. When emphasis
is necessary, this "there" is translated by daar, as is also
invariably done in the South African Dutch.
E1• is used in the Verb "er uitzien", to look, and expressions
like the following :
Er is mij gezegd, I have been told;
Er wordt geschoten, there is shooting going on;
Er ivordt da.ar goed geiverkt, there is some good work
done there.

4.-The second case of deze occurs in two expressions:

schrij17er dezes, the author (of this) ; brenger dezes, the
bearer (of this) •
5.-The old Dative case of die and deze, Neuter gender
(i.e. of dat and dit) is found before many het-words
governed by those Prepositions which in old Dutch

required 1ltc l lative; tP dien opzirlde) in that re:,;pect;

van drzcn huizc) of this -family; te dien einde) to that end
.(for that reason) ; uit dien hoofde) on tlmt account.

6.-Thc Dative case of die and deze) Feminine gender,

is found in: tc dier (dczrr) urc, at that (this) time: in
Uicr rocge, after that fashion.

7.-\\nenever the Demonstrative Pronouus aud the

l'er:-mnal Pronouns of ihe ~rd person, used a:-; snch, are
l:lot immediately followed by their Nouns, but sPparated
from them hy one of the Copulative Ve1'bS (zijn, 1rorden,
lleten, blijven, schijncn, lijken, blijken), they take the
form required by a het-word, 110 matter whether the Xoun
Jiointed out by them ii-; a 7wt-word or a de-won1; e.g.
'l'hat was a pleasant rneei ing, dat (not die) 'lras een
aangcname vrrgadcring; This is my own father, dit
(not die) is mijn eigen mrlcr,· These were hard words,
dit (not die) warcn lzardc icuordcn_; They arc rotten
trPPs, het zijn rcrrutir' borncn.
This rule applieR el]ually in the inverted construction:
Are these all the books, zijn dit (not dczr) al de borken?

X. Relative Pronouns Betrekkelike Voornaain~

woorden.-~~djectivc sentences which define or extend
the mPaning of. ::N"ouns or Pronouns, are introduced by
Pronouns, which, as they refer to a 'Noun or Pronoun
already mentioned in the principal sentence, are called
Relative Pronouns. .

'fhey are: die, daf, 'LGic, u:at, wclkc,. lwt u;clk, and


1.-Tonching the declension of the Relative Pronouns,

it must he remarked that none of them liaye their forms
'of declension complete, but that one helpH to complete
tlrn cases of the other. The following ii-; the declension:


1 n 1·. die, wellrn, (li!',wellrn.
:! ll I'. Wi!'llS, wiPr, wellwr.
3 nr. aan wie, aan welkP, (aan) wie, aan welke.
4 m•. die ( wie), well;:e. lli<' ( wie), welke.


Unzijdi!J. l 'oor alle U<'sluchte11.

1 111". flat, wat. lwtwelk. tlie, WPlke.

2. rw. - waarvan, wPlks. wil'r, welker.
3 1u-. - \Vaaraa11, ( aan) wie, well;:e.
4 m'.
da t, wa t, hetwellc <lil' ( wie), welke.

2.-Die Ull(l u·rlk<' (:Xeuter, dut and hetu;clk) are used

inclii,;criminately for persons and thingR, though die (dat)
is most rommo11ly usPcl.
Irie ii,; ui,;ed to make up the mi:-ii,;ing c•ai-;es of die; also
after Prepm:1itions.
lVie likewiRe translates "he who''.
lYat ii,; used aR a relative after alle8 and al, and in
compound:,; with Prepositions.
lVcit also translates "what" (that which) ; ''what" may,
however, likewii,;e be rendered !Jy hetgeen.
The specific use of hetgeen (which iR not declined) is
to translate the Relative Pronoun "which", referring
bark to a sentence, and not to a Noun.

:Xotice the following exarnpleR:

1. Jlij, die <liat gcllaan h<'<'ft, is ccn ktcatlc jon.rw11. lw who
has done this thi11g, is a bad hoy.
2. Do bomcn, wclkr in dat lios grocieu, zi;n all<' lrnog, the
trees wl!id1 grow in that forpst, nre all high.
3. De 11tau, wif'n.~ 1-rouw onlan!l~ orrrlrden is, tltP man
whose wife died a short while a~o.-This E<'ntt>n"<' mny
also rPa<l: Ile man, ran 1.ria de, niz.
4. Elk dirr, tl'dks hoc1•cn gcsplctrn zijn, herkrvuu:t. eYPry
auirnal whosP hoofs arE' tlividc<l, ruminates.-'.rhis
srmtenec may lw r>xprpssPd: f!Jili; dicr, <I<' lwe1·en
1,·aarran, enz.

5. Dat is een tTouw, wier schoonheid; overal gcprezen wordt,.

she is a woman whose beauty is praise<! universally.
G. Toon mij de rnan, idc zij rlie bclelliging hcbbcn aangedaan,
show me the man, whom they have insulted in that
7. Mijn jongste zuster is hot, arm wie ik,_ dat geschen"fv.
gegeven heb, it is my youngest sister, to whom I have
given that present.
8. Breng mij naar het plekje, 1raaraan zovcel hcrinncringen
verbonden zijn, take me to the spot, to which so many
memories cling.
9. Hier is de jongen, naar u·ie u gevraagd heeft, here is the-
lioy for whom you have enquired.
10. Zij is ccn t-rouw, die men vertrouicen kan, she is a woman
whom one can trust.
11. Was het een oud schaap, dat (hetwelk) de slayer vandaaq
geslacht heeft? was it an old sheep the butcher killed
12. Wie steelt, is een dief, he· who steals is a thief.
13. Dit is alles (or al) wat ik t'e zeggen heb, this is all I have
to say.
14. Dcnlv aan de zaal;;, waarrnn ik gesproken heb, think of the
matter I spoke of.
15. U moest niet aarzelen te zeggen wat (hetgeen) waar is,
you should not hesitate to say what (that which) is true.
Hl. Zij zijn nict gekomen; hetgeeri betekcnt dat zij ziek zijn,
they have not come, which means that they must he ill.

3.-Relative Pronouns must be used, whether expressed

or not in English :-This is the man he spoke of, dit is de
man van wie hij sprak; There stands the house I want,.
daar stoat lzet huis, dat ik hebben wil.

4.-The Relative Pronoun must agree with its

antecedent both in number and gender (not in case).
Jn number it always .does agree, but with regard to
gender, the Pronoun follows the natural and not the:
grammatical gender, when the genitive case is used=
Mijn arm nichtje, wier (not welks) arm gebroken is,.
my poor little niece whose arm is broken.

GR.AMMAR. EXER.CISES.-Taaloefeningen.


In the following sentences substit·ute Pronouns of the

thfrd person for those of the first.
Toen ik jong was, nam mijn vader mij dikwels mede,
als hij uit rijden ging. In het gras onder het raam van
mijn kamer heb ik deze steen gevonden. 'Vaarom heb ik
niet naar de raad van mijn ouders geluisterd? Had ik het
gedaan, dan bevond ik mij nu niet in deze moeielikheid.
lk kan mij niet herinneren, dat ik deze man ooit gezien
beb. Ik ben mij niet bewust, deze uitdrukking gebruikt
te hebben. lk niaak mij zeer bekommerd over de toestand
van mijn vader. Ik heb mijn bezigheid verkocht, en wil
mijn laatste dagen nu stil op mijn landgoed gaan door·
brengen. lk ben van morgen mijn plaats rondgereden om
te zien, of mijn veewachters miJn bevel nagekomen zijn.
Mijn vader antwoordde mij, dat ik mij niet verbeelrlen
moest, dat ik mijzelf rechtvaardigen kon. Ik ben ervan
overtuigd, dat mijn vriend zich mijner ontfermen zal,
als ik mij in mijn nood tot hem wend.


In the above change the Pronouns of the first person

singular into (1) the first person plural, and (2) the
third person plural.


Fill up the blanks in the following ewercise:

Zijn - al - peer-, - u gekocht heeft? Met
Are these all the pears, which you nought have? With
sprak u daareven? Met heer,
whom spoke you just now? With the same gentleman,

O\'Pl' wij morgen Rpraken. die

aliout whom we this 1nur11i11g- wen! spPaking. Thuse \Vlw
work af ltebhen, knnne11 hcen gaan. \\'aar
tlwir work tinisheLl haVl', ('Hll :nvny go. 'Ylwre
woont vrouw, kind gi::itercn gcRtonen is?
lives the woman, whose f'hil11 yestertlay <lie<l (has)?
Er gaat - lij:-;t rond voor man,
'l'lwrP goe~ a sui>s<'ri11tion-list rouml fur 1:he man, whuse
lmiR afgebrand i8. Onthoud al - ik gezegd
house lmrnt down is. Hemern!Jcr all that I you told
heb. Zijn kinderen er vroeger zo
have. .\re tlwsP thP sn nw d1i11lre11 tltni form<'rly so
gezond uitzagen? De kuecht heeft - paarll -
henlthy looke1l? 'fhe SL'rvant has tile horse whuse
hocfijzcr los iH, uaar - hocfamid gebracltt. Zo\·er ik
~ltoe loose is, to tlw fn rriPr tal{e!l. As far, as I
herinne1·cn kan, gebenrde er avond
myself remem!Jer ean, happened tltere that evening
niets biezonder-. Weet nog - - - geld
nothing partkulur. Know ~·ou still whom you the mom'y
gegeven hebt? De dame met ik Yan avoud zat
g-i VPll have? The l:Hly with whom l 1his eveninµ; sat
te pratcn, is - doehter van - oud yriend - -. Weet
talkiug, ii,; tl1e rluughter of an olfl friend of miuP. K110w
linnen gemaakt wordt? J a, - onderwijzer
you of what linf'n made is? Yes, my teacher
beeft verteltl. is een - - boeren,
has it rne told. Tllis is one of tlw farnwrs, whose
lantlerijen door OYPrRtroming verwoeRt zijn.
lands lly the tloorl devastat e<1 have l1een.
jonge m:m hehoort iot onwillekeurig ver-
'.l'his younµ; mau lJPlongs to those who involuutarily con-
trouwen inboezcmcn.
falem·e iuspirl'.

llij - lcziug gaf - gehoo1· door lnid applaudi::;eren
.\t the lPeturP ~ave tlw <rnlliPrn·e hy lornl avplause
- ievredenheid te kenuen. twee houden heblien zo
tlwir sa tisfn !'tion to know. Your 1 W'l Llogs ha YP so
nwt «evoehten <lat bloed JangH
t"> '
with l'hl'h othPr fought, tlmt the l>loml (to) th Pm aloug tile
kop liep. bnnr- doen niets ander- dan
heat1 ran. l\ly 1wiµ;h\1ours uo nothinµ; PlSl' hut
goede naam belai,;teren. lk heh - jongen gezegd
u1w a11other's repntation run ll•m u. l have tlw l1oy told
te gaan wasseu. homlen zijn
hitus1~1r to go (arnl) wash. What (logs :1 re they about
u i,;pree kt? zij u wij van
whkh ~·ou s11eak: 'l'he.v are the Stllllte that we this
morµ:en gezien heblJen. - en - vader kunt morgen
n1ur11i11g seen hllYL'. You n ll(l your fn tlter l'n 11 tu-morrow
geld komen halen. rnn de mei:,;jes hel.Jben
yunr 11101w~ eome I nrnl) fetd1. 'Vhid1 of tlw girls \Jan•
le:,;- gekend? lk heb nui
their lt>ssuus known 'I 1 ha Ye from out> a111l :mother
gelioord, <lat er veel goPu- van - uieuw-- mini:,;(pric
hMnl, that muf'h guo(l of tl1l· new ministry
1e verwar·htt>11 ii,;. zal gedaan rnoete1i
to (!le) expe<"led hi. i::l1'met l1i11g or other will h:t \"e t• • lw
worrlen yoor - arme yrouw - - omgckomen is
llont> fur this [i<Jor woman wl10Sl• lrnsl1awl l;:illt>tl has het>n
bij gistercn 1.Jericht
in the railway of wllieh YPStel'Llay lll'WS

011tv11nge11 iK. zaak- moeKiPn in raad

re('l'i~tl has l1el•ll. t'\ueh c·asL•s slwnlll in tlw eoundl
liever met gesloten deuren 1.Jehandeld worden.
mtller with (luors rli~l'USSetl lie. The
beid- oudei·:,; zijn doou.
pareuts of lioth of thPlll are (kitt1.


Translate into English (no reference to vocabulary).

llij heeft mij het een en ander gezegd.
Hij heeft mij een en ander laten zien.
T.! zal wel (you are sure to) de een of ander vinden.
Zal u niet bet een of ander gebruiken (take)?
De een of de ander moet vertrekken.
Het een of het ander moet waar zijn.
Deze en gene heeft mij opgezocht (come to see ... ) .
Deze of gene zal zich wel over het kind ontfermen (to
have pity on).
Er wordt in dit land veel gerookt ( roken = to smoke).
Men Yermoedt (vermoeden =to suppose), dat de man
gek (insane) is.
Deze koeien zien er beter uit dan de mijne.
Dergelijke zaken komen altijd aan het licht (to light).
Waaraan dacht u, toen ik u stoorde (disturbed)?
Een deskundige zou nooit zulk een raad gegeven hebben.
De beide meisjes zijn met haar goevernante (governess)
gaan wandelen.
Welke weg ik ook insloeg (turned into), ik kon geen
uiiweg (way out) vinden.
Al wat mijn \Tiend onderneemt (undertakes), gelukt hem
( lze is siwcessfitl in).



This young girl has her hat full [of] fresh roses. '!'hose
that have told you so ( dit) have misled you. These are
the books which I returned to you last night. Which of
the two sisters is to sing (zal .. ) tonight? What kind of
flower is this? It is a flower that grows wild (in het
veld) in the 'l'ulbagh ('l'ulbagse) district, but of which

i do not know the name. That must be the same gentleman

I met at my uncle's this (van) morning. (About) what
where these ladies talking ( about)? They were talking
about what had been discussed at the meeting. These
men are always sober at their work, it is (zijn) such
that never lack employment (zonder werk zijn). These
pears are the same (which) I have had at Mrs. Johnson's
lbij Mevroiiw J.). We met an old friend of ours yestj'lrday,
and asked him to have dinner with us (bij ons te komen
dineren) this (van) evening; Some one or other must
have used my scissors. Either the one or the other must
go. Please give bearer the parcel I left at your house
lbij u). Your father and yourself have both been
mistaken. If you will call this evening, I shall tell you
some things that will interest you.


Being afraid to be late ( te laat) for breakfast, I dressed

myself in a quarter of an hour this morning. :N° ot having
a nurse, my little nieces are accustomed to dressing them-
selves. Being ashamed of his dirty hands, the boy would
not come in. It is said that (er) a railway accident (has)
occurred in the Rex River Pass early this morning. Any
one hearing (hears) my case will say that I am right
(gelijk hcb). Whoever comes this way ( hierheen), must
beware of the dogs; they are very fierce [ onei:;]. ·whatever
JOU do, you will never get (er toe krijgen) that child to
apologise (emkuus te vragcn). As long as one is not
faultless oneself, one should (rnoest) not find fault
with one's neighbour. How many fowls have you'!
I have twenty-five, and some of them are very good
[ones]. There was a good deal of heavy betting at the
races yesterday. l\'Iy ,·ines look so sickly, that I shall
have to ( rnoeten) consult an expert about them. I myself
told the man, that unless he applied himself (zieh aan-
pakken) better, I would dismiss him.

~fay, wlwu implying prrmission, is tr:msluterl !Jy mouPn;
when im11lyi11g po,,sibilit~·,it is trauslated !Jy mouen and kuttnen,
or the l'olln1111ial vhrnse het kan zijn dat . . . :
lle m:iy eome yt>t, ltij muµ (or kun) ti()!! k()mcn; or, Twt kan
zij11 <lat 11 ij nu!] lwmt.
)fight.. wht•u implying 1wrmis,.;ion, is translated hy mol'ltt;
wlwn i'u111Jying possihility,it is irauslatPfl !Jy .zo11 l•11nnc11, ()r Ttet
zoH kunncu zijn clat •••
'l'lwy mit!;ht St'l' you from tlwrP, r:ij zoullcn 11 nrn rluat lrnunrn
~il'lb,' 01., ltct zou Ttu11nen ziju, tlat zij u ran llaur za!len.

)fight llaH~, folluwrn !Jy a Past l'arti<'iple, is translate1l Joy ,zou

hebben (or hacl) 1•i11111<'11:
He might lrnvt• douP thP wurk.l1ij zuu hrt ll'l'rl> T1dilwn T•unncn
rlm•11; or, T!ij lrnd Tirt ircrl.: k1tmH'll <lor11.

1. Shonlfl is transl.ttc•d ]!~· zou. if futurity is implied.

2. Shoul<l .. .!.Olf, if 1]P]ll'l1flt•nt 011 a cornlitiuu.
3. Should .. .. l>chool'<1<' 01' moPst,
"ou7ht to•',
if efjUiYHll'llt to

4. 8houlcl .. ., lll 0('/t t to hriug out the i<lPa of

1. I told him that 1 should go into t<nn1, il; zei lwm, dat ii>
naar ill' slarl ZIJtl gaall.

:.!. l should gu to SPP her, if slw wrr<> at 110nw, n.- zon Twat
rman zirn, als ziJ tlluis teas.
3. You slinnlrl liaYP lParuC'd your lessons. u liall u1r l<'s~en
morte11 (/l(/1orcu tr) 1<'1'<'11.
4. 1f ~·ou sl10nl1l nwPt tlw mn n, tPll him, Ptl' .. .a/s 11 <fr' man
011t111oet1·11 1Jlf)('/1t. Z(',(l li<'m, C/IZ.

May I go ont when my work is iini:.;lled? I cannot

give you permh;sion, you should haye aRked your father
before he went out. 'l'he boy might finish his lessons in
time, if he would only come in (binncn) earlier. ~Iy
unrl<' told nw this morni11g that I might buy that fine dog.
That al'eidPnt might haw been prevented, if the driver
had heen more cart>ful. I may have Reen that man before,
but T do not recolleet his face. If there were a doctor
at hand, the child's life might lie saved. I was alway~ S 1:3
'l'HE I'RO"SOl/N 205

of opinion that they might have shown that young man

some kindness. These plants should be planted before the
sun gets hot. Should you see my brother when he
comes home, tell him, we may (permission) go to the
concert this evening. You might have saved yourself all
this trouble, if you had heeded your uncle's warnings.
We should not have left our friend alone, if we had known
he was in trouble. My aunt felt sure (was er zeker van),
that I should not like those people (would not please
me); she may have been right, at all events I am glad
she told me I should not accept the situation. You should
have taken better care of the little girl; could you not see
that she was ill? If Mr. B. should call while I am gone,
ask him to wait till my return (I return); I shall not be
long (be = uitblijven). These children should be (do)
more careful [about] their work; every one of these
words might have been translated correctly, if they had
turned to the vocabulary (if they had looked them up in,


Will aud woulc'l are frequently used in English by way of idiom.

In seutences as "Boys will do mischief''., and "The bird would
come and eat from her hand", the forms "will" and "would"
express neither futurity, nor determination. When thus used,
they are not translated, but an Adverb is joined to the
principal Verbs to express the idiom. "lloys will do mischief"
becomes "Boys always do misehief'', jongcns docn (maar)
altijd kattelcu;aad; and "The bird woulcl come and eat
from her hand", de vogcl lcwarn dilcwels uit haar hand eten.

A little girl had a bird that she kept locked up (opge-

sloten hield) in a cage. Now and then, however, she
would let it out. It would then fly about, and would sit
on her shoulder. How is (komt) it, that this child will
always fake so much? The boy would say, Basket, Tiny
( naar de rnand, Tiny) ; arrd then the little lap-dog would
steal away to her basket (with the) tail between her

legs. This horse will always put his nose into one's
( iemands) face, if one (men) goes near him. You may
(kan) do what you like, these children will always boast.

Will and would, expressing "wish", are translated by the Verb

willen, wilde, gewild.

Will you help me, Charles? Yes, certainly. He wanted

to (would) say something, but he could (kon) not get it
out. Will you come (meekomen) with me? This way
(kant), please. The bo] said (that) he would not do it.
Did he say that he would not (gcen) have [any] milk in
his coffee? He said (that) he wanted (would) no sugar
(have) . Does he not want to (will) answer you, or can
(kan) he not answer you? The girl said positively that
she did not want to (would not) come. And what did
you answer? I said "Very well (heel goed), if you do not
want to (will not) come, you may ( ca:q.) stay away."

\Vill and would, expressing futurity or determination, are trans-

lated by the future tenses (lnd. :md Subj.) of the Yerb
(See Conjugation).

He won't go, unless you speak to (met) him. The girl

would have read it, if her eyes had been good. Will he
meet you at the office? He would meet me, if he knew
that I would be there. I shan't take the medicine, said
the naughty boy.

The conjunction if, ·when equivalent to whether, is translated

hy of, and not by inclien or als.

'l'ell me, if you will write. He asked if his father would

come. He doubted (llet) whether it would not be in
min. If you have the courage for it (er . .. toe), it is still
1.be question if you have the required ability. If a man
should come .(came) with a revoh'er in his hand, would
you open the door to (voor) him?

As if is rendered by als of, or sometimes of.

He looked as if be were hungry (had hunger). He

spoke to me, as if he were (was) my master. The lion
licked Androcles' hands, as if to thank him (as if he
would thank him). 'fhe robber did as if he wanted to
kill me. If you want the doctor to cure (that the doctor
-cures) you, you must not speak as if you were quite well.
'Ibe boy knelt tlown as if be were going to (would go)
pray. 'fhe sun rose (kwam op) with such splendour, as
if there had never been a storm. If the boy had not
thrown (gegooid) the stone with so much force, as if he
wanted to kill the pig, I should ask his father, if he
would not forgive him this time.


The Verb ''to know" is translated by treten arnl kennen.

JVeten implks !Jeing aware of a fnl't. J(ninen implies
acquaintance with, or knowledge as the result of learning.
EXA)IPL~;s: I know wllen he came, il" wcet 1ran1wrr ltij ktcam.
He tlid uot know that I was ill, hij wist uict, <lat il" ziek
l>o you kuow that man? Kent u die man?
I !mow my tablPs !Jy heart, ilr, ken rnijn tafr'/s ran buitcn.

"'hither I go, you know, and the way you know. We

<lo not even know the man; how should we know his
whereabouts (where he lives)? It is a thing (iets) (that)
we all know, that winter is the cold, antl summer the hot
time of the year. When do you think you will know the
result[s] of your examination? We shall know tlwm in
a fortnight, I believe. There is a difference between
knowing ( te kennen) the road, and knowing something
ab011t ( rnn) the road. Have you learned your poetry,
Charles? Yes, Rir, but I cannot say that I know it. How
long will it be before you know French, John? Oh, father,
a long time yet. ::\ly teacher ::;ays l am beginning to know
something about it, but that is not knowing it. Did your
sister know that sou were here? Whether you have heard
it or not, you must know it. The soltliers knew that the

enemy was behind the hill. Know yourself, I i;;aid to

someone; but· he could (kon) not, for he was nobody. To
know oneself (zich) leads to great humility. If I had
only (maa,r) known that you had done the work, I should
(it) have let (latcn) him know. I knew yesterday that
he would not live. The last fortnight the boy has known
all his lessons.

Use<l io folloWP<l l>y au Infinitive Yerh, is either translated by
"was (were) accustomed to'', or by the Past Tense of the
followi11g Yerb, strengthened by an Adverb of time.
J<lxAMPLE : Tlw boy used to sit there, de jon.ocn 1cas gcwoon
·aaar te ~itten; or, Ile junyen zat gc1ruunlil,, or altijd, or
dik10cls daar.

The man always used io say that he was very poor. He

used to round to (bij) his friends, and tell them of his
misery. ·we used to see him often, but he does not visit
us any (in lzet geheel niet) more now. The old man
used to tell me about his daughter, when I took (deed)
a walk with him. When we were in Paris, we used to
go to a concert nearly every night. If the boy were
used to speaking the truth, he would not have said this.
Why not? Because this is decidedly a falsehood. And he
knew that!
To be used to is translated by gewoon zijn aan.
I am used to his bad temper. She is used to being ill
Are you used to that kind of treatment?
( aan ziek zijn).
I have been used to hard words all my (my whole) life.
The donkey is used to drawing (het tJYJkken van) that
heavy load. Poor beast! and to beating (slaan) too.

Se\-enth Rule' of ConstJ•uciion.-Among the extensions of the

vredicate, that of time takes the first pla<'e: as, I saw him
with his sister in drnreh yesterday, il;; .zay hem gistereii met
zijii zuster in d6 kcrll.

When you were in London yesterday you (have) missed

Mr. Bran, did you not (wiet waar)? Yes, I missed him,
'l'JJE PRONOUN !.!09

that is to (wil) say, I did not wait for him. I should have
1hall ... moeten) seen him at (aan) his house last night,
bnt l was afraid to go out in the cold so late. I received
a le1ter from my father yesterday. \VhPre is he now?
He was in Paris two days ago, and must now be at Lyons
according to (naar) what he writes. Has there been any
(nag een) great war in Europe since the year eighteen
hundred and seventy'! :N'o. there have been rumours of
war many times, but it has never come to an open breach
of the peace. He was (is) born at Baarn, a village in
the province Lof] Utrecht, llolland, on the sixth of March,
eighteen hundred and fifty one. At Smithfield in the
Orange Rfrer Colony a rumbling noise underground
frightened some of the inhabitants yesterday. There was
(has been) an explosion in the mine last week, whereby
twenty-six workmen lost their lives (het lei1en). It is
not so easy to be faithful to one's (zijn) duty, whatever
{wat oak) happens, and at all times (tc allen tijde).


Reizen op het Land en pe1• •.rravelling by Land anrl

Spoortrein. Rail.

1. Waar gaat u hccn f Where are you going?

2. Ile bcn op reis naar Lnndc11, T am on my way to London,
Brussel <'n rcnetii!. llr11ssels, and Venice.
3. 1Vanncer i;ertrekt uw zuster! When does your sister leave?
4. Zij i•ertrekt de volgende Rhe dl'pa rts for Europe 1wxt
u.:eel;; naar Europa. week.
5. Op icellce icijzc reist zij? How doPs she travel?
G. Per trein rnn Port-Elizabeth By rail from Port-Elizabeth
naar Kaapstad, en ran to Cape 'I'own, and from
daar per boot. there by steamer.
7. Mijn rriend hceft ver dili- :\Iy friend has travelled liy
gence [lrr<'isd. coach.
8. Bij hceft 11lan te paard terug He intends returning on
te komcn. horse-hack.
9. Welke weg heeft h ij {!en o- Which roa\l did he take?
10. Na het tolhek tc zijn door- After passing the toll-gate,
{le,qnan, is hij rerlits afge- he turned to the right,
rlraaid, en !weft de grate and took the high-road
weu ntLar Beaufort gcnn- to Beaufort.
210 Tl!R STATD.:il?D DU'l'Gll GRULl!AR

11. Dat u·as <'<'n helr onureg. That was a very round-
a!Jout way.
12. Welke wcg zal u nemcn? Which road will you take?
13. lk zal de ccrste weg aan de 1 shall take the first road
linlcerha nd 1u•men. to the left.
14. Hoe 1:er is het naar llrt How far is it to the railway-
svoorieegstaUon? station?
15. Een ku:artier vcr trern. A. quarter of an hour by
16. Ile .cal ecn riJtuig nPmrn. I shall take a ea b.
17. Waar is uw bagage (gocd)? Where is your luggage?
18. lk heb het grootste dee/. errnn I left most of it in the cloak-
in llct goederel,;antoor ge- room.
19. Mijn hrmdkotfertje is in de l\Iy small portmanteau is in
wag en. the mrriage.
20. Zal ik dr beambte vrager Shall I ask the official to
uw z1rare 1HLgrr11e per goe- have your heavy luggage
drrctrcin tc la ten zenden? sent on by goods-train?·
21. N cen, de er naar. dat het in No. see it put in the van,
de goedcrewag<'n komt, als please.
't u beUcft.
22. Roep tooh even ecn rijtuig, Just hail a cab, please.
als 't 1t blieft.
23. 1Fat kost lt!'t ran hier naar What is the fare from here
Wuodstucl•? to Woodstock?
24. En halve kroon de cnlccle rit. Single fare half-a-crown.
25. Houdt dczc tr!'in ov lrij allc Does this train stop at all
tusscn7iggm11.lc stations? interme<liate stations?
26. Ncen, hct is de sneltrl'in van No, this is the express from
Landen naar Edenlmry; Lornlon to Edinburgh ;
hij houdt a71c<'n bij dr it only stops at the
ronrnaamsl<' stations op. prineipal stations.
27. H ondt it ran reizen per Do you lilrn travelling !Jy
trcin? rail?
28. lk vcrkies het boi•en dili- I vrefer it to coach, cart, or
gence, lwr of ossewagen. lmllock waggon.
29. Heeft n ·uw kaartje? Have yon your ticket?
30. Neen, ik wil er nu om gaan. No, 1'11 go and get it now.
31. Geef mij een biljet eerste Give me one first-class
klasse, enkcle reis, naar single fare to Victoria
rictoria West. West.
32. De trein i•<'rtrelrt om vier The train starts at four
uur. o'clork.
33. Geeft miJ retoer tweede Give me a return second-
klasse naar Wellington. class to Wellington.
34. Dat is een speciale trein. That is a special train.
'l'IIE VERB 211

0HAr'.rER IX.

(Het Werkwoord).

I. DEFINITION :-An action may be expressed in two

different ways: 1. By a real Verb; 2. By a Verbal


1. I saw the enemy besiege the city, ik zag de vijand

de stad be~egeren.

2. I read about the siege of the city, ik las over het

beleg (de belegering, het belegeren) van de stad.
The Verbal Noun belegeren having the same form
as the Infinitive Present of the Verb belegeren,
the necessity arises of marking how the action is
expressed, before a correct translation can be given.

II. Stem :-The Infinitive form of Dutch verbs ends

in ea except in six cases, where the ending is a. These
six are the irregular monosyllabic Verbs: doen, gaan,
slaan, staan, zien, and zijn.

The stem of the Verb is found by removing the ending

ea. To determine the stem is a matter of importance,
as will he seen from the conjugation-form in paragr·aph
III, A. Often the Atem, so found, is different from

what may l>e termed the working-stem, the latter receiving

its shape (spelling) from pronunciation. To determine
this spelling, the following rules should be observed:

1. Of the monosyllabic Verbs mentioned above, the

::;tems are respectively doe, ga, sla, sta, zie, and zij (or

~- If the ending en is preceded by a single consonant,

which again is preceded by a single vowel, this vowel is
doubled so as to preserve its full sound: huren, stem
h uur, to hire; leren, stem leer, to learn.

3. If the ending en is preceded by a double com;ouant,

the stem takes a single consonant: straffen, stem straf, to

4. lf the ending en is preceded by v or z, the stem

takes f or s: lei·en, stem leef, to live; vrezen, stem vrees,
to fear.

NoTE.-This f of the i:,tem changes back into the v of the Intinitive

form, and likewise s into z, whenever the stem takes one of'.
tlle endings e, et, or en in the course of the conjugation, in
which cases also the double. vowel assumed under ltule 2,
is changed back into the single one of the Infinitive.

Ill, A. Conjugation, Weak and Strong: Two different

Conjugations are distinguished:
(a) The Weak Conjugation, marked by-

1. Unchanged vowel-sound throughout; e.g.: baden,

baadde, gebaad.

2. l!,ormation of the Past Tense by adding to the stem

te, when the last letter of such a stem is one of the
sharp consonants t, k, f, s, ch, and p (all of which
are found in the compound, 't kofschip), and de
in all other cases; e.g.: hakken, haktej schoppen,
schopte j halon, haalde j gunnen, gunde.
1'HE VERB 213

3. Formation of the Past Participle by prefixing ge

to the stem, and adding t, or d to it according to
the particulars of No. 2, e.g. : gehakt, geschopt,
gehaald, gegund.

(b) '.I'be Strong Conjugation, marked by-

1. Change of \'owel-sound in Past Tense, or some-
times there and in Past Participle;
2. Formation of Past Partciple by prefixing ge to
the stem (original or modified), and adding en.
The full list of Strong Verbs is given on page 252.
NoTE.-Iu (a) 2 and 2, 1.he letters f ands of the sterns, which are
v and z in the Infinitive forms, are followed by de and d, and
not h.v to arnl t.

III, B.-A Complete Form of Conjugation, Vorm van

Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.
(Aantonende Wijs). (Aanvoegende Wijs).
Present Tense.-Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.
1 p. stem. 1 p. (inf. less final n).
2" t. 2" (" ) t.
3" t. 3 " (" ).

1" en. 1" (full Inf. form).

2" t. ')
(like 2nd pers. sing.)
3 " en. 3 " (like 1st pers. plur.).
OBSERVATION.-The 3rd Pers. Sing. Pres. Tense ends in tin every
Verb, the ending being dt when the Verb-stem ends in d.
The forms ltere given for the 2nd Pers. are for jij, Sing. and
gij, Plur.

Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Tegenwoordige '1.'ijd.

1 p. heb or ben 1 p. hebbe or zij
2" hebt zijt 2" hebbet zijt
heeft is " zij
3 " " 3 " hebbe "

1" hebben " zijn hebben zijn

hebben "
}! 1 "
3 "

Past Tense.-Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd.

[For Weak Verbs.]
1 p. stem with te or de. 1 p. stem with te or de.
2 tet or def. 2 tet or det.
3"" te or de. 3" te or de.
1" ten or den. 1 " ten or den.
2 tot or det. 2 ,, tet or det.
" ten or den. ten or den.
3 " 3"
[For Strong Verbs.]
1 p. modified stem. J p. modified stem e.
2 " t. 2 et.
3" 3" e.
" en. en.
1 " 1 "
2 " t. 2 et.
3" en. 3 " en.

OBSERVATION.-The 3rd Pers. Sing. Past Tense does not end in at.

Pluperfect Tense.-Volmaakt Verleden Tijd.

1 p. had
2" hadt
,." :::'.,,
'" ~~ } l p. hadde
2 haddet
or ware
" hadde " ware
3" had was 3 " "
"'d d
1 had den waren ~ 1" had den waren i:i...
" hadt
" waart ~ 2 haddet " waret :§
3" hadden ,," waren ~ 3"
" had den " waren ~
Future Tense.-Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd.
1 p. zal with Infinitive Pres. 1 p. ZOU with Infinitive Pres.
2" zult 2 zoudt
3" zal "
3,, ZOU "
" "
1" zullen 1 zouden
2" zult 2 " zoudt
3" zullen " 3" zouden ,,"
Future Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd.
1 p. t<'al . hebben or zijn. 1 p. zou . hebben or zijn.
2 ,, zult t: 2 ,. zoudt t:
3 ,, zal ~ 3,, t<'OU ~
1 ,, zullen ...., 1 ,, zoudent!
2 ,, zult ~ " 2 ,, zoudt ce
3 ,, zullen il< 3 ,, zoudenc..,

Imperative Mood.-Oebiedende Wijs.

Singular ( TlJnkel1,oud)-stem. Plural (Mcer!'Oud) - stem
with t.

Infinitive Mood.-Onbepaalde Wijs.

Present. Perfect.
Name of the Verb. Past Participle with hebben
or zijn.
Future. Future Perfect.
(Te) zullen with Infinitive ( 7'e) zullen with Participle
Present. and hebben or zijn.

Present ( 'l'egenwoordig). Infinitive form with ending de or d.
Past ( r erledcn) .
For \Veak Yerbs-~prefix ge, stem, and ending tor d •
.!!'or Strong Yer Ls-prefix ge, stem, and ending en.

IV. Auxiliaries.-All verbs require the aid of Auxiliary

Verbs to complete their conjugation.

Auxiliaries (Hulpwerkwoorden) are of three different


1. Of Tense: hebben, to have, zijn, to be, zullen,

shall or will.

2. Of Voice: worden, to become, used for Eng. "to be"

as auxiliary of the Passive Voice.

3. Of Mood: kunnen, can; rnoeten,, must; la ten, let;

mogen, may; willen, to be willing to ; durven, to
dare to.

In Dutch a Verb is conjugated with zijn, to be:

1. To indicate a state or condition: The wound is
cured, de wond is genezen.

2. \Then Intrausitive, and indicating change of place

or condition, such as: groeien) to grow; stcrvcn, to die;
verandercn) to change; smelten) to rnelt; gaan, to go;
korncn) to come; vertrckken) to depart; aa11kornen) to
arrive; verschijnen) to appear; ontvliichten) to escape.
Het kind is gevallen) the child has fallen; hij is ge-
storven, he has died.

3. The following Verbs take zijn: zijn) to be; blijven, to

remain; 'u;orden, to become; ontstaan, to originate;
gebeuren and gcschicdrm, to happen; voorvallen) to take
place; beginncn, to commence; iioorkonwn, to occur;
geraken, to get into.
NOTE oN (2) .-When no actual change of place is indicateu, the
intrans. VPrlJs take 11ebben. Compare the following:
lk ban in dn kamer rondgclopcn, I ha.Ye walkP(l ahout in
(change of place).
Ik llel; in dn Teamer rondgelopen, I have walkeu about in
the room (motion confined to the space of a room-no
actual change).
NOTE ON (1!).-It is worthy of note that the VPrhs bestaun, to
exist, plaats he/Juen, to take place, and plaats dnden, tQ take
place, an' eonjugated with lwbben.

V. Complete Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb of

Tense, hebben, to have.
Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.
(Aantonende Wijs). (Aanvoegende Wijs).
Present Tense.-Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.
ik hell, I have. ik heb/Je, if I have.
gij (jij, je) hebt, thou hast. gij (jij, je) hebb6t, if thou
hij (u) heeft, he has. hij ( u) hebbe, if he have.
wij hebben, we have. wij hebben, if we have.
gij hebt (jullie he/Juen), you gij hebbet (jullie hebbcn), if
have. you have.
zij hebben, they have. zij hebben, if they have.

Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Tegen w. 'l.'ijd.

ik lteb gehad, I have had, etc. ik hebbe .rJelwd, if I have bad,

Past Tense.-Onvolmaakt Ycrlcdou Tijd.

ik had, I had. il" hadde, if I had.
gij (jij, je) hadt, thou hadst. gij (jij, jc) haddet, if thou
hij ( u) had, he had. ltij (u) hadde, if he had.
uij Jiallden, we bad. wij haddcn, if we had.
gij liadt (jullie had den), you gij haddct (ju/lie hadden), if
had. you lmcl.
zij ltaddcn, they had. :::ij haddcn, if they bad.

Pluperfect ~ense.- Volrnaakt Ferleden 'Tijd.

ik had gehad, I had had, etc. ik hadde gehad, if I had had,
.Future 'rense.-Onvolmaakt Toekumcnde Tijd.
ik zal ltelJlwn, I shall have. ik zou heliben, I should have.
gij (jij, je) zult hebben, thou gij (jiJ, JC) zuudt heulJen,
wilt haYe. thou wouldst have.
hij (u) zal lteblJen, he will hij {'a) zou hcblJen, he would
have. have.
wij zullen heuben, we shall wij zouden lwuben, we should
have. have.
gij zult (jullie zullen) heuben, gij zoudt (jallie zoudcn)
you will have. hebben, you would have.
zij z ullcn heuucu, they will zij zouden heblJen, tlley would
have. lun'e.
Future l'erfec t Tense.- V olmaakt Toekomende Tijd.
ilc zal gchad heblJen, l shall ilc zou gchad hebben, I should
have had, etc. ha rn had, etc.
Imperative Mood.-Oebiedende Wijs.
Singular (Enkelvoud), heb, Plural (JJlcerrnud), hebt,
have (thou). have (ye).
Infinitive Mood.-Onbepaalde Wijs.
Present Tense. Perfect Tense
hebben, to have. • gehad helJbcn, to have had.

Future Tense. Future Perfect Tense.

te zullen hcbben (no equiva- te zullen gcha<l heuben (no
lent). equivalent).
hebbende, ha \ i11g.
gehad, had.

VI. Complete Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb

Tense, zijn, to be.
Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.
(Aantonende Wijs). (Aanvoegendc Wijs).

Present Tense.-OnDolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

ii.; bc;i, I am. ilv zij, if I. be.
gij zijt (jij, je bent), thou gij (jij, je) zijt, if thou he.
hij (u) is, he is. hij ( u) zij, if he be.
wij zijn, we are. wij zijn, if we be.
gij zijt (bent), you are. gi1 zijt, if you be
jullie zijn, you are. juUic zijn, if ~ ou he.
zij zijn, they are. zij zijn, if they be.

Perfect 'l'cnse.- Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd.

ik bcn gctcecst, I have been, ik :::ij gcwecst, if I have been,
etc. etc.

.Past Tense.-Onvown. 1-'erleden Tijd.

ilc ll'US, I was. ik 1J'are, if I Wt>re.
gij (jij, jc) waart, thou wast. yij (jij, jf') waret, if thou
hij ( u) u·as, hP was. hij ( u) ware, if he were.
wij 1t'aren, W<' wt>re. wij 1carr·n. if WP WC'l'P.
gij u·aart Uulli,. icarcn), gij wciret (jullie iraren), if
you WCl'P. ;rou were.
zij warcn, the~· wer<'. Mj warcu, if they were.

Pluperfect 'l'ense.-r olmaakt y crlPdcn Tijd.

ik n·as geU"cest, I hall l1een, ik ware [}{'n·1·r·st, if I had !Jeen,
etc. ek.

Future Tc>n:-;e.-Om:olm. TockomPndc Tijd.

ik zal zijn, I shall he. ik zou ~ijn, I should be.
gij (jij, jc) zult zijn, thou yij (jij, jc) zoudt zijn, thou
wilt be. wonlust lJP.
hij ( u) zal zijn, he will he. lli.i (u) zou zijn, he would be.
wij zullcn zijn, we shall he. wij zoudcn zijn, we should be.
gij zult (jullie zullen) z ijn, gij zoudt (jullie zouden) zijn,
you will be. you would he.
zij zullrn zijn, they will be. zij zouden zijn, they would be.

Future Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Toek. Tijd.

ik zai ueweest zijn, I shah ilc zou geweest zijn, I should
have been, etc. have been, ~tc.

Imperative Mood.-Gebiedende Wijs.

Singular ( Enkelvoud), wees, Plural (Meer1,oud J, weest or

be (thou). zijt, he (ye).

Infinitive Mood.-Onbepaalde Wijs.

Present Tense. Perfect Tense.

zijn, to be. geweest zijn, to have been.

Future Tense. Future Perfect Tense.

te zuUen zijn (no equivalent). te zullen ueweest zijn (no


zijnde, l!eing. !/Cl.J.:C<'Sf, !Jee11.

VII. Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb of Tense,

"zulJen'', "shall" or "will".

Indicative Mood.--Aantonende Wijs.

Present 'l'ense.-Onvolm. Past Tense.-Onvolm. V erl.

Teg. Tijd. Tijd.
ik zal, I shall. ik :zou. T should.
gij (jij, je) zult, thou wilt. gij (jij, je) zoudt, thou wouldst.
hij ( u) zaZ, he will. hij ( u) zou, he would.
wij zitllen, we shall. wij zoudcn, we should.
gij zult (jullie zitZlen), you will. yij :zoitdt, (jullie zoudcn), you
zij zuZlen, they will. dj zouden, they would.

VIII. Conjugation of the Verl> worden, to become.

Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.
(Aantonende Wijs.) ( Aanvoegcnde lVijs.)

Present Tense.-Onvolm. Tegenwoordige Tijd.

ik zcord, I bC'l'Ome. ilc u·orde, if I become.
gij (jij, jo) U"Ordt, thou he- gij (jij je) wordet, if thou
comest. become.
hij ( 11) u·ordt, he becomes. hij ( u) 1{:orde, if he become.
wij warden, we become. 1cij ieorden, if we become.
gij wordt (jullie word en), you gij 1cordet (jullie worden) if
become. you become.
zij wrwden, they bet:'.'ll1<'. dj warden, if they become.

Perfect Tense.-Volmaakt Tegenw. Tijd.

ik /Jen gewordrn, I have !Je- ik zij gcicorden, if I have be-
come, etc. come, etc.

Past Tense.-Onvolm. Ferl. Tijd.

ik word, I became. ilv 1~:erdc, if I became.
gij (jij, jc) 1cerdt, thou be- gij (jij, je) 1verdet, if thou be-
camest. cnmest.
hij (u) iccrd, he hecnme. hij ( u) werde, if he became.
wij werdnn, we became. wij werdcn, if we hecume.
gij werdt (jullie werden), you gij werdet (jullie werden), if
became. you became.
zij werden, they became. zij werden, if they hecame.

Pluperfect Tense.-Volmaakt Verl. Tijd.

ik was geu:orden, I had become, ilc icare gcu;orden, if I had be-
etc. come, et<·.
Future Tense.-Onvolmaakt Toekoniende Tijd.
ik zal wonlen, I shall !Jel'orne. ik zou 1Dordcn, I should !Je-
gij (jij, j.e) wit ·warden, thou gij (jij, jc) zoudt warden,
wilt become. thou wouldst become.
hij ( 11) zal word en, he will hij ( u) zou word en, he would
become. beeome.
wij zullen u·orrlon, we shall be- wij zouden 1rordcn, we shonld
come. !Jecorne.
gij :zu It (jullie rnllen) worden, gij zoudt (jullie zouden) wor-
you will become. den, you would !Jecome.
zij zullen 1corden, they will zij zouden worden, they would S l4.
become. !Jecome.
THE -VERB 22-'t

Future Perfect Tense.-Volmaa kt Toekomende Tijd.

ik zat ueworden zijn, I shall ik zou geicorden zijn, I should
have become, etc. have l.Jecome, etc.

Imperative Mood.-Oebiedende Wijs.

Singular (Enkelvaud), word, Plural (Meervaiid), wardt, be·
become (thou). come (ye).

Infinitive Mood.-Onbepaalde Wijs.

Present Tense. Perfect Tense.

warden, to become. gewarden zijn, to have become.

Future Tense. Future Perfect Tense.

te zullen warden, (no equiva- te zullen geworden zijn, (no
lent). equivalent).

Partici p les.-Deelwoorden.
Teg.: wordende-Present: be- "Verl.: geworden--Past: be-
coming. come.

IX. Voice:-The Dutch Verb, like the English one, has

two voices, the Active Voice ( Aktieve or Bedrijvende
Vorm), and the Passive Voice (Passieve or Lijdende
Vorm). The form of the Passive Voice is more pro-
nounced, for the reason that its Auxiliary verb is
worden, to become, and not zijn, to be, as in English.

X. Comparison between the Active and Passive

Voices of the verb "bijten", to bite.
Infinitive Mood.
Active Voice. Passive Voice.
Present Tense.
Bijten, to bite. Gebeten warden, to be bitten.

Active Voice. Passive Voice.

Perfect Tense.
Gebeten hebben, to have bitten. Gebctcn (geworden) zijn, to
have been bitten.
Future Tense.
Te zullen bijten. Te zullen gebeten worden.

Future Perfect Tense.

Gebeten te zullen hebben. Gebetcn te zullen (geworden)

Indicative Mood.
Present Tense.
Ik bijt, I bite. Ik word gcbeten, I am bitten.

Imperfect Tense.
llc beet, I bit. Ik werd gcbetcn, I was bitten.

Perfect Tense.
lk heb gebeten, I have bitten. Ik ben ge beten ( geworden) , I
had been bitten.
Pluperfect Tense.
Ik had gebeten, I had bitten. llc was gebeten (geworden),
I had been bitten.

Future Tense.
Ik zal bijten, I shall bite. Ik zal gebeten worden, I shall
, ..! be bitten.
Future Perfect Tense.
llv zal gebeten hebben, I shall Ik zal gebeten (geworden)
have bitten. zijn, I shall have been
Subjunctive Mood.
Present Tense.
llv biJte, if I bite. Ik worde gebeten, if I bt
Imperfect Tense.
Ik bete, if I bit. Ik werde gcbeten, if I were

Active Voice. Passive Voice.

Perfect Tense.
lk hebbe gebeten, if I have Ik zij gebeten (geworden), if
bitten. I ltave been bitten.

Pluperfect Tense.
lk hadde gebeten, if I !lad Ile ware gebeten (geu:orden),
hitten. if I had lJeen bitten.

:H'uture Tense.
Jk zou bijten, if I should bite. lk zou yebeten worden, if I
should be bitten.
:H'uture Perfect Tense.
Jk zou gebcten hebben, if I lk zou gebeten geworden zijn,
should have bitten. if I should have been bitten
Imperative Mood.
Present 'fense.
Sing. bijt, bite (thou). word gebcten, be (thou) bit-
Plur. bijt, bite (ye). wordt gebetcn, be (ye) bitten.

bijtende, biting. gcbeten icurdcnde, being bitten.

ycbeten, bitten. gebetcn (gewordcn), having been
NoTE.-The uracketed "gcwonlen"J is not usually expresRed.

X. A. Notice carefully the following examples:

Het paard wordt vandaag verkocht, the horse is
being sold to-day.
Het paard is t?andaag t?erkocltt, the horse has been
sold to-day.
De bloernen werden gisteren geplant, the flowers
were (being) planted yesterday.

De bloemen waren gistcren geplant, the flowers had

been planted yesterday.
De schapen zullcn morgen geschoren warden, the
sheep will be shorn tomorrow.
De sehapen zullen morgen geschoren zijn, the sheep
will have been shorn tomorrow.
De kamcrs zouden reranderd icorden, the rooms
would be altered.
De kamcrs zouden veranderd zijn, the roorus would
have been altered.

X. B. Comparison between the same forms of the

Verb zijn used as a Copulative and as an Auxiliary of
the Passive Voice.

Cor. Het brood is gerezen, the bread is risen.

PAS. Het brood is gisteren niet gebakken, maar
vandaag, the bread was not baked yesterday, but
PAS. AND CoP. De tuin was wel aangelegd, maar was
geheel verwilderd, the garden had been laid out,
but was altogether wild.
CoP. Ik ben verwondcrd geweest over uw antwoord,
I have been surprised at your answer.
PAs. Ik ben bedrogen (geworden) door mijn tuin-
man, I have been deceived by my gardener.
Cor. De sneenw zal gauu: gesmolten zijn, the snow
will soon be melted.
PAs. Het orgel zal goed gespeeld warden, the organ
will be played well.
Cor. Het water zon bevroren geweest zijn, als, enz.,
the water would have been frozen over, if, etc.
PAs. Het gel1ele boil zou vrrbr(lnd (geworden) zijn,
als, enz., the whole wood would have been burned
down, if, etc.
1'HE YERB 225

CoP. Deze oefening was i:erbeterd) toen ik hem terug-,

kreeg) this exercise was corrected when I got it
PAS. TJc ocfening iws duor de onderwijzer vcrbeterd;
the exercise had been corrected by tbe teacher.

X. c. Observations on the Active and Passive


The fact that in English the Verb to be is used both

.as a Copulative Verb to express "state or condition",
and as the Auxiliary Verb of the Passive Voice, whereas
iu Dutch there are two separate Verbs, viz., zijn as the
Copulative, and worden as the Auxiliary of the Passive
Voice, makes it difficult to English students to acquire
the use of the correct Passive forms, which should there-
fore be made a subject of thorough enquiry and practice,
more especially, as the Verb worden is conjugated with
the help of zijn. The following observations should.
receive special attention.

1. "Am", "was", "have been'', etc., are translated by

(•ben'', ''v.:as'', ''bcn gcu·ecst'', etc., when Copulatives,
and by uicord", "werd", "ben gewordcn") etc., when
Auxiliaries of the Passive Voice. ·

2. Where in the Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future Perfect

Tense the word "geworden" has been given in
brackets, it is commonly left out. This omission leads
to the following comparison :

Present: Ik word gebeten) I am bitten.

Past: Ik werd gebeten, I was bitten.
Perfect: Ik ben gebeten, I have been bitten.
Pluperfect: Ik was gebeten) I had been bitten.

from which it will be noticed that the Dutch Perfect

Tense is like the English Present, and the Dutch
Pluperfect like the English Past.

3. It follows, then, that in the Passive Yoice the English

"is'' and "was" are rendered by the Dutch ''word.t"
and "werd", and the Dutch ((is" and "was" are
rendered by the English "has been" and "had been" ;
from which the inference is drawn, that ((warden"
is, colloquially, the auxiliary of the simple tenses,
and "zijn" of the compound.
4. Notice the peculiar use of the Passive form in Dutch
in connection with the Pronoun er (see p. 195).
5. The learner is requested to note that the English
langnap:e emplOJS the Pa8sive Voice much more
profusely than the I>utcli ; :ind that, therefore, when
translating, the Dnteh Active sl10nld in manv
instances be prPfcrred; e.g. : I was told that th'e
diamond was not found by you but by your broiher,
M e11 zri mij, dot 11 de diam ant nict gevonden had,
maar uw broer.
6. (a) Transposition of an Active sentence into the
Passive Voice is only possible when such Active
sentence has a Direct Object.
(b) This Direct Object (Active) is taken as the
Subject of the Passive sentence; the Verb agrees
with a new subject, and the Subject of the Active
sentence furnishes an Indirect Object to the
Passive sentence:
ACTIVE : De hon('l bdet de man, the dog bit the man.
PASSIVE: De man icerd door de hond gebetcn, the man
was !Jitten by the dog.
NOTE.-In speaking, this passive Past 'l'ense is usually rendered
by the Dutch Perfect: de man is door de hond gebeten
(geworden !Jeing umlersiood). See p. 235, 3.
( c) Active sentences, having as their Subject the
Indefinite Pers. Pron. men, lose this Pronoun
when they are made Passive:
ACTIVE: Men heeft mij een boodschap gebraeht, they brought
me a message.
PASSIVE: Een boodschap is mij gebracht (geworden), or
rather-er is mij een boodsohap gebracht (geworden),.
a message has been (was) brought to me.

( d) Reversely, in bringing back a Passive sentence

to its Active form, the Indirect Object (Passive)
becomes the Active Subject, and 1Jb.e Passive
::'.-ubJect the Direct Object (Active).
PAssrvE: De vos is door dle boer gevangen (geworden),
the fox was caught by the farmer.
ACTIVE: De buer heeft de vos gevangcn, the farmer has
caught the fox.

(e) In Passive sentences, where the action is not

assigned to any particular agent, and consequent-
ly no Indirect Object is expressed, the Indefinite
Pers. Pronoun men becomes the subject of the
Active sentence:
PASSIVE: Het kind is gisteren gevonden (geworden), the
child was found yesterday.
ACTIVE: Men heeft gisteren het kind gevonden, they found
the child yesterday.

(f) The same rule holds for sentences as referred to

in Obs. 4:
PASSIVE: Er is mij gezegd, I have been told.
ACTIVE: Men hccft mij gezegd, they have told me.
PASSIVE: Er wordt hier geschoten, there is shooting going
on here.
ACTIVE: Men sr.h iet hier, they are shooting here.

XI. Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs of Mood-

mogen, may, kunnen, can, moeten, must, laten, let,
durven, to dare, willen, to be willing.
Aantonende Wijs.-Indicative Mood.
Onvolmaakt Tegenw. Tijd.-Present Tense.
ik mag, kan, moet, laat, durf, wil, I rnay, can, must, let, dare, will.
jij moogt, kunt, moet, laat, durft, wilt, thou mayest, canst, etc.
hij (u) mag, kan, moet, laat, d>urft, wil, he may, can, must, etc.
wij mogen, kunnen, moeten, laten, durven, willen.
gij moogt, kunt, moet, laat, durft, wilt.
juilie mogen, kunnen, rnoeten, laten, durven, 'Willen.
zij mogen, kunnen, moeten, luten, durven, willen.

Volrnaakt Tegenw. Tijd.-Perfect Tense.

il;, heb - - , I have been allowed to.
jij hebt gelvund, thou hast been able to.
hij (u) heeft gemoeten, he has been oblige(} to.
wij hebben - - , we have let (allowed).
jullic hebben gedurfd, you have dared.
r:ij heboen uewild, they have been willing to.

Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd.-lmperfect Tense.

ik mooht, 7von, moest, liet, dorst, wou, I might, could, had to,
let, dared, wanted to.
jij mooht, kondt, moest, liet, dorst, woudAt, thou mightest, couldst,
hadst to, etc.
hij (u) mocht, kon, moest, liet, dorst, wou.
wij mochten, konden, moesten, lieten, dorsten, wilden.
'jullie moohten, konden, moesten, lieten, dorsten, wiltlen.
zij mochten, konden, mocsten, lietcn, diorsten, wilden.

Volmaakt Verleden Tijd.-Pluperfect Tense.

ik had - - , gekund, gemoeten, - - , gedurfd, gewild, enz., I had
been allowed to, had been able to, etc.
(See Perfect Tense).

Onvolmaakt Tonkornende Tijd.-Simple Future Tense.

ik zal mogen, I shall be allowed to.
jij zult kunncn, thou wilt be able to.
hij zal moeten, he will be ohliged to.
wij zullon laten, we shall let (allow).
jullie zullcn tTurven, you will dare.
zij zitllcn wiUen, they will be willing to.

Volmaakt Toekomende :L'ijd.-Future Perfect Tense.

ik zal he7Jben ---, gelvund, gcmootcn, - - , gedurfd, geu:ild, enz.,
I shall have been allowed to, been alJle to, been obliged to, etc.

0BSERVATION.-The above Verbs, it will be seen, are to a far

larger degree Pomplete than their English equivalents. Tlle use,
however, of their componnd tenses in tile above form is limited to
tl;le cases in whil'h they are not followed by an Infinitive Verb.

Examples :
Jk hob het niet gedurfrl>, I did not have the courage (to do) it.
Zij hebben uiet gcwild, they have not been willing.
Hij zal niet lcunnen, he won't be able to.
'l'IIE T'ERB 229

In most cases an Infinitive Yer\l is made to follow, and then

1:he Past Participles of these VC'rbs themselves assume the lnfini-
ti ve form, as : ·

Zij ltebbcn nict willcn horen, they did not want to hear.
Hij hceft niet 1';unnen komcn, he hns not lleen allle ti;> come.
Zij hecft nict rnogcn gaan, she was not allowed to go.
lVij he/Juen hem niet latcn spelen, we have not let him play.

In this way the missing Past Participle forms (as shown on

l). 22S) are replaced.


XIL-;-Mood is the form of a Verb by which is

expressed in what manner the action is done.

There are four Moods: a,, Indicative, Aantonende

wijs ). b. Subjunctive, Aanvoegende wizs, c. Imperative,
Gebieclendo wijs)· d. Infinitive, Onbepaalde wijs.

(a) The Indicative Mood represents an action as

a fact, a reality, a truth. Its use i::< the same in English
and Dutch. Examples: Dit papier is wit, this paper is
white; Do aarde wcntelt uni haar as, the earth rotates
-0n its axis.

(b) The Subjunctive Mood represents an action as

a wish, a possibility, or as dependent on something
else: K warnc hi j slcch ts, if he would only come; H adde
ik mijn plicht gedaan, ik enz., if I had only done my
dnty, I, etc.

XoTE.-'rhe use of the Subjunctive Mood is now much restricted

in the Dutch language. It is never heard in ,;peaking, and
may lle taken as confined to pulpit oratory and poetry. A
very few time-honoured expressions form exeeptious to this
rule, as:

het zij zo, may it be so.

hoe dat zij, however that be.
het ga zoals hat wil, let it go as it may.

( c) The Imperative Mood expresses a command.

but likewise a request or advice.
Command: Jan, breng mi.j wat water, "\Yaiter, bring
me some water.
Request: Kom eens bij mij, do come to me.
Advice: Gedraag u gocd, mijn kind, behave yourself,
my child.
NoTE.-Two Imperativ<>s joined by and reject the connectfre in
Duteh, while the second Ver!J takes the form of the Infinitive:
Go antl tell my father, gn rnijn 'rndcr Zf'ggen. Another way
of expressing this is: Ga, zeg mijn vader.

Translation of the Infinitive Mood.

XIII. The Infinitive ~food does not express any action 1

but merely giyes the name of the Verb. For its correct
translation the following rules should be observed:

Rule 1.-The English InfinitiYe preceded by "to" is

rendered in Dutch in like manner:
rergun mij, u te vragen, permit me to ask you.
Zij waren niet in staat te komen, they were unable
to come;
lk bet:cel u, lwt te doen, I order you to do it;
Denlc eraan, het rnij te latcn zien, remember to let
me i<ee it.

Rule 2.-This te is strengthened by om (Eng. "for")~

(a) When purpose is expressed:

Ik zond hem om te vragen, I sent him (for) to ask.
(b) After X ouns or Pronouns naming or indicating
an object or instrument with which an action is per-
Hier is een hamer om dfo spijker in te slaan, here
is a hammer for knocking (to knock) in that nail;
Geef mij iets om erbij te klimmen, hand me some-
thing to reach it.

(c) After the word genoeg (enough):

Ik lteb niet genoeg om te betalen, 1 have not enough
to pay.
( d) After Nouns implying fitness, or Predicative
Heeft hij kracltt om dat work tc doen? has he
strength to do that work?
Is die mcllv gocd om te drinken? is that milk good
for drinking ~to drink)?
( e) After te (too) followed hy a Predicative Adjective:
Hij is te lui om te werken, he is too lazy to work.

Rule 3.-The Dutch Infinitive rejects both om and te:

(a) When the Infinitive forms the Subject, Object,
or Predica1.e of a sentence:
Wandelen is gezond, walking (to walk) is pleasant;
Niet antwoorden bctekent hem beledigen, not 1.o
answer means to offend him ;
Lie gen is bedriegen, to tell lies means to deceive.
NOTE.-When the first of these sentenl'eS is inverted, mn te is
introtlncetl again :-Het is gezond om te wandelen. Likewise:
Rusten is hcerlik, resting is delightful, and-Jlct is heerlik
(om) te rusten. The "om" would fall out in a longer
sentence : It is delightful to rest in the shade of those trees,
het is heerli1z te riisten onrlcr de scha1lu1c i·an die bomen.

(b) After the Auxiliary Verbs of Mood. (See§ IV, 3):

lk mag it niet alleen laten, I may not leave you alone;
Ik durf lwt hem niet vragen, I dare not ask it of
(c) After the Verbs: doen (to do), helpen (to help),
ga,an (to go), horen (to hear), voelen (to feel), komen
(to come), zien (to see), leren (to learn and to teach) :
Ik lee1· hem schrijven, I teach him to write;
Ik kom het huis zien, I come to see the house;
Hij gaat ba<len, he goes to bathe.
In South African Dutch om te is usually employed
after the above V crbs.

XIV. Translation of the Gerund, the Present

Participle, and the Past Participle:-
1.-Hcsides the Infinitive form pure and simple, the
follmying are taken as forming parts of the Infinitive
l\.lood: the Gerund, the Present Participle, and the Past

2.-The English Gerund is in every case translated

by the Dutch Infinitive form. 1t occurs:
(a) As a .Koun, when likewise in Dutch it i!! a Noun
Riding is pleasant, rijdcn is prettig:
The regular bathing did it, het geregeld baden lzeeft
het g~daan;
That screaming is annoying, dat schreeuwen is
and (b) as a Gerundial Infinitive after a Preposition,
when it is rendered by the Dutch Infinitive with te:
Bread is good for <>a ting (to eat), brood is goed om te
By working hard, door Izard te ii;erkcn.

3.-Present Participles, with a common ending de or d,

are of rare occurrence in Dutch. Their frequent and
varied use in English renders translation a difficult
(a) Occurring in an adjectirnl cnlargPment, the Pres.
Part. is translated h~' the Relative Pronoun, with
whatever tense of the Verb fits in with the context:
Do you know of anyone going that wa;v? 1Vect u
van iemand, die die kant i1itgaat?
I saw a man holding a child by the hand, Ik zag een
rnan, die een kind artn de lzand lziPld.
(b.) In Aentenres like the following, "I saw the king
sitting on hiA throne,'' where it takeA the place of the
1HB l'EJHB :.!31;!

Jnfinitive it is tram;lated as such, e.g., Ik za!J de koning

op zijn troon zitten.
NOTE.-Another trnnslation, ii< ~ag de /;;uniny OfJ zijn troun {]"Zeten,
iE> useu in poetical language only.

( c) In cm;e a finite Verb, preceded by '• as ", " while ",

or •'when", ean take the place of the l'resent Participle,
this rendering is preferred to the use of the Pres. Part.,
as being more colloquial:
Having a garden (as he has a garden), the man is
content, daar hij een titin heeft, is de man tevreden j
He got giddy crossing (while he crossed) the bridge,
hij werd duizelig, terwijl hij de brng overging ;'
Seeing (when he saw) his master, the dog ran up to
him, toen de hond zijn meester zag, liep hij naar
hem, toe.
In other cases (e.g. where ''because" is understood) the
Pre::i. Part. is more common:
He spoke about it, thinking I did not know it, lzij
sprak erover, denkende dat ik het niet wist.
The same custom prevails for short phrases :
~faying this, he left the room, clit zeggende, verliet
hij de karner;
On hearing this she cried, dit horendc, schreidc zij.

4.-Thc formation of Past Participles is explained on

p. 213. Jn their use they do uot differ from their English
equivalents. It should, however, be obsened as a rule
of great importanee, that a Past Participle, followed by
an Infinitive, assumes the form of the Infinitive, without
altering its nature, as:
Ile is gone to work in the garden, hij is in de tuin
gaan U'erken;
Ile has come to see me, hij is mij lwmen bezoeken.


XV. Tense is the change in the form of a Verb by

which time is expressed.

An action may be represented as being performed in

the Present, to have been performed in the Past, or to be
going to be performed in the Future. Hence there are
three principal tenses: a Present, a Past, and a Future
tense. Each of these three may represent the action as
complete, done, or as incomplete, still being done, from
which it follows that there must be:

1. A Tense representing the action as being done at the

present time: I read and my brother writes, ik lees en
mijn brocder schrijft. 'l'his Tense is called the Present
Tense, de Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige tijd.

2. A Tense representing the action as done) completed

at the present moment: I have read and my brother has
written, ik heb gelezen en mijn broeder heeft geschreven.
This Tense is called the Perfect Tense, de Volmaakt
T egenwoordige tijd.

3. A Tense representing the action as being done in a

time which is past: When I vii;;ited him, he read (was
reading), etc., toen ik hem bezocht) las hij) enz. This Tense
is called the Imperfect (Past) Tense, de Onvolmaakt
·verleden tijd.

4. A Tense representing the action as done, completed

before another action took place: He had departed before
J arrived, hij was vertrokken v66r ik aankwam. This
Tense is called the Pluperfect Tense, de Volmaakt
Verleden tijd.

5. A Tense representing an action as going to take place

.at a future time: 'rhe small tree will some time be large,
de kleine boorn zal eenmaal groot zijn. This Tense is called
the Future tense, de Onvolmaakt Toekomende tijd.

6. A Tense representing the action as completed at

a certain future time: When you return we shall have
written our letters, bij uw terugkomst zullen wij onze
JJrieven geschreven hebbcn. This tense js called the
Future Perfect Tense, de Volmaakt Toekomende tijd.


The English Imperfect (Past) Tense is translated

by the Dutch Imperfect only:

1. 'IVhen two simultaneous actions or conditions are

-expressed :
Ile saw me as soon as I entered the house, hij zag mij, zodra
'ilv hot huis ink1cam.
He seemed au old man when l was yet young, hij sclzeen een
oudc man, toen il• nag jong 1ras.

2. In all narrath'es and history:

Onee there Jiveu a king, er leefde cens een koning.

'J'he Zulns defeated the l<luglish at Isandula, but wPre soon
afterwarus subjected, de Zueloes vcrslocgr.n de Engclsen bij
Jsunaula, maar werdcn spocdig daarna ondericorpr.n.

3. In all other cases, and especially in easy colloquial

.style, it is preferable to translate the English Past Tense
Jly the Dutch Perfect:

This morning I gathered fresh roses, van morgen heb ik verse

rozen ycplukt.
Last summer we travellell in Wrance, 1•erlcdcn wmcr hcbben
tl'ij in Frankrijk gcr<'isd.

4. '.l'he Present Tense ii,; idiomatically used for the

]'uture Temm.

Orer enige tijd zien wij elkander weer om nooit weer te

schcidcn, after some time we shall meet again never to
part a11y more.
lV.amw<>r 1mmt Ttij thuis? when will he come home?

5. In describing an event, when the speaker wants fo

place the scene vividly before the mind of his hearer, he
may suddenly change the Past Tense he was using into
the Present:

Tocn wij op doze u:ijze het einde van het woud bereilvt hadden,
hoord<'n wij plotscling ccn luid geraas aohter ons. V66r
wij ons kunden omlccrcn 0111 te ondcrzoeken wat hct was,
vliegt er een lwningstijger op uit hot diohte struikgewas
aan onzo linl•·Jrzijde, grijpt ecn van de paarden bij de lceei,
en 1rerpt hct met zijn miter tor aarde. Whe11 we had thus
come to tlle end of the forest, all at once we heard a loud
noise from hehiml. Bf'fore we could tnrn round to asPertain
":hat it was, a royal tiger darts out from the dense brush-
wood on our left, seizes one of the horses by the throat and
flings it to the ground together with its rider.

This change of tenses is very common in Dutch for-

tlte sake of emphasis.

6. The Perfect Tense, Volnwakt Tegenv.:oordige tijd,

represents the action as complete at the present moment:

Ik heb mijn brief oesohreven, iaat ons hem nu op de post doen,

I have written my letter, now let us post it.

7. In the same way as the Present Tense may take the

place of the Future Tense, so may the Perfect Tens_e take
the place of the Future Perfect Tense:
De volgend:o week om deze tijd heb ik het zwaarste aZ geharl,
next week about this time I shall have had the worst (the S
worst will be over for me). 15


XVI.-Verbs have two numbers: the Singular, bet

Enkelvoud, and the Plural, bet M eervoud.
A Verb must agree in number with its Nominative
(logical subject). Notice the following differences in
It is I. lk ben het.
It is we. Wij zijn het.
Is it you? Ben jij het? (Is u het?)
The counr.il lzave decided. De raad heeft uitgemaakt.
It 'is the eowR that did Het zijn rle. koeien, die dat
that mischief. kwaad hebben gedarm.
NoTE.-:N'otieP that: lk ben het, is also the translation of "I am
he", or "l am the one"; likewise: lVij zijn het, of "We
are they ", or " We are the ones (the persons)".

1.-After two words joined by "and" the Verb must
be in the Plural/ after two words joined by "or" or "nor"
the Verb must be in the Singular. Examples:
Jij en ik moeten 1:aancel zcggen, you and I must say
Jij of ik moet het doen, you or I must do it.
Jiij noeh ik kan g.aan, he nor I can go.
Nm'K-This rule is departed from, whenever the two subjects
represent one idea : de zorv en mu<ilte 'VGroud-ert rnijr~
mocr!c1·, my mother's care and trouble are ageing lier.
2.- When a Verb has two subjects in different persons,
the Verb agrees with the 1st person in preference to the
2nd, and with the 2nd in preference to the 3rd:
Jlij of ilc heb het gedaan, he or I did it.
Jij en hij knnt bci<len gaan, you and he may both go.

XVII. Person.-The Dutch Verb has three persons,

called the first, second, and third person, de eerste, de
tweede_, de derde persoon, each with a singular and a
plural form. The endings which distinguish them may
be seen from the Conjugation Form (p. 213).

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.

XVIII. To complete the meaning of a Verb, an Object

is often added, such Object indicating the person or
thing which is either created or changed by the action of
the Verb. The sentence "The man builds", cannot be
regarded as complete until the object of his building, the
thing created-a house, church, bridge, shed, etc.-has
been added. In the complete sentence, " The man builds
a house " (de man bouwt een huis), " huis " is the Direct
Object of the Verb "bouwen ", and "bouwen" :figures as
a Transitive (Overgankelik, or Transitief) Verb.

2. All other Verbs, i.e., all those whose meaning is not

completed by the addition of a Direct Object, are called
Intransitive (Onovergankelik, or lntransitief).

XIX. 1. Reflexive (Terugwerkende, or Refleksieve)

Verbs, whose action returns to the agent, or whose
SubJect and Direct Object are one and the same person,
are manifestly Transitive. In conjugation they take the
Reflexive Pronouns, mentioned under Chap VIII, p. 186.

The particulars of this conjugation are as follows:

In~nitive Present: Zich (tc) ivonden, to wound

Infinitive Perfect: Zich ,gewond (te) hcbben,
to have wounded oneRelf.
Infinitive Future: Zich (tc) zullen wonden.

Infinitive Future Zich gcu'ond ( te) zulle1i

Perfect: hcbben.

Indicative Present: Ik wond mij, I wound myself

G·ij wondt u (jij ioondt jou,
je wondt je), thou wo11nd-
est thyself.
Hij wondt zich (u wondt u)
he wounds himself (you
wound yourself).
Wij 'Wonden ons_, we wound
Gij icondt u (jullie wondt
je), you wound yourselves.
Zij woJZden zich, tliey wound

2. Reflexive Verbs are subdivided into:

(a) Those which are of necessity reflexiv:e, Nooda

wendig Terugwerkende W erkw. Ex. zioh
.rwhamen, to be ashamed; zich vergissen, to be
mistaken; zich inbeelden, to fancy; zich erbarmen,
to have pity. From these the Reflexive Pronoun
is inseparable.

(b) Those which may be either reflexive or not,

Toevallig Terugwerkende Werkw. Ex. zich
bezeren, to hurt oneself; zich wassen, to wash
oneself; zich veroorloven, to allow oneself. With
these the Reflexive Pronoun is onlv used when
required. ·

The following verbs are Reflexive in Dutch, and not so

in English:

zich aanmatigen, Hij matigt zich te veel vrijheid aan, he

zich baden,
takes too mueh liberty.

nc jongens liaadden zich in de rivier, the

!Jo~·s bathed in the river.

zich bedenkcn, R<'l/<'117.: ii 1rcl, consider (the matter) well;

lk hcb ruij bedacht, I have changed my
zich bcdienen van, Men u<'llient z·ich van dynamiet om dit
dynamite is used for
llout to splijten,
splitting this wood.
zich bctlroeven Wij lwrZroe-rnn ons Ot'er uw slecht gedray,
over, we are grieved at your bad condud.
zich begeven naar, JHj !weft ::iclt naar Afrilrn bcgeven, he has
gone to Africa.
zich begrijpen, J1;, lrnn rnij die zaak rd.ct begrijpen, T can
not understand that matter.
zich beklagcn, H-ij zal zich nict over mij te belclagert
hc/Jben, he won't have to complain
abont me.
zich belasten met, 11 ij lteeft zich met de uitvoering ·i:an mijn
wens /Jelast, he has taken upon
himself to carry out my wish.
zich berocmen op, De man bcroemt zieh op Z'ijn daad, the
man boasts of his deed.
zich bcroepen op, /lc lJerocp mij op uw gezond verstand, I
appeal to your common sense.
zich bc'wegen. De man bewcegt zich moclelilc, the man
has difficulty in moving about.
zich beijveren, De jonyen bcijvert zich om knap te
warden, the boy tries his best to
he<'orne clever.
zich erbarmen, Erbarm u mijner, have mercy on me.
zich ergcren over, De ondrndjzer ergert zich O'ver de onver-
schillighcid van de lcerlingen, the
te:lf'hf'r is vexed at the indifference
of the pupils.
zich geiromiten. I71, moet mij de uitgave getroosten, I must
put up with the expense.
zich haasten, Haast n, anders lcomen wij te laat, hurry
up, else we shall be too late.
zich herinncrcn, Ile hcrimwr mij dat hij mij dat zei, I
remember his having told me.
zich hoedeu voor, Jlocd u 1·oor de vriendschap t'an die man,
beware of the friendship of that man.
zich keren. II ij l<ecrrlr: dc:h naar miJ, en sprak, he
turned to me, and said,

zich ncerzetten, De ad1.•olcaat zal zich te Pretoria neer-

zctten, the barrister will settle down
at Pretoria.
zich onderhoudcn lVij hcbbcn ans a,angcnaam met llaar
met, ondcrhouden, we had a pleasant con-
versation with her.
,zich ontfermcn Ontferm 'll 01:er de arme man, have pity
over, ' on the poor man.
zich ontzien, J7;, ontzie mij, d4e man te vragen, l hesi-
tate asking that man.
zich schamcn over, De 1·ader schaamde zich over hct gedrag
i·an zijn zoun, the father was ashamed
at the conduct of his son.
zich storcn aan, Zij stoort zich nict aan ck! waarschuu;in-
acn ·can haar ?;rienden, she does not
·mind the warnings of her friends.
zich verbcelden, Hij 1·crbeeldt zich heel knap tc zijn, he
fancies thftt he is very clever.
zich verblijden Verblijdt u u niet oq,•er :zijn geluk? are
over, you not glad of his good fortune.
zich vergcwisscn Hij hceft zich van haar ?;riendsehap ver-
van, gewist, he has made sure of her
zich vcrgissen, T'ergcef rnij, ilc heb mij eergist, pardon
me, 1 ha Ye made a mistake.
zich Ycrl1eugcn Wfj i·erlteuycn ans orer die tijding, we
over, rejoice at those tidings.
zich vermetcn, Wie zou zich i·errneten, die man te be-
sclwldigen, who woul<l be llold enough
to accuse that man?
zich verslikken, II et kindi hceft zich 'l:erslil;,t, daarom hoest
het, the child is choking, that's why
it coughs.
zich versprei den, De ziektc rerspreidt zieh over het land,
the disease is spreading in the country
zich vestigen, Mijn ouders zullen zich te Kaapstad
restiyen, my parents are going to live
in Cape Town.
zich voeden iuct, Tijgers rocden zich met vlees, tigers liYe
on flesh.
zich voelcn, Hij voclt zich boter van morgen, he feels
better this morning.
zich voorbereiden lk 7iereid mij i·our twee eksamens voor,
voor, I am preparing for two examinations.


XX. 1. Midway between the two kinds of conjugations

enumerated under § III, we find a small number (27) of
Verbs which partake half of the nature of the Weak
conjugation, and half of that of the Strong. These are
called Mixed (Oemengd).

2. They are the following:


balcken, to bairn. bakte, gebakken.

bannen, to banish, bande, gebanncn.
barsten, to burst, barstte, gebarsten.
bra den, to roast, braadde, gebraden.
br01iwen. to brew, brouwde, gebrouwen.
durven, to dare, dorst, gedurfa.
( rlurfde),
he ten, to he called, hectte, geheten.
jag en, to hunt, joeg (jaagae), gejaaga.
kunnen, can (tG be Icon, g<'kund.
laohen, to laugh, lachte, gelachen.
laden, to load, laadde, gelaaen.
leg gen, to lay, lei de ( leglfe) , gelegd.
malen, to grind, rnaalde, gemalen.

rad en,
to unfold,


l (explained).
spannen, to stretch, spande, gesprtnnen.
spouwen, to split, spouuide, gespouwen.
stoten, to push, stootte, gestoten.
vouwen, to fold, vouicde, gevouwen.
vragen, to ask, vroeg gevraagd.
waaien, to blow, woei gewaaid.
was sen, to wash, wies (waste) , gewassen.
weven, to weave, weefde, geweven.
wrelcen, to revenge, wreelcte, geicrokcn.
zeggen, to say, zeide, gezegd.
zouten, to salt, zoutte, gezouten.

NoTES.-1. Of these twenty-seveu Verhs, twenty have a Weak

µast tense and a Strong past participle, whereas seven llave
a Strong past tens~ and a Weak past participle.
!!. Ley yen antl zcggen have an accidental change in tlleir vowel
sound ( e to ei) !Jy reason of the change of g to i, which is
common in Dutch after e; as in: zeil (zegel), sail; slei
(slrgel), sledge-hammer.


XXL 1. Where the irregularity of conjugation extends

to the consonants of the stem, a Verb becomes out and
out Irregular, and hence is no longer called Sterk, but
Onregelmatig, Anomalous.
The number of these being small (20), and that of the
pure Strong Verbs considerable (170), the former will
be given here, and the "List of Strong Verbs" at the
end of the Chapter.

2. List of Anomalous (Onregelmatige) Verbs:

brengen to bracht(old n. gebracht. S~·ncope of n from·
bring, brangede), stem; t in 3rd
Pers. Sing. Past
Tense. •.
denken, to dacht. (old D. gedacht. Syncope of n from
think, dankede), stem; t in 3rd
Pers. Sing. Past
dunken, to docht, gedocht. Syncope of n from
seem, to stem; t in 3rd
imagine, Pers. Sing. Past
kopen, to kocht (old D. gekocht. Change of p into
buy, kopede), ch; t in 3rd Pers.
Sing. Past Tense
zoelcen, to zocht (old D. gezocht. Change of le into
seek, zoelcede), ch; 3rd Pers.
Sing. Past Tense.
plegen, to be placht (old (wanting). Change of u into
aecustom- D plag), ch; t in 3rd Pers
ed. Sing. Past Tense·

hebben, to had (old D. gchad (old D. Syncope of v in
:iave (old hai·ede), gehaved). .Past Tense and
D. har(m) Past Part.
wetcn, to wist (old D. geu;cten. Change of t into s
·know. witte, wit- in Imp. Tense.
moetcn, to mocst (old D. gcmoeten. Change of t into s
he obliged, moette, t in 3rd Pers.
moetste), Sing. Past Tense.
houd('n, to hield, uehouden. Insertion of l be-
hold. fore encliug of
Past Tense.
mogcn, to be rnocht (old (wanting). Change of g into
allowed, D. mag), ell, former Imp.
now Pres. (see
:zullcn, shall, zou (contr (wanting). Former Imp. now
will (old of zolde) Pres. '(see ObS.).
D. zollen) (oldD.zal)
Willen, to wilde, gewild. Former Pres.
be willing (colloquial Subj. now Pres.
(old D. wou). Ind. (see Obs.).
doen, to do deed, gedaan (old Irregular form of
(old D. D. _qeda- Inf. : contracted
daden), d.en). Past Part.
gaan, to go ging, gegaan (old Contracted Infin.
(old D. D.gegan- and Past Part.
gangen), gen).
slaan, to · sloeg, geslagen. Contracted form
heat (old of Infinitive.
D. slagen)
staan, to stand, gestaan (old Contracted forms
stand D. gestan- of Inf. and Past
(old D. dcn). Part.
zicn, to see, zag, gczien (old Contra<'tPd forms
(old D. D. geze- of Inf. and Past
zegen), gen), Part.
komen, to kwam, gckomen Altered forms of
come, (old D. ge- Inf. and Past
(old D. kwemen). Part.
zijn, or we- was, geweest (old Mixture of differ-
zcn, to be. D.gewe- ent roots (see
zen and Obs.).
icunnen, to kon(de), gekund. Former Imp. now
be able Pres. ·(see Obs.).
(.pld D. konnen)


1.-Besides the irregularities referred to in these lists,

notice that zijn, kunnen, mogen, zullen, and willen omit
the t of the third pers. sing. Ind. Pres.: Hij is, kan, mag,
::al, wil. In the case of kan, mag and zal this is owing
to the fact that tb.ese forms were originally the third pers.
of the Past Tense; while wil (for wille) is the abbreviated
form of the Subj. Pres.; is (Germ. ist, Lat. est) has
dropped its t.

2.-The Pres. Part. of zullen, '' zullende ", is used in

documentary language: Zullende hij genoodzaakt zijn, as
he will be obliged.

3.-The old Dutch Past. Part. of wezen, '' gewezen ",

is now used as an Adjective, and means "former ": de
geu'ezen bitrgemeester, the late (ex-) mayor.


XXII. 1. Verbs which indicate an action that cannot

be ascribed to any particular person or thing, are called
Impersonal (Onpersoonlik), and are only used in the
third person singular (of every tense) : het regent,
sneeuwt, vriest, enz., it rains, snows, freezes, etc.

2. The name Impersonal is extended to certain

expressions, which are only met with in the third person
singular. Such are:

Het -is koud, it is cold.

Het was winderig, it was windy.
Het zal drukkend zijn, it will be close.

The following Verbs may be classed among this

bedroeven, Flr't lwdrocft miJ, u zo te zien, I am sorry
to sec you like this.
behagen, IT et hccft de lconing bch.aagd, it has
plPased the king.
believen, Grcf mij dat boek, als hct u blicft, give me
that book, if you please.
berouwen, Ilct bcroirn;t hem, dat hij het gezegd heeft,
hP is sorry that he said so.
beta1nen, llct /Jctaamt u niet, zo tc sprelccn, you
have no right to speak Jil{e that.
bcvreen1den, Hct zal u zcker bevreemdC;n mij hicr te
zirn, you will no doubt be astonished
to see me here.
dunken, Mij dunkt (het dunkt mij) dat het goed
is, I think it is alright.
heugen, Het hcugt mij niet, u te1:oren geden te
lwbuen, l do not recollect having seen
you uefore.
opvallcn, llet rnlt mij op, dat hij blcek ziet, it
strikes me, that he looks pale.
schelen,* Hct kan mij niet schelcn, I don't care.
sn1arten, Ilet smart hem, u vcrdriet te doen, lt
pains him to grieve you.
spijtcn, Het spijt ons, dat ii zielc is, we are sorry
that you are ill.
vcrdrictcn, Laat het u nict verdrieten, dat ik weg
moet, uon't let it trouble you that I
must leave.
verwondcrcn, Het rericondcrt mij zeer, dat te horen,
I am very much surprised to hear it.
vrijstaan, IIet staat 1~ rrij, haar uit te nodigen, you
are at liberty to invite her.

*NOTE.-Observe the different meanings of the Verb "schelen'':

Niets kan hem schelcn, he does not care for anything.
Wat scheelt er aanl' what is the matter?
Het scheelde weinig of ik was gevallen, I very nearly fell.
Hct scheelt heel wat aat dezc weg korter is, this way is
shorter by a good deal.
Het zal mij veel schelen als ilc cen paard heb, It will make
a great difference to me. when I have a horse.

In the two latter sentences the idea of "difference" underlies

the meaning of the Verb "schelen", and with this meaning
it also occurs as a Personal Verb: Mijn horlogc scheelt
weinig bij het uwe, my watch differs little from yours.

3. Likewise are brought under this head certain ex-

pressions in the Passive Voice, by which an action is
ascribed to an agent or agents, whose name is not
Er wordt daar gedanst, they are dancing there;
Er werd goed geschoten, the shooting was good;
Er zal heel wat over gesproken worden, the matter
will be much talked about.

Causative Verbs.

XXIII. Some Verbs, derived from existing ones by a

change in their radical vowel, indicate that their Subject
is the cause of an action performed by the Object. They
are called Causative Verbs (Causatieve, Oorzakelike
Werkwoorden). Among them the following are some of
the most common :
Original VPrbs. Derivatives.
drinlcen, to drink. drenken, to water (cause to
liggen, to lie. lcggen, to lay (cause to lie).
vallen, to fall. rellen,tofell (cause to fall).
tDalcen, to lie awake. wekken, to awaken (cause to
zitten, to sit. zotten, to set (cause to sit).
nijgen, to !Jend. ncigen, to bow (cause to bend).


XXIV. Certain ·Verbs are derived from existing ones

by changes in the vowel and final consonant of their
stems, and express an intensified action. They are called
Original Verbs. Derivatives.

wegen, to weigh. wilcken, to consider carefully.

hijgen, to pant. hikken, to hiccough.
vliegen, to fly. vluchten, to flee.
smaken, to taste. smachten, to long for.
buigen, to bend. bukken, to stoop.

Frequentative Verbs.

XXV. Another kind of Verbs, called Frequentative

(Frequentatieve, Herhalings=Werkwoorden), because
they indicate a constant repetition of the action, are
formed from existing ones by adding the ending elen or
cren to their verbal stems, with an occasional change of
the stem-vowel:
Original Verbs. Derivatives.
lii<ldcn, to pray, to ask. lwrlelen, to ask continually, to
ilruipen, to drip. droppelcn, to drip constantly.
huppen, to hop. huppelcn, to skip, to gambol.
icenden, to turn, to move. 1.candelen, to take a walk, to be
eonstantly moving.
stoten, to dash, to push. stottcren, to stammer.
kakclcn }
kikkcn, to utter a sound. { l<C'lrlrnlC'n to cackle.

OBsE:RVATION.-l\fark tllnt Verbs in elen and eren belong to the

elass of frequentatiYes only u;lwn they inrlfoute a repetition
of the action. l\fany other Verbs have the same endings,
heing derived from ::\'om1s which end in el and er:
Grendelen,. to ]Jolt (from grcndel, holt) : hameren, to
hammer (from hamer, hammer).


XXVI. Compound Verbs (Samengestelde Werk~

woorden) are of two kinds-first, those in which the
first part is inseparably connected with the Verb-stem;
second, those whose first part is occasionally separated
from the stem. The following rules assist the student in
overcoming the apparent difficulty which arises from this

R.ule 1.-All Verbs compounded with a Noun are

separable: houthakken, to chop wood; lecrlooien, to tan
leather; huishouden, to keep house.

Rule 2.-All Verbs compounded with an Adjective

are separable, except those with vol, and mis, when
unaccented; e.g., grootsprekcn, to boast; vrijlaten, to set
free; 'Jnisverstaan, to mi1:-1understand ;-im;eparable: vol·
harden, to endure; voldr5cn, to satisfy; rnishllgen. to dis-
please; rnisd6cn, to do wrong.

NoTE.-V6lhouden, to maintain, is separable. as are also those

Verl1s in wili<"h l'oT has tlw meauiug of "full". and takes the
al'eent; e.g., r6lsclwnlrc11, lo fill by pouring into.

Rule 3.-When Ver!Js are compounded with an Adverb

or Preposition, the pronouncintion must decide the case.
When the accent lies on their first part, they are separably
compounded; when the accent is on their second part,
they are inseparably compounded.


~eparable are: <ianla<.:lwn, to smile at; <ichterhouden,

to keep back; 6rnlopcn, to take a round-about way;
nddenken, to reflect upon.
Inseparable are: orcrclenken, to consider; a,anbidden,
to adore; weerk<iatsen, to reflect; ontg<ian, to

Rule 4.-Verbs derived from existing ones by means

of the verbal prefixes be, ge, er, her, ont, and ver, are
inseparable, as: bcginncn, to begin; geleiden, to lead;
erlcennen, to acknowledge; lzerrocpen, to recall; ontvan-
gen, to receive; ·vergeten, to forget.


The difference in conjugation between the inseparably

compounded Verbs and those separably compounded is so
marked that attention shonld be given to it here.

Separably Compounded Verbs, when conjugated,

separate themselves from their first part throughout the
entire conjugation, and in their Past Participles insert
the prefix ge between their two parts.

Inseparably Compounded Verbs, on the other hand,

remain intact, and their Past Participles reject the prefix


1. Verbs separably compounded: nalopen, to

follow, to run after; Inf. nalopen .; Pres. Part.
nalopendej Past Part. nagelopenj Pres. ik loop na.:
Imp. ik liep na ). Perf. ik ben nagelopen ). Pl up. ik
was nagelopen j Fut. ik zal nalopen ). Fut. Perf. ik
zal nagelopen zijn; Imperative, loop na ). Inf. with
Prep. na te lopen.

2. Verbs inseparably compounded: volharden) to

endure; Inf. volluirden ,· Pres. Part. volhUrdende;
Past Part. volluirdj Pres. ik volhardj Imperf.
ik volhardde)· Perf. ik hcb volhardj Plup. ik had
volltard: Fut. ik zal 1..'0lharden; Fut. Perf. ik zal
vollwrd, hebben j Imperative, vollzard j Inf. with
Prep. te volharden.

NOTE 1.-Derived Yerhs (referred to under Rule 4) having one

of the v0rl1nl prl'fixes (be, ge, <'1', her, ont, or vei•) Jike,vise
reject the participial prefix ge:

Infinitives: brginnon, gclcidcn, crkrnncn, licrroepcn, ont-

'rangen, 1·emctcn.

Past Participles: bcgonncn, gcleid, crlcend, herrocvc11, ont-

rangcn, i:crgetcn.

NOTE 2.-Tlie Verlls untwoorilcn. to answer; argu;ancn, to susveet;

dagi:uarden, to summon; glimlachcn, to smile; handharcn, to
maintain; icaarborgen, to guarantee; zcgcpralen (zegerieren),
to triumph; evenaren, to equal; U'anhopen, to despair, which
are derived from compound Nouns, likewise beeldhouwen, to
sculpture, are inseparable, !mt talrn the prefix ge in their Past
Participles: gcantwoord, gezegepraald.

NoTE 3.-The following Verbs change their meaning according to

the way their accent is placed:

d6ordringen, De t'ijand is in het bos d6orgedrongen, the

enemy has penetrated into the wood.
doordringen, De lucltt is doordr6ngen i1an de geur van
de bloem.en, the air is permeated with
the scent of the flowers.
-d6orlopen, Ji<'t ldnd is de kamer d6orgelopen, the
child has gone through the room.
doorl6pen, De lioden heliben de stad in alle richf.ingen
donrl<'>pen, the messengers have tra-
Yersed the town· in every direction.
.d6orreizen, Dczr' man is Pcrzib op wcg naar Palestina
d6orgereisdJ, this man has travelled
1llrough Persia on his way to Palestine
.doorreizen, Jlijn i·ader hceft de gehele Kaap Kolonie
doorrcisd, my father has tr:welled all
about in Cape Colony.
d6orsteken, lie heb de uaald /tier ·d6orgestokcn, here
I haYe put the needle through.
doorsteken, ne s"lrlnot u·erd doorst6ken met cen lans,
soldier was pierced with a lance.

'6ndergaan, De maan is zoeren 6ndergegaan, the moon

has just set.
-0nderg1ian, llij ondcrg6at zijn lot met kalmte, he
submits to his fate with calmness.
6nderhouden, Jlij hccft zijn woede lang 6ndergehouden,
he has long suppressed his rage.
onderh6uden, De ouders ·warden <loor hun zoon onder-
h611den, the parents are provided for
by their son.
'6verdrijven, Ifct onu·<·rlcr is 6vergedrei•en in de rioh-
ting ran de zee, the thunderstorm
vasse<l over us in the direction of the

overdrfjvPn, Mijn lirocrlt'r /weft de zaalc gc1.cis orer!

drci:cn, my brother has no doubt
exaggerated the matter.
6verwegen, Hij hnoft de pakjes 6rergewogen, he has
weighed the parcels again.
overwegen, Men hc<'ft het 'VOorstel overw6gen, the
motion has been <'onsidered.
6verwerken, lk heb het geltele opstel 6vergewerkt, i..
have done the composition all over
overwerken, Zijn znstcr heeft zieh verleden maand.
01·cnrerlct, his sister overworked her-
self last month.
6verzien, De onrl<'rwijzcr hccft ltct huisu;erlc 6ver-
fJ<':::icn, the teacher h::ts looked over the
overzfen, Van hier 01:crziet m<'n de gehelo stad, from
hl're one has a view of the whole town
v6orko1nen, Er /;:omen vcel ongelukken vuor, many
acC'idC'nts happen.
voork6men, lJlcn had die ramp kunnen voorlc6men, that
calamity might have been prevented.
v6orzeggen, lfet kind heeft zijn zusje de les v6or-
gezcgd, the child has prompted his
sister in saying the lesson.
voorzeggen, De 'L'al van Jeruzalem was voorzegd.
(geworden), the fall of Jerusalem
had heeu vredicted.

XXVII. List of Strong Verbs:-

(ij) (e) (e)
1. To confess, bel!jdcn, beleea, be le den.
2. snccumb, be~ trijl.:cn, bcziceelc, bezweken.
3. bite. 71ijtcn, beet, gebeten.
4. appear (to be), blijken. blcck, gebleken.
5. remain, 7Jlijrr n, /Jleef, ge/Jlet•en.
6. drive, drij1·r·n, drecf, gcdreven.
7. resemble, grlijktn, gel eek, _qclclccn.
8. glide, glijrlcn, gleed, ycglcden.
9. seize, gri jz1<'11, greep, gegrepen. s 1().


10. To hoist, hijscn, hces, gchosen.

11. ., look, kijken, keek, gelcoken.
12. ,, pinch, knijpen, kneep, gekncpen.
13. ,, get, krijgen, (1) kreeg, gekregen•..
14. ,, croak, krijscn, l;;rees, gelcresen.
15. ,, acquit oneself, ku:ijten, (2) I;;weet, gekweten •.
16. ,, suffer, lijden, leed, gelcden.
17. ,, seem (to be), lijkcn, leek, geleken.
18. ,, avoid, mijdcn, meed, gomcdcn.
19. incline (bow), nijgen, neeg, gencgcn.
20. ,, pass away ovcrli}dcn, overleed, overleden.
21. ,, praise, prijzen, (3) prees, gcprezen.
22. ,, ride, rijden, reed, goreden.
23. ,, lace, rijgen, reeg, gercgen.
24. ,, tear, rijten, re et, gcreten.
25. ,, rise up, rijzen, rees, gcrezen.
26. ,, seem, to shine, schijnen, soheen, geschenen.
27. ,, saunter, schrijden, sch reed, gcsohreden.
28. ,, write, sohrijvcn, sch reef, gcsohreven,.
29. ,, sharpen, slijpen, sleep, geslepen.
30. ,, wear out, slijten, sleet, gesleten.
31. ,, fling, smijten, smeet, gesmeten.
32. ,, cut, snijden, sneed, gesneden.
33. ,, be sorry, spijten ( 4) speet, gespeten.
34. ,. split, splijten, spleet, gcspleten.
35. ,, ascend, stij_qcn, steeg, gestegcn.
36. ,, starch, stijvcn, (5) stcef, gcsteven.
37. ,, strive (:fight), strijrlcn, streod, gestrcden.
38. ,, iron, to stroke, strijken, streek, gcstreken.
39. ,, disappear, verdwijnen, verdween, verdwenen.
40. give way, to wijken, week, geweken.
41. ,, impute, wijten, iveet, gewctcn.
42. ,, show, wijzen, wees, gewczen.
43. ,, rub, wrijven, wreef, gewrevcn.
44. ,, sink, to filter, zijgen, zceg, gezegen.
45. ,, be silent, zwlijgen, zu:ceg, gezwegen.

NoTEs.-1. Krijgen, to wage war, is Weak: Jlloab krijgde tegen

Israel, l\loab made war upon Israel.
2. Kwijten is Reflexive: ik heb mij va,n mijn plicht gelcweten,
I have fulfilled my duty.
3. Prijzen, to price, is Weak: hij hecft het linnen gcprijsd,
lie has marked the price on the linen.
4. Spijten ls Impersonal: het spijt mij, I am sorry.
5. Stijven, to encourage (harden), is Weal~. hif stijfd:e mij in
het kwade.


(a) (a) i, (b) e. (o) (o)
1. To begin, beginnen, begon, begonnen.
2. bind, bin den, bond, gebonden.
3. shine, blinken, blonk, geblonken.
4. strive for, dingen, dong, gedongen.
5. urge, dringen, drong, gedrongen.
6. drink, drink en, dronk, gedronken.
7. ,, force (coerce), dwingen, dwong, gedwongen.
8. gleam, gU.mmen, glom, geglommen.
9. ,, climb, klimmen, lclom, geklommen.
10. sound, klinken, klonk, geklonken.
11. shrink, krimpen, kromp, gekrompen.
12. ,, fallow (to open), ontginnen, ontgon, ontgonnen.
13. ,, get startled, schri1"7cen, (1) schrolc, ueschrokken.
14. ,, diminish in size, slinlcen, slonk, geslonken.
15. spin, svinnen, spun, gesponnen.
16. ,, jump, springcn, sprong, gesprongen.
17. , , stink, stinlcen, stonk, uc·stonlcen.
18. , , devour, verslinden, verslond, verslonden.
19. , , vanish, verzwinden, verzwond, 'i:crzicunden.
20. find, i·inden, i•ond, yevonden.
21. wind, u>inden, wond, gcwonden.
22. win, to gain, 'Winnen, won, gewonnen.
23. wring, wrinoen, wrong, gewrongen.
24. sing, zing en, zong, gezongen
25. sink, zinken, zonk, gezonken.
20. meditate, zinncn, zon, gezonnen.
1. put by, 7Jergen, borg, yoborgen.
2. delve (dig)' dclven, rlolf, gcdolven.
3. be worth, gel den. gold, gegolden.
4. carve, ker,von, lcorf, gekorven.
5. milk, melken, (2) molk, gemolken.
6. call names, sch olden, schold, gescholdon.
7. violate, schenden, schond, geschonden.
8. make a present, schcnlcen, schonk, ueschonken.
to pour,
9. melt, srnclten, smolt, gesrnolten.
10. hit, trefjen, trof, getrofjen.
11. pull, to journey, trekken, trolc, gctrokken.
12. fight, 1·echten, i•ooht, govochten.
13. plait, 1'lechten, vlooht, gevlochten.
14. send, zcnclen, zona, gezonden.
15. swallow, zwclgen, zwolg,' uezwolgen.
16. swell, zu:cllen, zicol, gezwollen.
17. swim, zwcmmen, Z'WOm, gezwommen.

NoTEs.-l. Sohrikken, to startle (trans.), is Weak. It is usually

replaced by "verschrikken": De tijding heeft ons allcn -ver-
schrikt. 2. Melken is also used Weak.

(a) ie, (b) e, PAST TENSE.PAST PART.
CLASS Ill. (C) U, (d) ui, (o) (o).
{a) (e) ij.
1. To deceive, bedriegen, bedroog, bedrogen.
2. ,, offer, bicden, bood, geboden.
3. ,, enjoy, gunieten, genoot, genoten.
4. ,, pour, to gieten, goot, gegoten.
5. ,, choose, kiczcn, lwos, gekozen.
6. ,, tell lies, liegen, loog, gclogen.
7. ,, shoot, schieten, schoot, geschoten.
8. ,, grieve, verdrieten, ( 1) verdroot, verdroten.
9. ,, lose, verliezen, verloor, 'l:crloren.
10. ,, flee, · vlieden, vlood, gevloden.
11. " fly, 'l:liegen, vloog, gevlogen.
12. ,, flow, vHeten, vloot, gevloten.
13. ,, freeze, vriezen, (2) vroor, ge1Yroren.
14. boil (seethe), zieden, (3) zood, gezoden.
(b) "
1. ,, shave (shear), schercn, schoor, geschoren.
2. weigh, :wcgen, woog, gcwogen.
3. ,, ulcerate, z1ccren, zwoor, gezworen.
1. ,, spit, spugen, (4) spoog, 11r•spogen.
1. ,, bend, buigcn, boog, gcbogen.
2. ,, drip, :druipen, droop, gedropen.
3. ,, dive, <Iuilcen, llook, yclloken.
4. ,, whistle, fiuiten, ftoot, geftoten.
5. ., gnaw (a bone), kluiven, kloof, gekloven.
Ci. ,, wheel (on kmien,(5) 7Grooi, gekrooien.
a barrow),
7. ,, creep, .l•ruipen, kroop, vckropen.
8. ,, close, 7i1ilcen, ( 6) look, go lo ken.
9. ,, fray out, pluizen, (7) ploos, ycplozen.
10. ,, smell, ruiken, rook, gcrokcn.
11. ,, take shelter, sch uilcn, ( 8) school, gescholen.
12. ,, move {shove), sohuit'en, sclloof, geschoven.
13. ,, smuggle, sluilcen, slook, gcsloken.
14. ,, sneak, sluipcn, sloop, geslopen.
15. ,, lock, sluiten, sloot, 1wsloten.
16. ,, blow (the snuiten, snoot, ye.snoten.
17. ,, sniff (take snitiven, snoof, gesnoi·en.
18. ,, sprout, spruiten, sprout, gesproten.
19. ,, spout, spuiten, spoot, nrspoten.
20. ,, raise dust, stuii;cn, stouf, gcstovcn.
21. ,, suck, zuigen, ~uog, gezogcn.
22. tipple, zuipen, zoop, gezopen.
1. ,, go(journey), tijgcn, (9) tuug, gctogen.

NoTES.-1. Tlerdrieten is Impersonal: hot verdriet mij, it grieves


2. Vriozen is also conjugated: vroos, gevrozen, which is

regular, but an uncommon form. On account of the
change of z to r, the form given on p. 255 is by some
calleu Anomalous.

3. Zicden is rarely useu.

4. Spugen is also uscu Weak.

5. Kruien is also used Weak.

6. Luiken is only used of flowers and the human eye.

7. Pluizen is only useu with the meaning of "to pick out"

(as wool), and "to examine (any matter) closely"; it is
nseu both Strong auu Weak.

8. Schuilen is also used Weak.

9. Tijgen has a complete conjugation, but the present tense

is rarely used. Another form of it is tiegen, occurring in
the contracted form beticen, to manage.


(a) e, (b) (a). (a) e, (b)
(a) i, (c) e. e, (c) o.
1. To eat, etcn, at, gcgcten.
2. ,, cure, genezen, genas, genezen.
3. ,, give, geven, uaf, gegeven.
4. ,, read, lezen, las, gelezen.
5. ,, measure, met en, mat, gcmeten.
6. ,, tread (step) , tr eden, trad, getreden.
7. ,, fqrget, 1:ergeten, i•ergat, vergeten.
8. ,, gorge, i•rctcn, vrat, govreten.
1. ,, pray, bidrlen, b.ad, gebcden.
2. ,, lie down, liggen, lag, gelegen.
3. ,, be sitting, zit ten, zat, gezeten.
1. ,, command, brrelon, boval, bevolen.
2. ,, break, brclccn, bralc, gebroken.
3. ,, take, ncmon, nam, genomen.
4. ,, speak, sprelr,en, sprak, gesproken.
5. ,, stab (put stcken, stal;;, gestoken.
6. ,, steal, stolen, stal, gestolen.
CLASSY. (a) a, (b) a, (a) a, (b) a,
(c) o, (cl) oe, PAST TENSE (c) o, (cl) oe,
(c) ou, (f) e, (ie). (e) ou, (f) e,
la) (g) e, (h) e. (g) o, (h) a.
1. To hlow, blazen, /Jlies, ge/Jlazen.
2. ,, let, la ten, liet, gel a ten.
3. ,, SlPelJ, slapen, sliep, geslapen.
1. ,, fall, rallen, gccallcn.
2. ,, grow (wax), u·assen, (1) tl'ies, gewassen.
1. ,, run (walk), lopcn, liep, gelopen.
1. · ,, call, roepen, riev, geroepen.
1. ,, hew, lwuwcn, hieuw, gelwuicen.
1. " lift, heffen, hiof, _qrhcven.
1. ,, corrupt becler'l:en, bedicrf, bcdorren.
2. ,, help, hclpen, hielp, grholpen.
3. ,, die, sten:en, stierf, pcstorven.
4. ,, throw, werpen, wierp, geworpen.
5. ,, recruit, werren, wierf, ge.worven.
G. ,, wander, .:· u:er crn, zwierf, gezwori•en .
1. ,, ereate, schcppen, (2) schiep, 11escl111pen.

NoTES.-1. 1Vasscn, to coyer with wax, is Weak.

2. Scheppcn, to scoov or dip out, is Wf'ak.


(a) (a) a, (b) e. (oe). (a) a, (b) o.
1. To carry dragcn, drOC!f, vrdragen.
2. " dig, graren, !froef, gcgra i·en.
3. ,, navigate 'L·aren, •:oer, ge'L·aren.
1. ,, swear (take zweren, ZtCOC1",
oath), ·


(a). (i). (a).
1. To hang, lwngPn, hing gehangen.
2. ,, catch, f"angen, .-ing, gcrangen.


(o). (e). ( o).
1. To become. wonlen, 1l"erd, gt'Worden,

GR.AMMAR. EXER. CI S ES.-Taaloefeningen.


Determine the stems of the following Verbs :

Denken; doen; vragen; blijven; zoeken; leven; zien;
hangen; zagen (to saw); liggen; brengen; drogen (to
dry) ; voelen; gaan; onderwijzen (to teach) ; proeven (to
taste); lessen (to quench) ; vissen; suizen (to rustle);
ruisen (to rustle); hakken; schoppen (to kick); dwalen
(to wander); poohen (to brag); bogen (to boast);
zuchten; lachen; wezen; bedelen (to beg); verblinden (to
blind); ontdoen (to strip); rekken (to stretch); tornen
(to unpick); naaien; mazen (to darn); breien (to knit);
haken (to crochet) ; zomen (to hem) ; stikken (to stitch) ;
bedragen (to amount to); wassen; beloven (to promise);
lezen; vrc::cn; lrnssen (to ki:;;s) ; kuchen (to C'ough) ;
stoven (to stew) ; koeren (to coo) ; lcwelen (to warble) ;
tjitpen (to chirp) ; slaan; piepen; gichelen (to giggle) ;
oorlogen (to wage war) ; vuren (to fire) ; schieten; vellen
(to fell) ; villcn (to flay) ; vallen; bespotten (to mock) ;
verbreken (to lireak) ; vcrhuren (to hire out).


Write out the singular and plural forms of the Im·

perative .:\food of all the above Verbs; also the first
person, singular and plural, of the TndiC'atiYe Present.


1. Write out the third person, singular, of the Indicative

and Subjnnctive Present of the following Verbs:
Besteden (to spend); vertellen; ergeren (to vex); spit-
ten (to di~) ; raden (to guess) ; overreden (to prevail
upon); duwen (to push); duren (to last); zetten; plaat-
Jien; misseny· fronsen (to frown); helen (to heal); ver-
1.'HE VERB 259

helen (to hide); gedijen (to thrive); ontleden (to ana-

lyse); verschepen (to ship); temmen (to tame); laven
(to refresh) ; zalven (to anoint) ; inenten (to vaccinate) ;
mesten (to manure); landen; rusten; plan:ten; dulden
(to endure); troosten (to comfort); branden; roosten (to
roast); braveren (to brave); ontberen (to do without);
geschieden (to happen); kwaken (to croak); schroeven
(to screw); gooien (to throw); schrobben (to scrub);
schuren (to scour); beletten (to prevent); draven (to
trot); verlaten (to leave); ontzetten (to set free); kruisen
(to cross).


Of the above Verbs write out the Stem, the Past Tense
(first person, singular) and the Past Participle.


In the following exercise write the words in italics in

the Plural:
Hoe laat is uw broeder aangekomen? Het paard kan
de ioagen niet trekken; de jongen zal het moeten uitspan-
nen; zvlk een dier is veel te zwak voor die vracht. Waar·
om heeft de man het gat zo diep gegraven '? lk vcrtelde
hem dat het boek niet gedrukt kon worden; maar hij wilde
rnij niet geloven. KinrZ, kind, wat zal er toch van je
groeien? Hoe dikwels heb ik je niet gewaarschuwd ! Ik
had mij gewassen, v66r ik in de kamer kw am. W ie is
vandaag hier geweest? Wannccr wordt uw vriend ver-
wacht? M·ijn vader zei mij, dat ik mij in die pf'rsoon
vergist moest hebben. Denk aan wat ik 11 zo dikwels
gezegd heb: het is de slechtste perzik niet waaraau de
wesp knaagt. De ti.mmerman zaagt het hout. Het jonge
meisje bood mij een kleine ruiker aan. Hoe dikwels baadt
hij zich gewoonlik? De ooievaar kuiert langs de sloot, om
te zien of h'i.i er geen kikker uit kan halen, die hij dan
lekker opsrnult. De telegraafpaal staat eenzaam in het
veld. De adelaar bouwt zijn nest op de top van een
lwge berg.


Of the following Verbs write out the third person,

singular and plural, of the Indicative Present.
Binden; delven (to dig); spelen)· straffen; beloven (to
promise) ; was sen). bepalen (to decide) ; vragen ). snijden;
onthalcn (to treat); lezen)· gaan)· scheiden (to separate);
weven (to weave); schrijven)· vrezen; streven (to strive) ;
beseffen (to realise); oorlogen (to wage war); staren (to
stare) ; zaaien; voeden ). heten (to be called) ; · zich herin-
neren (to remember) ; bewijzen (to prove) ; bidden (to
pray); antwoorden)· slaan.

Of the following sets of Verbs write out the Stem, Past
Tense (first person, sing. and plur., and the second
person), and Past Participle.


NoTE.-Some Verbs having a single a in the l'ast Tense, the sound

of whieh is full in the plural, douLle the a iu the se<'ond
person: ik ba~. jij baadt; ik las, jij laast.

Bieden (to offer) ; blijken (to appear) ; bergen (to put

aside); drinken; eten)· genezen (to cure); breken; fiuiten
(to whistle) ; kiezen (to choose) ; vriezen ). hangen ). glim-
rnen (to gleam) ; lezen ). lopen ). nemen ). schelden (to call
l!arnes); rnetcn (to measure); schrijven; sluiten)· slijten
(to wear out); schenken (to give or pour); stelen)·
sprekcn; smelten ). vangen ). v<Jchten.


Strong, Mixed, Anomalous Verbs ( §§ XX, :XXI,

Houden; sluipen (to steal); raden)· zoeken)· zeggen;
i·ergeten ). plegen ). verliezen ). lac hen; was sen). dun ken).

wezcnj u:en:en (to levy an army); zitten_; jagen)· bakkenj

z'ullen)· zwcren (to swear); moetenj wassen; laden)·
zwijgen)· wrijven; kopenj brouwen)· wevenj zweren (to
ulcerate) ; stcrven j wreken j begraven j den ken; zien;


Compound and Derivative Verbs ( § XXVl) :

Leerlooien; losmaken ). beeldhouwen (to sculpture) ;

z,ie/hebbenj v6lhouden; volharden)· volgietenj volbrengen
(to accomplish) ; ontvangen ). antwoorden; dagvaarden ).
61;erwerken)· onderg<ian)· hcrroepen)· grootspreken)· vrij-
laten)· nalopenj doorreizen; zegevieren/ wanhopen)·
mishugcn)· misschieten (to miss in shooting) ; v6llopen (to
run full); verovercn (to conquer); onderwerpen (to sub-
due); doorbladeren (to permie); evenaren; v6orkomen)·
{1itlopen (to sprout) ; ontluiken (to open, of flowers) ;
overdrijven ). voorzeggen.


lVritc out the following eJ:ercise) first in the third

person, wingulnr; then in the second person) pl,ural)· and
lastly in the third per.~on, plural) ·using tltrougho1lt the
tenses as they art! girPn
lk sprak met mijn rnder en wees hem de brief, die ik
geschreyen had. lk vertelde rni.jn oom wat mij op de
weg overkomen was, en hoe ik bijna een ongeluk liad ge-
J.-regen. Op school hoorde i.k van -mijn onderwijzer, dat
ik de c>erste op de lijst stond, en dat i.k dus een prijs zou
krijgen. Ik schreef het blad vol, en vouwde toen de
brief op, en deed hem in een koevert. Ik riep de postbode
toe, dat ik hem zou verklagen, indien ik weer zo iets
merkte. Ik zal het aannemen, als ik mag, maar ik weet
Itiet, of mijn vader het mij zal toelaten. Ik geloof niet,

dat ik mijzelf zoveel kwaad doe, als hij mij wijs wil
maken. lk kan het niet helpen, dat ik niet eerder ge-
komen ben : mijn . vader heeft mij om e~n boodschap
• gezonden, en daardoor moest ik wel later komen. Ik
ben van morgen vroeg op geweest, maar nu ga ik ook
noeg ~aar bed. Ik wil het hem niet zeggen, want ik
houd er niet van, geheimen te verraden. Het zal mij
wezenlik veel genoegen doen, als ik morgen door dit werk
been kom. Ik behoef mij daarover niet te schamen, dat
ik met mijn eigen handen mijn brood verdien. Ik kan
ervan Z\~ggen, wat ik wil; gehoorzaamd word ik toch niet.
Jk zou wel graag naar de kerk gaan, maar ik ben bang dat
ik erg verkouden worden zal. Heb ik mij niet altijd
fatsoenlik gedragen? Had ik mij ooit aan die familie
opgedrongen? Had ik mij niet kunnen verrijken ten koste
van mijn vrienden, en heb ik ooit iemand te kort gedaan?
'Vil ik ecns gaan rijden, dan zadel ik zelf mijn paard,
want ik houd er niet van de knecht altijd lastig te vallen
voor mijn plezier.


In the folloicing eJJercise cltauge the Infinitive form of

the rerb into the required form of (l8t) the Present
'l'ense, (2nd) the Past, and (3rd) the Future of the
Indicative Mood.

iliijn tante (geven) les aan vier kinderen; zij ( doen)

hun best en (maken) goede vorderingen. Er (zijn) eeu
zware wolk op de berg; het ( duren) niet meer lang of het
( regenen) . De trein ( razen) en ( rommelen), terwijl h ij
ons (voorbijvliegen). De mannen (werken) vandaag
aan de wcg; zij (rusten) en (gebruiken) hun middag-
maal. Met welke boot (vertrekken) uw vriend naar
Aust.ralie? Een jager (lo pen) over het veld en ( dragen)
zijn geweer onder de arm. De kinderen (baden) zich
eerst in de dam en (kleden) zich daarna aan. De zwaluw
(zitten) op ~en taken (fluiten) een vrolik deuntje, terwijl
zijn wijfje de eieren (broeden). Waarom (laden) de
soldaat zijn geweer? Een hevig onweer (losbreken)
'l'Hl!l rERB 263

over de stad. De zon om zeven uur (ondergaan). De man

(graven) diep in de grond. De wind (suizen) door de
bomen en ( doen) de dorre bladeren ritselen. De generaal
(handhaven) de eer van de republiek. Het gedrag van
mijn neef (mishagen) onze rektor. Onze tuinman
(leiden) water in de tuin. Ilet koper (verscheept wor-
den) te Port Nolloth. De luie kinderen (gestraft worden)
dool' de onderwijzer. Na een uur de pijn (6vergaan).


Fill in the endings and complete the grammatical

forms in the following emercise.
De boer ploeg-, zaai- en eg- het land, en boop-
dan op regen om het zaad te laat- groei-. De man en
zijn zoon zat- in de kar en reed- ons voorbij zonder
ons te merken. Toen wij ons van morgen in de rivier
wild- baad-, zaag- wij er een- groot- slang in
rondzwem-. Iloud- u van warm- melk? De met-
selaar-· heb- de muur- gepleister-. nranneer word--
dit meel gemaal-? Had- uw neef zich niet zo ver ge-
waag-, hij zou zijn been niet gebrook- heb--. Hoor-
u die twee vogels, welk- <laar hoven in de boom zit- te
zing-? llij ga- morgen verneem-, of hij kans heef-
de betrekking te krijg-. Wij kon- uw- broeder niet
overreed-, met ons mede te kom-. Deze boeken zou--
al uitgegeef- zijn, als de kist vroeg- bezorgd was. Pw-
ouders waar- zcer ongerus-, toen zij niets van u hoor--.
De boom- word- dit jaar niet gesnoei-. Door wie
zul- de proef-van dit werk gelees-wor--? Beef- hij
niet beloof- je te help-, als je in nood waar-? Waar·
om kom- bij nu zijn belofte niet na? Hoelang waar-
vader en zoon gescheid- gewees-? Al de pad- in
ons- tuin zijn gegruis-. Het lti.u.d.J!eef- maar drie
11ur- geleef.,_, nad~ het gey,-al- w.~~,;.. \ ~
' 'l t %~ ~ ~-~~~...
"\.... .,.~-.\'.< ~ ~


Jn the following rxercisc change the Infinitive form.

of the Verb into (1st) the Present Perfect, and (2nd) the
Jt'uture Perfect.

pr ind the use of the Auxiliaries hebben and zijn, § 1 V,

in the Perfect and Future Perfect.)

.Mijn vader - mij niet (straffen), maar - mij (zeggen)

dat het niet weer gebeuren moet. De vogels - een rustig
plekje (uitzoeken) en - daar een nestje (bouwen),
waarin zij hun eieren - (leggen). De kinderen - zich
,-Jug (wassen) en (aankleden) en - nu de tuin (ingaan).
De vleermuis - de gehele nacht in de kamer (rond-
vliegen) : hij - door het open raam (inkomen). Al de
leerlingen - een halve dag Yrij (hebbeu) en - die ti.id
(gebruiken) om de brieven te beantwoorden, die zij van
huis (onfrangen) - . Dit kind - lang ziek (wezen), en
al die tijd - haar onderwijzeres haar geregeld (6p·
zoeken). - er zoveel ongelukken op dit pad (gebeuren) '?
Neen, de municipaliteit - het in orde (l:iten hrengen)
(See § XI, Ob?S.). De kleine Yarkens - onder fle heg
(doorkruipen), en - veel schade in de tnin (doen). Hoe
lantr - het romeinRe rijk (best aan) •t :;\fijn broe1' -- ziek
(worden), nadat hij- (vallen). Om hoe laat- fle Ies
( heginnen)? Onze beste koeien - deze winter ( sterven).
~fen - dat ongeluk niet (kunnen voorkomen). vVanneer
- de begrafenis (plaats hebben). Ik - er niet bi.j tegen-
woordig (zijn). Door wie - deze peren (geplukt
worden) ? Deze vaas - ( hreken), omda t de ka t erop
( springen) - . Ilet ijs in de sloot - ( on1.Uooien). zodra
de zon warm - (worden).


.Empress the followinlJ in tlze Passi11e roice (§ X, e 5).

ne slag-er slacht de koe. De os trekt de ploeg. De
e1Rl heeft de lrnr getrokken. De man hail de hond

geslagen. Ik schrecf een brief. Waarom heeft mijn

moeder mij geroepen? Had het on weer veel schade
gedaan '! In twee uren leer ik al mijn lessen. De hond
zal zijn meester gevonden hebben. Het menselik lichaam
kan veel ziekte verdragen. Men vindt in sommige delen
van dit land nog olifanten. De wet beschermt de
sekretarisvogel. Verscheidene maleu heb ik aan uw
deur geklopt, maar nieniand heeft mij gehoord. Waar-
om had men hem niet gezegd, dat men hem zijn verzoek
niet kon toestaan '! ·wij zullen onze reis voortzetten,
zodra de zware regens ophouden. Waarin vangt men
het regenwater op?-heeft u dat al ooit onderzocht?
Napoleon de Grote won de slag bij Austerlitz. Men
speelde in dat hotel veel biljart. Miju oom zou die man
vertrouwd hebben, als ik hem niet gewaarschuwd bad.
De goudmijnen hebben Zuid-Afrika in menig opzicht
voordeel aangebracht. vVie heeft de boekdrukkunst uit-
gevonden? De Duilsers zeggen dat Gutenberg hem
uitgevonden heeft. l\1en heeft de luiheid het oorkussen
van de duivel genoemd. l\len kan die man niet over-
redPn, zijn testament te maken. Zouden de kinderen
hun vader niet hebben kunnen weerhouden van zulk een
dwaze ~tap? Men zegt, dat de vijand de bergpas bezet


E'.rpress tlw following in the Active Voice (§ X, c. 5).

Het huis zou door die metselaar gebouwd (geworden)

zijn, indien ik eerder van die man gehoord had. Dehaas
is door de jager neergeschoten (geworden), nadat hij
door de hond opgejaagd was (geworden). Werden de
paarden in vroegcre eeuwen ook beslagen, of werd hun
hoef toen niet beveiligd tegen de ruwe stenen, die toch
altijd op de wegen gevonden worden? De muizen zouden
in de val gevangen kunnen worden, indien er een Rtukje
spek ingelegd werd. Er wordt gezegd, dat de mijn ge-
sloten zal worden. Er werd gisteren avond laat aan de

deur geklopt. Er is mij vandaag een brief gezonden

( geworden) door iemand, die mij geheel onbekend is.
Door zulke hulp zal deze vrouw niet veel gebaat worden.
De gehele dag werd daar piano gespeeld. Alle bomen
waren door de tuinman verplant (geworden), zonder dat
hem daarvan door mijn vader iets gezegd was (geworden).
Het geld, dat door u verkwist wordt, zou gebruikt kun-
nen worden tot leniging van de nood van de armen, die
in de omtrek gevonden worden. Dit onrecht zou u niet
aangedaan (geworden) zijn, als ik hier geweest was. Er
zijn hier in de laatste tijd veel paarden van edel ras
ingevoerd (geworden). Door wie zijn deze woorden in
mijn boek geschreven (geworden)? Door wie wordt nog
aan znlke dwaasheden geloofd?


Jn the jollou:ing c.rerdi;cs put the l'erbs in the tenses


Jn minder dan een maand tijds - [verliezen, Pa8t]

deze man het gcbele fortuin, dat hij met spekuleren - -
.[makcn, l'l11perf.]. - [levcn, Subj. Past] mijn goede
vader nu nog maar Deze dame - al haar kinderen -
[verliezen, Perf.]; zij - allen jong - [sterven, Perf.];
nu - ook haar Pchtgenoot - [overlijden, Perf.], en -
[achterblijven, Pres.] zij geheel alleen -. .A.ls alles
goed - [gaan, l'res.], - [weerzien, Pres.] u mij van-
daag over veertien dagen -. Het - yannacht zo zwaar
- [regenen, Pcrf.], clat de gehele tuin - - [6nderlope11,
Pcrf.]. Waarom - u nict aan de heer H. - [schrijven,
Perf.]? Ik - hem - [schrijven, J!'ut.] zodra ik tijd -
Lkrijgen, Pres.]. Deze jonge dames - [besteden, Past]
al haar tijd aan muziek en tekenen, toen zij op Rchool -
[zijn, Past]. Het schip - [komen, Post] gisteren avond
in de Imai, en - [landen, Past] van morgen. De dief -

niet - - [inbreken, Subj. Fut. Per/.], als mijn vader

te huis - - [wezen, Pluperj.]. Het huis, dat ik - -
- [laten bouwen, Per/.], is nu - [verhuren, Past Part.].
- [hebben, Subj. Past] ik maar een vriend tot wie ik mij
- - [wenden kunnen, Past]! Gisteren -- ik een brief
- [schrijven, Per/.], en morgen - ik er twee - [schrij-
ven, Fut.] Al de melk - - - [overkoken, Subj. Fut.
Per/.] als ik niet in de keuken - - [komen, Pluperj.].
· - [weten, Subj. Plupcrf.J ik -, dat mijn vader zo ziek
-· [wezcn, Past], ik - dadelik - [terugkeren, Subj.
Pluperj.]. .Tuist toen wij - - [verhuizen, Plupcrj.]
- [worden, Past] mijn moeder zo zwaar ziek, dat de
tlokter het ergste [vrezen, Past.]; - [zijn, Subj. Pluperj]
- Maria toen niet bij mij --, ik - niet - - [weten,
Subj. Fut. Per/.] wat - - [doen, Inf.]. Ilet hof -
gisteren - [zitten, Per/.], en de zaak van de heer A.
- voor - [wczcn, Perf.]; de rechter - echter nog geen
uitspraak [doen, Per/.]. Hoe Jang - de vcrgadering
- [durcn, }'ut.]?


Cse a.ll r erbs refiexi cc, and in the tenses -indicated

{ §XIX):

:.\Iijn paard - - [bezeren, perj.] door - tegen de post

van de ::italdeur - - [stotcn, inf.]. - [vergissen, pres.]
u - niet, als u zegt, dat al die mensen - - - [rnrkleden
pl u per/.). - [ verbeelden, imperative] -, dat men mij ver-
telt, dat hij - in die man - - [bedriegen, perf.]. Mijn
vriend - [storen, pres.] - niet aan wat men van hem
zegt, hierdoor - [benadelen, pres.] hij - dikwels. Toen
de zon opging - [wassen, past] de vogels - in bet
beekje, en - [strijken, past] - toen de veertjes glad. De
kinderen - [aanmatigen, past] - te veel vrijheid -. -
[bedenken, imperative] - wcl, eer gij - tot zo iets -

[verbinden, pres]. Deze vrouw - - niet - [ontzien,

pcrf.] - op mijn vroegere vriendschap - - [beroepen,
inf.]. Vroeger geloofde men, dat de zon - om de aarde
- [bewegen, past]. lk - [schamen, pres.] - niet
alleen over u w gedrag, maar - [bedroeven, pres.] er -
over. \Vij - - gisteren avond zeer aangenaam met
dat jonge meii:;je - [onderhOuden, perf.]. Wij - [zullen
past] - op die partij - - [amuseren, perf.], als wij
de gasten wat beter gekend hadden. lk - [kunnen,
pres.] -niet [hegrijpen, inf.], dat u - over deze bandel- ·
wijze - [beklagen, pres.]; u - [kunnen, pres.] - toch
niet - - [verbeelden, inf., perf.], dat ik - met de gehele
zorg - - [belasten, sitbj., fut.], zodat er niets voor u
te doen overhleef. - [herinneren, pres.] zij - de naam·
njet meer? Als u - niet - - [haasten, pluperf.], was
u de trein mii:;gelopen. Ileb ik u niet gezegd, dat u -
voor die man - - [hoeden moeten, past]? Voor hem
- (kunnen, pa.~t] ik - al die moeite niet - [getroos- ·
ten, inf.]. Als wij - niet oyer dat arme mens
[ ontfermen, pl1iperf.], was zij zeker van gebrek omge-


Substitute for the Infinitive form.'! whatever tense fits

in with the context:

De bijbel (zeggen), dat die (Sing) niet werken (willen)

ook niet eten (moeten). Al (zijn) de leugen nog zo snel,
de waarheid (achterhalen) hem wel. Het oog van de
meester (maken) bet paard vet. De ware wijsheid
( wegen) zijn woorden; de zot (fiappen) ze gedachteloos
uit. Uisteren (lezen) ik een mooi boek. Van morgen
(zeggcn, § XY, Obs. 3) mijn Yader mij dat hij een nieuw
paard ( kopen). Rome ( yerwoesten) Karthago. Julius
Cmsar (zijn) een romeins veldheer. Als het morgen nog
zo (regenenJJ ik thuis (moeten blijven). Waarom (zeg-
s l'
THE "VERB 2()9

gen) u hem niet, dat u het niet (doen)? Verleden jaar

(dragen) onze vruchtbomen zo vcel, dat wij meer
vruchten (hebben) dan wij gebruiken (kunnen). Waar-
aan (sterven) uw koe? (Komen) de dokter toch maar:
Door wie (tekenen) deze kaart? l\Iijn moeder hoopt,
dat zij u nog (zien). Als bij het doet, ik hem (straffen).
Als zij het deed, ik haar (straffen). De dienst in de kerk
gisteren lang ( duren). Wat hij ook ( zeggen), (gel oven)
hem niet. Zij vroeg, of ik haar nu betalen (kunnen).
Als u uw plicht ( doen), u niet in moeielikbeid ( raken).
Als mijn vader mij roept, (komen) ik. Als hij mij riep,
( komen) ik. Als hij mij roepen zal, ik (komen). Als
hij mij geroepen bad, ik (Immen). Toen de Hollanders
zich aan de Kaap (vestigen), (worden) het land door
wilde stammen bewoond. :N"adat hij het telegram (le;i:en),
(overhandigen) hij het aan mij. (Mogen) deze vreselike
gebeurtenis u tot waarschuwing strekken. (Luisteren)
mijn zoon maar naar mijn vermaningen ! Toen de vogel
( zien), dat bet deurtje van de kooi open ( zijn), ( vliegen)
hij er uit. Als het paard (voelen), dat het los (zijn), het


Fill up the blanks and complete the verbal forms iii

the following exercises :

Beide de aarde en de maan word- door d- zon

verlich-, en laat- dus schaduw val- iu d- ruimte
achter zich. Korn- de maan nu bij zijn omloop juist
achter d- aarde, dan word- hij verduister-. Goed-
kinderen heb- het altijd druk. Een verstandig kind
.zorg- voor tijd tot slaap-, eet-, speel- en leer-. l\Ien
verbeuzel- de ogenblik-, en uur- en dag- zijn uit
ogenblik- sameugestel-. Het waar- te wens- dat hij
eindelik naar mijn raad luister-. U en uw broer kun-
beid- gaau. Hij of zijn vader moet d- boom omhak-.
Yroeger werd- door d- vorsten een- overgroot-

macht uitgeoefen-, toen d- gemeen- man geloof-,

dat de edellieden van ander- bloed gemaak- waar-·
dan zijzelv-. Wij baad- ons gisteren tweemaal in d-
dam. Zijwormen leef- van moerbeiblad-. Louw
"\Vepeners mannen had- d- berg bestorm-, maar
waar- teruggeslaag-: hij zou hem neem-. Toen d--
verraderlik- kogel hem vel-, ent- zij hun- bloed
met het zijn- en bewees- op heidens- wijze hem de
grootst- eer. Zuid-Afrika, bij behoor- tot uw- dapper-
st- zoon-! Kostbaar blijf- zijn- voorbeeld aan allen.
Neen, gij stierf- niet vergeefs: u- volk volg- u-
rnorbeeld, en strijd- als gij, totdat all- hinderpaal-
uit d- weg geruim- zijn. De arm- boer geloof- d-
schelmerij en reed- verheug- naar huis, om er zijn-
vrouw van te vertel-. D- oneerlik- telegrafist had--
d- nieuw- schoenen gestool- en zijn- eigen- oud-
aan d- draad gehang-.



[On §XIII, The translation of the Infinitive.]

Tell the waiter to bring me a glass of water. Can ~·ou

lPnd me some money? I have not enough with (bij) me
to pay iliis bill. 'l'he distance is too long to walk, we
shall have to (moeten) drive there (er heen). To have
told (if one had told) the girl of her friend's death in
her pre~mnt weak state, (it) might have caused a serious
relapse. Only one man escaped alive to tell the fearful
tale. Go and tell Mr. B. that I (bij hern) will call at
(op) his office at three o'clock this afternoon. To read
good books lsee Rule II, p. 10!)) improve.:; the mind.
It would have been pleasant to take a ride llefore sumise
this morning. ·why don't you come to see me oftener?
You know it is too cold now for me to go ut. To ( voor)
THE !'ERR 271

that poor woman to live would have been to suffer. Since

ruy friends have gone to live in (the) town, I feel very
lonely. Why did (are) you not come and tell me that
you had no money to pay your tram fare? Can't you
tead1 that boy to speak properly? To try is to succeed.


[On § XY, ~'heuse of Tenses, and § l V, The use of the

Auxiliaries hebben and zijn.]
While I was :;weeping this morning, l fourn.l the lost
ring. Did you tell the man not to go to the front door?
I wonuer (.:on u:el eens willen weten) what (er) has
become of my cousin, who left for America two year:; ago.
'Vhen shall l see you again (Present tense)? To-day
(over) fortnight. 'J'he l!'rench have gradually extended
iheir power in Madagascar. .My brother has just arrived
in time for ihe concert. I have been walking about the
whole moming, anu feel very tired. Did you walk or
<lriYe to the :;tation? l walked, because I found I had
plenty of time. To-day week (over ecn week) we intend
leaving for :Natal. How uid the fire originate? lly the
earelessnes:; of a man who lit his pipe in the workshop,
and dropped the burning match among the shavings.
I have cro:;sed the brook without the lem1t tronhle. There
have been poor people at all time:;. How long has this
eornpany been in existence (exi:_...ted)? 1t w:1:; tis)
founded in 188G. These girhi have grown wry much
since last I saw them. 'J'he acciuent would not have
happened, if the guard had remained at his post.: Since
the boy':; father died he hm:i had to (rnocten) provide
for himself.


[Un §§TX, X .~, n, c, The 118<' of the l'a;;sive.]

fhe flowers are beiug planted b,1 the gardener this

morning. Has he been told where io plant them? Yes,
I told him (that) they should he planted along the grass

border. All the~:;e exercises were (have been) correrted

by the teacher this morning. Thi.s child is (being)
puni.shed for the second time today. Jf I had been warned
in time, I should not have got into trouble. M.r room
will be pavered to-monow. I >id .vou think the child
would he pnnished for not knowing (because he did not
know) his lesson? lie certainly ought to (behoorde)
have been punisbeu. I was present when the names of
the applicants were (being) read out. lf the new town
hall had been built of hewn stone, it would look more
impm;ing. If the murderer were found out, he would
be banged. The camel is found in the desert regions
of Africa and Asia. Heavy firing was going on when
I left the camp. Flowers should (behorcn) not be picked
while the snn is hot. Is enough wheat raised in this
country to meet the demands of consumption? \Vas
the boy told (had - been told) to attend to the horse?


[On § X, A, B, and c_. The use of zijn and worden.]

J'ra111:1late into English:

Zou u tevreden geweest zijn, als men u de helft van uw

loon (earnings) onthouden (kept bacl~) had? 1''aarom
werd de kerkklok van middag geluid (to ring)? Omdat
een va.n de oudste bewoners van het dorp, diP gestorven
is, begraven werd. De boot zou gisteren avond al aan-
gekomen zijn, als de wind niet zo tegen (contrary) ge-
·weeRt waR. De bomen zijn van hnn laatste bladeren
beroofd (deprived) door de wind en regen van de laatste
dagen. De lichten in de kerk waren om zes uur al aan-
gestoken (Tit). De kracht van de stoom is op zeer een-
voudige wijze door Sir Isaac Newton ontdekt. Is uw
lJroeder reeds vertrokkPn? Is uw oom tot magistraat
benoemd ( u ppointed) ? Ts uw vriend bevoegd (qualified)
tot het vervullen van zulk een gewichtige ( i'.mportant)
betrekking ( po8t) ? Geschiedenis wordt in die school

niet ult boeken geleerd, maar alles wordt de kinderen

vertel<l. Zijn al uw paarden beslagen (shod)'? De bomen
waren uiet omgehakt, toeu ik de grond koeht. 1 k zou
uiet zo augRtig geweest ziju, als mij niet. verteld was,
·<lat de i:ipoorlijn door de zware regens op verscheidene
plaatsen weggespoeld (washed away) was. l>e haas is
door de jager neergeschoten, nadat hij door de hond
opgejaagd was (ltad started him). Was de man niet ziek
.geworden, dan zou dit werk al Jang klaar zijn.


ron § X, A, B, and c, The different renderings of "to be''

as a Copulative and an Auxiliary of Voice.]

Do not take the bread out of the oven. it is not suffi-

ciently baked yet. ,\Jl the cake ha::; bee11 eate11 hy ihe
children. lf there had been time, these boxes would
have heen 1:1belled. 'I'he peculiar properties of tlw load-
-stone were known to the Chinese long Lefore the compass
was introduced into Europe by the Venetian trilYelle.r
Marco Polo. If f had been called in time, I shonl<l not
have been late for breakfast. The dictionary ha::; been
carefully revised, so that the new edition will be mueh
improved. The child would have been delighted, if ::;he
had been asked to take part in the entertainment. During
ihat severe winter all our rivers were frozen over, and
there was a good deal of (er iccrd veel) skating and
sledging ( schaatsen gereden en ge.~leed). The poor child
was Ro frightfully burned that his lif'P was despaired of
from the first (van ltct begin af). The poor man would
have been satisfied if he had only been told that his child
was out of danger. 'l'here have been several fires on tlie
mountains round about lately, and it is to be feared (to
fear) that the wood about some of the fountains has
l•een destroyed. Would you have believed this man to
be (that . _ . was) capable of such a vile act?


[On § XIY, The translation of the Pres. and Past Part.J

~Iy father is very fond of walking. 1 saw the man
picking up the letter. It is only l.Jy working from early
morning till late at night, that the poor widow has been
able to provide for her children thus far (tot nn toe).
Early rising is conduciYe to (the) health. Thinking the
child had gone with his father, the mother was not
anxious at not finding him (when she did not find him)
on (bi_i) her return home (thniskomst). Crossing this
hridge at night is very dangerous. Haying lost the
letter, the boy ran home in grrat distress. The young
people spent the evening (rnet) dancing and playing
games. Travelling in foreign countries is not only
pleasant but instructive. Walking up St. John's Street
thi.s morning, T met an old college friend of mine (see
Chapter VIII, p. 188). Columbus supposed that (he),
by Railing dne west [heJ would reach India. The boy
not noticing that he kept making (continually (steeds)
made) the Rarne rniRtake, spent an hour trying to get
his sum right. On hearing his father'R haril acrusation
the young man left the house in desµair. 'l'be boyR, not
being aware of thP depth of the riYei·, wPre on the point
of jumping in, when 1 called to them. What have you
been doing this morning'! I have been reading in my
room. Harn you ever heard ~1isR B. recite? My mother
asks me to tell you, that she will come to see you before
you leave. As a laRt re!'murce the poor man haR gone
to work in the mineR.


[On § XTI (b), and Kote, The use of the Subjunctive


Translate into Dutch, employing the Subjuncti?:e ]I.food:

llad you done your duty, you would have been reward-
ed. l:IioweYer that be, I know that I cannot trust him.

,~·erehe in better circumstances, he would not he so sad.

If he had done right, he would have no fear. If I were
your teacher, I should not allow it. Whatever may
happen, I shall remain true to you. Be that as it may,
I consider myself free to think as I choose. If he had
only had a loving mother, he would not have been so
reckless. 1f the doctor had a larger practice, he would
be happier. 'l'hat would never have occurred, had he
had you to advise him. If every man were prudent and
conscientious, there would be very little poverty. (The)
Heaven grant that I may see my native country once
more ! God forbid that you should ever steal. May the
king grant our urgent request! May Son1h Africa once
be one large united country!


[On §XIX, and Chap. VIII, p. 186, Obs. 6, Reflexive

Yerbs and the use of zelf.]

My brother has hurt himself on the knee, while chop-

ping down the old apple-tree at the back of ( acliter in)
the garden. I find I have not been mistaken in the good
opinion I had of that young girl. Fancy, when I came
home this morning, I heard that my dog had died. Why
do you want me to do (that I should do) a thing which
yon would not do your·self'! When we were at the farm,
we bathed in the large pond every morning before sun-
rise. InsteaJ of repenting of his misdeeds, this young
fellow boasts of (it) having (that he has) deceived his
employer so cleverly. Are you going out this morning?
No, I have changed my mind; I shall rather stay at home
and prepare for the reading class this evening. You ought
to be ashamed of yourself; this is the second time (that I
you have failed iu the examination. The pioneers who
settled in Mm;honaland have had to put up with many
hardships. Before going out to a new country, these
young people ought to have made sure of what oppor-
tunities they would have there of getting on. Don't you

remember (that) I told you at the time (that) you

should hesitate to accept so much kindness from a mere
stranger? I cannot understand why your brother did not
complain of the unjust treatment he was undergoing
at school (die hem aangedaan werd). He did not do so,
hecause he would rather suffer himself, than bring dis-
grace on his schoolmates.


[On § XXVI, Note 3, Compound Verbs changing their

meaning according to the way the accent falls.]

Just (to ch eens) weigh this letter oyer again, I am

afraid it is overweight. My brother has been travelling
all over Europe ( doorreizen) ; and has brought a fine
collection of views and curios from the different coun-
tries he has visited. Our gardener predicts (voorspellen)
fine weather for to-morrow, and as the old man very
rarely makes a mistake, I think we can safely arrange
for the picnic. All these years this young girl has pro-
vided for her mother. The man seemed so convinced of
the truth of my statement, that he walked away without
uttering a ( enlcel) word in reply. When I returned to the
study, I found that the inkpot had been upset over my
work, and that the ink had penetrated (door . . . hecn-
gcdrongen) (the) most of my papers, so that I had to
write the greater (greatest) part of my work over again.
It was quite touching to see the clerk, when my father
told him that he would overlook his misdeed, and give
him a chance to undo the past; the tears rushed to his
eyes (him in the eyes), and he had the greatest difficulty
to keep down his emotion. I have carefully considered
the contents of this letter, but llie t hoe) more I think
of it (erover), the more (des te) convinced I feel (my-
self) that the report is much exaggerated. ~fany of the
railway accidents that have happened in the course of
this year might have been prevented, if the persons
'l'llE VERB :.!77

i•esponsible had simply done their duty. The sun was

(aan het) setting as we reached home. The heayy rain-
clouds were dispersing; the moon rose stately behind the
pine-wood, and threw her soft light over the peaceful.


[On § XXII, Impersonal Verbs.]

You must have been surprised not to see me at the

station, since I made an appointment to meet you there;
but as it was very windy and I had a bad cold, I could
11ot venture out. I was very sorry, indeed, to miss my
last opportunity of seeing you before your departure.
It had been raining and blowing all (the whole) night,
but in the morning the clouds parted, and the rising sun
brought rest to nature and joy to man and beast. I have
been instructed (to me is instructed) to inform you,
that the council have (has) L!een pleased to accpde to your
request. It did strike me (insert •wel,') that your friend
did not look well, but I had no idea (that) he was really
ill. Of course you are free to do as you please, lmt it is
so misty this evening, that 1 think it would be very risky
for you to go out. T am grieved to hear you speak so
disrespectfully of your teachers; even if they should be
to blame (scltitld lzeb/Jen) in this matter, you have no
right to speak like that (so). I was overtaken by such
a severe thunderstorm on my way io ihe village, that
I had to take shelter in a deserted hut that happened to
be near (die zich geluklcig in de nabijheid 'bcrond). l do
not recollect ever to have witnessed such thunder and
lighining. lt struck me that the reading was particularly
good at that school; it certainly reflects great credit on
the teacher who has (the) charge of that particular
branch of instruction. I do not know what is the
matter with this tree, that it will not grov1. ~:V watch
differs so much from the station-clock, that l very nearly

missed the train. It would have made a great difference

to me, if I had had someone to show me how to do the
work. He does not care if he has to work hard, as long
. as he earns enough to support his family.


The English Verb "to mean" has various. equivalents

in Dutch.

1. Menen, in the sense of "to be disposed" and "to be in earnest":

IIij mecnt Ttct goed met zijn :won, he means well with his
JJ1eent u wat tt zcgt? do you menu whnt you say?

2. Bedoelen or mcncn, with the strengtl1 of "to wisll to imply":

Jlij mrwn<lc dat hij zclf 1.rilde gnnn, he meant (by what he
said) that he wanted to go himself.
U /Jedocldc lwt lictcr clan u h<:t zei, you meant it better
tlrnu ~·ou said it.

3. Bctcl.:enen, witll the force of J'Jng. "to signifs·•.

Jlct upsteken ran cc:n witte clag bctekmit 1:rede, the flying
of a white flag means peace.
lfrt H:oonl "nrl.;entelilrhcid" betekent "dankbaarheid", tile
wor<l "gratitude" means "thankfulness''.

4. Van plan zijn,with the special meaning of "to intend".

n., iras 1·an plan de koerant te ga,an lezen, I meant to go
and read the paper.
Zij i.~ 1.·an plan, mij dlit present te ge1·en, she means to
make ine a vresent of this.

5. A. spePial sense in which the Dutch 1nenm1 is used, is that

of "being of opinion", on acount of whiell it is in that sense
commonly translated by "to think" :
Mcent 11, <lat het te duur is? do you think it too expensive?

The verb menen, so used, is always followed by a Noun sentence

TH1i1 VBRB 279

If he meant al (that) he said, be would not be so kind

to me. Do you mean, that you would rather be in the
Transvaal than in Natal? The girls meant that they had
not been in your garden, and had therefore not picked your
flowers. The woman always meant (it) well with that
ungrateful son of hers (of her). Did he really think
it was too far for him to walk to Wellington"? No, but
Le meant, I think, that his feet might (would perhaps)
get (become) sore. I am sure (er zekcr van) (that) he
did not mean (that) his brother to (should) read his
letters! It was a shame for him to do so (that he did it) !
What did you think the word meant? 0, I thought it
meant something wrong, but my brother was of opinion
that it had quite a different meaning. You knew that he
meant it, did you not (nict waar)? ·what he means is
that it is not right for you to (that you) go to such a
place. I always meant to ask my father for the book,
but whenever (wa,nneer ... ook) I saw him, I forgot it.
It has meant a good deal (heel wat) to him, that his
brother would not share the profit ·with him. You mean,
the potatoes are too expensfre? You had better ask your
mother (1waag lzet maar cens aan) ; she knows more
about (11un) these (die) things than you do.

12. A.

Commit to memory the following idionrntic expressions:

I ean give it. Ile lean het 11even.
I could giYe it. lk /Gon het geven.
II• zou hct kunnr11 gercn.
I can have giveu it, lk lwb het lcunnen gcven.
I could have gi veu it. lk had lwt l•un1wn gecen.
Ile zou het hebben lcunnen geccn.
I shall be able to give it, Iii: zal 11ct l•unnen geren.
I shall have lJeen a!Jle to give it. lk zal het ltebben kunnen geven.

I could not get the book, even if I wanted to (zelfs

niet al wou ik). You can get some (wat) apples for me,
J hope! You could have got them yesterday, but now

they are all gone (weg) . I shall not be alJle to ask rn v

brother to-day, because he is not at home. He could send
me some money, if he wanted to, but I believe (that) he
does not want to (het niet wil). Thev cannot finish that
work in a day! they could not finish' it in a week! We
could have come, if we had known that you were in (the)

12. B.

Likewise the following idiomatic expressions:

Will he give it me? Zal hij het mij gei·en?
Zal 7z ij het m ij u·illcn geven?
Would he give it to me? Zou hij het rnij geven?
Zou hij hct mij 'Willen geven?
Will he have given it? Zrzl hij ltet _qegei-en hebben?
Zal hij hct hebben willen uevenl
Would he have given it? 7'ou hij het gf'gcven hcbbcn?
Zou, llij Tl.rt hr7>7wn 1rillf'n rir1·cn?
Can he give it to me? Kan ltij hat rnij gcvenl'
Zal lti.i ltrt 111ij lcunncn .ocren?
Could he give it to me? f\on ltij ltf't mij gevon?
Zon ltij hct mij lcunncn urrcn?
Can he have given it? Kan ltij hct fJrgf'rcn lwbbcn?
Ifoeft hij het kunncn ge1•en?
Zal hij het hebben Twnnen ge1•cn'!
Could he have given it? Kon hij het grgeren hebbcn?
Jlnd hfj lwt kunnen geven'!
Zou hij het hebben kunnen

I could not haye shown you the picture, if you had not
11een in the room. Do you think (that) he would give me
a shilling, if I asked for it (erom)? Can he help me with
m.v exercise? Yes, he could help yon if he would. Would
you not bring me a glass of water? Could they not do
P.omething for the poor woman? They could no doubt
sing that song, if they only wanted to (wilden). How can
that boy ever have given sucb. a disrespectful answer? How

could yonr sisters lrnve gone to (the) church without you'?

W onld you fake this letter to the post for me, my child?
Yes, [I would], if I only knew where the post-office was.
'Yould your father give you permission, do you think?
How could he? I was (have been) out yesterday, and T
may never go more thau once a week. But, Jane, could
you not <;ew on those buttons? I could even do it myself,
l thiuk ! Could you? well, try then (llet ecns). I am sure
yon eanuot sew !

13. A.

Rhoulcl, oug·ht to, as translated hy the Yerh belwl'en (see

page 204).

Learn the following :

He should suy so, (Present) Jlij bcl10orcle hct tc zcggcn.

He should have sai<l so, (Past) IIij bclworde lzet gezegdi te
Tl ij had hct behoren te zeggcn.

vVe ought to do as you say. You should not speak in

(op) this way. My brother should have gone this
morning. The butcher should have called today, but he
has not done so (hct). Should he not state why he has
been absent this morning? Should we not have said that
we were very sorry that this had occurred? \Yhy do you
answer me like this ?-you onght to he ashamed of
yourself. A teacher ought to be careful about (met)
praising his pupils. You should read that book, my
friend; that would be better than to idle away your time
in this way. Should our neighbours share the expense of
hnilding this wall, or have we to bear it all alone'! He
ought to apply to the government for a situation. You
should have laid out your garden as I have laid out mine.
Rhe should not have been out on (such) a cold night
[like that].

13. B.

"To have to'' "to Le to'', ''to be bouucl to" synonymous with
"must", are translated by the verb moeten.

Lellrn the following:

'rile \Joy has to (is to) work, 1Jc jongcn rnoet werkqn.
The hoy had to (wus to) work. D<: junyen mucst werlcen.
The hoy has had to work (is De jongcn hceft moetcn wcrkcn.
to have worked).
The boy hacl had to work (was De jongcn ltatl •moct<'n inwl;en.
to have worlwll).
The boy will have to worJ{, fie jongrn zal moetcu wcrkcn.
'nm boy will have Imel to wo1·J;:, De jongcn zal ltebl!en 11wctr'n

lf I am to do all this work before 12 o'clock, you must

learn me in peace. The gardener will have to dear up all
the ru!JbiRh before he goes. ,-nu the boy have to say his
lesRons this aft eruoon, or to-morrow morning? It is hard
to have to go [all] this (whole) way alone. Were you to
take the leiler to the post, or to the man's priYate house?
l i-:hould h:we taken it to his house, but l put a stamp on
i1 and pm;tecl it. You will be bound to acknowledge that
1 have done you no wrong. "'ould it do (go) to make
llnten) him Rtay three uightR ~ (per) Wl'ek? Ii would
hardly do, for he would have to go home all alone in the
dark. You are not to go beyond tbe church-mind (hour 1
·what I say. If people were alwayR to he punished for
what they do wrong, there would be little plemmre in
(the) life. You are to accompany your father to Bmope,
you said. Yes, out T do not likl' leadng motlw1· alone.
'l'o haw to 'vork for one's daily bread is a plea~m·p to
some people and a great hardship ( verdrict) to others.
It would have done him good to have had to practice
strict obedience at the boarding school. Xow [that] he
is gone, l shall be bound to go as well.

14. A.

Commit to memory the following idiomatic expressions:

We make him say it, Wij laten !wt hern zeyycn.
We made him say it, \l'ij lietcn het hem zeggcn.
We have made him say it, lrij he/Juen het hem laten zeg-
We had made him say it, Wij hadllen het hrm laten zeg-
We shall make him say it, lrij z11llcn hct hem luten zeg-
We shall have made hilll suy it, ffij zullcn lict hem hcbucn laten

We made the poor bird sing by whistling to it. Will

you make the child write his exercise over again? He
makes me laugh when he looks at (naar) me. If you do
not lend me your pencil, so that I can put down the name
you will make me forget the message. The sun makes the
moon shine by night, and the moon again makes the stars
glitter less brightly than they do on (in) clear but dark
nights. The wind was so violent that it made the forest
trees (trees in the forest) [to] tremble. We shall
undoubtedly have made him confess before yon come back.
To make him go against his will, would be both unpleasant
for him and awkward for us. lf you do not learn your
lessons for tomorrow, my ehilll, I shall make you write
them ont.

14. B.

Learn likewise the following idioms:

I have the tloor washed, lk laat de l"locr u-asscn.
I hau the floor washed, fk lict rlc t'locr tcassrn.
I have had the floor washetl, fl> hcb de rloer latcn U"nssen.
I had had tile floor waslwtl, lk had de vloer laten wassen.
I shall ha ye the floor washctl, lit :<al de doer latcn wa8sen.
I shall haYe hau the floor /I; zal de rlorr llebbrn laten
washed, icassen.

\Ye have had this wall built, because the neighbours

annoved UH. I shall have the books taken down and
cleau'ed. You will have the watch seen to, will you not
(nict waar)? Yes, I shall have it put right for you. He
would have had his hair cut very short, if he had not been
afraid of (1;oor) the cold weather. Yon had the garden
dug up, you said. Yes, and we had the gardener search it
well, but no trace of a box was found in the soil anywhere.
Several countriPs, hut especially France, m;ed to (plach-
ten) have their politieal prisoners work on galleys in
former times. I hear you have found diamonds on your
farm. Will you have the ground worked? I shall have
a hole drilled, and the ground tested. But would you
have a drill decide this matter? If I were you, I should
certainly have a large hole dug and the soil washed.
Tomorrow about this time we shall have the horses
brought in, and start on our trip. I have had the boy
saddla the horses; so if you care for a i'ide, we shall go-
if not, 1 shall have them taken back to the stable.

14. c.

Learn once more the following idioms:

He likes (doing) it, IIij heeft er lust in (heeft lust
het te doen).
He does not like doing it, Ii ij /weft geen lust, het te doen.
He did not like doing it, Hij had geen lust, het te doen.
He has not hau the rlesire to Llo l!ij hccft gcen lust gehad, het
it. te doPn.
He had not had the desire to do JI ij hail gem lust gehall het te
it, docn.
He won't like uoing it, Jlij zal geen lust hc/J/Jen, het te
He won't have liked doing it, Jlij zal gccn lust gehad hebben,
het te doen.

Charles does that work because he has to, but he does

not like doing it. You did not like writing out the exercise,
but you did it nevertheless. I like going on (with) S 18

reading; may I mother? Yes, if you like (itJ, you may

go on. Oh, I should like so much (zo'n l'llst hrbhrn I to
tell that man that he should stop writing me such letters!
You would not like studying on, if you had spent so many
years at school as I [have]! Wait till you have heard
what I have to say, and then consider whether you would
not like to go. (Of) Would I like it (er ... in), yon ask.
Of course [I woulu]. 8he likes it, and that is sufficient.
reason for me to like it too. "re did not like letting ,vou
know tlrnt we were going. l\lany a one does not like the
work (which) (the) circumstances compel him to do.
l should have liked better (mecr) to he your secretary
than to be a clerk in the civil service.


Ueize11 op Zee. Tra\•elliug by Sea.

1. lk wens u vocde rC'is. wish you a pleasant

2. Dank u. maar il; ben crn 'flrnnks, hut I am a very
s/l'clt te up zee. lJatl sailor.
3. lk lwuv r<'f:ht tc gcnfr>trn nm I hope to enjoy the voyage
de rcis. immensely.
4. Zijn er r<'<'l vas.rngirrs? Are tht>rP rnauy passeugers?
3. lk hour dat icdcre kajuit I hear that every lJPrth is
bezct is. takPll.
6. Wannccr vcrtrekt de boot! ·when tloes the steamer
7. ran midday orn dric uur. This aftPrnoon at three
8. J7;, h·om u zien 1•ertrekken. I shall come and see you off.
9. rricntlclilr dank; ltoud u aan Thanks. Ile sure to keep
11w ieuunl. your promise.
10. 't ls rcn 1iraclltigr hoot. This is a splendid steamer.
11. Gcwis. c11 de /cajuitcn djn Y PS, n ml the ea bins are
groot rn lurfttig. lar~e anll airy.
12. ls ·u al in lie salun ye1ceest? ITav<' you hePn in the
13. /le tafcl i8 vcrlekt roor tac/1- 'l'he tahlP is laid fur eighty
tig passngirrs rrrstr first-class passengers.
14. 1\1< brcn11 Tiet grootste !JI'· I spernl most of my time
rfrrlte ran 111 i jn ti.id ozi either on dt>ek or in the
tlelc of in de roolclcrznt1'r smoking-room.

15. Is er een bibliotheek aan Have they a library on

boord? board?
16. Ja, en de hofmeester heeft Yes, and the head-steward
er de slcutel van. keeps the key.
17. Wie is de kapitein? Who is the captain?
18. De kapitcin heet Harris, The captain's name is Har-
en de ecrste ojficier ris, and the chief officer
Crutchley. is l\Ir. Crutchley.
19. Is dat de betaalmeester? Is that the purser?
20. Neen, dat is de scheeps- No, that is the ship's doctor.
21. Die matrozcn zijn fiinkc Those sailors are fine
mensen. fellows.
22. Laat ons eens lcijken, hoc Let us watch them lower
zc de zware bagage in het the heavy luggage into
ruim nc:erlaten. the hold.
23. Hoe efjen is de zeel How very smooth the sea
24. 't Zal ruw zijn, als we de We shall have it rough
Bond oversteken. erossiug the Sound.
25 . .A.ls we maar geen water As long as we do not ship
scheppen, kan het rnij seas I shall not mind.
niet schelen.
26. Kom mee naar voren; ik Come forward; I want to
zou graag de akkomodatie see the accommodation
zien voor de passagiers for the 2nd and 3rd
2de en 3de klasse. class passengers.
27. Het dek is te vol daar; kom 'l'he <leek is crowded there:
linver mee naar de ach- rather come to the
terstcrcn. stPl'll.
28. Men mag niet spreken tegen You must not speak to the
de man aan het rocr. man at the wheel.
29. Dit is het kompas van het This is the ship's compass.
30. lloe schommclt en slingert How the ship rolls and
het schip I pitches!
31. Hct hf'hoorde meer ballast te It wan ts more !Jall ast.
32. Zic die ma,n ecns in de top Look at me man at the
van de mast. mnst-head.
33. "Vraag de machinist, ons de Ask the engineer to show us
marltinelvamer te wijzen. the engine room.
34. H eeft 11 ooit rn ct ecn zcil- Have you ever gone by a
schip gercisd? sailing ship?
35 lk ben er eens rncc het J(a- I once crossed the Channel
naal orergestoken, maai· in one, but I cannot say
ik kan niet zeggen dat that I liked it.
het rnij brrallen is.


(Het Bijwoord.)

1. What the Adjective is to the Noun, that the Adverb

is to the Verb. As Adjectives express attributes and
qualities of persons and things, so Adverbs express
peculiarities marking an action. Adyerbs are arcordingly
principally meant for (a) modifying Verbs, yet they may
likewise (b) modify Adjectives, (c) Adverbs, and (d)
even Nouns in some particular cases.


(a) H et k,ind leest goed, the child reads well.

Het paard loopt hard, the horse runs hard.
De vogcl zit ginds, the bird sits yonder.
Mijn dochter belooft veel, my daughter promises
( b) Dat is biezonder goed sch rift, that is particularly
good writing.
Dit pakje schijnt ongemeen zicaar, this parcel
seems uncommonly heavy.
Uw begccrte wordt te sterk, your desire is becoming
too strong.
( c) Ik had het Jang tevoren gedaan, I had done it
long before.
Mijn zuster leest heel mooi, my sister reads very
De zonnestralen vallcn bijna loodrecht, the sun-
beams fall almost perpendicularly.

( d) lJe menscn hierachter zijn zindelik, the people

at the back are cleanly.
Die stcilte daar is yccuurlik) that steep place there
is dangerous.

NoTE.-The South Afriean Dutch, which has ouly one Denom-

strative I'rouom1. die, a vaiJs itself or the Ad 1·er1Js flier and
daar to in!lieatP tluit nn ohjf'f't is ! lm;f' !1y or at a distam·e:

Ilirr rlic /Jr)('/<_ en die enc daar; Dukh: Dit bock en tlat,
this book null thn t onf'.


1. Tlw ('01rnlativP Yrrlls, i.f'., thosr which tnk!' a Xomina1in~

case hefore and after them (zijn, blijrrn, warden, hcten, sclzijnrn,
lljk1•n, blijkcn), Ul"l' followetl by AtljPetivf's, and not Atll·erhs:
Hij schijnt ~·ijk, he Sf'f'lllS to he rich; llij blijft tro1m·, he
rPmaim; faithful. l-IPre the worus rich and faithful evidently do
not modify Yerhs, autl so are Atljeeti\·es.

2.-0ther Yerlis besides the Copulative may he follo"·eu 1Jy an

Adjeetive instead of an AtlverlJ : l>e 8Cl1 ilder 1·crft hct nw 111 grocn,
th,.. puiutPr vnints tlw window grepu; Ffrt is die rri<'nd, di<' lznn co
slecht .r1e11wakt hccft, it is that fric11U. who has made him. so
wi<'kPd. IlPl'P the colour gre<'n, and the f[nality lf"if'lcerl, eYidPntly
haYe nothing- to do with the actions paiuti11.r1 or 11w7'in11. It is the
1d11do1c whi<'h is gr<'<'ll, nml not the painting; likewise it is lw that
is wil'ketl, antl not the mal<in.o; so that grern a11U. 1ciclcrd are
A!ljPetive~. and not Atll'Prhs.

11. The following are the kinds of Adverbs in use:

1. Bijwoorden van Wijze, AdverbR of ~Ianner.

2. Bijwoorden van araad, Adn•rl>R of Degree.
~- Bijwoorden van Oetal, Adverl>R of Kmnber.
4. Bijwoorden van Plaats; Adverlls of Place.
:J. Bijwoorden van Tijd, .\dverhs of 'rime.
6. Bijwoorden van Omstandigheid, Adverl>R of
7. Bijwoorden van Oorzaak, Adverl>R of (fauRe.
8. Samengetrokke11 Bijwoorde11, Oomvound Ad-
T Il FJ .'1/ffE llB

9. l'oegwoordelike Bijwoorden, Adverbial Con-

10. Modale Bijwoorden, A<lYerbs of 3lood, divided

(a) Ad,·erbR of .\.ffirmation (Bevestiging).

( u) Adverbs of :Xegation (Ontkenning).
(c) A<frerbR of Doubt (Twijfel).
(d) Optative (Wensende) ~\.dverbs.


1. Adverbs of Manner: slccht_. badly; schoon, beauti-

fully; langzaam) slowly. Every Adjective denoting a
quality rna,Y be mmd as an Adverb of ~Tanner without
any change of form.

~. Adverbs of Degree: ve1wrr1, enough; uitl'r111atc,

exceedinp;l,\'; orertolliy, exceRRively; na11wcliks, :-;carcely;
l>ijna, neal'ly; biczuuder_. especially; zo) ~'°; te) too; vol-
kome11, quite; zcer) very; vreselik, terribly; helemaal,
altogether; erg, very, etc.

3. Adverbs of Number: all the Hrrhalingsgctullcn

{see p. 175), and further-~ten ccrstc, ten tirecclc, ten
derdr, tr.n ricnle, en.:-., firRt, RP\'OIHl, third, fourth, etc.;
ten laafate, htRtl_r'; trn ·slottr, finally. LikewiRe the R.A.
J 1utch expreRRiom;: <'crsten8, t-zrecdens, dcnlcns, enz.

±. Adverbs of Place: uf, down; roml, about; om, round;

hen en, away; i:oort) on; hccn, towards; daarhcen, thither;
h<'ru:aarts, hither; huisicaarts, home; berg up, uphill;
berg af, downhill; 11oord1rnarts, northward; naar boi1en,
upHtairs; naar bcncden, downHiairs; hi er, here; in, into;
1wbij, uear; nergens, nowhere; crgcns, somewhere; o:•er-
al, everywhere; ergrns anrlcr8, elHewhere; boren, above;
ucncden) beneath; a<'liter) behind; fl'rzijdc, aside; aan
boord, aboard; uan lcal, ashore; ruuruit, ahead; ginll.<JJ

yonder; hier en daar, here and there; heinde en ver, far

and wide, etc. Also the Interrog. Adverbs waar, where;
waarheen1 whither; vanwaar, whence, etc.

NoTE.-A good many of these words may be used as Prepositions,

lint then they invariably take a Noun after them: Hij liep
de tuin uit en <le learner in (uit and in Atlverbs). he walked
out of the garden and into the room; De rogel zit in <le boom
(in Prep.), the birtl is in the tree.

5. Adverbs of Time:
(a) Time, definite or indefinite: nu, now; dan, then;
heden, today; morgen, tomorrow; 's daags, per diem; ·.~
1wchts, by night; 's jaars, per annum; maandeliks, every
month; van avond, this evening; tans, now; gisteren,
yesterday; reeds, already; onlangs, lately; ooit, ever;
nooit or nimmcr, never; voorheen, formerly; weleer,
before; nauirclik8 (nauic), Rcarcely; straks, just now;
intu88cn, nwanwhile; rcrstda119s, one of these days, etc.
( b) Duration of Time: altijd, always; steeds, constant-
ly; irnmer, always; voortaan, henceforward; onderwijl, in
the meantime; van liPverlede, in course of time; sedert,
( c) Repetition of 'rime: dikwels, often; vaak, often;
zeldcn, seldom; telkens, every now and then; opnieuw,
once mor.e; somtijds, sometimes; nu en dan, now and
then; gewoonlik, usually; doorgaans, commonly; wcder,
again; etc. Wanneer, when, is an Interr. Adverb of Time.

6. Adverbs of Circumstance: gaarne, willingly; tever-

geefs, in vain; tezamen, together; slechts, only; minstens,
at least; t'oorts, further, etc.

7. Adverbs of Cause: daarom, therefore; derhalve,

on that account; daartoe, for that purpose; vandaar1 that
is why, etc.

Interrogative: waarom, why; waartoe, for what pur-

pose; weshalve, on what account, etc.

8. Compound Adverbs (see their formation, p. 190);

daarvan, of that; erin, in it; hieruit, out of this; ermee,
with it; daaraan, on that; ervoor, for it, etc.
9. Adverbial Conjunctions: evenwel, however; tooh,
yet; niettemin, yet; nochtans, yet, nevertheless; desniette-
genstaande, notwithstanding; integendeel, on the con-
trary; bijgevolg, consequently, etc.
10. Adverbs of Mood:
(a) Affirmation: ja, yes; wel, indeed; voorwaar, verily;
immers (sec example); volstrekt (see example); inder-
daad, indeed; zeker, certainly; voorzeker, to be sure;
gewis, undoubtedly; stclUg, positiYely. The way in which
·' wel ", u imrners ", and "volstrekt" are used, can be
best gathered from the following sentences:
1. H·ij lieeft het wel gedaan, maar r11iet zoals ik het
wilde, he did it indeed (or-no doubt; or-that's
true), but not as I wanted it. Tn ihis sentence
place full stress on the word "grrlaan".
2. Ik heb u immers trouw gediend, I served you
faithfully, did I not?
3. Hij wilde het volstrekt z6 hebben, he was deter-
mined to have it so.
( b) Negation: neen, no; niet, not; geenszins, in no
wise, not at all; volstrekt rlliet, not at all.
( c) Probability or doubt: misschien, perhaps; moge-
lik, probably; wellicht, perhaps; vermocdelik, presumably;
waarschijnlik, probably; wel (see example).
Ex. lk dcnk wel, dat hij thufa zal zijn, I rather
think he will be at home. Put stress on ''dAnk".
(d) Wish: dan and toch.
Ex. Kom dan, waarom zouden wij waahten, do come,
why should we wait? Zeg hem toch, dat hij haast
moet maken, please tell him that he must make
202 1'IIE NTXXJJ,1RD DUTC'll a R.1ilL1LlR


1. Adverbs of manner (see par. IT, l) are for the

greater part Adjectives used as Adverbs, without auy
change of form. 'l'he student is requested to note this
fact. The .\.dverbial ending lik (Eng. Jy) exists in Dutch,
bnt if; now very little used. 'l'here are Adverbs which take
ii, not because it makes them Ad,·erbs, but because it has
been used iu the formation of the Adjectfre from tlte
Noun or a Yerh; e.g., rnociclik is an Adverb, siguifying
"with difficulty''; hut the Adjective '' difiicnlt" is trans-
lated like,ri:,.;e by moeiclik: De oude rnan loopt modelik
(Adv.), the old man walks with difficulty; Hrt i1:1 ccn
1J1oeiclik (Adj.) gewl, it is a difficult case. Adverbs used
1o he formed from existing Adjectfres by the addition
of lik; now this is not admitted in colloqnial langnage,
though in high-flown style and in Bible language it is.still
done, as: lVij hcbben goddelooslik gchandelcl) we have
done wiekedly.

2. Adverbs never change their form. 'rhe Ad,·erbs of

.Manner, l10wever, take degrees of comparison, like Ad-
jectives. ( 8ee Comparison, p. 155). The Ruperlative
degree is always preceded by the I>ef. Article lu:t.

Ex. Jlijn zoon wcrkt het vlijtigst, my son worlrn most

diligentl:v (of all).
Uw dochter lccrt het best_, your daughter learns best
(of all).
illijn borst plaagt mij 's winters lwt mcc8t, m~· chest
troubles me most in winter.

:J. 'fhe full.owing •.\..dverbs are irregularly comµared:


Uonl, well, but er, f.of't lWNf.

8lccllt, badly, f'ryrr, lt('f rr[J8f.
, I' l'cl, many a 1inw, mrrr, llf'f 111P('8f.
lVcinig, a fw timel', mindrr_, !wt 111 in1:1t.
rroeg_. eal'ly, <'<Tder, br>t <'f'rst.
J)ilnNl8, often, 11U'f'r111(fl('Jl, l!Pf JJl<'l'Sf.
G11urnr, willingl5\ lie •:er, hct Zic/st.
'l'JJB ADl'BRR 2!l3

Note 1. Hct cerst_. or cast, hct laatst, or laotst, hct

best, or heKt, het lief st, or lief st, are m;ed with different
meaningH, as follows:

op sclwul, l was the first

t 'omvarc: Ik 1cas hct eerst
at school, with-lk 1cus eerst op sr·lwul en daunw
in ltct nwseum, I wa8 first at school, and then at
the mu8eum.

Compal'e: Jfijn brocllcr kwam het laaf8t boren,. my

brother \Va8 the la8t to come up8tairK, with-JJijn
brocder bezocht laatst de mijnen, my brother visited
the mines some time ago.

Compare: Dit ·tneisje lcert hct best, this little girl

learn:,; beHt of all, with-Dez·e jongen lean best naar
hct durp gaan, this boy can very well go to the

Compare: De man hceft zijn kind het liefst bij zieh,

tile man prefers having his child with him, with-
1 k zuu. van avvnd liefst nict icitgaan, 1 would rather
not go out this evening.

Note 2. 8ome Adverbs of manner arc formed from

Adjecth·eH by the diminutive ending je followed by an
Adverbial final s: zoet, 8Weet; zoctjes, nicely, softly; stil,
{1uicl; stilletjcs, quietly, etc. Ruch Adverb:,; do not take
any degreeH of comparison. 'l'he Cape expre1:iHion: Sln
d<' bal zoctjcstcr, strike the hall more sofil,v. is uh~mrd.
The Adverb ..·u-<'l·" has a similar form: ::ij is wclletjes,
Khe i~ middling (her health is fair).

I 11. The meaning and. use of the following Adverbs

require special notice:

1. Noch is neither; nog, yet, or still. Koch hij noch

zij11broedrr is hfrr grwee8f_. neither he nor his brother
has been here. Hij leeft nag, he is still living.

2. a. Zelden, rarely (seldom), is only an Adverb, and

never an Adjective: Wij zien onze broedc1· zelden, we
seldom sec our brother.

2. b. Zeldzaam, rare, wrongly used in the place of

zelden, is an Adjective and not an Adverb: Volkomen
zwarte katten zijn zeldzaam, perfectly black cats are rare.
The South African Dutch replaces this word b.v schaars.

3. a. Heen is an Adverb of place, indicating direction

towards an object: Waar gaat u morgen heen '!whither do
you go tomorrow? Mijn plan is van middag nergens heen
te gaan, my intention is, not to go anywhere this

3. b. He11en is an Adverb, indicating motion trom a

place: Ga niet ltenen v66r het do1iker is, do not go away
before dark. In speaking this difference is scarcely ever
observed, heen being used for botl.J.

4. a. I mmer, ever, and nimmer, never, point to a future

time: Za1 ik u immer wedcrzien '! Shall I ever see you
again? Hij zal ons nimmcr beschamen! He will never
put us to shame!

4. b. Ooit, ever, refers only to the past: Heb ik ooit in

mijn levcn zo iets gezien? Did I ever see such a thing in
my life?

4. c. Nooit, nPvcr, may indicate a past or a future time:

lk heb m·ij nooit met zo iets beziggehoudcn .. en ik zal
er mij nooit mee be.'?:ighouden, I have never occupied
myself with such a thing, nor shall I ever occupy myself
with it.

5. Wijlen, late, is an Adverb of time taking its place

before ihe name of a person : W·ijlen de Graaf van
Ohambord, the late Count Chambord.

6. Met, a .Preposition (the Adverbial form of which is

rnede), may be u_sed as an Adverb of time: Met dat hij
binnenkwarn, hield hct geraas op, the moment he came in,
the noise stopped.

7. Kwansuis (Cape pronunciation: konsuis) sometimes

written lcwanswijs, a word found in several of the Saxon
languages, means "as it were", or, "pretending", e.g .. :
Orndat de jongen lust had in een van de lekkere appels,
liet hij kwansuis hct geld ·va,llen, orn de aandacht van
zijn tante af te leiden, because the boy longed for one
of the nice apples, he (as it were by mistake) dropped
the money, in order to divert his aunt's attention.

8. Averecllts (a compound of af, from, and recht,

right, with an Adverbial s) means in the wrong direction.
Zij breit de ene toer reoht, en de andcre ai·erechts, she
knits one round plain and the next purl.

9. Ai and toe are Adverbs, and hence cannot be used

before Nouns like the corresponding Prepositions van and
tot: het kind vi el de trap af, the child fell down the stairs,
and, het kind viel '1:an de trap, the child fell from the
stairs. De hond licp naar mij toe, the dog ran up to me,
and, de rnan kwam tot rnij, tiie man came to me.

10. aoed translates the English Adverb "well", as:

zij zingt goed, she sings well. Wei is used with reference
to the state of one's health, as: hct kind ·is n-iet wel, the
child is not well; also as an Adverb of mood (see p. 2!)1).

11. Mede, the common form of which is mee, is used

as a prefix to a great many Verbs which haYe no exact
equivalents in English. lJicdegaan_. to go with (one);
mededoen, to take part (partil'ipaic) in; ga je ook mee?
will you also go (along) ? Doe je er aan mee? do you take
part too? J( orn mee, come with me (us). The Hou th
African Dutch has replaced rnede (rnee) by saam.

l:!. 'l'hc mm of the .\.dn•rfo; af and neer, both nwa11ing-

''down'", which m·e found in corn position. with many ernr~-­
<lay Ycrhs, rcquirei; Rpecial attention.
1. lTRe af, when '"motion from an object" is the
prominPnt idea.
2. lTRe neer, when "molion towards an ohjecf' is the
prominent idea.

fTij kwam rnn zijn 1ward af, he got down from his
Hij viel rnn het dak uf, he fell from the roof.
De vogel vlicgt nun de boom. uf, the bird flies <1own
from the tree.
De jongcn trrlct dr. r7ieg r.en poof af, the bo~- pulls
one of the fly's legs off.

]~X.\i\ll'LES tW :! :
Hij ku·am up de rlocr 11ccr, he cmue down on 1:lte
Hij va7t bij de 8tod nt'rr, he falls down at the <'hair.
J>e juyer schoot de bok ncer, the hunter shot down
the lrnck.
n.~trek hct gurdijn nccr, l draw the curtain down.

Consequently, when separation is to be indicated, af

i:;hould be taken: Hij slocy hem het lwufd uf, he cut his
head otI.
\Yheu a directl.r downward motion must be expressed,
neer is used: De rcgen i;olt 1iit de wo7kcn nccr, the rain
falls from the cl"ouds.
Down ward motion, along a slope, is exprei;Red by af:
Hij luopt de trav aj, he goes down the stairs.
l\Iotion reRulting in rest upon an object, is expreR'sed by
neer only: 1 k lcg1l<J hem op lzet bell nrcr, I laid him down
on the bed.

GR.AMMAR. EXER.ClSES.-Taaloefeningen.


.Fll up the !Jlanks with apvropriate Adverbs:

Jlijn paard trekt - dan hct ·uwr . . - Nchreit dat kind?

Dezc ocfcniny is - (degree) - gcsr:hr<'iwn, j<' muct h<'m
oversehriji·cn. Die rnan yaat - (time) - l place) roor-
bij. lrij zijn - de liery upgclupcn. Net kind is gestraft,
- (cam:e) idl het niet binncnkumcn. - (interrog. of
time) c<'rtrekt u naar Xatal? Zey hem - (mood), dal
il; - (time I op rci8 ga. Jk sta - (repetition of time)
0111 ::.r.~ 1wr op. A.an u - (compound AflY.) iPts rrr-
st1w11! .fkzc klcrk 11f'71ijnt- (dPgree) g<'schikt coor ::ijn
u·crk. lk kan - (place) mijn bock rinden. Jlijn
nw<'dcr is nu - (degrt:>e) gczoml. l\lij laten -
(rPpetitiou of time) 01111 yucd uit Parijs komcn.
(prohahilit,v) regent hct 11wry<'n, ('n, - - (time) knnncn wij
- (neg.) yuan. ~~ (interrog. of eauRe) u;urdm1 dr lir·htrm
- (degree)-opyrstokrn'! Zijzrmrfon- (affirmation)
bij on8 gcwrPst zijn, als zij tijd gchotl lrnddcn. De man
is - (time) zirk geicrcM. - (cause) da t ltij er --
(degree) slecht uitzict.


Give the Dutch AdverbR for the Englh~h words:

Als rlc:::e man ni<'t so _terribly lili 1ras. ::ouden wij hern
certainly ircrk gcgenen ltcbbcn. TOf'Jt lief amPrikaansc
schip here in de baai lag, lien ik abroad ge1cccst. B,v
night ::i jn a 77<' katf Pl! grauu·. Ik bcn ~·eRterday ziPk
gr1rerst, for that reaHou rlat ik rnijn lrsscn not grlPPrrf,
heb. Hct kind zol in rourHe of time oa11 djn nirwwc
omge 1;i 11!f gnruon 1rorrlrn. H et bPrich t van de u1;er-
wi n11 i ny icaN in ircinigc 11rcn for and wide 1·rrbrcid. J)e

inspekteur zal one of these days de school bezoeken. Oj-

schoon zijn vader hem strictly verboden had) to-night u-it
te gaan) deed hij het yet. Ik heb everywhere naar mijn
pen gczocht ). ik heb hem this morning somewhere neer-
gelegd_, maar ik kan mij not at all herinneren where. Ik
lee.~ usually mijn koerant in the evening. Heeft it indeed
never geweten) why uw vader thither gegaan is? Dit
boek is exceedingly vervelend. For what purpose geeft
hij zich zoveel moeite? De kinderen vermaakten zich
especially well; en merrily keerden allen home. Hence-
forward zullen de boten every week varen.



'I. rans la le the followi.ng (minding especially § II (1), a,nd

Obs, 1, 2, 3; also § III).

All these roses blossom a long time, but that one yonder
blossoms longest of all. N"otwitlrntanding the heavy rains,
the troops marched courageously onward. I would rather
not tell you why he prefers going tomorrow. The seasons
are caused by the annual rotation of the earth round the
sun. l\Iy father \'isits his old friend daily. They will
have to act yery eautiomily in that matter. Of all the
young ladies that i,mng last night, T liked (beviel mij)
your niece's voirP best. \\'hoeyer comeH in last, Hhould
close the door. \Ylwu 1 was in (the) town some time
ago, I called on ~Irs. B. This girl can yery well learn
this piece of poetry, but won't recite it be8t of all. Please,
let the blind down a little, the sun is shining right in my
face (me right in the face). Th~ price of wheat has
considerably fallen lately. 'l'he unforiunate man must
haye dropped asleep near the edge of the precipice, and
must have fallen down in his sleep. Don't jump down
from that height; you will hurt yourself. The children

.amused themselves by (met) running up and down the

sand-hills. The young bride is a relative of the late
President Brand. I told you, didn't I, that the stamp
was a very rare one, and that you should not give it
.away; you will never get such a one again. I got up
half an hour after you, and yet I was downstairs earlier
than you. 'fhe children ran up to their teacher, and
wished him many happy returns of the day (geluk met
zijn verjaardag).


NoTE.-Na, "after", is a Preposition expressing time, amt rank,

or order.

Zijn broeder is na hem yestori·en, his brother died after

Na het zinycn ktl'nm die preelc, on the singing followed
the sermon.

Nadat, "after", is an Adverbial Conjunction, <'01111ecting two

Hij Jcwam, nadat zijn broeder vertrolclcen wa8, he came
after his brother had guue.
"Jl.-adat hij dit yczegd had, ying hij zitten, after he had
said so, he sat down.

Daarna is the Dutch equivalent for "after that (afterwards)".

lk vroeg hem ecrst en antu;oordile u daarna, I asked him
first, and answere<l you aftl'rwards.
It may lie replaced by dan, with the Present and Future tenses,
and by toen with the Past Tense :
Jk 't:raag hct hem, en VClrtrl het u dan, 1 ask him and
then tell yuu.
II< wl het hem vraycn, en u dan certellcn, I shall ask
him, and then tell you.
lk vroeg het hem eerst, en verteldc het u tocn, I asked
him first, and then told you.

After I had finished my drawing, I packed my box and

went (naar) home. The ship arrived after you had left.
His brother died just after his arrival. After this rain
we shall have fine weather. I invited my parents first,

and afterwards my uncle as well ( 1.oo). Let me eat first,

and then I shall speak (met) to you. R(~ sat down ( ging
zitten 1 on that chair there, and shortly after he fainted.
I pr0111ise to take him in after he is discharged from (uit)
(the) prison. -who would first sow, and then plough?
ls it not. uaiural, first to plough, and then to sow? You
saw him al'ter he had written his letter. After the rain
had stopped, we went out for a "·alk ( wundclen). Yon
slwnld not say no, after you had ont'e said yes. Ile told
me of all the pain be had suffered, and then he fell into
a quiet sleep. T shall have the boy wash the tloor after
he eomes back from the butcher's (bnteher). After my
father had started for Europe, my mother became ver5·
ill. He came to Em;t London shortly after the third
l\afir war. After you, please, madam! After a day's
(day of) hard work it is pleasant to lrnve Rome muRic.
\Yho shall say that (er) after t11is cruel war there won't
be a long Rpell ( tijdprrk) of peace in theRe parts
( streel~) !


Note.-"To put" is translntPrl hy "lrggr11", •·zctt,.11•', "8f<'ken'',

"duen". "plaatsen".

rse lPggPn, wlwnever an ol1ject is to !Je plaC'erl on its broad side:

II< /1 rb cl.at buck op rfr tafcl gel<'f/rl. I have put that hook on
tlw tnhlP.

rs,• zpttr11, whPneYer an ohject is to !Jc plal'ed ou encl:

llr l!eli llet liorl; op de 11lanl,, 11czct, I havp put the llook
on tlH' shelf.

rse ste1N?n, whPnevPr an ohjec·t is pm:sed thr,,ug-h a narrow

8fl'"1: lltl' :cal"loc/c 1n uw rnh·, put yonr lrnm1I;:erd1iPf into
y011r po('ket.
Nll'<'k de rlraarl door rlr 1111a/<l, thread the nee<1le.

rse cl0<'11 for "putting- into," "passiug through":

Tfij d~'<'rl dr bricren in rcn .~alf, he put the letters into a !Jag.
s 19

Compare: Ik steck het geld in mljn wli:, I put the money

into my pocket;
with: Ik doc het geld in mijn beurs, I put the money into
my purse.

"'.l'o put on" and "to take off" clothing, should !Jc translated by
aandoen, and afdoen, when there is no passing of limbs
into or out of such garments :
Hij doet zijn board, zijn das, zijn mantel aan, he puts on
his coUur, his neck-tie, his cloak.
Hij deed zijn manchettcn, zijn kappen af, he took off his
cuffs, his leggings.

But when there is such passing, aantrekken and uittreT~ken

are used:
Trelc u·u; jas, uw schocncn aan, put on your coat, your
Hij trekt zijn handschoenen, zijn kouscn uit, he takes oft
his gloves, his stockings.

· Of aprons, veils, etc, voordocn and afdoen are used: of hats,

opzettcn and afzctten.

Plaatscn, English "to place•', is used for Dutch zetten in more

formal expressions.

For the many other and varied meanings of "to put", a transla-
tion of the synonym which apvlies best to the action is
Ile put (wrote) it down in the book, llij schrcef hct in het
boelc op.
I put (said) it straight to him, ilv zei ltet hem rechtwlt.
I shall put (lay) that money by (away) for you, ik zal <lat
geld voor u wegbergen.

Will you put the inkpot on the table for me? I have
put the inkpot there, and I have also put the paper on·
your desk. They put a bucket under the spout to catch
the rain-water. Bet us put our clothes into our boxes.
Put a chair ready for your uncle: he will be here directly.
The man put the horse into the stable, and put the cart

into the waggon-house. Have you put sugar in my tea?

Yes, and I have al.so put in (it) milk. The boy had a
number of marbles which he quickly put into his pocket.
Put on (om) a shawl, it is cold. Must I put on a veil
too? No, you need not put on a veil, as long as (als . ••
maar) you put on gloves. Don't put sheep and oxen
into one fold. Take off your hat and your boots too.
8hall I put on my slippers? Yes, and take off that
heavy coat; I shall (er) bring you a light one. Put away
your books, the teacher is coming. Jane had a bird
which she had put in a cage. I have put the cups on
the table in the kitchen. And where have you put the
meat? I haye put the meat into the sideboard.


What is your salary? I get three hundred pounds

sterling per annum, which makes exactly twenty-five
pounds per month. Is your salary paid out monthly?
"\Ve can get it by the month, or at the end of every three
months, just as we like it best. Every other day (om de
a.ndere dag) we drive down to yonder farm; it is so very
pleasant to be there. At 7 p.m. (n.m.=in de namiddag)
the train starts for (naar) Edinburgh where it is due
lltij aankomt) at 5 a.m. (v.ni.=in de roormiddog). vve
do not intend being (trans. to be) out all (the) morning;
before noon (trans. at 12 o'clock) we shall be back. He·
cnme just in time to see the balloon rise. What a grand
sight it was! I think I should like to go up some time
( eens) ). it mm;t be glorious to be drifting about in the
air, and to see ihe beautiful earth at such a distance. Last
night somebody called (trans. has called) on me; I am so
sorry that I was not at home. Next week we have to
part, and next month, just about this time, we shall be
in different parts of the globe. Will you be back in a
fortnight? I cannot tell (it) you at presPnt. About a
week ago I met my uncle and three of my cousins (fem.)
at a railway station near Dartmouth.

Over vet•schiUende About various
Ambachtslieden. Artisans.

1. Rr moct con ruit in dit This winuow needs a pane

renster gezet ·wonlen; of glass ; l'all a glazier
haal ecn glazemakcr om to vut one in.
hct tc doen.
2. rraa,q hem, dit stuk hout Ask him to saw this piece
voor mij tc zagcn, en leen of woou for me, and
mij een boor om ecn gat lend me a gimlet to bore
tc malccn. a hole.
3. Hecft u nog andere tccrk- Do you require any other
tuigen no dig F tools 'I
4. Ja, brcmg rrl'ij als 't u blieft Yes, please bring me a
tJen schrocfdraaier, een scr<'wdrin~r. a hammer,
llamcr, tlcn schaaf, en wat a plane. and some large
,Qrote spijkers 1116f kope- brassheadPd nails; also
rcn koppcn; ook icat Lin- a few tin tacks.
nen nageltjcs .
.5. Dat uithangbord is slncht That sign-hoard is liadly
gesoltildcrd; de schildcr paiutl>u; the pa inter
u•as maar ccn lecrjongen. was only an apprentice.
-0. Laat mij cens mat zink- Shmv me some <'orrugated
platen zicn roor drlclcing. iron for roofing.
7. Leien of dakpaimen 'tror- Slate or tiles are selrlom
den hier zclden rnor da t used for that purpose
duel gcbrnih·t. here.
8. Rictcn dakcn z1jn boren 'l'ha tclteLl roofs n re to be
alle andcre tc 1•crkirzcn. preferrP<l to all other.
9. De mctselaar, ll'ie din 'l'he hri<'klnyer who hnilt
111 uu r vrbou w<l heeft, 111oet that wall, must have
s/N·hte lcallc geltad hebbcn. had had mortar.
JO. Yn<a!! de straatmaknr wat Ask the vavior what Ile
7t ii rekcnen zou roor het woulu chnrge for paving
bestraten ran de achter- the yard.
11. Dczc larlcn moetcn naar These drawers must lie
ecn scltrijn11·rrker gaan ta ken to a ca binct-
om nagrzien te worden. maker to be mended.
12. De kuiper zal lwt rat rrpa- The poover will repair the
r(lren. er linrpcls om sla.an l'rrsk. hoop it, rrnd send
en het orersturen. it a<'l'OSS.

13. Ilecft u hem gesprokcn Did you tell him about the
over rle duigcn en de staves and ,the l.Jottom?
14. De smid legde het 1;zer op The l.Jlacksmith laid the iron
hot aanbceld, en srneedde on the anvil, and struck
het tcrwijl het hcet was. it while it was hot.
15. Doze water/can lelct; l1reng This water-can leaks; take
hem naar do blikstagcr it to the tinsmith and
en laat hem solderen. have it soldered.
16. De smid kan de lwlesdtop The l.Jlacksmith can repair
on puuk re}Ja rcrc n. the coal-scuttle anu fire-
17. De sclwtledraad is gcbro- The bell-wire is broken;
ken; waar kan ii>: een where <.;an one finu a
belleider vindcn? !Jell-hanger'/
18. Ik heb deze voorsni1- I bought these carving-
messen bij de nwssemaker knives at the cutler's in
in de L-straat gclcocht. L-Street.
19. Hoe nwoi zijn de potcn How beautifully the legs of
·ean die tafcl gerlraa,id! that table are turned.
Jieeft u al cen draaibanlc Have you seen a
gezienf turning lathe?
20. Laat ons naar de schrijn- Let us go to the joiner's
wcrker flaan, en wat lijm and ask for some glue
en ren poar ' /;;ruUen and a few shavings.
21. Die schildcr is berocmd; That artist is celebrated;
prins Alexander hecft zijn l:'rince Alexander bought
laatstc schilderij gel•ocht. his last vainting.
22. Dat houtsnecwerk is uit- That carving is exquisitely
1 mun tend gedaan. 1Vie is done. Who is the sculp-
de bocltlhouwer? tor?
23. Mijnhecr N; hij heeft hot l\Ir. N.; he did the engrav-
opsch1·ift op d ic grafsteen ing on that toml.Jstone.
24. Dcze mesgcn en scharen These knives and scissors
zijn niet scherp; brong ze are not sharp; please
naar een schareslijpcr, als take them to a grinder.
't U blieff. I.


(/let Voorzetsel.)

]. Prepositions, Voorzetsels, are real particles, i.e. in-

declinable words. They may have different meanings ac-
cording to the various relations between actions, per~ons,
and objects which they are made use of to express. One
ot the two Xouns between which a Preposition takes its
place in a sentence, is the name of the person or thing to
'Which at1ention is chiefly drawn, whereas the other Noun
fie.rves to indicate in what relation or position that
principal per1:-1on or thing is placed. rn the sentence for
instance: de hond is in zijn hok, the rlog is in iiq kennel,
the dog is the principal thing spoken about, whereas
kennel is used to define the place the dog occupies. Any
such defining ~oun is under the direct influence of the
Preposition that precedes it, and is said to be "gm·erned"
by it.

lI. The usual place of Prepositions is before the Kouns

they govern: Wij speelden op de plaats. we played in the
yard; De vogels zaten in de kooi, the birds sat in the

OnsERVATION.-IIalve and wegen are placed after the Nouns

or Pronouns with which they stand, forming one word with them :
mijnentwege, for my sake; uu:cntwcge, for your sake; zijnentwcge,
for his sake; veiligheidshalve, for the sake of safety.

NOTE.-Jlalve means "side", and wegen, like v;eg, is from the

Verb weuen, which originally meant 7Jc1ccgcn. to 1110..-P.

III. Formerly Prepositions, and words. used as suchr

governed different cases, i.e., required either the Genitive.
Dative, or Accusative case of the Noun after them.

Now, however, one common rule applies to every

Preposition, viz., that it governs the Accusative case-
and the obsolete use of the Genitive and Dative cases is
only discernible in some expressions, few in number, yet
sufficient to remind us of what once was.

ExAMPLEs.-Feminine Dative: uitermate ( uit der

rnate), exceedingly; bij der hand, close at hand; metter·
tijd, in time; uittrr oge, uitter herte, out of sight, out of
mind; ter ore komen, to come to one's notice; ter fees·t
gaan, to go to a feast.

Neuter Dative: in den beginne, in the beginning; van

goeden hu izc, of good family; ten top stijgen, to reach
the highest point; met dien verstande, with this under-
standing; bij laendrn lijce, alive.

~enter GenitiYe: binnenshuis, inside (the house);

buitenslands, abroad; tussendeks, between decks.

Masculine Genitiye; buitenstijds, out of season; bin-

nensmonds, mutteringly.

NoTE.-Tcn arnl tcr are contractions of tc rlen anu te dcr.

IY. The relations pointed out by Prepositions may

r a. Rest in a place.
1. A relation of place l b. Motion to or from a place.
2. A relation of time.
3. An abstract relation expressing a cause, an object
in view, etc.
4. A positive or negative connection.

1. R.est in a place is indicated by: boven, above; onder,

under; buiten, outside; binnen, inside; nabij, near; na,11!Jt,
next to; aan, at; te, at; in,, in; op, on; tussen, between;
tcgen, against, etc.

Motion to or from a place is indicated by: over, over;

van, from; naar, towards; tot aan, as far as; langs,
along; rond, round; romlorn, round about; '1.:0orbij_, past;

OBSERVATION,-Xotice the following sentenees:

Hij loopt in do school, he walks about in the school (in =

Jiij loopt cle school in, he walks into the sehool (in =
De kocien grazen op de ioeide, the cows are grazing in the
meadow (op= Prep.).
Zij klimmen de berv op, they climb the mountain (op=
Jh; lees uit llornerus, I read from Homer ( uit =Prep.).
lk las het gehole boek, d'io avontl uit, I read through the
whole of the book that night (uit =Adverb).

2. A relation of Time is indicated by: in, in; binnen,

within; ornstreeks, about; bij, near by; om, at; oi·er, past,
in; aan, on; tegen_, towards; 1,ioor, for; tussen, between;
tot_. to; sedert, since; gedurcnde, during.

3. An abstract relation of Cause, etc., is expre::isecl

by: door, by; voor, for; uit kracltt van, by virtue of; frn
spijt va,n_, in spite of; naar gelang van, according to; in
'Weerivil van, in spite of; aangaandc, touching; wegens,
on acount of; betrefjencle, touching; aangczien, for as
much as; ter oorzake van, on account of; ten gei;olge van,
iu consequence of; in tegenstelling van, in opposition to;
in vergelijking f)an, in comparison to; ter iville van, for
the sake of; instede van, instead of; ten behoeve van,
on behalf of; overeenkornstig met, comformably to.

4. A Positive connection is expressed by: met, with;

benevcn8, together with; a Negative connection by: zon-
der, without; uitgenomen, except; behalve, except.
5. 1.Va, after, indicates time; naar, towards, indicate~
direction. Hij kwam na mij, he came after me; ik ga
naar Engeland, I am going to England.
'XoTE.-Achter is used in Cape Duteh to express a relation of time.
Hij k1carn daar uchtcr rnij, he came there after me.

VI. Prepositions used for indicating different



1. Rest in a place: De stad ligt aan zee, the town lies

on the sea-coast.
2. With gaan, indicating a beginning: De vogel gaat aa1~
't t:liegen, the bird begins to fly.
B. Used instead of the Dative case: Geef het boek aan
uw broeder, give the book to your brother.


1. Instead of the Possessive case: Dit is de lei van mijn

broeder, this is my brother's slate.
2. Meaning from: Ik ontving een brief 'Gan ltem, I got
a letter from him.


1. Meaning through: De kogel ging door het huis, the

bullet went through the house.
2. Meaning by: Door uw vermogen is u in.staat, veel goed
te doen, by your means you are able to do a great
deal of good.

P.. Meaning with: Door uw vriend,elike hulp is het mij

gelukt, with your kind assistance I have succeeded.

4. l\feaning throughout: Door alle landen zal het gehoord

warden, it will be heard throughout eyer,v country.

1. Meaning by: Bij geval,, by chance; bij beitrten, by
turns; bij nacht, by night; dicht bij, close by; bi)
larnplicht, by lamplight; bij ongeluk, by accident.
2. Meaning near, nearly: H et is bij tweeen, it is close
upon two o'clock; Zijn hitis is bij het kcrlrhof, his
house is near the churchyard; Mijn grootmoeder is
bij de taclztig, my grandmother is nearly eighty years
of age.
3. Meaning with: Zij logeert een week bij ons, she is
staying with us for a week; Hee ft hij geld bij zich '!
has he any money about him?
4. Meaning to: Kom bij mij, lief kind! come to me, my
dear child!
5. }leaning about: Hij kwam eerst bij ticaal't:en,. he only
came about twelve o'clock.
1. Meaning among: ])at is zo de gewoonte onder sol-
daten, that is the custom among soldiers.
2. Meaning during: Onder het ontliijt wordt ons altijd
iets voorgelezen, during breakfast we have always
something read to us.

3. :Meaning under: Die boot kan geheel onder water ge-

bracht icorden, that boat can be completely sub·

4. l\1eaning amongst: De rovers verdeelden de buit onder

elkander, the robbers divided the spoil amongst them.

5. Indi~ating a time=. Onder de Zange regering van Keizer

Willzelm I.) durmg the long reign of the empero1•
Wilhelm I.

May be translated by "upon", "on", "in", "after" "at"
"with'', "but", "into", ''to". ' '
1. Upon: Hij legt het ene boek op het andere.• he places
one book upon another; Op mijn woord ik Wf'et het
niet, upon my word I don't know.
2. On: Ik ontmocttf' hem eerst op een Maandag e·1u
daarna up een 1l'oen8llag, I met him firRt on a
:Monday and then on a Vi1 ednesday.
3. In: Doe het eens op een andere rnanier, just try it in
a different way.
4. After: Hij klcedt zich op zijn Duits, he d1·esi:ies
a la German.
5. At: Op uw verzoek zal ik gaan, I shall go at your
6. With: Jfijn vader is waarlik boos. op mij, my father
is indeed angry with me.
7. But: Allr kinderen op een na, ~ijn dood, all the
children but one are dead.
8. Into: Die fraaie hoed zal ik n op de koop toe geven,
I shall throw that pretty hat into the bargain.
9. To: Weet u, dat we op soepee gevraagd zijn? do you
know that we haYe been invited to supper?

1. Meaning to, towards: Mijn plan is, morgen naar mijn
stil dorp teruy te gaan, my intention is to return to·
my quiet village to-morrow; De vogcls vliegen
naar de kust, the birds are flying towards the shore.

2. Meaning from: Dat is naar de natuur getekend, that

is drawn from nature.
3. Meaning according to: Ik heb gehandcld naar mijri
overtuiging, T acted according to my conviction.
4. Meaning about: Hij doet er ondcrzoek naar, he is
making enquiries about it.
5. 11eaning for: Hij zoekt naar zijn boek, he is looking
for his book.
6. ~fe[tningafter: Hij klecdt zich naar de duitsc mode,
he dresses after the German fashion.


1. Indicating a place: Er is een heining om de tuin,

there is a fence round the garden.
2. Indicating a time: Hij gaat om de veertien dagen
naar huis, he goes home every fortnight; de
vergadering begint om zeven itur, the meeting begins
at 7 o'clock.
3. Preceding the Infinitive of a Verb: Hij doet het alleen
om te plogen, he just does it to tease; Ik ben
gekomen oni onze rckcning te vereffenen, I have
come to square our account.
4. ;\leaning for: Orn 'trelkc redcn is hij vertrokken? for
what reason did he leave? Denk eraa,n om
rnijnentu·il, remember it for my sake.
5. ~leaning up: Uw bepaalde tijd is orn, your fixed time
is up.

1. Meaning out: Zal hij ooit uit de mocite komen? will
he ever be out of trouble?
2. Meaning from: Hij kornt uit de kerk, he is coming
from church.
3. Meaning out of: Uit oprechte liefde, out of real love.

YII. Preposition-Verbs requiring for the greater imrt

different prepositions in Dul.ch from those by which they
are followed in Eugli!:;h, a list is here appended from
which those which occur most frequently may be learned.

List of Preposition= Verbs with unlike Prepositions

in English and Dutch.
aanbe1·elen to recommt'nd (.~ich)bcrocmen to boast of.
aan, to fJp,
aandrinr;cn op, ., insist on. (zlch) beroepen ,, appeal to.
aanlcomen te, ,, arrive nt. OJI,
aam:raag docn ., apply for. bcrouw hcbben ,, regret.
om, 1:an,
aanzoelc doen
look nt.
., make appli-
mtion for.
bcrsten 1:an,
beruclt t zijn
. burst with.
" be notorious
" for.
acht r;ei·cn op ., pay atten- beschaamd djn be ashamed
tion to. over, " of
adresseren aan, auur0ss to. beschcnnen ,, protect from.
ad1·csscrcn ",, ln lwl for. tcgen.
afgaun op, ,. go by.
bcsch iklccn over,
/Jcstarm uit,
.. dispose of.
consist of.
afhanr;cn ran, .. (lepPml on. llf'Sfllnd zijll " lie proof
aficifkcn ran, rlepart from. tege11, " against.
antwoorden op.
,." r0ply to.
,, assent to.
bcstcdcn aa11,
liercn nm,
.. bestow upon.
tremlJle with.
bcboctcn met, finP. berfJc.oil zijn tot, ,," he qualified
(z·ich) bedienen "
maim use of. for.
ran. bcrrecsd zijn he afraid of.
(Zich) 1wdroe- ,, be grieved at. voor, "
i•cn orer, bcwalcen, watch ovPl'.
be!}aan zijn met ,, be griev0tl at. 7Je1rilligcn in, " consent to.
(zich) bcr;cren .. repair io. bczorgd zijn ,, Ile anxious
nrwr, orer, about.
be hoed en i·oor, kcev from. bczwijkrn 1.:ffn, " be OVf'l'('Ollle
bohoren aa n, ,," belong to. with.
( zich) belclar;cn C'Olll!Jlain of.
bibbcren ran, shiver with.
orcr, " IJlatfen tcr;cn, bark at.
(zich) bclcom- ., trouble (one- blijven bij, ",, stick to.
rncren oi•er, self) about. 1Joos zijn op be angry witb
belanr; ll<'li/Jen have an in- (om). " (at).
7Jij, terest in. 1irandcn ran, ,, burn with.
( zich) belasten ., take upon brcng<'n naar, ,, take to .
met, oneself. deelncmcn aan, ,, share in.
belenllen aan, ,. be adjoining dcnlcen aan, ., think of.
to. aienen tot, ,, serve as.
belope11, amount to. <Jing(',n naar, ,. aim at.
benoemen tot, ,, appoint. doclrn op, ,, refer to.

I.ii st of Preposition= Verbs (con.)

dromC'n 01:cr, to dream about. lcermen ran, to groan with.

(zich) erburrnen,, take pity on. klagcn over, ,, complain of.
on:r, /clercn aan, ,. stiC'k to.
(ziclt) crycren lie vexed at. klimmcn in, ,, climb uv.
ocer, knrzbbelen nan, ,, nibble at.
gcbrrlv llPbben ., be iu want of.Imagen aan, ,, gnaw(at).
aan, lcniclcn nwr, kneel to.
gcdarhti11 zijn ,, he mindful lcnic::cn 01•e1, ., fret about.
aan, of. lro/cen i:an, ,. boil with.
gcloi:en aan, ,, believe in. kwaad zijn oi:er.,. lie angry
gelijlcen op, ., resemble. al•out.
genictcn van, ,, enjoy. (zich) lcwellcn worry about.
geschilct zijn ,, be fit for. orl'I',
tot, (zieh) J.;1cijten ,, a<"quit (one-
gcsteld ::ijn op, ,, lie fond of. ran, self) of.
getrojJen zijn ., be struck J;:ijken naar, ,, look at.
cloor, with. lach<m om, ,, laugh at.
gecen om, ,, miud (care lencn aan. ,, lend to.
for). lcncn rau. borrow of.
geu-r uuen aan, ,, get aeC'ustom- lC'iden naar, ,, lead to.
ell to. lettcn op, ,, vay atiection
go('fn·c11 ren, ,, approve of. to.
gooien naar, ,, throw at. lrrcn ran, ,, live 011.
grabbrhn naar, ,, scramble for. lcrercn aan, ,, supply witn.
grarc1t naar, ,, dig for. liggcn a,au, ,, lie \Yi th (de-
grcn~cn aan, ,, border 011. pend on).
gruu·en 'Van, ,, shudder at. logercn uij. ,, stay with.
halcen naar, ,, long for. locrcn op, ,, lie in wn it for.
( zich ) 7t eclt ten ,, get atta<'hctl luistercn naar, ,, listen to.
aan, to. lijdcn aan, ,. suffer from.
he/pen aan, ,, help to. lij<len van, ,, suffer by.
herinnerf'n aan, ,, remind of. lijlcen ov, resemble.
hindcrcn in, ,. keep from. milcl;;en Of!, aim at.
( z'ich) h ocden ., liew:ire of. mijmcren o cer, ,, umse on.
voor, ri"1rren Ot"cr, ,, grumble
· hopen op, ,, hope for. , about.
hondcn ran, ,, like. nadcnlvcn over, ,, consider.
(ziclt ) hou<lnn ,, consid<'r (one-na1·ruag doen ,, enquire into.
voor, self). naar,
hunlceren naar, ,, long for. nopen tot, ,, hring to.
( zich) intcresse- ,, take an in- oefcncn in, ,, practice.
ren roor, tercst in. oni:<:icn naar, ,, look after.
introduceren ,, introduee to. onlwlcwaam zijn,, be incapable
aan, tot, of.
jagon naar, hunt after. on<lerdoen i•oor, he inferior to.
jarnmeren over, lament. on!lcrircrpcn subject to.
kerf'n naar, ,, turn to. aan,
kenbrrnr ;/"ijn ,, he lmown by. (;:;ich) ontfer- ,, have mercy
aan, 111cn orer, on.

List of Preposition= Verbs (con.)

unthalen op, to treat to. spijt he/J/Jcn to be sorry for.
ontsnappcn ,, esc:upe trom. can,
aan, sputtcn met, ,, lllOck at.
oordclcn O'cer ,, jutlge u\Jout. sprcken over, ,, tall;: ul.Jout.
opuffen n ucin, ,, sucrifiee to. staan op, ,, insist on.
ocercenstcm- ,, correspeud stcrvcn aan, die of.
men met, to. steunen op, ,," rely upon.
passen /Jij, ,, go with. stikken van, choke with.
passen op, ,, tuke care of. ( z'ioh) sturen ",, mind.
pass en voor, ,, he fit for. aun,
pcinzen orer, ,, meditate strafjcn orn, ,, punish for.
uvon. stralcn ran, ,, beam with.
plagen met, ,, tease about. strelcllcn tot, ,, serYe.
pochcn op, l.JOast of. streren naar, ,, strive for.
pratcn over, ",, talk a \Jout. strolcen met, ,, agree with.
raadplegcn ., C'OllSU]t strijden oi·c1", ,, quarrel
ocer, about. a\Jout.
ralwn aan, ,, touch. talen naar, ,. have a desire
redeneren o 1·cr, ,, talk ahout. for.
(zich) regclcn ., IJe ruled hy. tci en op, ,, live on.
,, hnnker after.
tintelen i-an,
(deli) toelrggt>n
tingl<' with.
apply (one-
ncuzr, up, self) to.
rcizen naar, travel to. tral.~t<iren op, treat to.
rekcnen op, ,, rely on. trckkrn naar, ,, go to.
rel•enen 111et, ,, take into
trc11ren 01·or,
t1trrn narrr,
..., sorrow for.
gaze at.
rocmen up, .. glory in. tu ljfclcn rwn, uouht.
(zich) sch a mrn
,, lie ashanwcl
twistcn orer,
11ityn•cn aan,
.." quarr<'l ahout
spend on.
.. value at. "
schattPn op, uitsclwidf'n met, <"ease (stop).
sehil'tcn UJ!, ., shoot at. uitsehelden roor " call.
(zieh) sehiklcen ,. neeommodate 11itzir.ht hebben have in view.
OTI!'Self to. op, "
( zich) sch il<l.-en resign oue- rurrn nnar, sail for.
in, self to. ro s t11o11 rlcn ding to.
srhrcien orcr, ..
weep for. aan,
schrilcken roor, ..
startll' at. rat hrbbrn 011, .. have a hold
srhrl.ircn mu, ..
writP for. on.
SC/Ill i/ <'11 om, ., takP shl'ltPr rerrmrlrn·11 ran .. elrnngP.
from. r<'rbcrg~n 1'00r, ,, hitlP from.
siddcren 7iij, ., shudder at. ( zir·/1 ) l'fT1Jlij- .. r<'joie0 at.
smrwil ten 11aar, ,, famish for. ilen orrr.
smalu•n 11rrar, .. tast0 of. ( zieh) 1•ergas- .. fenst on.
smalen 011, ., rail nt. ten nan,
smPl;en om .. hei;: for. rcrgPli]k<'n bif, eompnrf' to
snal•krn naar, ., eravf' for. rr'l"gcn rrrn. .." cll'mand from
snoeren op, . , hoast of. ( z ich) 1•rrg!'noe- .. cont0nt (one-
spelen om, ., play for. gen mrt, self) with.

List of Preposition~Verbs (con.)

.(zich) i:crgrij- to outrage. iraarscltuwen to waru of.
pen a.an, oour,
(zich) i:erheu- ,, rejoice at. icuehten op, ,, wait for.
gen oi·or, (zich) icaolltcn ,, beware of.
rcerl.:·lezen buvcn,,, prefer to. i:uor,
t·erlunuen nuar wish for. ( :iclt) icuuen ,, ve11 Lure on.
(Zich) i-erlute~ '.'. rely on. UUll,
op. icalwn i·oor, ,, watrh over.
i·!:lrnemcn naar, ,, enquire for. ·tra11/wpcn uan ,, despair of.
vertalen uit, ,, translate from ircrldcn om, ,, bet for.
vertrekl•en ,, set out for. ( zi<'h) weer- ,, refrain from.
'n(J,ar, ltouden ran,
i·ertrouwen ov, ,, to trust in. iceglvzrijnen ,, pine with.
'rcru·crkmi tot, ,, work into. l"Ufl.,
(zich) i·erwon- ,, wonder at. iccldoen aun, ,, do good to.
doron over, (zieh) u·cndcn ,, apply to.
verzcndcn naar, ,, send to. tut,
verzot zijn op, ,, be mad aftPr. (zich) wcnnen ,, get used to.
v·issen naar, ,, fish for. uan,
·vitten op, ,, ea vii at. wc11sen naar, ,, wish for.
(zioh) vleien • ,, flatter (one- werken aa n, ,. work at.
met, self) with. tccrpen na a r, ,, fling at.
{R·ioh) voeden ., feed on. 1.r:unf'n te, •. reside at.
met, wnrr/en ·uit, ., bC'eome of
voldoen aan, ,, fulfil. 1.rij17!'n tot, ,, ordain.
( zich) voorbe- ,. prepare (one- ( zich) 1djdcn ,. devote (one-
rciden op, self) for. aan, self) to.
·voorgaan in, set an ex- 11·ijten aan, ,, impute to.
ample of. zanilicn nl'rr. .. Jiother about.
voorstellen aan, ,, intro<ln<'e to. Z'<'lldcu iirwr, .. sentl to.
i•oorzien i·an, ,, provide with. Z< udcn om, ., send for.
voorR'icn in, ,, pro1·We for. zion naar, look at.
vorscn 1w.ar, ,, sear<•h for. zoeken nrtar, .. look for.
rragen om, ., ask for. :::orycn 1~oor, ,, take <'are of.
rrrznn roor, ,, lie afraid of. z11rhft'n nm. .. sigh for.
rrijst<lllen ran, ., exempt from. :::irrTen lmren • ., hover over.
·r11re11 op, ., fire at. :::u-irhtc11 roor, ., Sll<'C'Umb to.



We wiRh to take a little preRerve inRtead of rheeRe.

Refore the day dawned we were all up and read~'· At
what time (Ifoc lrwt) do you wish to be called? :'.\Iy ink

is finished, I shall have to buy a new bottle. Among yon-

der trees there is one which looks particularly prP-tty.
During (the) dinner people were continually knocking at
our door to [the] annoyance of our guests as well as of
ourselves. \Ve met the travellers on their way to Berlin,
and spent a couple of hours with them. :N'ot every heart
requires a large number of friends to be happy. I have
known persons who had very few true friends, and yet
were happy and contented. Three of the pupils have
failed in the examination, on account of the many
mistakes (that) they made in the translation from
German into (the) English. Forasmuch as the news
has reached you, you will be obliged to go at once. All
the people ran to the market-hom;e for (to) shelter, on
account of the unexpected shower. The bird flew into
the church, and went right through it. Ile came to me
about a quarter of an hour after my brother had left me
and stayed for some (a) twenty-five minutes.


Once upon a time a fox saw a pretty ·wood-pige~:m

sitting on one of the lowest brancheR of an oak-tree in a
large wood. "Pretty dove, " said the fox, "I have been
running (I have run) about all (the) morning (for) to
find somebody to have a chat with; do come down and sit
in the brushwood, and we shall have a pleasant talk."
The silly pigeon actually came down and sat in the
brushwod, close to the ground. 'rhen the fox said:
'"Why do you think (that) it is, that birds are so much
prettier than four-footed animals?" "Oh," said the
pigeon, "I do not consider (that) they are ( thai), but
this I know, that our feather;v coat is of much more use
to (voor) us than yonr hairy skin is to you." '.l'he fox
seemed to get interested, and replied: "Little creature,
where do you get such wisdom(vandaan)? Did I eve1·
hear (have I heard) a wood-pigeon speak (such) S 20

intelligent words [like :those]? Surely, if foxes are called

cunning, pigeons might (zoitden kunnen) be called w~se.
But now explain your statement." The poor dove, which
perhaps had never been :flattered before, was almost
beside (biiiten.) herself with (of) joy and pride as she
gave the following explanation: "You see, the first and
most important duty of every living creature, whether in
the wood or elsewhere, is to protect his head against
every inju'ry from outside. ~ow that is just (of) what
( waartoe) you, liairy animals, are not capable r
With us it is different. From whatever side the wind
blows, we are always able to shield our head and keep
it warm."


"Suppose for instance (that) the wind should come

(came) from the south, and I should be sitting (sat)
just as at present. I would simply lift my right wing
and (er) cover my head with (mede) it. If the wind blew
from the north, I should only require to lift my lf'ft wing
and do the same." "That's well explained," said the fox,
"but now just (eens) Rhow (it) rnP." 'l'bc pigeon then
( toen) lifted first her right wing, and then her left [one].
and with either (both) covered her head entirely1 so that
the fox seemed quite satisfied. "But now," he added
(to it), "that's all right ( dat is goed en wel) for southerly
and northerly winds, but what would you do if the breeze
should come (came) from the west, while you were sittin(J'
(sat) like ~hat (zo)? You see, now I have caught ym~
that's a thmg (that) you do not know, my little dove!"
''"What!" said the pigeon, "do not know'? Pigeons know
everything about (of) that matter. Shall I show vou how
we ~o ?" "I should b~ so glad if you would (did it),"
replied the fox, "I do like to (zo graag) learn things from

wiser people than myself (I am)." This answer again

stung the poor dove's pride. She ventured (it) to come
down from her twig in the brushwood, and sat (went to
sit) down on the ground right in front of (recht v66r)
the fox. "Now mind," (let nu op) she went on ( voort),
''this is what we do (so do we)." Saying this, she buried
her pretty head in the soft down of her neck. That was
(it) what (waar) the fox had been looking for (op
gewacht had) with all the desire of. his cruel heart.
The very (same) minute (that) the bead turned round,
he seized the poor pigeon with his strong claws, ate it
(op) and went away.


I dare not go out, for fear (that) I might (zou kunnen)

C3 tch cold. Let him do it, if he likes ( wii). How delight-
ful! I shall have you all (geheel) to (voor) m:vRelf: we
shall have a happy fortnight. "Evil communications
corrupt good manners. You won't go out, will you? 1
would not be able to act against your desire. '\fay I leave
the work [undone]? What is it that puts you up to ( dat
er u toe brcngt) neglecting (neglecl) your duties? He
iR so anxious (desirous) to become acquainted with you.
What will (er) have become of my poor hoy? The last
news (plur.) from him was disheartening. All the people
(whom) you see assembled in that spacious hall are
descendants of the late Duke [of] A., a man of great
]Jhysical strength, great activity and zeal, and trnP nobili-
ty of heart. What a pity (hoe jammer) (that) you haw not
been able to (ku,nnen) travel more! To spend a r.0~1ple
of years in (met) (the) visiting (of) countries, (ihe)
seeing (of) strange nations, (the) observing (of) their
manners and customs, and (the) inquiring into (of)
their religion, affords more real development than double
the time spent in study or in an office.


A.mbachtcn en Beroepen. Trades and Occupations.

1. His is smid rnn beroep. He is a blacksmith by trade.

2. Hij is t•an alle marlvten He is a jack-of-all-trades.
tlt uis.
S. Deze man hccft cen laken- 'l'his man has a draper's
w,inkel in de Langestraat. shop in Long Street.
'1. Waar lwn men een elrscm- Where ean one get a copy
plaar van dit boeli; bekomen? of this book?
5 . .Men lean het, meen ik, I believe it can IJe had at
krijgen bij Mason, boekhan- Mason's, booksellers, in
delaar, in de Gcorge-straat. George Street.
6. A.ls 'U bij de drogist voorbij- If you pass the chemist's,
lwrn t, koop dan wat citroen- IJuy some citric acid for
zuur voor mij. me.
7. Neem Wit rccept, en icaC'ht bij Take this prescription, and
de apothclrer tot de medicij- wait at the apothecary's
ncn lvlaar zijn. till the me1Ucine is ready
8. Laat dit bij de blikslager Have this mended at the
repnrercn. tiusmith's.
D. Laat de timmcrman d•ie Get the carpenter to mend
tafels en /)(ml~cn rcparcren. those tables and benches
10. E<'n rnetselaar moet die muur A mason inust look after
nazien. that wall.
11. De stoffcerdcr !weft de i•oor- The upholsterer has papered
lrnmer bchanyen en gcmeu- aud furuislte!l the draw-
bileerd. ing room.
12. Wees zo goed, dit naar de Please have this taken to
slotemalcer tc sturen. the loeksrnitlt's.
13. 1Vaar lrnn ilc cen glazcmal,cr Wl!erp mu one find a
'L"ind<'n! glazier?
14. ne man, die roor mij 'U"erlct, The man whom I employ
u;oont tlic.7it b'ij Johnston, lives near Johnston, the
(fJe schoenmak<'r. shoemake1·.
15. Jllijn paardcn moctcn besla- My horses must be shod;
gcn wordcn; breng ze naar take them to the
de hoefsmirl. farrier.
lG. Die v:agenmal•er maakt uit- That waggon-builder makes
muntcnde wagens roor de excellent waggons for
transporthan<lel. the transport-trade.

17. Ga met mij mcc naar de Go with me to the jeweller's

gomlsmid orn cen gouden to buy a gold chain.
ketting te lcopen.
18.. De horlogcm.alccr hecft juist '1.'he watch-maker has hada
een nieuwc i-oorraad ont- fresh supply just lately.
19. Zullen wij bij de i·ishandc- Shall we call at the fish-
Zaar aangaan, en wat vis monger's, and order
voor het dince bcstcllen? some fish for dinner?
20. De slager hccft in de laatste The butcher has not been
tijd geen heel goea: schape- sending very good mut-
vlees gest-uurd. ton lately.
21. Wa.ar koovt u grocnten? Where d0 you buy your
22. Wij kopcn er zeldcn: onze We seldom buy any; our
tuinier ,,;oordet ans. gardener keeps us sup-
23. De boeren zeggen, dat de The farmers say the harvest
oogst van 't jnar slecht zal will he !Jad this year.
24. Deze man is boekbindcr, en This man is a !Jookbinder,
die hceft cen boelcstalletje. and that one has a
25. Vraag de drukkcr, die fout Ask the printer to correct
te verbetcren. that mistake.
26. StU'ur naar de kruidenier Send to the grocer's for a
om een lrist beste tee. box of best tea.
27. II ecft u sigarcn? Have you any cigars?
28. Neen, maar dJe tab,alcshande- No, but the tobacconist has
laar hecft er zeer goede op excellent ones at
het ogenblilc. present.
29. H eeft de klcermakcr mijn Has the tailor sent my
jas gestuurd? coat?
30. Neen, mijnhcer, maar de No, sir, but the hatter has
hoedemaker hccft de hoed sent the hat you
gestuurd, die u besteld had.. ordered.


(lfet Voegwoord.)

I. As Prepositions express relations between objects, or

between an object and an action, so Conjunctions
establish relations between thoughts. Conjunctions are
indeclinable words (particles), and have no meaning
in themselves. They are used for expressing the con-
nection between sentences, or different parts of the same
sentence. Consequently they are connective words. To
distinguish them from Adverbs, which may he connectives
as well, it must be observed that Adverbs do not derive
their meaning from the place they take in the sentence,
and though used as connectives, must always qualify
some other word. Adverbs, moreover, when used as
connectives, are not necessarily placed bet.ween two
i::entences; they may be included in one of the sentences,
which is not the case with Conjunctions.

NoTE.-The difficulty of distinguishing between Adverbs and Con-

junctions is most apparent where the same word is used in
both qualities: Reken er op, nu zal het geschieden, be sure of
it, now it will happen (nu is Adv.) ; Al mijn vreugde is
weg nu mijn oudcrs cloud zijn, all my joy is gone now that
my parents arc dead (nu is Conj.).

II. Conjunctions may be divided in~o two principal

classes, viz. : 1. those which connect two independent
sentences, Co=ordinative Conjunctions, Nevenschik=

kende Voegwoorden, and 2. those which ronneri sen-

tences of which the one is dependeut upon the other,
Subordi1;1ative Conjunctions, Ondergeschikte Voeg=
NoTE.-Suhordinative Conjunctions remove the Verb to the end
o.E a clause. Of the Co-ordinative Conjuuctions, those that
are adverbial place the subject after the Yerb.

A. Co=ordinative Conjunctions are subdivided into:

1. Those which uniteor couple together, Verbinden=
de or Aaneenschakelende Voegwoorden.
2. Those which oppose, Tegenstellende Voegwoorden
3. Those which limit or separate, Scheidende Voeg=
4. Those which express a reason, Iledgngevende

EXAMPLES OF 1.-en, and; ook, also; niet alleen or niet

slechts or niet enkel ... maar ook, not only ... but also;
benevens, and also; alsmcdc, and also; zowcl ... als ook,
as well ... as; noch ... noch, neither ... nor; and the
Adverbial Conjunctions daarenboven, besides; daarna,
after that; boi;endfon, besides; ja zelfs, even.
Laat mlj u zeggen, hoe icij de dag hebbcn doorgebracht:
niet alleen hebben we een Zange wandeling gemaakt, maar
we zijn ook wat gaan lezen, en hebben toen gedineerd;
vervolgens zijn we te paard uit geweest, eindelilc. hebben
we ons hulsiccrk voor morgen gemaakt. Let me tell you
how we spent the day: not only did we take a long walk,
but we also read a little, and then had dinner; then again
we went out on horseback, and finally we did our home-
work .for tomorrow.
EXAMPLES OF 2.-rnaar, but j doch, but; nu, now that;
da.n, then, and the Adverbial Conjunctions integendeel,
on the contrary; echter, however; diesniettegenstaande,
notwithstanding; evenwel, however; intussen, in the

Jk zou het u gaarne geve11, duch h<:t is onmogeUk, I

should like to give it to you, but it is impossil>le; op die
wijze zal 11, rnij niet van u vervreemden, integendeel u zul
rnij u meer doen achten en liefheb/Jen, in that way you
will not estrange me from you, on the contrary you will
cause me to esteem and love you more.: ik heb hem
diku:els gewaarschuwd, echter heeft hij er gccn acht. op
geslagen, I have often warned him, but he has not heeded
it. .

ExA~rpr,Es OF 3.-of, or; of ... of, either ... or; hetzij

.. hetzij, either ... or; hetzij ... of, whether ... or.

Hetzij wij werken of spelen, ons hoofd rnoet er bij zijn,

whether we work or play, our mind must be in it; of de
brief is reeds verzonden, of hij zal van morgen op de post
gaan, either the letter has been sent already, or it will
be posted this morning.

EXAMPLES Ob' 4.--want, for; bijgevolg, consequently;

dus, so; alzo, so; daurom, so, therefore; hierom, on this
account; derhalve, for that reason; dan, then, so; toch,
(see sentence) ; immers (see sentence) ; all of which may
be called Adverbial Conjunctions.

Wij zullen moeten ophouden, want het begint te

1·egenen, we shall have to stop, for it is beginning to rain;
verklaar ii nader, mij toch komt toe, alles te weten_. or
immers komt mij toe, enz., explain yourself further, it is
proper for me to know all, 01·, is it not proper for me, etc.?

ll. Subordinative Conjunctions are subdivided into:

1. Those that express a comparison, Vergelijkende


2. Those that express a proportion, Verhoudingaan~

wijzende Voegwoorden.

3. 'l'hose that define a time, Tijdbepalende Voeg-

4. Those that define a place, Plaatsbepalende Voeg=

5. Those that express a condition, Voorwaardelike

G. Those that indicate a concession, Toegevende
7. Those that express a purpose, Doelaanwijzende

8. Those that express the reason of an action, R.eden=

gevende Voegwoorden.

9. Those that join Noun-sentences to Priucipal

sentences, Verklarende Voegwoorden.

EXAMPLES OF 1.-gelijk, as; evcnals, just as; als, as;

dan, than; zoals, as; dat, so that; also/, as if.

Hij is grater geworden, dan ik verwacht had, he has

grown taller than I had expected; doe alsof je thui:s
waart, make yourself at home.

EXAMPLES OF 2.-hoe ..... hoe, the ..... the; hoe

... des te, ihe . . .. so much the; naarmate or naar
gelang, according as, in proportion to.
Hoe minder hoe liever, als je rnaar gewnd bent, the
less the better as long as you are healthy; hoe meer ik
hem aanzette tot zijn werlc, des te meer vertraagde hij,
the more I urged him on to his work, the more he idled;
naardat u werkt, zullen uw vorderingen zijn, according
to your work, so will your progress be.
EXAMPLES OF 3.-Als, if; toen, when; wanneer, when;
zodra als, as soon as; zo dikwels als, as often as; v66rdat,
'.l'BE 00"!."JUNCTION Q25

before; mi, now that; terwijl, whereas. 'fhese Conjunc-

tions are for the greater part Adverbs and Prepositions
changed into Conjunctions by the addition of ''als-'' or

De haan began te kraaien, zodra als U'ij buiten kwlt-

men, the cock began to crow as soon as we came outside;
het vuur ging dadelik uit, toen de blaasbalg ophield rnct
blazen, the fire went out immediately, when the be11ows
ceased blowing.
ExAilIPLES OF 4.--waar, where; alwaar, where; waar-
lwen, whither; werwaarts, whither; van waar, from where.

Wijs rnij de plaats, waar ik gezaaid heb, show me the

:vlace where I have sown; lk reis naar hetzelfde onbe-
kcnde land, werwaarts mijn vader twee jaren geleden
n-rtrokken is, I am travelling to the same unknown
country, whither my failier went two years ago; ik
herinner mij no,q duidelik de hoogte, vm1waar wij u het
laatst vaarwel toewuifden. I di8tinclly rememLer the
height from where we waved a last farewell to you.

ExAl\lPLEs Ol!, 5.-indien, if; in geval dat_, in case that;

zo, jf; tenzij, unless; mi ts, provided; icanneer, if.

Ik wil het niet doen, tendj 1£ mo 'DOlle toesternming

geeft, I don't want to do it, unless you give your full
consent; je kunt op mijn hulp rekenen, rnits je zelf al
je krachten inspant, you may be sure of my assistance,
provided you yourself do everything in your power.

ExA111PLES OF 6.-schoon, hoewel, alhoewel, ofscltoon,

al, though; niettegenstaande, although.

Ofschoon dit woord verouderd mag heten, wordt het

toch door verschillende schrijvers nog gebruikt, though
this word may be called obsolete, it is still being used
by several authors; hij waagt zich gedurig nog 's avonds

in de luch t, niettegensta,ande hij geu:aarschuwd is, al-

though lte has been warned, he still often goes out at
night; al is de leugen nog zo snel, de waarheid aohter-
/walt Item wel, though falsehood fly ever so fast, ·truth
catches it at last.

EXAMPLES OF 7.-opdat, in order that; dat, that; ten

einde, for tltc purpose of.

De vader werkte wat hij kon, opdat de zoon de

vruohtcn t•un zijn arbeid zou plukken, the father worked
with all his might, in order that the son should gather
the fruits of his labour; eert uw vader en uw rnoeder>
opdat uw dagen verlengd worden, honour thy father and
thy mother, that thy days may be long; hij spoort zijn
paard aan, ten einde nog v66r zonsondergang thuis te
zijn, he spuri;; on his horse, for the purpose of being home
before sunset.

NOTE.-l\fark that adverbial sentences of purpose are not usually

formed with the wonls opdat and ten einde. In fact, in
colloquial limguage, those two Conjunctions are rarely used.
TllP eommon e:i..1)ressio11 for the thoughts contained in the
tin;t and last of the sentences under 7 would be : De vader
icerlct icat hij kan, om dJe zoon de vruchten van zijn arbeid
te laten plnlckcn, the father works with all his might, to let
the son gather, etc.; Ilij svoort zijn vaard aan om nog v66r
fOnsondcrgang thuis te zijn, he spurs on his horse to be
home before sunset. Foreigners should try to accustom them-
selves t0 the constant use of the Preposition om for the sake
of fluenc~·.

EXAMPLES OF 8.-omdat, dewijl, naardien, doordien,

CJ.angezien, wijl, because; daar, vermits, since; om reden
( dat), for the reason (that) ; op grond ( dat), 011 the
ground (that); nademaal, forasmuch.

De verkoping kon niet doorgaan, omdat het regende,

the sale could not come off, because it was raining; ik
zal gerechtelike stappen tegen u rnoeten nemen, aangezien
i~ mijn naam lieeft traohten te benadelen. I shall have
to take legal steps against you, forasmuch as you have
tried to injure my reputation.
'I'ILE CUXJU"}\'OTIO}' 3:.l7

EXAl\IPLES m' 9.-dat, that; of) whether, if. These Con-

junctions occur after Verbs which express an assertion,
an assurance, a question, etc.
Hij verzekert rn,ij, dat hij er geen schuld aan heeft,
he :u;sures me that it is not his fault; u rcrlangdc te
wcten, of ik ii helpen ZO'lt? yon wished to know whether
I would help you? zeg mij, of allc1S in orde is, tell me if
all is right.


1. Dat, that, may mean omdat, because, opdat, in order

that, and zodat, so that: (a) ik ben heel damkbarzr, dat
JC gekomen zijt, I am very thankful that (because) you
have come; ( b) ik span alle krachten in, dot ik slagen
rtwge, I do my very best that (in order tiiat) I may
succeed; (c) het regent, dat het gict, (literal irans.) it
rains so that it pours.

2. Wijl ought to be taken for dewijl, because, and not

for terwijl, while.
3. Zonder, in plaats van, behalve, when they are
Conjunctions, can never be used without the Conjunction
dat: (a) Hij zegt znlke dingen, zonder dat hij er bij
denkt, he says such things without thinking what ltl:' says;
(b) in plaats van dat hij onmiddellik naar hem toeging,
kwam hij eer8t bij mij) instead of going to him straight,
he first came to me; ( c) alles beva lt mij, behalve dat je
liem zijn verzoek geweigerd hebt, I am pleased with
everything but that you have refused his request.

4. After real Conjunctions the connective dat may not

be used.
5. Now that may be translated nu dat, but nu only is
more common.

6. Maar and doch both mean but. Maar, however,

opposes the thoughts expressed in the sentences it con-

nects in a stronger way t.Lan doch. Hij is rijk) maar

blind)· u;at uaat hem zijn rijkdoin? he is rich, but blind;
of what good are his riches to him? hij zegt nooit 'Veel)
doch als hij spreekt) 'Verraadt ieder icoorcl de heldcrlwid
van zijn gedachten)he never says much, but if he doe'>
speak, each word betrays the clearness of his thoughts.
In common speaking, however, "doch') is uncommon.

7. ''Good-hearted though he was, many people shunned

him", may be transla:Led, Goedltartig als hij was) we!'ll
hij toch door velen gemijd-yet a better translation is,
Hoewel ltij goedhartig u:as) iccrd hij) enz.



A thrush, a linnet, and a thistle-finch were once caught

by a fowler in one day and under the same (een en
hctzelfde) net. Since they were all equally prett~', hP did
not like (wilde hij nict graag) to kill [any] one of the
three; so he pnt them together into one large cage. At
first they were all on very good terms (op zeer goede
voct), most (heel) likely because none of them liked the
fate (to none of them was the fate agreeable) (to which)
they were condemned [to]; but when after a while they
had got accustomed to the small room, (to which) they
were confined [in], the thistle-finch began to be dis-
agreeable. He scolded his two companions either for
singing (because they sang) too high or too low, or for
not keeping time (ma at), when they were trying to Ring
together. At last his temper grew (became) so bad, that
the other two birds could not bear hiR company any
longer. In fact, the little linnet got so nervous from
being (to be) scolded all day long (the whole day), that
it (hem) soon became impossible [for him] (om) to sing.
So (on) one morning, when the fowler-who on the whole

was very good to (voor) them-took them out (brought

them outside) into the sun, the linnet spoke to him on
this wise (hem aldus aan): Good man, J am perfectly
aware (of it) that I am doing a hazardous thing by
openly complaining about the tbistle-finch here present;
but yet I must speak out. His temper has grown bad
beyond mea~mre (uitermate), so much so (zozccr), that
1 luwe given up (tlie) singing for fear of being scolded
incessantly, and I am even beginning to hate (the) life.
I frankly ask you, for my own sake and that (ter wille
'can rnijzelj en t•an) of my good companion, the thrush,
to relie7e us of the company of this miserable thistle-
finch, and to do it soon, lest (opdat . . . niet) he kill me.


A certain man had three sons. \\'hen he had grown

(become) old, and was about to die (soon wouM die) he
called his sons to (bij) him (zich), telling them (and told
them), that he wanted to divide his goods. After the
necessary arrangements had been made, he thus spoke to
I aanspreken) them: "My sons, besides what I ha ye now
assigned to you, there is in my possession a large diamond
of great value, which I received from my father on the
day of his death. This jewel I cannot divide, and nrny (I)
not sell. I have therefore made up my mind (resolvP-d),
that T shall give it to that one of my three sons who
within three months will give me proof that he possesses
a better character than his brothers.'' epon this (Hier-
op) the sons took leave of their father. and separated
( uit clkander gaan) on the promise of reassembling at
the old man's sick-bed after a lapse of ( na verloop 'L"!ln)
three months. When the time had arrived (komcn), they
nll met ( samcnlwmcn) once again in their old home.
And this is what they had to report. "Father," sain the
eldest, "in the com·se of these three monthil a friend of
mine (see p. 188) wished to undertake a journey into

a far-off land. He brought me a large amount (sum) of

gold, which I undertook (op zich nemen) to keep for him,
but for which he refused to (would not) take a written
acknowledgment. ·when be came back, I returned all
the money to him without (er) keeping any of (some-
thing) [it] back, though there was nothing to show how
large the snm had been (which) he had entrusted to me.
'Yhat does my father think of such a character?''-"My
son,'' replied the old man, "this was only ordinary
110nesty; I should not have expected anything (nothing)
less of my son!"


Thereupon the second son stepped (came) forward,

and :>:poke: ·':.'lfy father, in the course of these thre~
months I came to the shore(s) of a lake, just at (op) the
moment wh0n ( dut) a little child, playing on the bank
(kant) happened to (accidentally) fall into the water.
'l'he poor mother, who stood by (erliij) screamed for (om)
help, and wildly threw np (in dr hooglc gooien) her
arms in despair. I hmried to tl1c spot, sprang (er) in,
dived after ( nuar) the sinking -child, canght it, brought
it up (naar boi;cn), swam with it (ermede) to the i-;hore,
aud handed it to the distressed motlier. Far gone ( hcen)
though (hoe . •. ook) it was, (the) life was not extinct
1 Pr . . . iiit), and our combined efforts brought ihe poor
child back to (tot het)life. '!'he mother found (conld fa1d)
no words with which (orn) to thauk me; lmt dmwiug
a pnrRe filled with gold from her pock0t, Rhe spoke [to]
me thus (aan): 'Stranger, take this. Thongh the reward
be little in comparison to the noble deed, do not deRpise
what Iofferyoufrom(uit) aheartorerflowing wi1h(ron)
gratitude. 'l'ake it, and if you will make no personal use
of H, let it (then) be the price for buying something which
will remind you of this happy day, and this glorious deed!'
-Bui. I refused the money, saying that to see tlie boy
breatlie was Rufficient reward for me. 'Yhat does my

father think of such a character?"-The old man replied,

"My son, this is nothing but ordinary love of man (mense-
liefde), and just what I should have expected of my son."


Then the youngest son came to tell his tale, and this
is what he said: "Father, in the course of these three
months I was travelling in the mountains. On a certain
day, when darkness had set in (de avond gevallen was)
and the road was but faintly lit up by the glimmer of
the stars, my attention was attracted by ( doordat) my
dog sniffing (sniffed) at something lying off the roadside
(aan de kant t?an de weg). 'l'he spot being [a] 4angerous
[one], I dismounted, and went to see what my dog had
found. It was a man who was lying fast asleep on the
very ( uiterst) edge of a fearful chasm. I scanned his
·face, and knew it to be (that it was) that of my worst
enemy. Now I knew ihat (if) should I leave ll left) him
there, be would undoubtedly move about (Zich bewegen)
in his sleep, and (er) no more of him would be heard ; yea,
and (that) even if I should try io rouse him, he might
lZOU kitnncn) mow and drop down, 80 nPar he lay to
l bij) the outermost edge. I therefore seized hiR arm
(him by the arm), dragged him away a few yardR, and
then woke him up. He started when he recognised my
Yoice, but I spoke reasRuringly [to] him (toe), and asked
him to tell me what had made ( bewogen) him (to) lie
down in such a horrible place. He then told me that
he had lost his way ( venlwalen), and that (he), being
oYerwhelmed with ( iiitgeput van) fatigue at the approach
of (the) night, [he] had dropped down, not knowing
where. I then showed him his way (naar) home and let
him go. \Vlrnt does my father think of such a character?"
-The eyes of the dying man brightened up as the
question was put (gedaan), and he exclaimed, "Oh my
son, that was indeed more than common honesty, more

also than common love of man-that was magnanimity.

You have shown the best character, and gladly (vol-
gaarne) do I bequeath the jewel to you "


Ondcrwijs en School. Teaching and School

1. Onze school zal op de 23ste Our scl10ol re-opens on the

Aprii u;ccr beginnen, en ge- 23rd of April and closes
sloten icorden op de 21ste on the 21st of June.
2. Op wellce school is uw zoon f ·what sehool does your son
3. H·ij is op de No111urnlschool. He goes to the Normal
op het opcnbare Gymna- school, to the Public
sium. Iligh School.
4. Mijn :won is op het Athc- My son is at College.
5. Hij zal 't t'olyende jaar naar He enters the Theological
hct Theologies Seminarie Seminary next year.
6. Wat onderu;ijsstaf liceft u? Whnt staff of teachers have
7. Een lwofdonderu·ijzer en A head-master, and four
·l'ier assistenten. assistants.
s. Hij is taalondericijzer, te- He is a teaC'lter of languages,
tel;:cnondcriEij:::cr, enz. a drawing-master, etc.
9. Bij idc ncemt u les? Wiih whom do you talrn
10. Professor Schmidt gecft 111ij Professor Schmidt gives me
muziclcles. music lessons.
11. Woont u de fa.allclas&en bij? Have you joined the lan-
guage classPs?
12. 'Ncen, ik nccm priraatles in Xo. I take private lessons in
Frans en Duits. French and German.
13. JJlijn onderwijzcr komt l\Iy master comes on Mon-
Maandags en Dondcrdags. days and 'l'hursdays.
14. Hij re/cent vijf shillings ricr The fee is fiye shillings a
lcs. lesson.
15. Mijn zuster gaat naar an My sister is going to a
kostschool. IJoarding-scnool. s 21

16. Zij is ecn lecrling van ecn Hhe is a pupil of u collegiatt•

kollegiale sc1wol. school.
ft-:-Hij heeft bij het laatste He gained a bursery at the
eksarnen £'en boui's gekregcn. last examination.
18. IIij was een scltoolkarneraad Ile was a school-fellow of
'l.'lln rnij. mine.
19. Jn iuclke klas is u? In what class are you?
20. Jn clo oerste, twecde, rienle, [n the first, SeC'ond, fourth,
laagste, enz .. lowest, etc.
21. Dat lcind /cent allecn het a, That child only kuows the
li, o ( alfabet). alphabet.
22. Hij heeft cen oertijilrnat Ile has ohtaineu a certifi-
gckregen. cate.
23. De zomerrakantie begint in The summer holidays begin
Desember. in DeC'emher.
24. Elcmcntair scllooleksamen. School I~lemeutn ry examin-
2G. Elcmcntair oudenrijzers- Elementary Teacliers' i'Jxa-
cksarnen. mina ti on.
26. Toelatingseksronon tot de ::\Ia tricula tiou }Jxamina tion.
uni1·ersiteit (Matrikulatie).
27. Eksamen in de reohtcn Law Examination.
( 1rctsclcsarnen).
28. LandmctersGlcsamen. Survey I'lxaminaUou.
29. De IJiezondere valclcen, 'in dat The special 8ubjP<'ts re-
eksamcn rereist, ziin: quired for tlmt examin-
_1/gcmene Geschicdcnis, ation are: Genernl His-
lt'ngclsc Gcschicdenis, de tory, IDnglish History,
FJngelse Taal, Grielcs en I<Jnglish laugu:tgP, GreeK
Latijn. :irnl Latiu.
30. Xoem rnij de studtcbocken Tell mP the text-books for
ecns op rnor de _qraad i·an the ::\I.A. degree in
lrnndid,aat in de letteren. literature, plt•ase.
31. Jk lwli rnij11 klas lcuJart roor I dismissed my class at a
hrnalf laten uitgaan. t1n:1 rtPr to twelve.
32. lctlc»e morgen wordt de J<Jyery morning the roll is
prcsentielijst nfgelc:::en. call ell.
33. A llc drie 11wa11den word en Every tlirpe months reports
er rapporten gepubliuecnl, are puhlislwll from
u:aaruit ourl'ers en 1·oogdcn which parents and guar-
kunnen opmaken, hoe het uians know how tlle
met de leerlingen 1·an pupils of our school' are
onzc school staat. getting on.


(liet Tussenwerpsel.)

I. Interjections, Tussenwerpsels, are sounds without a

de.finite meaning, serving to give utterance to some
momentary emotion of the mind. They are indeclinable
and may be placed in a sentence anywhere without ever
effecting any change in its construction. Some gram-
marians object to their being called words, on the ground
01: their having no specific meaning. A good many
Interjections are imitations of sounds ( Onomatopeeen).
A few Nouns, Verbs in the Imperative mood, and Adverbs,
are used as Interjections. The name "Interjection", as
will be easily seen from the Dutch equivalent, means
"cast in between".

The following are the most common Interjections:

1. For the expression of grief: ach/=ah ! helaas!=alas !

wee!=woe! wee mij!=woe to me! o Hemel!=good

2. l!'or the expression of pain: ail au!=oh !

3. For the expression of wonder: M!=oh ! aha!=I say!

4. For the expression of excitement and joy: heisa!

· hoezee! hoera=hurrah !

5. For the expression of a wish: oohl=oh !

6. For the expression of dislike: ba! abal=bah ! foeil


7. For the expression of encouragement: bravol=well

done! welaan!. go on! komaan!=come on.

8. For the expression of any emotion whatever: o/=oh !

9. For the imitation of sounds: bom, bam (of a tolling

bell), bim, b am (of a striking clock), tik, tak (of
any timepiece in motion), pief, paf (of a gun), krik,
krak (of breaking wood), kitlcelekit (of a crowing
cock), tok, tok, tole, (of a cackling hen), miauw (of
a mewing. cat), boe, boe (of a lowing cow),
kingelinggeling (of an old-time door-bell), flap (of
any unexpected clap), bons (of a heavy" object
falling), plof (of something falling into water).



I. Etymology treats of the formation of words. ·words

are of three kinds,-Primitive, Compound, and

Primitive words (Stamwoorden) are not derived from

other words.

Compound (Samengestelde) words are made up of

two parts, both being words.

Derivative (Afgeleide) words are derived from

primitfre words, or roots.

Examples of words derived from the same roots:

wrclcen, to revenge, u:raak, revenge, u:rolr, grudge.
r·uikcu, to smell, rcu7c, smell, 1·uiker, l!ouquet.
splijtcn, to split, spleet, crevice, split, slit.
urijpcn, to grip, grecp, grip, begrip, uudel'Standing,
brelcen, to l!reak, breulc, rupture, 7irok, piece.
ura ren, to dig, graaf, spade, gm(lf, groove.
drinlcen, to drink. drrmlr,, drink, rlronk, draught.
ge·cen, to give. gare, gift, gift, girt.
sprinprn, to spring, spronu. leap, sprank, spark.
rijdcu, to ride, . rit, ri<le. riddcr, knight.
vlicgen, to fly. rlucht, fiiirht, rleugel, wing.
sluiten, to loci{, sloot, ditch, slcutcl, kPy,
bui,qe11, to llend, UOO.<J, llOW, borht, curve.
liegen, to lie, lcu_qcn, lie. loochcnen, to deny.
tiegcn, to draw. tn1gel r<'in, tcu,q, draught.
bi11den, to llind, oanrl, band, 71ond. bond.
bijten, to l!ite. beet, bite, bit, bit.


(a) By means of Prefixes (Voorvoegsels):

Aarfs (meaning eerste, first): aart1Svader, patriarch;
aartsengel, archangel; aartdeugenaar, arch deceirnr.

On (meaning yoen_, no) : onmens, brute; onkunde,

ignorance; 011geloof, unbelief.
Mis (meaning verkeerd, wrong): misdaad, crime;
misdruk, paper wasted in printing.

Wan (meaning slecht, bad): wanorde, disorder;

ica 11 trouu·en, distrust.
Oor (meaning uit, out of) : oor1Spro11g, origin; oorlog,
Ai lmeaning away from, off) : afdak, lean-to; afdruk,
impression; afyod, idol; afgrund, abyss; afwrg, by-way.
Ant (meaning tegen, against) : antwoord, answer.

ae (before )[ouus "belonging together''): gebrocdcrs,

brethren; gcmaal, consort.
Tn eonnection with suffix fe--a C'olleC'tion: geboo1nte,
collection of trees; gebladerte. foliage.
Before stems of Verbs-the product of the action, or a
.continuous action: gebalc, confectionery; geschenk,
present; gedans, dancing.
(b) By means of Suffixes (Achfervoegsels):
l\fasculine names of persons are formed by the help of
the suffixes aar (er, ier, enaar, enier), aard (erd), ik
and and.
Aar, er, ier form substantives from Verbs, and names
of persons from the proper names of countriei; and towns.

Er stands for aar, when the preceding syllable has the

accent; ier is rarely used; enaar and enier form names
of persons from other substantives.
EXAMPLES: leraar, professor; dienaar, servant;
schrijver, author; gcver, donor; tuinier, gardener;
kunstenaar, artist; kruidenier, grocer; hovenier,
gardener; Hollander, Hollander; Haarlemrner,
inhabitant of Haarlem.
Aard, erd, ik, and erik indicate a fulness of the
(mostly bad) quality expressed by the original Verb or
Adjective: grijnzaard,. one who grins; veinzaard,
dissembler; blufferd, boaster; luiaard, idler; gauwerd,
one who has a quick hand; slimmerd, cunning person;
vuilik, filthy person; stornmerik, dunce.
And is the old form for end, the ending of the Present
Participle, and consequently indicates that the individual
whose appellation it helps to form, is the doer of the
action expressed by the Yerb forming the first part of the
word: heiland (de heilende, de helende, de genec.srnees·
tcr), saviour; vijand (de vijendc, de /wtende), enemy
(Ioie); vriend (vrija11d, de vrijende, de berninncnde),

III. Feminine names of persons and animals are

formed by ilie suffixes ster, in, es. Ster is placed after
the stems of Verbs: bakster, feminine baker; .
schoonmuakster, charwoman, etc.
If the stem is dissyllabic, and its last syllable is
unaccented, the feminine Substantive is derived from
'the masculine by adding ster to the latter: bedelaarster,
female beggar; tovenaarster, witch.

Es and in form feminine Substantives from masculine

ones: dienares, female servant; vuo,qde.s, female guardian;
dichteres, poetess; zangere.s, professional lady singer;
god in, goddess; koningin, queen; boerin, farmer's wife.
NoTE.-Zangster means ''muse, songstress"

·with in names of female animal:,; are likewise derived

from masculine forms: berin, she-bear; leeuwin. lioness;
tijgerin, tigress; wolvin, she-wolf.

IV. Er (aar), el (eel, sel) are used for the formation

of names of instruments or tools with occasional
modifications of the root-vowel before el: stoffer, broom;
klopper, knocker; tuirnelciar, tumbler (kind of pigeon) ;
, hevel, siphon; trofjel, trowel; beugel (fr. bitigen, to bend),
iron hoop; teugel (fr. tiegen, trekken, to pull), bridle;
sZeutel (fr. sluiten, to close), key; vleugel (fr. vliegen, to
fly), wing; toneel (fr. tonen, to show), stage; houweel
(fr. ho'l{wen, to hew), pick-axe; stijfsel, starch; schoeisel,
shoes; voedsel, food.
NoTE.-'.l'he ending sei is, however, principally used for indicating
the product of an action: baksel, anything produced by baking;
kooksel (product of koken, to boil); zaagsel, saw-dust
(product of zagen, to saw)-

Je, forming diminutives, occurs whenever a word ends

in one of the sharp consonants ('t kof8chip) or ind or g:
kopje, small head; visje, small fish; lesje, small lesson;
kuifje, small tuft; haakje, small hook; matje, small mat.
ExcEP'l'. meid (contracted form of maagd) has meisje,
NoTE.-Tl!e Cupe Dutch meidje means a little servant-g1r1.

Tje occurs after words ending in a vowel or diphthong:

kn-ietje, little knee; zeetje, small sea.

Tje also occurs when the word ends in 1, n, r, or w,

preceded either by a full vowel or diphthong, or
sometimes by a mute vowel: kooltje, small cabbage;
rw.geltje, small nail; deuntje, ditty; dekentje, coverlet;
boortje, small gimlet; kamertje, little room; pauwtje,
young peacock; zwaluwtje, young swallow.
Words ending in m preceded by a long vowel or mute
e, or by either of the consonants 1 and r, take je for their
diminutive ending, inserting p between it and the word:
boompje, small tree; 7Jrzempje, small broom; halmpje,
tiny stalk; wormpje, little worm.

Etje occurs when a final b, ng, I, m, n, or r is preceded

by a modified vowel: tobbetje, small tub; dingetjc .• :;mall
thing; rolletje, small roll; kommctjc, small ~up; zonnetje,
little sun; karretje, small cart. Nouns ending in g_
preceded by a modified rnwel, may take either je or etje':
rnugjc, little gnat; rttggetje_. little hack.

:Souns of more than one syllable in ing take je while

sharpening g into k: rottinkje, small cane; koninkje,
little king.

Words ending in e generally drop that letter before a

diminutive ending: cinde, end, makes eindje; lcoelte,
breeze, makes koeltje. Sometimes, however, the e is
retained: dieptctje, little hollow; diktetje, small swelling.

The diminutive form often takes the full vowel sound

of the plural, in words that have an incomplete vowel in
the singular, as: schip, scheepje; dag, daagje; blacl,
blaadje,· glas, glaasje,· pad, paadje; vat, vaatje (seep. 68)

Ke and ken, kijn and Iijn, as diminutive endings, were

much in use formerly, but are falling iuto disuse now.
They render the language sweet and tender, as may be
seen from .Jan van Beers' poems: '' Het Brocrken". and
" TJc bloem op het graf ". ·

Ing, an ohsolete dirninutiYe ending, serves less to derive

real diminutiYes from existing words than to name small
objects: kra.kcling, cracknel; hokkeling, calf less than
a year old; nesteling, nestling.

EI is likewise an obsolete diminutive ending, only to

be found in a small number of words, in which it bas so
lost its original meaning, that a new ending is now added
whenever the diminutive form is required: krttimel (from
kruim1 crumb\, kruimeltje; eikel, acorn (fr. eik, oaktree),
eikeltjc; bitndel, bundle, bundeltje.
E'l_TJIOLOGr 311

VI. Collective Nouns are formed by meanR of the

suffixes age, dom, heid, schap, te and ij; e.g.: plautaye,
plantation; pakkage, colleetion of package:,;; merrndum,
mankind; cltristenhcid, christianity; gercedsclwp, tools;
gevogcltc, all the biru::;; ru iyte, :,;hru bhery; rniterij,

VII. Abstract Nouns are derived:

1. From concrete ~ouns, by means of the suffixes

schap, dom, ij. Ex.: kon-ingschap, king::;hip, pricst<'rdom,
priesthood, sla vernij, slavery.

2. From ~\.djectives, by the suffixes schap, dom, nis,

e, te, and heid, representing qualitieR as substantiyes:
blijdschap, gladness, adeldurn, nobility, droefen-is, sad-
ness, koudc, cold, dicpte, depth, grouthcid, greatneRs.
:~. From Verbs, by the ~mttixes schap, dom, nis, ij, age,
st, ing. I~x.: rckenscltap, aeeount, u:asrlom, growth,
crgf'rnis, annoyance, razcrnij, madnesR, lckkage, leakage,
ku1rnt, art, uclci;i11g, experienee.

~otiee the difference between the following :,;ets of wordR:

gmottr, size. groothrid, µ:rpa tllPSS.
lwo.otc, height. lwor1 lt cid, hig-lrness.
laayte, lowuess, (also) luaglwid, meannPss, and a
a hollow mean af't.
diepte, depth. 1liepheid, devth (meaning,
duisternis, 1larlrness. duistrrltcid, olisenrity (in words,
grorntc, !Jrocnheid, grcp1mess.
flrornighci<l, something- green.
l;;leinte, smallness. 7clein711'ifl, smallness (of ehar-
a <'tPr. etc.).
koude. r•olrl. lwulllwid, <•oldness.
1:uil11is, dirt (coll.). niilltcid, dirtiness.
ruilighrid, something dirty.
dmkte, lmstle. llrul•hcid, noisiness.
begrafcnis, fnneral. urgrai•ing, aet of J.mrying.
ge·vangenis, prison. gerangcnschap, imprisonment.
rekening, account (hill). r('/>('nschnp, af'COUllt.
christendom, christianity. cl1 ristenh eiu, ehristcndom.


(a) By means of Prefixes (Voorvoegsels):

Aarts (in a high degree, with words having an un-

favourable meaniug) : aartsdorn, very stupid; aartslui:
very lazy.

On (not) : onnut, useless; onwetend, ignorant.

Wan (bad) : wanschapen, misshapen; wanstaltig,


Be and ge indicate possession of what the stem ex-

presses: behendig, dexterous (from hand) ; bewust, con-
scious (from weten); gevleugeld, winged.
(b) by means of Suffixes (Achtervoegsels):

Achtig: one suffix achtig is accented, another with a

different meaning is unaccented. The first, also called
haftig (haft), expresses full possession of what the word
to which it is affixed indicates: waarachtig, true; twijfel-
achtig, doubtful; krijgsMftig, soldier-like; manh<iftig,
Achtig, not accented, has the meaning of the English
y, ish, and indicates a similarity with the meaning of the
principal word: zwartachtig, blarkhih; h611tachtig, wood-
like; winterachtig, wintry.

Baar (derived from beren, to bear) means a bringing

forth, a producing, or possibility of the action : wonder-
baar, wonderful; vruchtbaar, fertile; lecsbaar, legible.

En and s form Adjectives which indicate a material:

zilveren, koperen, hoiiten (unaltered by any inflexion of
gender, number, or case), duffels, duffel; lakens, cloth.

lg (Eng. y) indicates possession: ku,ndig, learned;

begerig, desirous; levendig, lively; bokkig, headstrong.

NoTE.-Enig, only, is formed from the Numeral Adjective een;

inniy, intense, and overig, remaining, from the Prepositions
in ancl over; nietig, insignificant, from the Adverb niet.

Zaam signifies fitness, or inclination: buigzaam,

flexible; leerzaam, docile; werkzaam, industrious.
Lile signifies similitude, being of the nature of:
koninklik, royal; vorstelik, princely; zedelik, moral; Uefe-
lik, lovely ;-after stems of Verbs it signifies a possibility
of the action: sterfelik, mortal; schadelik, harmful.

Loos means destitute of: eerloos, dishonourable: naam-

loos nameless;-after stems of Verbs it expresses impossi·
bility of the action: reddeloos, irretrievable: stoorloos,

/es ands are used for deriving Adjectives from Proper

Nouns: aziaties, Asiatic; perzies, Persian; egypties,
Egyptian; zweeds, Swedish. /es is likewise found in
many Adjectives of foreign origin, and then stands for the
English io: grcimmaties, grammatic; alfabeties, alpha-

In afgodies, idolatrom1, and wetties.- according to law,

it has the force of Jik.
S likewiRe formR AdjectiveR from :N"ouns and Adverbs:
werelds, worldly; buitenlands.. foreign; achterwrwrt8r


(a) By direct derivation :

1. Causatives (Causatieven), by changes in the

radical vowel: vellen (from va.llen), to fell; zetten (from
zitten), to put down; leiden (from lijden), to lead.
2. Intensives (lntensieven), by changes in the radical
vowel and final consonant: bukken (from buigen), to

Htoop; vluchtcn (from rlirr;en 1. to flee; 87nr·htrn (from

slngen) slaun), to kill; knippr:n (from lcnijpen), to nip,

;t Denominatives (Denominatieven), by aflixing

the verbal infinitiye-ending en to:

Kouns: atlcmen) to breathe, lijnu.m) io glue, reucncn)

to rain, 8duwcn, to plane.
Adjectives: icitten, to whitewash, drogen, to dry,
doden, to kill, stiji;cn, to starch.
Numeral AdjectiYes: rerrncn, to nuite, ·i:erdubbclen,
to double.
!'articles: iunen, to collect, ·uiten, to utter, oppcren,
to pl'OlJOHe.

XOTE. Jg is sonwtimes insertP<l hetwpen tlw root and the verlml

ell(li11g; st('Jl.igrn, to stone; rcstiyrn, to settle; reinigcn, to
<'ieanse. Home J)pnominati1'('S llavP till' Pnfling e1'e11, whil'll
is of fot'Pign origiu: lt'tWrrl<'rcn, to a1111reeiatc; trotscr<'n. to
dC'fy; llalr<'rl"li, to hnlvp; snnw dm1w;l' tltL• root vowPI: rq1prn,
to hurry, from rap, lJUi<'k; trl/eu, to eonnt, from tal, uumher.

( b) By rneHns of Prefixes (Voorvoegse/s):

Be (bij) has the meaning of "all ronnd''; it Rignifies

that the aetion is extended to every part of the ohjed, in
uezien, to irn;pect; bcsprckcn, to discuss; behnndelen, to
treat; bcvoulc11, to feel all over. Its meaning is that of
tlie Dutch Preposition "bij") in bcrciken) to reach;
lJ<'lwrcn) to belong; bckomcn. to receive; besparr'n, to
save; belopen and bcdrageu, to amount.

Be also has the power of changiug intransitive into

transitive Verbs, and of forming Verbs from ~ouns and
Adjectives: beu:andelen, to walk; beklimmcn, to climb;
bevaren, to sail; beii;onen, to inhabit; bctrci1ren, to lament,
for -wandelen op) klirnmen in, varcn op) irnnen in) trcuren

oi:cr. In beuuinnen, to man; bekrone.n, to crown; bc-

vruchten, to fertilize; bevulken, to people; besmettcn, to
infect· beoorlogcn, to wage \Var agaim;t; bemoedigen, to
encourage; . f y,
beveiligen, to protect; bevrcdigen, to satui
the force of this Prefix implies "providing with what the
root indicates''.

Er originally implied, like be in bcreikcn_. "oblainiug

b;r means of the action expressed by the stem''; the force
of this meaning has, however, become imperceptible:
erruren, to experience; erlangen, to obtain; er ken nen, to

Ge does not materially chauge the meaniug of \' erb:-i:

gelukken or lukkcn, to succeed; genukrn or naken tot, to
ap]Jroaeh; gclijkcn or lijken op, to resemhle. Of the
Verbs geuczen, to recoyer; genietcn, to enjoy; gerieren,
to acrnrumodate; gesehieden, to happen, the ste1m; are 110
longer in m;e. (Jpbruren, to happen, is from bcuren, to
lift; uerakcn, to get into, from rakcn, io touch.

Her means "again, auew": l1errle1tken, to rpcall to

mind; herenigcn, 1o reuniie; herknu1re11, to chew !he eud.

011t was m·iginally ant, i.e.,"back, against, awa.'- from'':

outradrn, to diHHuade; ontnweten, to meet; ontlwuden;
to remember; 011tlopen, to run away from; ontzicn, to
stand in awe of. It also means a change from an old
condition or into a new one: ontaarden, to degenerate;
ontdekkrn, to discoYer; 011tgin11en, to hi·cak ground;
ont8lapen, to die; ontdooien, to 1haw; ontNpringen, to rise
(of a rirer); ontspruiten, to sprout; ontluikc:n, 1o open
(of flowers).

Ver, an important Prefix, lum several distinet meaning:-;:

1. Yflu'u prefixeu to Yerhs, it expresses the contrary of

what the stem implies: i·cnca<'lzten, to despise; rcrleren,

to unlearn; or it means "bad, wrong, false "; veroordelen,

to condemn ; verdenken, to suspect; zich vergissen. to be

2. It may mean a doing away with by the continued

action expressed by the stem-word: verteren, to consume;
verdrinken, to be drowned; verpletten, to crush; ver-
d rogen, to dry up.

3. Transition or change are expressed by verhuizen,

to remove; vertalen, to translate; vervellen, to peel (to
skin) ; verstenen, to petrify.

4. Covering or closing up is indicated in vermommen,

to disguise; vergulden, to gild; verglazen, to glaze;
'Cernagelen, to nail up.

5. It forms Verbs from ~ouns and Adjectives, and then

has the force of "making into what the root implies":
vergodcn, to idolise; i-erbroederen, to fraternise: i-er-
nieuwcn, to re1rnw; verfijnen, to refine.

6. In vcrnuchtcn, to stay overnight; vermannen, to

subdue, ver stands for "over"; in verjagen, to chase
away; 1:criccrpcn, to reject; rcrlwrcn, to lease, it has the
force of wcg.

( c) By means of Suffixes ( Achtervoegsels):

Bien and eren (with or without change in the radical

yowel) form Frequentative Verbs (Frequentatieven),
whieh express a repetition of the action (Rec par. XXIV
p. 348) : sprenkelen (from springen), to sprinkle; herin-
neren (from innen), to remember; babbelen, (from beben)
to chatter, teisteren (from tezen, to tear) J to ravage.
NoTE.-Verhs like amuseren, for vermalcen, to amuse;, felicUcren,
for U<'luku:ensen, to congratulate; proberen for trachten, to
try; invitcren for uitnodigen, to invite, etc., are of foreign

X. Adverbs may have the following Suffixes: e, s,

Jik(s), Jing(s), waart(s), wijze (wijs, gewijze), jes,
( pjes, tjes, etjes).

E occurs in gaarne, readily; dichtebij, close by; verre,

far; node, reluctantly; alrede, already.

S changes Nouns, Adjectives and Present Participles

into Adverbs, apocopating final d in the latter: 's daags,
by day; dikwels, often; ondanks, notwithstanding;
wetens, knowingly; doorgaans, usually.

NOTE.-This s, commonly called the adverbial s, was oril!inally

the ending of the Possessive case, hence many possessive
forms have acquired an adverbial meaning. Such are:
ccnsdccls on the one hand; eensklaps, suddenly; rechtstreelcs,
straight; cnigszins, enigcrmate, somewhat; barrcvoets, bare·
footed; blootshoofds, bareheaded; .binncnsmonds, between the
teeth; gocdsnweds, cheerfully.

Lik (Jiks) forms Adverbs from Nouns and Adjectives:

rnaandeliks, monthly; schriftelik, in writing; herhaaldelik
repeated; waarlik, truly.

Ling (lings) forms Adverbs from Nouns: zijdelings,

side-ways; mondeUngs, verbal; strijkelings, quite close to.

Waart (waarts), with the meaning of'' in the direction

of", occurs after .N'ouns, Pronouns, and Prepositions:
landwaarts, landward; te rnijwaart, towards me; voor-
waart8, forward; herwaarts; hither; dcrwaarts, thither.

Wijs · (wijze, gewijze), "on this wise", occurs after

Xouns in the Possessive case, or after Verbs with inserted
s: trapsgewijzc, gradually; steelsgewij:;e, stealthily;
kwanswijs, on the sly; staak8gewijs, according to the
branches of a family.

Jes (pjes, tjes, etjes), makes of Adjectives adverbial

diminutives: zoctjes, gently; zachtje8, softly; stilletjes,
quietly; eventjes, just (for a little).

Xotire foe following list:


N111·01ia. l~urope. Europeaau. europecs.
Afrilm. Afril"a. Afrilman. afrilrnans.
Amrrilrn. Ameriea. .tmerilcaan. amcri~·a.ans •
.tzie. Asia. Aziaat. a:::iaties.
Austmlie. Australia. A ustralii'r. australies.
Enydand. England. Engelsman. <'ll!Jl'/S.
Sclrntla11d. Rcotlaml. 8rl!nt. sclrnts.
lerla11rl. Ireland. lrt. icrs.
Franl<rijlc. l•'rmwf'. Fra nsman. fmns.
TJuitslanrl. <lermany. Duitscr. duits.
Oostenrijlc. Austria. Oustenrijlcer. oustcnrijks.
l'r11isr11. Prussia. Pru is. vrnisies.
Rusland. Russia. RIIS. russics.
Ilolla11d. llollaml. Tlollalider. hollands.
Bclyie. R0lgium. Brig. bcl.qics.
Svanjc. Rpain. 8panjaard. spaans.
Porfu!Jal. l'ortugal. f'ortll!JCCS. purtugecs.
Zil'it~·crland. H\Yitzerland. Zwitscr. z1dtsers.
Polen. Poland. Pool. vools.
Honynrije. Hungary. JI011{1aa1·. hong.oars.
Turlcijc. Turkey. Turk. t11r7cs.
Griel•enlana. Or0P<'P. Griek. vrielcs.
7Yoorweycn. Xorway. Noorweycr. nouncccgs.
Z1rcrlrn. RwetlPn. Z1.rned. ZICCCdS.
Dc11cmarlwn. neumark. Deen. ilcens.
Kaap Kolonie. <'n pe Colony. J[aprnaar. l•<HI /)S.
·xatal. Xu ta I. .Yatalees. witals.
E{lllf)te. Egypt. A'uy11tenaar. C!fypUes.
Canada. C'aualla. ('anarlccs. oanallees.
.M<JJ'ico. ~lexil'u. .J le J' i<·a a !I. mexicaans .
Brazilic. Brazil. R rnziliaan. brazi/ia(ms.
China. t'hina. ('/1inc<Js. r:llinccs.
Jaµ11n. .Ja1mu. ,frtpancf's. japans.
•·lntl!il'. Ambia. •1rubier . ura/Jics .
Pc1:::iiJ. l 'ersia. Pers. ZJ<'rzies.
•lal'll. Jani. JUNJl111. jaraans .
111rlir. 111dia. I 111lii!r. iwlies.
Italic. 1 taly. ltaliancr. italiaans.

NorE.-The 11a1110 of the femnle inha l>itaut is formerl fro111 the

.\.1ljel'tive riy the alltlitiou of ··c". J•;pu curoptsc, engelse,
lrnapse, russiese, a lilurop3an, English, Cape, Rus8ian lady.
l:'toper adjec-tives in llutch do not begin with capital letters. S


(a) Compound Nouns are formed:

1. By writing the two parts together, so as to make
them appear one word: huisdeur, house-door; vuurhacird,
fire-place; reisgenoot, travelling companion; uitgaaf,
expenditure. In this way by far the greater number of
compound Nouns are formed in Dutch.

2. By inserting an s between the two parts of the

compound, as a mark of the genitive case, a plural form,
or for the sake of euphony: handelsbank, commercial
bank; scheidsrechter, arbitrator.

NOTE.-Wherernr the second part begins with s, the inserted or

connecting s is omitted: meisjeschool, girls' school; handel-
8tand, commercial class.

3. By inserting e between the two parts: vriichte-

boord, fruit orchard; sterrebeeld, constellation; dageraad,
dawn of day.

4. In uncommon compositions, geographical names or

compounds derived from foreign languages, the hyphen
is used: vergeet-mij-niet, forget-me-not (the flower) ;
kruidje-roer-mij-niet, touch-me-not (the sensitive plant) ;
Zuid-Afrika, Oost-Londcn, Moklw-kojfie, I'roknreur-
Generaal, Attorney-General.

(b) Compound Adjectives are formed:

1. By writing the two parts together so as to make them
appear one word: lichtgroen, pale green; driedubbel,
threefold, doodarm, very poor.

2. When the first part is a Verb, by the insertion of s

between the parts: noemenswaard, worth mentioning;
werkcnsmoe, tired of working.

(o) Compound Verbs are formed:

1. By compounding Infinitives with Nouns, Adjectives,
Adverbs, and Prepositions, the two parts being written as
one word without undergoing any change: sohijfsohieten,
to do target shooting; huishouden, to keep house;
ophouden, to stop; loslaten, to let go.

2. By compounding two Infinitives, the first of which

loses its :final n or sometimes the entlre infinitive-ending
en: ginnegappen, to giggle; harrmca·rren, to quarrel-;
starogen, to gaze; vrijwaren, to g~arantee.

( d) Compound Adverbs are formed:

1. Without changing either part of the composition:
bergop, uphill; tweeniaal, twice; drieu·erf, thrice; achter-
uit, backward.

2. By the insertion of a genitive-ending between the

two partR: goedsrnocds, of good courage; gecnszins, in
no way; -langzamc1'lzand, gradually; middelcrwijl,. in
ihe meantime.
~- lly ihe insertion of a dative-ending between the
parts, strengtliened by a t: zijncnttcr:gc,. for his sake; om
mcPntwillc, for your sake; harentltal'i:e, for her sake.

XII. List of \Vords which require some explanation

on account of the altered or obsolete meaning of one of
their component parts, or on account of the difference
between their original and present meanings, anrl alter-
ations in their spelling.
adPlaar, adcl aar, noble bird, (now) eagle.
ac~cl/Jorst, noble breast, noble youth, (now) nav;r-rauet.
achtcrbaks, achter de rug, behind one's back, on the sly.
alleszins, in every respect, romposed of the poss. ruse of al and zin,
altans, at least, contrarted from al te ltande with adv. s.
baklioord, rugboonl, lar!Joard, left hand of a ship.
baker ( <'ontrartion of bal•ermocder), monthly nurse.

barnsteen, (by metathesis of r) brandsteen, burnt stone, (now)

bongerd ( bogaard), boomgaard, tree-garden, orchard.
denwca*, dienaarsmocd, servant's mind, humility.
desnouds, if need be, des (poss. of dat) nood zijnde, i.e. daaraan
bchoefte zijnde.
dieni·olgcns, accordingly, comp. of dat. of die and the pres. part.
·rulgenq, the d having been dropped before the adv. s.
<lokter, physician; duktor, university degree in literature, theology,
drempcl, dorpel, deurpaal, door-post, threshold.
ellend\e, .ander land, other country, ballingschap, banishment
(now) misery.
ctmaul, edm.aal, nog ccns mrrnl(tijd), again (the same) time, a
PL'riod of 24 hours. EtteUlce, many.
godsvrucht, godsrurcht (metathesis of r), vreze Gods, fear of God,
Jiandl!uren, (bij de) hancl hcbbcn, to maintain, manu tenere;
i·crdcdigen, to defeud, hold.
Jieimu·ee, woning-smart, home-pain, home-sickness.
Jieindr en n>r, fur anrl wide. Heindc is from the Anglo-Saxon
''gelwndc", handy, hence bij de hand, at hand.
hertoy, (met hct) heir ticycnde, (met hct) leger trelclrnndle,
leidcr, leader (dux), (now) duke.
hon'iriyraat, hon'ingratel, honingweefsel, honeycomlJ (pron. dis-
tinctly honing-raa.t).
horaardig, lwogvaardig, traohtende naar hoogheid, desirous of
h{'ing great, proud. '
Jz uisrand, huisgeraarJJ, h uisgcrcodsohap, utensils for housekeeping,
(now) furniture.,
jufjrouw, jufvrouw, jungvrouw, jongo 1Jrouw, young lady, Miss
(as a form of adnress).
kerspcl, lccrkspel, lcerkspaal, korkelilce grons, parish.
kcrstfccst, b·cstfccst (metathesis of r), kristfecst, OhristusfPCst,
landuuw, land aue, good land, fertile tract of lancl.
landvrrnl, landgrens, land-mark.
liohaarn, likhaam, lijlcbedeklcing (from hernen, to eover), flesh-
e01·ering, !Jody. •
lil•dorcn, lijkclorcn, dorcn (in hot) vlces, thorn (in the) flesh, corn.
litteken, lijkteken, telvcn (in hct) vlecs, mark (in the) flesh, scar.

*'.l'he word rnued, founn in many compounds, may always be

translatecl by "mind".

madeliefje, wcideliofjo, weidel>locm, meadow flower, daisy.

maarsohalk, (mare l\,ncoht), paardoknccht, groom, (now) lwogste
gencraal, chief officer, marshal.
meineed, ralso ced, false oath, perjury.
mevrouw, mijn vrouic, my wife, (now) madam.
mucr, 'muerschrocf, moedersohrocf, screw-nut.
muizc11estcn, mitizcnissen, musings, diepe gedaehten, deep
naohtvorst, naohtrrost (metathesis of r), night-frost.
namcloos, unspeakal!le: naamluo11, without a name.
nochtans, nevertheless, nog and dan with adv. s; d being sharpened
into t causes g to be changed into ch.
nooddruft, nooddurft (metathesis of r), grote behoefte, great want,
need, from durven ( derven), behoeven.
ooiei;aar, ode baar (from bercn, to bear), schatdrager, treasure-
bearer, (now) stork.
ooglicl, oovr.le/rnel, eyelid (the Dutch lid for delcscl is sometimes
ordr, order; order. command, and commercial term.
ovcrlljd<'11, orcrgaau, to rmss over, (now) to die.
paarlcmoer, parelmoeder, mother-of-pearl.
ritikcn, to smell ; rieken, to scent.
vandaag, to-day, i:an dagc, dative of dag.
verlvi"suaar, eligible; verlvicslik, preferal!le.
viersehaar, i·ier soharen. vier banken, four seats (in an ancient
court), (now) trihunal.
i;orst, Poorste, eerst<', gebirder, prince (monarch).
weshalrc, wherefore; ices is the poss. of wat.
wirrook, wijrook, gc,wijdc or heilige rook, consecrated smoke,
Willens, on purpose; gewillig, willingly.
wissel, wiss6lbricf, bill of exchange.
zedi.q, modest; zcdclik, moral.
zinloos, nwaningless; zinncloos, senseless, foolish.
zinnelik, sensual; zindclik, clean, neat.

XII. Where to place the accent. Generally speaking,

the accent lies on the first syllable of a word.

'l'be following detailed rule~ may prove useful to


(a) Of the Prefixes of Ch. XIV, § II, (a), aarts, on,

mis, wan, oor, et, and ant have the accent: aartsvader,

(Jngeloof, misbaksel, w1i11truu·u;cn, u6rsprong, etm.aaZ,


(b) Of the Suffixes of§ II, (b), only ier is accented:

t·uinifr (whereas kitnstenaar, ::ichrijver, etc.).

l <:) Uf the Suffixes of § III, es and in have the accent:

zungcres, tijgerin.

l <1) Of the Suffixes of § IV, eel takes the accent :

houweeZ, toneel.

(e) Of the Suffixes of§ VI, age and ii have the accent:
Zekkage, plantage, bakkerij, dieverij.

(f) Except a few enumerated untler (b) to le) no

Suffix-whether in :N"ouns, kdjectives, Adverbs, or Verbs,
-has the accent, exeept achtig, as explained nnder §
Ylll, (u).

(g) Of the Prefixes of§ VIII, (a), aarts, on, and wan
.are arcented.

(h) Of the Prefixes of§ IX, (u), wan is the onl~' one
which has the accent. 'l'he other Verbal Prefixes, be, ge,
.er, her, ont, and ver, hy means of which a great many
Verbs, and Nouns derived from them, are made, have no
.accent, but foe accent lies on the first syllable after ihem.
(i) In Verbs, and words derfred from Verbs, the
.accent lies on the stem.part.

\j) Separably compounded Verbs, however (seep. 248).

have the accent on the Noun, Adjective, Adverb or
Preposition with which they are compounded.

(k) Compound Nouns have the accent on their first

(l) Non·Dutch words, as a rule, have the accent on
-their last syllable: akcent, present, absent, muziek.. fy.~iek,
kon.~f>rt, talent, korset_, kan{wl, !wrp6en,. knnt6or,. musket,

sei:::uen, schav6t,-or if they are of more than two

sy II ables, on the last but one: kanarie, nionop6lie,
kalender, operatie, traditie, piano.

( m) When such foreign words of three or mo1·e

syllables end in aaf, gram, fie, ment, uut, ist, ant, aan,
iek, ier, or aat, they take the accent on their final syllable:
telegraaf, monogram, fotografie, firmament, instituut,
telegrafist, foliant, oceaan, republiek, formuTJier,

GR.AMMAR. EXER.CISES.-Taaloefeningen.


I. Give the meaning of the following Prefixes and

1:-\uffixes, giving derivatiYes in each case with their English
equivalents: Aarts, on, wan, oor, mis, ye, lie; aar_. aard,
and, es, age, (l,Chtiy (2), baar, zaam, ij_. lik. loos.

II. Ji~orm diminutfres from the following Nouns: man,

lepel, kom, mes, dag, jaar, mug, val, blad, bloem, diepte,
stal, arm, mcid, konin,q, ring, lade, einde, bol, nagel, sohipz
st,room, glas, hand, vel, dclven, har, hoogte, rotting, ding.

Ill. Form ~\.bstract Nouns from ilie following words,

and give their meanings in EngliRh: groat, drnog, mooi,
dicht, druk, vroom, fUuk, lief, bekend, kostbaar, vitil,
sckuw, oud, wijs, echt, duister, christen, slaaf, koning,
rckenen, verenigen, wandelen, storen, bedriegen, beloven,
crgeren, gunnen, razen, bedelen, dienen, begraven, ver-
geven, slijten.

IV. Explain, in Dutch, the following words, according

to their dPrivation: dronkaard, wamdelaar, kruidenier,
bakkerij, vriend, beugel, veinzaard, weduwnaar, sterveling,
schepeling, boetcling, hcvel, sleutel, geboomte, mensheid_,

vleugel, dronk, stommerik, ruigte, adeldom, schipbreuke-

ling, begeerte; wanstaltig, behendig, krijgshaftig, vrolik,
1.ie.kommerd, verdrietig, leesbaar, gehoorzaam, schriftelik,
mondeling, eventjes, trapsgewijze.

V. Give four examples each of: Causatives, Frequen-

tatives, Intensives, Denominatives, and explain according
to their derivation.

VI. Explain in Dutch the following Verbs according to

their derivation: bereiken, beschijnen, beveiligen,
begrijpen, bewandelen, erlangen, ontraden, ontmoeten,
ontaarden, ontslwpen, verachten, verl11Uizen, verdrinken,
vertalen, vernagelen, veroudm•en, verhongeren; verstenen,
verkondigen, herinneren, ademen, tellen, vluchten,
stottermi, vullen, starogen, reikhalzen.

VIL Distinguish between the following pairs of words:

groot, groots; laagte, laagheid; vuilheid, vuiligheid,
vuilnis; verkfosbaar, verkieslik; zedig, zedelik; wettig:
wetties; levend, let:endig; groente, groenheid, groenig-
heid; duisternis, duisterheid; christenheid, Christendom;
de priesterschap_, het priesterschap; naamloos, nameloos;
gevangenschap, gevangenis; zinloos, zinneloos; kinderlik,
kinds, kinderachtig; zinnelik, zindelik; orde, order,·
ruiken, rieken; dokter, doktor.

VITT. Explain in Dutch the following words according

to their composition and derivation: ellcnde, demoed,
ettr'lik, achterbaks, landouw, horaardig. muizcnissen.
lccrspel, overlijden, wierook, meineed, likdoren, huisraad.

IX. Give in Dutch the names of the following conti-

nents and countries and of their inhabitants, male and
female: Europe, Asia, Africa, The Cape, Russia, Switzer-
la.nd, Ita"fly, Spain, Turkey, Denmark, Cana.da, China,
India: Egypt, J!Ioroaco, Japan, Arabia, Transvaal.



Very long ago, about the year 550 B.c. ( V.O.), Asia
had two mighty kings, viz., Cyrus, King of Persia, a man
renowned for his courage and military skill, and Crmsm;,
whose riches surpassed all comprehension. Tl:Je latter
once happened to meet (met by chance) the Greek
philosopher Solon, whom he treated with the greatest
distinction and to whom he showed all his riches and
treasures. 1'hen he said: ''Solon, I know (that) you
Jiave i:;een much of the world-tell me whom you consider
las) the happiest of men." Of course the proud king could
himi:;elf have given the answer (that) he expected; he
merely used the philosopher as an instrument for
flattering (to flatter) his vanity. II.ow disappointed
he must have been, when he heard the following reply
from the mouth of the sage :- "He whom I consider
(the) happiest among mortals is 'rellus, a burgher of
Athens, a man upright and good, esteemed by all his
fellow-citizens, a man who spent his life in promoting
the good of the city of his fathers; a man who had a happy
home, healthy, beautiful, strong children, whom he saw
grow up dutiful youths, esteemed by (the) society as
the father was himself; a man who, when his beard had
become grey and the hair of his head snow-white, when
his eyes were getting dim and his knees feeble, went to
war for the rescue of his country, and died on thf' battle-
field, to seal with his blood the glorious victory of the
day." ''Him,"' Solon repeated, "I certainly consider (as)
the happiest of all men."


''And after hirn," hastily replied the !ting, who had

grown (become) indignant at the philosopher's boldness
of preferring (to prefer) a common citizen of Athens to
the richest of kings-"after that, tell us, who do you

think is happiest?" ''Two Greek youths," was the

oisappointing answer, "Cleobis and Biton, both of whom
were handsome and strong, and they even once gained
laurels in the Olympian games. Their mother was a
vriestess, and when one day tl1e hour of service in the
temple was drawing near (approached), and the mother
sat ready in her cart, waiting in vain for the oxen, which
were to pull the vehicle, the two sons, lest she i:;hould
be (too) late, harnessed themselves to the chariot, and
conveyed their mother to the place of worship. The
people looked on (it) in amazement, and began to praise
the happy priestess on account of her worthy sons. The
mother, moved at heart, straightway entered the temple,
knelt down before the image of her gods, and entreated
them to reward her sons and (to) do to them what the;r
might think best (wat hun het best rnocht dunken). 'rhen
she callerl her sons into the temple and made them lie
down for a while, because she saw (that) they were tired.
Both fell asleep and neither of them ever woke again.
The gods had granted the mother's request, and translated
ihe youths to the world of undisturbed happiness.''



The Principal Sentence.

(De Hoofdzin.)

I.THE common order of the Assertive sentence; whose

Yerb is in a simple tense, is the same in Dutch as in
English: ·
Be saw a bear in the wood, hij zag een beer in het bos.

II. A. "\Yhen the Predicate cousists of more than one

word, i.e., when it is composed of a Verb and its Auxil-
iary, or a Verb in conjunction with an Adverb, Noun, or
any other part of speech, the Verb (whichever comes first)
takes the place of the English Verb, whereas the other
1•arts of the predicate go to the end of the sentence:
He has seen a bear in the wood, hij heeft een beer in het
bos gezien.
He seems to have called the child, hij schi.int het kind
geroepen te hebben.
My brother wants a book, mijn broeder heeft cen boek nodig.
You must have used the knife, u moet het mes gebruikt
hebben ( or-hebben gebruikt).
He has been obliged to give it, hij heeft het mocten veven
(not-geven moeten).


1. Notice that in the last two sentences the Aux. of time,

hebben, may either pre<'ede or follow the principal Verb, whereas
the Aux. of mood, moeten, <'anuot follow it. Whenever an Aux.
of mood, used as a Past Part.. takes the form of the Infinitive, i.e.,
when it is used with another Infinitive Verb-it must precede
the principal Verb:
He has not heen allowed to say it, hij heeft het niet 111oge111
zag gen (not-zoggen mogcn).
2. The only case in which the rule of § II may he broken, is
Wh<>n various extensions, or a sub-ordinate sentence intervening,
the distance between the two parts of the Verb is rendered greater
than is eousistent with clearness:
He did it this morning, as soon as he was up, hij heeft het
van morgen, zodra hij op was, gedaan, or- hij hceft het
van morgen gedaan, zodra hij op was.

IL B. Separately-compounded Verbs in their simple

tenses follow thif'1 rule:
Be travels through the Colony to go to Pretoria, ltij reist de
Kulunie door om naar Prctorffl ff' yaan.
The anxiety about his sister keeps him <lown, de zorg over
zijn zustcr hourlt hem er onder.

III. When there are two objects, one in the Dative

case (Indirect), and the other in the Objective case
(Direct}, the Indirect object representing a person, and
the Direct object a thing, the person must precede the·
1!e gaye the SC"holar a book, l!ij gaf rie solwlier een boek.

IV. vVl~en two objectR (as undel' Ill) are represented

by personal pronouns,. the Direct object goes first:
He has given it to him, hij heeft het hem gegei>en.

V. Generally speaking, the place of the adverbial

extension is in Dutch where it is in English, viz., after the
object ;it the end of the sentence. 'rllis position is taken
to emphasize the idea expressed by the Adverb:
He has told him distinctly, yesterday, often, for the last
time, here, etc., hij heeft het hem duidelik, gfateren, dik-
wels, voor ltet laatst, hicr, enz. gezegd.

VI. ·when the object itself requires more emphasis

than the Adverb, the latter is in Dutch placed before the
object, whereas its place in English is between Subject
and Verb:
I plainly see the house, l>nt not the wimlow, ik de cluidelik
het huis, m.aar niet hct raam.

VII. When the object is a Noun in the singular, pre-

ceded by the Article een (a, an), or a plural :N"oun with·
out any distinguishing word, all Adverbs except those
of manner must precede such an object:
I wrote a lPtter ~·esterdaJ» ilv heb gistcren een brief
. gr·schrci•c11.
Compare { I wrote that letter yesterday, ik ltcb die brief
gistcrcn gcschreven.
I wrote some letters yestertlay, ik ltcb gisteren
Compare { brievcn ucschreven.
again lle tn•nts ehilureu well, hij behandelt kinderen

VIII. When the object is a Personal Pronoun, no

Adverbs can preeede it:
I shall see him oftl'u, Ur ;;al hrm llllrn·els ;;icn.
I have hearu lwr YPry Wf'll, ik lwl! liaar heel uocci gelword.

TX. Adverbs must precede tlrn preposition-objPct:

He"always relies on his memory, ltij 'Vcrtrouwt altijd op zijn
I HP relied on his nwmory foolishly, hij 1·ertro·uwde
1 uv een d1raze manier op zijn geheugen.
Compare He foolisl1ly r<'lit>ll on his memory,' hi.i was dwaas
gcnocg up djn geheugcn te vertrouwen.

X. True adverbs must precede a.dverbial phrases:

He saw my brother here in the wood, hij heeft mijn broeder
hier in het bos gezien.
He will see him for the last time tomorrow, hij zal hem
morgen voor het laatst zien.
He wil start at seven tomorrow, hij zal morgen om zeven
uur t·ertrelclccn.

XI. Adverbs of time usually precede other Adverbs:

The man hns beeu looking for the child everywhere to-day,
de man heeft het kindl vandaag overal gezucltt.

XII. The Adverb of negation (niet, not) stands:

1. After the Verb in a single tense:
The child does not eat, ltet kind cct uil't.

2. Before the principal Verb in compound t011Kes:

The child has taken no food to-day, 1wt kind heeft vanaaag
nict gegeten.

3. After the object (Direct or Indirect, or both) of a

I did not pick those flowers, ilc heb die bloemni niet geplukt.
Did he not tell it to you? hccft hij het u nict vcrteld?

4. If intended to negative the meaning of any other

word but the Verb, its place is immediately before such
The child would not eat at oncP, het kind heeft niet d'adelik
willen eten.
My brother. not I. has read the book, niet ik, rnaar mijn
broeder, hoeft hot 'bock gelezcn.


(De Ondergeschikte Zill.)

XIII. The great characteristic of the Dutch Rub-

orilinate sentence is. that the whole of tho Predicate is
placed at the end of the sentence:
He said, he would have me called at once, ltij zei, dat hij
mij dadclik zou laten rocpr'n.
The woman who lives opposite my uncle's house is very ill,
de 1-roui1:, d'ir: fPgenoner hot 111tis i·an mijn oom woont, is·
erg ziek.

OBsERVATION.-When a sub-ordinate sentence has a lengthy

extension, the Verb may be. made to precede it, but may never
be in front of the Direct Object:
I knew you would never 1Je able to do it, ik zcist, dat u het
nooit zou 71;unnen doen.
Do you think I shall see your brother before six o'clock this
eYening? denlvt u, dat ik uw broeder zal zicn v66r '!:an
arond zrs uur!'
NOTE.-An Infinitive phrase forming part of a sub-ordinate
sentence, is not counted as extension, but is (see p. 371)
analysefl as a separate sentence; hence the Verb of the sub-
ordinate sentenee precedes such phrase.
He said he did it to tease you, hij zei, dat hi} het deed orn u
te plagcn.
He called to me to stop calling his brother names, hij r'iep
mlj toe, dat ik het laten moest zi,jn broeder iiit te selzelden .

.X:JV. A. When the Verb of the sub-ordinate sentence

is used in a compound tense, or in conjunction with au
Auxiliary of mood, the principal Yerb nnd the Auxiliaries
may change at the end of the Rentence:
IIet boek, dat ilc gelezen moet hebben.*
The 1Jook I must Im\'!'
I Jlct burk, dat ii.: gelczcn hebben moet.
!Jct 71oel1, dat i/r, mnet hebbcn gelezen.
Jff't bnel>, rlat ik moet gelezen hebben.
*The se<'ontl of these four ways is least used.

R. But when the auxiliariei,; of mood, kunnen, mogen,

moeten, willen, and durven, are joined to the principal
Verb in their Infinitive form (seep. 229, Obs.), they must
always precede the principal Ycrb:
He wanted me to let him do it, hij icilde, dat il,; het hem zou
latcu doen, nut-ducn latcu.

XV. There m·e a few cm;ei:; jn which it ii:; preferable to

keep to one form of coni:;tructon:
1. When the subject of a sub-oi'<Jinate sentence is a
Relative Pronoun, the A11xiliary should come after the
principal verb:
'l'he lecturer who is exveded, de sprekcr clie verwaeht wordt,
rather than-tt•orclt vcrwacht.

The Verbs doen, gaan, he/pen, horen, komen, leren,

voe/en, zien, used as Auxiliaries, take their places in
front of their principal Ver,b:
If the boy hears me coming, he will run away, als de jongen
m'ij hoort komen, zal hij wcylopcn.
I felt it as soon as I sat down, ik gecoeldJe het, zodra ik
ging zitten.

Inversion in the Principal Sentence.

XVI. The inversion of Subject and Preuicate occurs in

Dutch as also sometimes in English :
In Interrogative and exclamatory sentences:
Do you see that <'hild playing? ziet u dat kind 8pelen?
Have you heard that man"! heeft u die man gchoord?
If J could only see him! lwn ilc hem tacit rrwar z1cn!
Would that my brother were here! irnre mijn broedcr maar
hicr! or teas mijn broer toch maar hier!

XVII. If, for the sake of emphasis, any other part oE

the sentence but the subject i8 placed at the beginning of
the sentence, the subject in Dutch is always placed after
the Verb, whenever snch Verb is in a simple tense, and
after the first Auxiliary, if ihe Verb is in a compound
'1'11ere :you see him, daar zict u Item.
Yesterday I saw him, gistcrcn hcb ik hem gczien.
I do not like the hook at all, m,ij beralt het bock in het
yeltcel niet.
His letter I have not read, zijn briPf hcb ilc niet gele~en.
Hate him I do not, haten doc ilc hem niet.

XVIII. In sentences in which it-bet, is the Subject,

and a Personal Pronoun forms part of the Predicate, such
Personal Pronoun takes the place of the subject:
It is he, llij is het. It is we, icij IZ'ijn het.

XIX. When the first word of a principal sentence is

one of the Adverbial Conjunctions, toch) yet, niettemin,
nevertheless, desniettegenstaande) notwithstanding, even-
wel, yet, intussen, meanwhile, integendeel, on the con-
trary, daarentegen, on the other hand, ook, likewise,
daarenboi1cn, besides, dus, derhalve, consequently, van-
daar, that is why, daarom, for this reason, bijgevolg,
consequently, daardoor, that is why, voorts, further, etc.,
the Subject and Predicate change places:
It should not be forgotten in the ml'antime, intusscn moet
men niet vergeten.
Further I have to say, voorts moot ik zeggen.

OBSERVATION.-The a!Jove sentence also appears in the following

form: lntussen, men moet niet vergetcn, etc. It should be
noticed that the inserted eomma does away with the need of
inversion. 'l'his comma, however, is not used after ook, vcindaar,
daarc1oor, 'Vo01•ts.

XX. The Adverbial Conjunctions nu, now, dan, then,

and echter, however, are usually placed in the body of
the sentence, in which case they do not influence the
construction ;
My parents. however, have del'ided for me, mijn ouders
hebbcn cC'htcr voor mij beslotcn.
Now the judge was of opinion, de rcr:hter nu meende.
Then tomorrow there will be a holiday, morgen dan zal er
vakantic zijn.

Toch, yet, is sometimes used in the same way:

Yet he is not ashamed of his ignorance, over zijn onwctend-
hcid toch schaamt hij zich niet.

XXL When a sub-ordinate sentence precedes a

Principal one, the order of the latter is inverted.
I have told him all. answered the man, ik heb hem alles
gezegw, antivoordde de man. s

After having spoken to him a long time, I left him alone,

nadat ik lang met hem gesprol"en had, liet ik hem alleen.

OBSERVATION.-.A.fter subordinate sentences with wie ook, who-

ever, wat oak, whatever, hoe ook, however, and hoe het zij,
however it be, the order of the principal Verb is not inverted.

Whoever may tell you, I shall not believe it, wie het u oak
zegt, ik zal het niet geloven.
However that may be, I shall rest satisfied, hoe dat oak zij,
ilc zal tevreden zijn.

XXII. When Verbs like zeggen; to say, antwoorden,

to answer, hernemen, to resume (speaking), voortgaan~
to continue (speaking), denken, to think, etc., occur with
their subject between the two parts of a quotation, such
subject must be placed after its Verb:-
"Those books," said he, "I shall give you anyway." "Die
boeken," zei hij, "zal ik u in elk geval geven."

Inversion in the Sub=ordinate Sentence.

XXIII. In conditional sentences, when the Conjunction

als=if, is omitted, the sub-ordinate sentence takes the
form of the inverted Principal sentence, instead of having
the whole of its Predicate at the end (see XIII).
Could I but see him, I should ask him, kon ik hem maar zien,
ilc zou het hem vragen.
Were I but ten years younger, I should go, icas ik maar
tien jaar jonger, ik zou gaan.

OBSERVATION. The conditional sentence without the Conjunction

als =
if, has no influence on the construction of the Principal
sentence (see XX!) ; but when als is expressed, it has:

r1. · Could I but see him, I should ask him, lean ik hem
Compare maar zien, ik zou het hem vragen.
{ If I could but see him, I should ask him, als ik hem
maar zien kon, zou ik het hem vragen.

XXIV. Sub-ordinate sentences, introduced by a/s=as

if, and a/=although, take the inverted construction of
the Principal sentence:
He speaks as if be knew all about it, hij spreekt, als wist
hij er alles van (for-alsof hij er alles van wist).
I shall not understand it, though I read it ten times, ik zal
het toch niet verstaan, al lees ilc het tienmaal over (for
ofschoon ik het tienmaal overlees).

OBSEBVATION.-In the sentence: Al hoordc hij 11, hij zou toch

niet komen, even if he heard you, he would not come,-the sub-
ordinate sentence, not having its regular construction form, can-
not intluenC'e the construl'tion of the Principal sentence (see
XXIII, 0Bs.) .

XXV. In statements and indirect questions beginning

with who, which, what, or with how followed by an
.Adjective, in English a Noun-subject may follow the
Verb "to be", whereas in Dutch these sentences follow
the regular construction of the sub-ordinate sentence
(see XIII):
He asked what was my opm1011 of the matter, hij vroeg,
wat mijn oordeel over de zaalc was.
I know how delicate are her feelings, ik ivect, hoe teer
haar gevoelens zijn.




DuTCH parsing differs somewhat in form from English

parsing. The student should endeavour to make himself
familiar with the points of dissimilarity.

Dutch names for the different parts of speech:-

Z elfstandignaamwoord, Noun; Lidwoord, Article;
Bijvoegeliknaamwoord, Adjective; Telwoord, ::'Sumera!
Adjective; Voornaamwoord, Pronoun; W erkwoord,
Verb; Bijwoord, Adverb; Voegwoord, Conjunction;
Yoorzetsel, Preposition; Tussenwerpsel, Interjection.

Abbreviations used in Dutch Parsing:

Zelfstnw. Zelfstan11ignaa mu·oord. Xoun.
Liaw. Lidwoord. Article.
Bijvnw. Bijvoegeliknaam u:oord. Adjective.
Telw. Telwoord. Xurn. Adjective.
Vnw. F oornaamwoord.. Pronoun.
Ww. 1Verkwoord. Yerh.
Bijw. BijwoorcZ. Adverb.
Voegw. r oe.owoord. Conjunction.
Voorz. Voorzetsel. Preposition.
Tussenw. Tussenwerpsel. Interjection.
Overg. Overgankelik. Transitive.

Onoverg. Ono,vcrganlcelik. Intransitive.

Onregm. 0 nregel matig. Anomalous.
Gem. Gemeen. Common.
Eig. E'igen. Proper.
Afgetr. Afgetroklcen. Abstract.
Sameng. Samengestcld. Compound.