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General Science

This Chapter '’ General Science'' is taken from our Book:

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2

GENERAL SCIENCE
Physics
Physics is the branch of science which Some Physical Quantities and their Units
deals with the study of matter, energy, and
the interaction between them. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
PHYSICAL QUANTITIES • First law of Motion - An object at rest
SCALARS & VECTORS will remain at rest or in uniform motion
remains in uniform motion unless acted
In physics, large number of physical
on by an external unbalanced force.
quantities can be broadly classi ied into
This law is often called the law of
two categories– Scalars & Vectors.
inertia. i.e., resistance to change.
• A scalar is a physical quantity that has
only a magnitude (size) E.g. : Distance, • Second law of Motion - The rate of
speed, time, power, energy, etc. change of momentum of a body is directly
• A vector is a physical quantity that has proportional to the unbalanced external
both a magnitude and a direction. E.g. force applied on it.
Velocity, displacement, acceleration, Impulse: If a large force acts on a
force etc. body or particle for a smaller time,
Some physical quantities like moment of then impulse (J) = product of force
inertia, stress, etc. are neither scalar nor and time. Then,
vector. They are tensor. J = Ft F = force, and t = time
So, J = Ft = mat.
Fundamental and Derived Impulse = Change in momentum.
physical Quantities and their
• Third law of Motion - For every action
units
there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Seven Fundamental Physical Quantities
and their Units Instances of Newton’s Laws
Physical SI Unit Symbol of Motion
Quantity First law of Motion
Length meter m A magician pulls a tablecloth out from
under dishes and glasses on a table with-
Mass kilogram Kg
out disturbing them.
Time second S A person’s body is thrown outward as a
Electric Current ampere A car rounds a curve on a highway.
Temperature kelvin K Second law of Motion
Pushing a child on a swing is easier than
Luminous candela Cd pushing an adult on the same swing, be-
intensity
cause the adult has more inertia.
Amount of mole mol A soccer player kicks a ball with his foot
substance
and the toes are left stinging.
3
Two students are in a baseball game. The 8. Rubbing your hands together when it’s
irst student hits a ball very hard and it cold.
has a greater acceleration than the sec- 9. Friction keeps knots from coming
ond student who bunts the ball lightly. undone (like in shoelaces)
Third law of Motion
Rockets are launched into space using WORK & ENERGY
jet propulsion where exhaust accelerates • Work refers to an activity involving a
out from the rocket and the rocket accel- force and movement in the direction of
erates in an opposite direction. the force.
Work done w = Fs cosq
CIRCULAR MOTION
Positive work : If q < 90°
• Motion of a body along a circular path is Zero work : If q = 90°
called circular motion. Negative work : If q > 90°
• Centripetal force - while a body is • A force of 20 newtons pushing an object
moving along a circular path an external 5 meters in the direction of the force
force required to act radially inward. does 100 joules of work.
This force is called centripetal force. • The SI unit of work is the joule (J),
• Capacity of doing work is called energy.
Centripetal force F =
mv2 • It may exist in potential, kinetic,
e
r thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or
where r = radius of circular path. other various forms.
A pseudo force that is equal and • To do 100 joules of work, you must
opposite to the centripetal force is expend 100 joules of energy.
called centrifugal force. • Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Cream separator, centrifugal dryer, etc, It can only be transferred to other
work on the principle of centrifugal force. objects or converted into different
forms. This is Law of Conservation of
FRICTION energy.
Friction is a force that is created when- • The SI unit of energy is joule.
ever two surfaces move or try to move • It is a scalar quantity.
across each other. • The energy associated with motion is
• Friction always opposes the motion or called kinetic energy (K).
attempted motion of one surface across
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another surface. K = MV 2 where M is mass and V is the
• Friction is dependent on the texture of 2
both surfaces. velocity.
• Friction is also dependent on the • The energy associated with position is
called potential energy (U).
amount of contact force pushing the
U = mgh; where g is acceleration due to
two surfaces together.
gravity and h is height of the object.
Instances where friction is important
1. Walking
Conversion of Energy from one form to
2. Driving another :
3. Picking something up Dynamo- Mechanical Energy into
4. Car brakes Electrical Energy.
5. Erosion in the environment Electric Motor- Electrical Energy into -
6. Burning up meteors in the atmosphere Mechanical Energy.
before they hit Earth. Microphone- Sound Energy into
7. Striking a match/building a ire. Electrical Energy.
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–11 2 2
Loud Speaker- Electrical Energy into • G = 6.67 × 10 Nm /kg
Sound Energy. • Gravitational force is a central and
Electric Bulb- Electrical Energy into conservative force.
Light and Heat Energy. • They can operate over a very long
Solar Cell– Solar energy into distances.
electrical energy. • According to Newton’s theory, the
Candle- Chemical Energy into
gravitational attraction between the
light and heat energy.
planets and the sun holds the planets in
Sitar- Mechanical Energy into
Sound energy. elliptical orbits around the sun.
• The earth’s moon and moons of the
POWER other planets are held in orbits by the
attraction between the moons and the
• Power is the rate of doing work.
planets.
• Power = Work / time
• It is equivalent to an amount of energy • The force of gravity depends upon the
consumed per unit time. object’s mass or the amount of matter
• The SI unit of power is joule/second. in the object.
• One horse power is equivalent of 746 • The weight (w) of an object is equal to
watt. the mass of the object multiplied by the
Board of Trade Unit (B.O.T.U.) : kwh acceleration due to gravity(g).
(Kilo watt hour) W = mg
1 kwh = 1 Unit • gmaximum at poles and gminimum at
= 3.6 × 106 joule equator.
This is to measure domestic electric
energy consumption.
1
• gmoon = g
6 earth
GRAVITATION • The value of ‘g’ decreases with altitude,
depth from the earth’s surface.
• Gravitation is a natural phenomenon
by which all physical bodies attract • g decreases due to rotation of earth.
each other.
Weight of a body in a lift
• On Earth, gravity gives weight to
physical objects employing a downward (i) If lift is stationary or moving with
force to keep them grounded. uniform speed (either upward or
• Gravitational force is always attractive. downward), the apparent weight of a
For example, earth always attracts us body is equal to its true weight.
but never repels. (ii) If lift is going up with acceleration,
• It is weakest force among the the apparent weight of a body is
four natural forces in nature i.e. more than the true weight.
electromagnetic, weak and strong (iii) If lift is going down with acceleration,
nuclear force. the apparent weight of a body is less
than the true weight.
• If there are two objects of mass m1 and
(iv) If the cord of the lift is broken, it falls
m2 and they are placed at distance r
freely. In this situation the weight of
apart. Then force between them will be:
a body in the lift becomes zero. This
F = G(m1m2)/r2
is the situation of weightlessness.
where G is the universal gravitational
(v) While going down, if the acceleration
constant. of lift is more than acceleration due
This is called Newton’s Universal to gravity, a body in the lift goes in
Gravitational law. contact of the ceiling of lift.
5
• Escape speed (ve) is the minimum d is the density of liquid, h is height of
speed with which an object just crosses liquid column.
the earth’s gravitational ield and never • In a static liquid at same horizontal
comes back. level, pressure is same at all the points.
• The escape velocity of Earth is about Pascal’s Law of Pressure: If gravitation-
11.2 kilometres per second and on al attraction is negligible in equilibrium
moon it is 2.4 km/sec. condition, pressure is same at all points
in a liquid.
SATELLITES • The pressure exerted anywhere at a
point of con ined liquid is transmitted
• A satellite is a smaller object in space
equally and undiminished in all
which orbits around a larger object
directions throughout the liquid.
Planet in space.
• It can be either arti icial, like the • Hydraulic lift, hydraulic press and
hydraulic breaks are based on the
communication or weather satellites
Pascal’s law of pressure.
that orbit the Earth, or they can be
natural, like our Moon.
Atmospheric pressure decreases with
• A geostationary satellite is an earth-
altitude.
That is why
orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude
of approximately 35,800 kilometres • It is dif icult to cook on the mountain.
• The fountain pen of a passenger leaks
(22,300 miles) directly over the equator.
in aeroplane.
• Geostationary satellite revolves in the
• Bleeding occurs from the nose of the
same direction the earth rotates (west
man.
to east). Its time period is 24 hours.
• It is dif icult to breath on higher altitude
• It is used for Communication, television
due to less amount of air.
broadcasting, weather forecasting ,
• Water starts to boil below 100°C.
defence and intelligence.
Surface Tension (T): It is the force (F)
• Polar orbiting satellites closely
acting normally on unit length (l) of
parallel the earth’s meridian lines, thus
imaginary line drawn on the surface of
having a highly inclined orbit close to
90°.
liquid
• They pass over the North and South • The surface tension decreases with
poles each revolution. rise in temperature and becomes zero
• They are used for weather forecasting, at the critical temperature.
earth-mapping, earth observation, etc. • Due to the surface tension, rain drops
are spherical in shape.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Archimedes’ Principle: When a body
SOLIDS AND FLUIDS is immersed partly or wholly in a liquid,
there is an apparent loss in the weight of
• Atmospheric pressure is measured by
the body, which is equal to the weight of
an instrument called the barometer.
liquid displaced by the body.
• Sudden fall in barometric reading is
• All objects placed in a liquid experience
the indication of storm.
• Slow fall in barometric reading is the an upward force which allows the body
indication of rain. to loat if it displaces water with weight
• Slow rise in the barometric reading is equal to the weight of the body. This
the indication of clear weather. upward force is called the buoyant
• The pressure exerted by liquid column force and the law is called the law of
at the surface given as p = hdg, where buoyancy.
6
• The weight of water displaced by an • 1 cal = 4.2 joule
iron ball is less than its own weight. • It always lows from a substance at a
Whereas water displaced by the higher temperature to the substance at
immersed portion of a ship is equal to a lower temperature.
its weight. So, small ball of iron ball sink Temperature: It indicates the degree of
in water, but large ship loat. hotness or coldness of a body.
• Hydrogen illed ballon loat in air • Temperature is measured by
thermometer.
because hydrogen is lighter than air.
• Temperature measuring units are
Law of Floatation: A body loats in a
Kelvin, °C or °F.
liquid if
• The density of material of body is less Relation between Temperature on
different scales.
than or equal to the density of liquid.
• When body loats in neutral equilibrium, C - 0 F - 32 R - 0 K - 273 Ra - 492
the weight of the body is equal to the = = = =
100 180 80 100 180
weight of displaced liquid. The centre of
gravity of the body and centre of gravity OR
of the displaced liquid should be in one
vertical line for the condition. C F - 32 R K - 273 Ra - 492
= = = =
• Density (d): It is the mass per unit 5 9 4 5 9
volume. • The normal temperature of a human
M body is 37°C or 98.6°F.
d=
V • At –40° temperature, celsius and
• Density of water is maximum at 4°C. fahrenheit thermometers read the same.
• Thermal expansion: Increase in
• Capillarity: The phenomenon of rise or
length, area or volume on heating.
fall of liquids in a capillary tubes.
• The oil in the wick of a lamp rises due to Methods of Heat Transfer
capillary action. · Conduction: It is that mode of
• Viscosity: The property of a luid by transmission of heat in solid where
virtue of which an internal frictional heat is transferred from a region of
force acts between its different layers higher temperature to a region of lower
when it is in motion. temperature by the aid of particles of
• Bernoulli’s theorem: For a non- the body without their actual migration.
viscous, incompressible luids lowing · Convection: It requires a medium
and is the process in which heat is
streamline from one point to another
transferred from one place to other by
point, then at every point of its path,
actual movement of heated substance
pressure, energy, potential energy and (usually molecule of luid).
kinetic energy per unit volume remains · Radiation has the following proper-
constant. ties:
Blowing of roofs by storms, sprayer (a) Radiant energy travels in straight
action of carburetor, etc. are based on lines and when some object is placed
Bernoulli’s principle. in the path, its shadow is formed at
the detector.
HEAT (b) It is reflected and refracted or can
• Heat is a form of energy which causes be made to interfere. The reflection
sensation of hotness or coldness. or refraction are exactly as in case
Its unit is joule or calorie. of light.
7
(c) It can travel through vacuum. Sublimation: It is the process of
(d) Intensity of radiation follows the law conversion of a solid directly into vapour,
of inverse square. eg., Iodine (dark solid), Dry ice (solid CO 2),
(e) Thermal radiation can be polarised in etc.
the same way as light by transmission Hoar Frost: It is just the reverse process
through a nicol. of sublimation. e.g. Frost and snow lakes.
Latent Heat
• The amount of heat required to change WAVES
phase (liquid to gas or liquid to solid
• A wave is a kind of oscillation
etc.) without change in temperature is
(disturbance) that travels through
called latent heat. Q = mL where, L =
space and matter.
latent heat
• Wave motions transfer energy, not
• Why are steam burns more severe than
matter from one place to another.
hot water burns. It is because latent
• Transverse wave- In it the vibrations
heat of steam is more than hot water.
of particles are perpendicular ^ to the
• Latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal/g
direction of travel of the wave. It has
• Latent heat of steam is 538 cal/g.
crests and troughs.
Speci ic Heat
• Longitudinal wave:- In it the vibrations
• The amount of heat that is required to
of particles are parallel to the direction
raise the temperature of a unit mass of
of travel of wave. It has compressions
a substance by one degree (14.5°C to
and rarefactions.
15.5°C) is known as Speci ic heat.
• The repetition of sound due to re lection
Speci ic heat of Different materials of sound waves, is called an echo.
Material Speci ic heat (J/Kg K) • Intensity is de ined as the amount
of energy passing per unit area held
Water 4200 around that point per unit time.
Ice 2100 • Quality is that characteristics of sound
which differentiate between two sounds
Iron 460 of same intensity and same frequency.
Kerosene oil 210 • Sonar: It stands for sound navigation
and ranging. It is used to measure
Mercury 140
the depth of a sea to locate the enemy
Lead 130 submarines and shipwrecks.
• If there is a relative motion between
(i) Cooking utensils are made of
source of sound and observer, the
aluminum, brass & steel because
apparent frequency of sound heard
of their low speci ic heat and high
by the observer is different from the
conductivity.
actual frequency of sound emitted by
(ii) Due to low speci ic heat of sand,
the source. This phenomenon is called
deserts are hot in day and cool in night.
Doppler’s effect.
Newton’s law of cooling
• Electromagnetic waves differ from
The rate of loss of heat by a body is
mechanical waves in that they do not
directly proportional to the difference in
require a medium to propagate.
temperature between the body and its
• This means electromagnetic waves can
surrounding.
travel not only through air and solid
dT materials, but also through the vacuum.
i.e., = E µ (T – T0 )
dt • In the 1860’s and 1870’s, a Scottish
where T and T0 are the temperature of scientist named James Clerk Maxwell
body and surroundings. noticed that electrical ields and
8
magnetic ields can couple together to
Air (20°C) 343
form electromagnetic waves.
• He summarized this relationship Steam (at 100°C) 405
between electricity and magnetism into Mercury 1450
what are now referred to as “Maxwell’s
Water (20°C) 1482
Equations.”
• Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist, Sea water 1533
applied Maxwell’s theories to the Iron 5130
production and reception of radio
waves. Glass 5640
Examples of electromagnetic waves
are light, radio waves, X-rays etc. LIGHT
• Sound is transmitted through gases,
• Light is a form of energy which
plasma, and liquids as longitudinal
produces sensation of vision on our
waves, also called compression waves.
eyes.
• It requires a medium to propagate.
• Light is made of discrete packets of
• Through solids, however, sound can be
energy called photons.
transmitted as both longitudinal waves
• Photons carry momentum, have no
and transverse waves.
mass, and travel at the speed of light,
• Audible sound for human is from 20 Hz
i.e. 300,000 km/sec.
to about 20000 Hz.
• Pitch is the property of sound that we • All light has both particle and wave like
perceive as higher and lower tones. properties. For example–
• Sound can be produced at a desired –Particle like; use of detectors in digital
frequency by different methods. camera for the detection and storage of
• The amplitude of a sound wave is the image data.
degree of motion of air molecules –Wave like; use of instrument for
within the wave which corresponds diffraction of light into a spectrum for
to the change in air pressure that analysis.
accompanies the wave. • It is a transverse wave.
• The distance at which a sound can be • One of the physical properties of light is
heard depends on its intensity. that it can be polarized.
• Sounds higher than 20000 Hz are • Sun’s light reaches to earth in 8 minutes
called ultrasonics. 19 seconds (i.e. 499 seconds).
• Sounds less than 20 Hz are called • Roemer was the person who measured
infrasonics. speed of light in AD 1678.
• When temperature is increased the • The light re lected from moon reaches
speed of sound is increased. to earth in 1.28 second.
• Speed of sound in air is 330 m/s. • Objects, which emit light by themselves
are called Luminous bodies, eg. sun,
Speed of Sound in Different Mediums
stars, electric bulb, etc.
Medium Speed of sound (In Non-luminous bodies do not emit light
m/s) themselves but re lect light falling on
Air(0°C) 332 them, eg. planets, moon, etc.

• Transparent, translucent and opaque matter


Matter Nature Example
Transparent It allows most of light to pass through. glass, water, etc
9
Translucent It allows a part of light falling on it to pass oiled paper
through.
Opaque It does not allow the incident light to pass mirror, metal,
through. wood, etc.
• Speed of light in different mediums high frequency (infrared) waves and
Medium Speed of light conventional radio waves.
• Their wavelength range - 10-3 m to
Glass 2 ×108 m /sec 10-2 m. It is used in microwave oven.
Turpentine oil 2.04 ×108 m /sec • Electromagnetic wave and Dis-
coverers.
Water 2.25×10 8 m/sec
Waves Discoverer
Vacuum 3×108 m/sec
-Rays Henry
• Ultraviolet radiation is an
electromagnetic radiation that has X-Rays W. Roentgen
wavelength from 400 nm to 10 nm, Ultra-Violet rays Ritter
shorter than that of visible light but
Visible radiation Newton
longer than X-rays. It is used in water
puri ication. Infrared rays Herschel
• Infrared radiation is emission of Short radio waves Heinrich
energy as electromagnetic waves in the or (Hertz Hertzian
portion of the spectrum just beyond Waves)
the limit of the red portion of visible
Long radio waves Marcony
radiation.
• Range between 10-6m and 10-3m. It is Reflection of light
used to treat muscular strain, in green It is the turning back of light in the same
house etc. medium.
• X-rays are electromagnetic radiation Laws of Re lection
having a shorter wavelength and There are two laws of re lection :
produced by bombarding a target made (i) The angle of incidence is equal to the
of tungsten, with high speed electrons. angle of re lection.
Uses in medical diagonosis. (Ði = Ðr)
• Microwaves are short, high frequency (ii) The incident ray, the normal and the
waves lying roughly between very re lected ray lie in the same plane.
Position & nature of image formed by a spherical mirror

Position of object Position of image Size of image in Nature of image


comparison to
object
Concave mirror
At in inity At focus Highly diminished Real, inverted
Between in inity Between focus and Diminished Real, inverted
and centre of centre of curvature
curvature
At centre of At centre of Of same size Real, inverted
curvature curvature
10
Between focus and Between centre Enlarged Real, inverted
centre of curvature of curvature and
in inity
At focus At in inity Highly enlarged Real, inverted
Between focus and Behind the mirror Enlarged Virtual, erect
pole
Convex mirror
At in inity At Focus Highly diminished Virtual, erect
Infront of mirror Between pole and Diminished Virtual, erect
focus

Uses of concave mirror For any two given media and for light
(i) As a shaving mirror. of a given wavelength. This is known
(ii) As a re lector for the head lights of a as Snell’s law.
vehicle, search light.
(iii) In opthalmoscope to examine eye, Also, sin i = m = m2= v1= l1
sin r 1 2 m1 v 2 l2
ear, nose by doctors.
where 1µ2 = Refractive index of the
(iv) In solar cookers,
second medium with respect to the
Uses of convex mirror irst medium.
(i) As a rear view mirror in vehicle Some Phenomena based on Refraction
because it provides the maximum (i) Twinkling of stars
rear ield of view and image formed (ii) Oval Shape of sun in the morning
is always erect. and evening.
(iii) Rivers appear shallow
(ii) In sodium re lector lamp.
(iv) Coins appear raised in glass illed
Refraction of Light with water.
The bending of the light ray from its path (v) Pencils appear broken in the beaker
in passing from one medium to the other illed with water.
medium is called refraction of light. (vi) Sun appears above horizon at sunset
· If the refracted ray bends towards the and sunrise.
normal relative to the incident ray, (vii) Writing on a paper appears lifted on
then the second medium is said to be putting glass slab on it.
denser than the irst medium. But if (viii)An object in a denser medium appears
the refracted ray bends away from the to be nearer when seen from a rarer
normal, then the second medium is said medium, eg. ish in water, a coin at the
to be rarer than the irst medium. base of a water illed vessel.

Laws of Refraction Total Internal Reflection


(i) The incident ray, the normal to the When the angle of incidence, for a ray of
refracting surface at the point of light passing from a denser medium to a
incidence and the refracted ray all lie rarer medium, exceeds a particular value
in the same plane called the plane of (called critical angle for which angle of
incidence or plane of refraction. refraction 90°), the ray re lects back in
the same medium from the boundary.
sin i This phenomena is called total internal
(ii) = constant
sin r re lection.
11
Scattering of Light: Sunlight gets Causes:
scattered by small particles present in the • The eye ball is too short so image is
atmosphere. Red colour scatters least and formed beyond the retina.
violet most. According to Rayleigh the • Cornea is not curved enough,
1 • Eye lens is farther back in the eye.
intensity of scattered light, i.e. I µ . • Increase in the focal length of eye lens.
l4 • Stiffening of ciliary muscles.
Some phenomena like – reddish appear-
Remedy:
ance of the sun at sunrise and sunset,
• Convex lens is used to converge the
blue colour of sky, white colour of clouds
rays at retina.
etc. based on scattering of light.
Target group:
Some Phenomena of total Internal
• It can affects both children and adults.
Reflection
• People whose parents are farsighted,
(i) Endoscopy using optical ibre.
• It can be confused with presbyopia
(ii) Sparkling of diamond.
(i.e. .” after 40” vision).
(iii) Mirage in desert
Astigmatism: Astigmatism is the most
(iv) Increase in duration of sun’s visibility.
(v) Appearance of air bubbles in glass common refractive problem responsible for
paper weight. blurry vision. Cylindrical lens is used to
(vi) Shining of air bubbles in water. correct astigmatism.
(vii) Shining of a smoked ball or a metal Presbyopia (“after 40” vision) : After
ball on which lamp soot is deposited age 40, and most noticeably after age 45,
when dipped in water. the human eye is affected by presbyopia,
which results in greater dif iculty main-
Human Eye taining a clear focus at a near distance
The normal range of vision for a healthy
with an eye which sees clearly at a far
human eye is from 25 cm (least distance
of distinct vision to in inity (for point). away distance.
Cataract
Defects of Vision & Remedies • It is the clouding of the lens of the eye
Myopia or Near(short) sightedness: that prevent a person to see.
• A person suffering from Myopia can’t Because light rays can’t pass through
see the far (distant) object clearly but the cloudy lens, Vision of a person
can see nearby object clearly. becomes cloudy, blurry, foggy, or ilmy.
Causes: Causes:
• Protein builds up in the eye lens & make
• The eye ball is too long (i.e. elongated)
it cloudy.
so image is formed before retina.
• Cloudy protein layers prevent rays to
• Lens being too curved for the length of
pass through eye lens.
the eye ball.
• New lens cells form on the outside of the
• Combination of above, i.e. elongated
lens, making older cells compacted into
eyeball & curved lens.
the center of the lens to form cataract.
• Shortening of focal length of eye lens. Remedy:
• Over stretching of ciliary muscles. • It can be corrected with suitable eye
Remedy: Concave lens is used to diverge glasses (lenses).
the rays at retina. • Cataract surgery is performed when eye
Hyperopia or Hypermetropia (long glass does not suit.
(far) sightedness) Dispersion of light :
• A person suffering from it can’t see The splitting of white ray of light into its
near object clearly but can see distant seven constituents colours (VIBGYOR) is
object clearly. called dispersion of light.
12
• The band of seven constituents colours Electric Field: The region around an
is called spectrum. electric charge in which the electric effect
Microscope (attraction or repulsion) can be experi-
It is used to see magni ied image of a tiny enced with another charge is called the
objects. electric ield.
Telescope Electric cell: It is the device used to con-
It is used to increase the visual angle of vert chemical energy into electrical en-
distant object. ergy.
It is used to see far off objects clearly. Emf of cell (E): It is the potential
difference across the terminals of a cell
ELECTRICITY when it is not in use.
Potentiometer
• Electricity is the set of physical
phenomena associated with the
It is used to measure the exact potential
presence and low of electric charge.
difference between two points of an elec-
• Electric charge is a property of some tric circuit or electromotive force (emf)
subatomic particles, which determines of a cell.
their electromagnetic interactions. Internal resistance of cell : It is the
The SI unit of charge is coulomb (c). resistance offered by the electrolyte.
• Electric current (I) is a movement or • One kilowatt (kW)= 1,000 watts
low of electrically charged particle • One megawatt (MW) = 1,000 kilowatts
= 1,000,000 watts
electronic per unit time. Typically
• One gigawatt (GW) = 1,000 megawatts
measured in ampere (A).
= 1 billion watts.
• Moving charges produce a magnetic
• Ammeter- Measures current
ield.
• Voltmeter- Measures the potential
• Electrical currents generate magnetic
difference between two points in a
ields, and changing magnetic ields
circuit.
generate electrical currents. • Fuse is a safety device that protects
Conductors are the substances which an electric circuit from becoming
allow the passage of electric charge with overloaded.
low resistance. E.g., silver, copper etc. Transformer
Silver is the best conductor of electricity • Transformer is a device which converts
followed by copper. low voltage AC into high voltage Ac and
Insulators are substances which do not vice-versa.
allow passage of electric charge, rubber, • It is based on electromagnetic induc-
wood, mica, glass, ebonite etc. tion.
• Ohm’s law - The electric current Application /uses: As voltage regulators
I lowing through a conductor is for –
proportional to the voltage V across its (i) T.V, refrigerator, computer, air condi-
ends, i.e. V µ I or V = RI, where R is the tioner, etc.
resistance of the substance. (ii) Induction furnaces.
• The resistance is the obstruction (iii)for welding purposes.
offered to the low of electric current. AC Generator/Dynamo/Alternator
Coulomb’s Law: The electrostatic force • It is an electric device used to convert
of interaction (repulsion or attraction) mechanical energy into electrical
between two electric charges q1 and energy.
q2 separated by a distance r, is directly • It works on the principle of electromag-
proportional to the product of charges. netic induction.
13
D.C. Motor negative susceptibility to magnetic
• It converts direct current energy from ields. These are slightly repelled by
a battery into mechanical energy of a magnetic ield, egs. Bismuth, zinc,
rotation. copper, silver, gold, diamond, mercury,
• Its uses : etc.
(i) In D.C. fans, exhaust, ceiling, table (ii) Paramagnetic materials
fans, etc. Those materials which have a small,
(ii) In pumping water. positive susceptibility to magnetic
(iii) In running tram-cars, trains, etc. ields. These are slightly attracted
by a magnetic ield, egs. Aluminium,
MAGNETISM platinum, magnesium, sodium, oxygen,
Magnets : The material or body which molybdenum, lithium, tantalum, etc.
attract magnetic substance like iron, (iii) Ferromagnetic materials
cobalt, nickel, etc. Those materials which have a large,
• The force of attraction of a magnet positive susceptibility to an external
is greater at its poles than in the magnetic ield. They exhibit a strong
middle. attraction to magnetic ield, egs Iron,
• Similar poles of two magnets repel cobalt, nickel, ferric chloride, etc.
each other. • Electromagnets are used in generators,
• Opposite poles of two magnets attract motors, loud speakers, telephones, TV
each other. sets, fans, mixers, electric bells, Maglev
• If a bar magnet is suspended by a etc.
thread and free to rotate, its South Pole
will move towards the North Pole of the MODERN PHYSICS
earth and vice versa. • The nucleus of an consists of protons
Uses /Applications and neutrons together called nucleons.
• Magnets are used in making magnetic • Photoelectric effect - It is the
compasses which help sailors and phenomenon of emission of electrons
navigators to know the directions. by metals when illuminated by light of
Faraday’s law of magnetic induction suitable frequency.
When a material is placed within a • Photoelectric current depends on:
magnetic ield, the magnetic forces of the (i) the intensity of incident light,
material’s electrons will be affected. This (ii) the potential difference applied
effect on electrons is called Faraday’s law between the two electrodes, and
of electron magnetic induction. (iii) the nature of the emitting material.

MAGNETIC SUBSTANCES X-Rays


On the basis of magnetic behaviour, X-rays are electromagnetic radiations of
substances are divided into three very short wavelength (0.1 Å to 100 Å)
categories: and high energy which are emitted when
(i) Diamagnetic materials fast moving electrons or cathode rays
Those materials which have a weak, strike a target of high atomic mass.
Properties of ,  and  particles
Properties -ray -ray -ray
Origin Nucleus Nucleus Nucleus
Nature Positively charged Negatively Neutral
charged
14
4 0
Composition 2He –1e Photon
-31
Mass 6.4×10 kg 9.1×10-31kg zero
Charge +2e –e zero
Chemical effect Affects photographic Affects photo Affects photographic
plate graphic plate plate
Effect of electric De lected De lected No effect
and magnetic ield
Penetrating power Minimum In between the Maximum
other two
Ionising power Maximum In between the Minimum
other two
Velocity Between 1.4×107 m/s 1% to 99% of 3×108 m/s
to 2.2 × 10 7 m/s velocity of light
Nuclear Fission: The process of splitting of a heavy nucleus into two nuclei of
comparable size and release of large energy is called ission.
U235 nucleus captures a thermal neutron. This forms a compound nucleus U236 in
excited state.
• Atom bomb is based on nuclear ission.
• Nuclear Fusion : The process in which two or more lighter nuclei combine to form a
heavy nucleus is known as nuclear fusion.

4 1H1 ¾¾
® 2He4 + 2+1 e0 + 2v + Q

Important Discoveries in Physics


Discovery Scientist Year
Laws of motion Newton 1687
Law of electrostatic attraction Coulomb 1779
Atom John Dalton 1808
Photography (On metal) J.Neepse 1826
Law of electric resistance G.S. Ohm 1827
Law of loatation Archemedes’ 1827
Electromagnetic induction Michael Faraday 1831
Photography (On paper) W.Fox Talbot 1835
Dynamite Alfred Nobel 1867
Periodic table Mandeleev 1888
X-Rays Roentgen 1895
Radioactivity Henry Becquerel 1896
Electron J.J. Thomson 1897
Radium Madam Curie 1898
15
Quantum theory Max Plank 1900
Wireless telegram Marconi 1901
Diode Sir J.S. Fleming 1904
Photoelectric effect Albert Einstein 1905
Principle of relativity Albert Einstein 1905
Triode Lee de Forest 1906
Atomic Structure Neil Bohr & Rutherford 1913
Proton Goldstein 1886
Raman effect C.V. Raman 1928
Neutron James Chadwick 1932
Nuclear Reactor Anrico Fermi 1942
Law of electrolytic dissociation Faraday –
Thermionic emission Edison –-

Some more Inventions


Invention Inventor Country Year
Adding machine Pascal France 1642
Aeroplane Wright brothers USA 1903
Ball-point pen C. Biro Hungary 1938
Barometer E. Torricelli Italy 1644
Bicycle K. Macmillan Scotland 1839
Calculating machine Pascal France 1642
Centrigrade scale A. Celsius France 1742
Cinematograph Thomas Alva Edison USA 1891
Clock (mechanical) Hsing and ling-Tsan China 1725
Diesel engine Rudolf Diesel Germany 1892
Dynamo Michael Faraday England 1831
Electric lamp Thomas Alva Edison USA 1879
Evolution(theory) Charles Darwin England 1858
Film (with sound) Dr lee do forest USA 1923
Fountain Pen L.E. Waterman USA 1884
Gramophone T.A. Edison USA 1878
Jet Engine Sir Frank Whittle England 1937
Lift E.G. Otis USA 1852
Match (safety) J.E. Lundstrom Sweden 1855
Microphone David Hughes USA 1878
16
Motor car(petrol) Karl Benz Germany 1885
Motorcycle Edward Butler England 1884
Printing Press J. Gutenberg Germany 1455
Radium Marie and Pierre France 1898
Curie
Radio G.Marconi England 1901
Razor (safety) K.G. Gillette USA USA 1895
Refrigerator J. Harrison and A. Britain 1834
Catlin
Rubber(vulcanized) Charles Good year USA 1841
Safety pin William Hurst USA 1849
Sewing machine B. Thimmonnier France 1830
Steam engine (piston) Thomas Newcome Britain 1712
Steam engine James Watt Scotland 1765
(condenser)
Stainless Steel Harry Brearley England 1913
Telephone Alexander Graham USA 1876
Bell
Television John Logie Bared Scotland 1926
Thermometer Galileo Galilei Italy 1593
Tractor J.Froelich USA 1892

Scientific Instruments and their uses


Instrument Use
Altimeter Measures Altitudes (in aircraft)
Ammeter Measures electric current
Anemometer Measures force and velocity of wind and directions
Audiometer Measures intensity of sound
Bolometer To measures heat radiation
Calorimeter Measures quantities of heat
Cardiogram (ECG) Traces movement of the heart; recorded on a Cardiograph
Chronometer Determines longitude of a vessel at sea.
Colorimeter Compares intensity of colours
Cryometer A type of thermometer used to measure very low
temperatures, usually close to 0°c
Dynamo To convert mechanical energy into electrical energy
Electroencephalograph Records and interprets the electrical waves of the brain
(EEC) (brain waves) recorded on electroence-phalograms
17
Electroscope Detects presence of an electric charge
Endoscope To examine internal parts of the body
Fathometer Measures depth of the ocean
Galvanometer Measures electric current
Hygrometer Measures level of humidity
Hydrophone Measures sound under water
Hypsometer To determine boiling point of liquids
Kymograph Graphically records physiological movement. (e.g. blood
pressure/heartbeat)
Lactometer Measures the relative density of milk to determine purity
Machmeter Determines the speed of an aircraft in terms of the speed
of sound
Manometer Measures the pressure of gases
Micrometer Measure thickness, width, wavelength, diameter of hair,
wool, radiation or cell or bacteria.
Microphone Converts sound wave into electrical vibrations
Microscope To obtain a magni ied view of small objects
Periscope To view objects above sea level (used in submarines)
Photometer Compares the luminous intensity of the source of light
Polygraph Instrument that simultaneously records changes in
physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood-pressure
and respiration; used as a lie detector
Pyrheliometer Measures components of solar radiation
Pyrometer Measures very high temperature
Radar To detect the direction and range of an approaching
aeroplane by means of radio waves, (Radio, Angle,
Detection and Range)
Salinometer Determines salinity of solutions
Sphygmometer Measures blood pressure
Stereoscope To view two-dimensional pictures
Stethoscope Used by doctors to hear and analyze heart and lung sounds
Telemeter Records physical happenings at a distant place.
Thermostat Regulates temperature at a particular point
Tonometer Measures the internal pressure of the eye to detect a
disease (glaucoma)
Udometer Rain gauge to measure the quantity of rain
Ultrasonoscope To measure and use ultrasonic sound (beyond hearing);
use to make a Ecogram to detect brain tumours, heart
defects and abnormal growth
Viscometer Measures the viscosity of liquid
18

Chemistry
• Chemistry is the branch of science which deals with study of matter and various
changes it undergoes.

STATES OF MATTER
Matter

Chemical classification of matter Physical classification of matter

Pure Substances Mixtures


Solid Liquid Gas

Homogeneous Heterogeneous

Elements Compounds

Organic Inorganic

Metalic Metalloids Non-metallic

Classification of Matter • They have strongest intermolecular


interactions.
• Matter is de ined as anything that
• They are generally hard and rigid.
occupies space and has mass. • Examples– Metals, bricks, wood, etc
• At a given temperature, an element is in Liquids
one of the three states of matter- Solid, • They possess de inite volume but no
Liquid or Vapour (Gas). de inite shape.
• Solids : Solids possess de inite shape • They have intemediate intermolecular
and volume. forces between constituent particles.
19
• They can low, so they are called luids, the atom and contains majority of the
e.g. water, milk, mercury, oil,etc. atomic mass.
Gases • The nucleus carries a positive charge.
• Gases have neither a de inite volume • The nucleus of an atom consists of
nor de inite shape. protons and neutrons.
• They takes the volume and shape of the • Atoms consists of protons, neutrons,
container. and electrons.
• They are highly compressible and have • Electrons revolves around the nucleus.
minimum intermolecular interactions..
• Protons have a positive charge.
• E.g.– air, oxygen, hydrogen, etc.
• Melting point of a substance is the • Electrons have a negative charge.
temperature at which its solid form • Neutrons have no charge.
changes to a liquid. • In a neutral atom total charge on proton
• The melting point of water of a pressure is equal in magnitude to total charge on
of 1dtm or 760 mm Hg is 0 degree on electrons.
the Celsius temperature scale and 32 • Since opposite charges attract protons
degree on the Fahrenheit scale. and electrons attract each other.
• Boiling point is the temperature at
which the liquid form of a substance
changes to a gas. ISOTOPES AND ISOBARS
• The boiling point of water at a pressure • Isotopes are atoms that have same
of one atmosphere or 760 mm of atomic number but different mass
mercury is 100 degree on the Celsius
numbers.
scale and 212 degree on the Fahrenheit
scale. • Isotopes have the same atomic number
• Crystalline materials however have a because the number of protons inside
de inite orderly arrangement of atoms, their nuclei remains the same. They
ions, or molecules. have different mass numbers because
• The orderly arrangement of particles they have different numbers of
or atoms in a crystal is called a crystal neutrons.
lattice. For instance, sand, salt, sugar, • For instance, ₁₇³⁵Cl and ₁₇³⁷Cl are
diamond and graphite are examples of isotopes.
crystalline materials.
• Isobars are atoms that have same
• A physical change is a change in matter
that involves no chemical reaction. atomic mass but different atomic
In the case of a physical change a numbers.
substance retains its chemical identity • Isobars have different atomic numbers
and molecular composition. because they have different numbers
• The three types of physical changes are- of protons. They have the same atomic
melting, evaporation and freezing. mass because they have just enough
• A change in which the identify of the neutrons to make the same total of
original substance is changed and
nucleons.
new substances are formed is called a
chemical change for example sourcing • For instance, ₃₂⁷⁶Ge and ₃₄⁷⁶Se are
of milk, burning of paper, rusting of iron isobars.
etc.
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS
ATOM • Everything in the universe is made of a
• An atom is the smallest unit of an combination of a few basic substances
element. called elements.
• An atom has a central nucleus which • The element is the simplest form of
is very small compared to the rest of matter composed of atoms having
20
identical number of protons in each H2SO4 Sulphuric Acid
nucleus. CH4 Methane
Elements of the periodic table are
C12H22O11 Sucrose (sugar)
majorly divided into s-block, p-block,
C3H8 Propane
d-block and f-block
NaHCO 3 Baking Soda
• A compound is made up of different
N2O Dinitroen oxide
elements but looks and behaves quite
differently. C6H8O7 Citric Acid
• A compound is a pure substance that C8H18 Octane
contains atoms of two or more chemical C10H16O Camphor
elements in de inite proportions that
cannot be separated by physical means AIR AND WATER
and are held together by chemical
bonds. Air is colorless, odorless, tasteless,
gaseous mixture, mainly contains nitrogen
(approximately 78 percent) and oxygen
EXAMPLES OF COMPOUNDS (approximately 21 percent) with lesser
Formulas Common Names amounts of argon, carbon dioxide,
hydrogen, neon, helium, and other gases.
H2O Water • Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen
C6H12O6 Glucose in the ratio of 2:1 by volume and 1:8 by
mass.
NaCl Salt
• Hard water has bicarbonates, chlorides
C2H6O Ethanol sulphates of Ca and Mg. This water is
C2H4O2 Vinegar un it for washing and use in industrial
boilers.
NH3 Ammonia • Heavy water is deuterium oxide
C2H4O2 Acetic Acid (D2O), molecular mass = 20). It is called
heavy due to the presence of deuterium,
C4H10 Butane
the heavy hydrogen.

SUBSTANCES & CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS


Common Name Chemical Name Composition Formula
Alum Potash Potassium, Sulphur, K2SO4Al2(SO4)3
Aluminium, Hydrogen
and Oxygen
Bleaching Powder Calcium Calcium, Chlorine and CaCl(OCl)
hypochlorite Oxygen
Blue Vitriol Copper sulphate Copper, Sulphur and CuSO 4.5H2O
Oxygen
Caustic Potash Potassium Potassium Hydrogen, KOH
hydroxide and Oxygen
Chalk Calcium Calcium, Carbon and CaCO3
carbonate Oxygen
Caustic Soda Sodium hydroxide Sodium, Hydrogen and NaOH
Oxygen
Baking Soda Sodium bicarbon- Sodium, Hydrogen, NaHCO 3
ate Carbon and Oxygen
21
Common Salt Sodium chloride Sodium and Chlorine NaCl
Epsom Salt Magnesium sul- Magnesium, Sulphur, MgSO4. 7H2O
phate and Oxygen
Galena Lead sulphide Lead and Sulphur PbS
Green Vitriol Iron sulphate Iron, Sulphur and FeSO4. 7H2O
Oxygen
Glauber's salt Sodium sulphate Sodium, Sulphur, Oxy- Na2SO4.10H2O
Gypsum Calcium Sulphate gen and hydrogen CaSO 4.2H2O
dihydrate
Laughing gas Nitrous oxide Nitrogen and Oxygen N2O
Lime water Calcium hydroxide Calcium, Hydrogen, Ca(OH)2
and Oxygen
Litharge Lead monoxide Lead and Oxygen PbO
Plaster of Paris Calcium sulphate Calcium, Sulphur, Hy- 2CaSO4.H 2O
hemihydrate drogen and Oxygen

Quartz Sodium silicate Sodium, Silica and Na2SiO3


Oxygen
Quick lime Calcium oxide Calcium and Oxygen CaO
Red lead Triplumbic Lead and Oxygen Pb3O4
Sal ammoniac Ammonium Chlo- Nitrogen, Hydrogen NH4CI
ride and chlorine
Soda ash or wash- Sodium carbonate Sodium, Carbon, Hy- Na2CO3.10H2O
ing soda drogen and Oxygen
Soda bicar bonate Sodium bicarbon- Sodium hydrogen, NaHCO 3
ate Carbon and Oxygen
White vitriol Zinc sulphate Zinc, Sulphur, Hydro- ZnSO4.7H2O
gen and Oxygen

METALS AND NON METALS • Non metals are non lustrous and bad
conductors of heat and electricity.
• There are two types of elements- metals Occurrence of Metals
and non- metals.
• Minerals are naturally occurring
• About 80% known elements are metals.
Metals chemical compounds of ixed
• Elements which are hard, ductile, composition and characteristics,
brittle, and malleable, possess lustre physical form and properties.
and conduct heat and electricity are • The most common groups of minerals
termed metals. are silicates, oxides, sulphides, and
• Except Mercury and gallium, all carbonates etc.
metals are solid. Uses of Some Metals and Non-Metals
• Metals have usually high melting points Compounds
and boiling points.
(i) Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) is called lunar
Non-Metals
• Non metals are electronegative caustic and is used to prepare the ink
elements which have a tendency to gain used during voting.
one or more electrons to form negative (ii) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is used as
ions called anions. an oxidishing agent, bleaching agent,
22
as an insecticide and for washing old containing 95, 70, 40 and 10-20 percent
oil paintings. carbon respectively.
(iii) Ferrous Oxide (FeO) is used to • CNG, gasoline or diesel is obtained by
prepare ferrous salts and green glass. fractional distillation of crude oil.
(iv) Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) is used in
jeweller's rouge. ACIDS, BASES SALTS AND
(v) Silver Iodide (AgI) is used for pH SCALE
arti icial rain.
• Acids are chemical compounds that
(vi) Mercuric Chloride (HgC12) is used
taste sour, turn blue litmus red, and
to prepare calomel and as a poison.
often react with some metals to produce
Catalyst
hydrogen gas.
A catalyst is a material that is added to a
• Acids- HNO3, HNO2, H2SO4, H3PO4,
reaction mixture to accelerate the process
H3PO3, H2CO3, etc.
but is itself not consumed.
• Bases are chemical compounds that
Fuels taste bitter, turn red litmus blue and
• The substance, which produce heat and feel slippery. Base: (NaOH), (Ca(OH)2),
light on combustion are called fuels. (KOH), (RbOH), etc.
• LPG (Liqui ied petroleum gas) is a • When aqueous (water) solutions of
mixture of hydrocarbons containing an acid and a base are combined, a
three or four carbon atoms, such as neutralization reaction occurs.
propane, butane and pentane. • The pH of a solution measures the
hydrogen ion concentration in that
Calorific Value
solution.
S. No. Fuel Calori ic Value • Anything above pH 7 is alkaline,
(kJ/g) anything below pH 7 is considered
1. Hydrogen 150 acidic.
• Human blood pH should be slightly
2. Methane 55
alkaline (7. 35 - 7. 45).
3. Petrol 50
Uses of Some Acids And Bases
4. LPG 50
Acids Uses
5. Natural gas 35-50
Nitric acid, oxalic Photography
6. Kerosene Oil 48 acid
7. Diesel 45 Sulphuric acid Petroleum
exploration
8. Bio Gas 35-40
Hydrochloric acid Leather industry
9. Coal 25-32 Benzoic acid, formic Preservation for
10. Ethanol 30 acid, citric acid, food stuff
11. Wood 17 acetic acid etc.
Bases
12. Cow dung 6-8
Calcium hydroxide Manufacture of
Coal is made up of carbon. and calcium oxide bleaching powder
• The common varieties of coal are Magnesium antacid in sugar
anthracite, bitumen; lignite and peat hydroxide industries
23
Sodium hydroxide manufacture of pH VALUE OF SOME
hard soaps and IMPORTANT SUBSTANCES
drugs, paper and
Sodium Hydroxide: Alkaline 14. 0
textile industry,
Ammonia 11. 0
Petroleum re ining
Baking Soda 8. 3
Potassium manufacture of
hydroxide soft soaps Human Blood 7. 4
Sources of Some Naturally Occurring Pure Water: Neutral 7. 0
Acids Milk: Acid 6. 6
Acid Source Tomatoes 4. 5
Wine and Beer 4. 0
Citric acid Lemon, orange,
grapes Apples 3. 0
Vinegar 2. 2
Maleic acid Unripe apple
Lemon Juice 2. 0
Tartaric acid Tamarind Battery Acid 1. 0
Acetic acid Vinegar Urine(Human) 5. 5 to 7. 5
Tears 7. 4
Lactic acid Milk
Sea water 8. 5
Hydrochloric acid Stomach Milk (Cow) 6. 3 to 6. 6
Oxalic acid Tomato Coffee 5.0

Acidic & basic nature of some household Tooth paste 9.0


substances
PLASTICS AND POLYMERS
Acidic Basic (Alkaline)
• Plastics consist of very long molecules,
1. Bathroom acid 1. Milk of magnesia each composed of carbon atoms linked
(Antacids)
into chains.
2. Vitamin C 2. Toothpaste • Polythene is composed of over 200000
tablets (Ascorbic carbon atoms.
acid) • Although some plastics are made from
3. Lemon juice 3. Soap solution plant oils, the majority are made from
or detergent fossil fuels.
solution. • Polymers are large long chain like
molecules formed by the chemical
4. Orange juice 4. Solution of
linking of many smaller molecules.
washing soda.
• The small molecular building units are
5. Tomato juice 5. Slaked lime & called monomers.
white wash • Monomers are joined into chains by a
process of repeated linking known as
6. Vinegar
polymerization.
7. Fizzy drinks • Starch and wool- Natural polymers
(Colas & • Nylon and polyethylene- Synthetic
Sodawater)
polymers
24
• Natural rubber is obtained from milky NUCLEAR REACTIONS AND
white luid Latex.
ATOMIC ENERGY
• The simplest unit of rubber is isoprene
(C5H8). • A nuclear reaction is a process in which
• Vulcanization gives strength, hardness, two nuclei or nuclear particles collide,
and elasticity to rubber. to produce different nuclei than the
Some common man-made polymers initial particles.
and their uses • Nuclear reactions are of two types :
Nuclear ission and Nuclear fusion.
Polymer Use
• Nuclear ission is the fragmentation of
Polythene Packaging material, a large nucleus into two smaller nuclei
carry bags, bottles and the liberation of a large amount of
etc. energy.
Polypropene Bottles, Crates etc. • Atom bomb is based on nuclear ission.
U235 and Pu239 are used as issionable
Polyvinyl chloride Pipes insulation material.
(PVC)
• Atom bomb was discovered by Otto
Nylon (Polyester) Fibres, ropes etc. Hahn.
• On 6 august 1945, an atom bomb was
Te lon Nonstick kitchen dropped on Hiroshima city in Japan.
wares The second was dropped on Nagasaki.
Vinyl rubber Rubber erasers The bomb was made of Plutonium
-239
Polystyrene Foam Thermocole • Nuclear Fusion
It is a nuclear reaction in which lighter
Poly (Styrene buta- Rubber bubble gum
diene) nuclei fuse to form a nucleus of greater
mass. In this reaction also an enormous
Bakelite Electrical insulation amount of heat is produced.
buttons • Hydrogen bomb is based on nuclear
Lexan Bullet proof glass fusion.
• Atomic energy Energy produced by
Melamine Crockery nuclear ission and nuclear fusion is
called nuclear energy or Atomic energy.
RADIOACTIVITY • In this process the loss of mass is
converted into energy.
• Radioactivity is discovered by French
physicist Henry de Becquerel in 1896, ELECTROPLATING
who observed that uranium mineral
• It is a process of plating one metal
gave off invisible radiation.
onto another by electrolysis, most
• Pierre and Madam Curie showed commonly for decorative purposes or
similar phenomenon in other metals to prevent corrosion of a metal.
like polonium, francium and radium. • Types of electroplating capsopper
• Radiations are of three kinds: Alpha, plating, silver plating, and chromium
Beta and Gama plating, etc.
25
CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS
• All organic compounds contain carbon, and the vast majority also contains hydrogen
bonded to carbon.
• It is non-metal.
• Its atomic number is 6 & A mass is 12.
• Carbon which formed the back bone of organic chemistry exhibit allotropy.
Allotropes
• Allotropes are substances which have same chemical properties but different physical
properties.
• They have different crystalline modi ications.
• Above properties of substances are called allotropy.

Allotropes of Carbon

Diamond Graphite Amorphous Carbons

• It has crystalline • It has crystalline • They does not have


structure. structure crystalline structure.
• It is purest form of • It is called black lead • They are product of
carbon. • It is soft, dark grey pyrolysis.
• It is hardest natural etc. • Pyrolysis is
substance. • It is good conductor the process of
• It is highly of electricity & heat. decomposing a
transparent • It is chemically substance on heating
• It is bad conductor more reactive than • Coal & Soot (carbon
of electricity & heat. diamond. black) are the
• It has very high Uses : It is used in examples.
refractive index. making –
• It is chemically inert. (a) pencils,
• It forms tetrahedral (b) moderator in nuclear
crystals. reactor
• It has high melting (c) lubricant in
point & density machinery.
• It is used in jewellry
& industries.

Graphene
• It is allotrope of carbon
• It is a single layer graphite.
• It has extra-ordinary electrical/ thermal
& physical properties
• It can replace silicon in electronics
• Diamond, graphite, charcoal, coke, coal etc. are different forms of carbon.
26
GLASS Aspirin Acetylsalicylic acid
Glass is a mixture of an alkali silicate with Baking soda Sodium bicarbonate
the silicate of a base, that is, silica, sodium Banana oil Isoamyl acetate
silicate and calcium or lead silicate. (arti icial)
Type & Uses Bicarbonate of Sodium hydrogen
(i) Milky Glass is prepared by adding soda carbonate or sodium
tin oxide (SnO2), calcium phosphate bicarbonate
[(Ca3(PO4)2] or cryolite (Na3AIF6) to Black ash Crude form of
the melt glass. sodium carbonate
(ii) Flint Glass contains lead oxide (PbO)
Bleaching powder Chlorinated lime;
and used in optical instruments like calcium hypochlorite
lenses, prisms.
Bone ash Crude calcium
(iii) Soda or Soft Glass is sodium calcium phosphate
silicate (Na2O. CaO. 6SiO 2). It is the
ordinary glass and used for making Borax Sodium tetraborate
Decahydrate
bottles, window panes, etc.
(iv) Potash Glass or Hard Glass contains Brine Aqueous sodium
potassium carbonate (K 2CO3). It has chloride solution
higher softening temperature. It Calomel Mercury chloride;
is used for making beakers, lasks, mercurous chloride
funnel, etc. Carbolic acid Phenol
(v) Crown Glass contains potassium Caustic potash Potassium hydroxide
oxide (K 2O), Barium oxide (BaO),
Caustic soda Sodium hydroxide
boric oxide (B 2O3) and silica (SiO2). It
is used for optical apparatus. Chalk Calcium carbonate
(vi) Crook's Glass contains cesium Chile saltpeter Sodium nitrate
oxides. It is used for spectacles as it Chile nitre Sodium nitrate
absorbs UV rays.
Copperas Ferrous sulfate
(vii) Glass Laminates is made by ixing
polymer sheet between layers of Cream of tartar Potassium bitartrate
glass. It is used to make windows and Ethanol Ethyl alcohol
screens of cars, trains and aircraft. Fixed white Barium sulfate
(viii) Jena Glass contains B2O3 and Galena Natural lead sul ide
alumina. It is resistant to acids
and alkalies. It is used for making Glauber’s salt Sodium sulfate
laboratory bottles, for keeping acids Green verditer Basic copper
carbonate
and alkalies.
Green vitriol Ferrous sulfate
CHEMICAL NAME OF SOME crystals
Gypsum Natural calcium
COMMON COMPOUNDS sulfate
Common name Chemical name Hypo Sodium thiosulfate
Acid of sugar Oxalic acid (photography) solution
Alcohol, Ethyl alcohol Laughing gas Nitrous oxide
Alum Potassium Lime Calcium oxide
aluminium sulphate
Lunar caustic Silver nitrate
Alumina Aluminium oxide
Methanol Methyl alcohol
Aqua regia Nitrohydrochloric
acid
27
Milk of Magnesium SOME CHEMICAL
SUBSTANCES AND THEIR USES
magnesium hydroxide
Soaps and Detergents: Soaps are the sodium
Oil of vitriol Sulfuric acid or potassium salts of fatty acids. They are
Oil of wintergreen Methyl salicylate made by the saponi ication of fats. Detergents
are made from some petroleum products.
(arti icial) Antibiotic: Medicinal compounds
Orthophosphoric Phosphoric acid produced by moulds and bacteria, capable
of destroying or preventing the growth of
acid bacteria in animal systems. For example
Paris blue Ferric ferrocyanide penicillin, chloramphenicol etc.
Paris green Copper Antibody: Kinds of substances formed in
the blood, tending to inhibit or destroy
acetoarsenite harmful pathogens, etc.
Paris white Powdered calcium Antigen : Substance capable of stimulating
formation of antibodies in a host. It is the
carbonate foreigne substance which enters the host
and use its system to sustain. For example
Pear oil (arti icial) Isoamyl acetate
bacteria, virus etc.
Pearl ash Potassium carbonate Antipyretic: A substance used to lower
Permanent white Barium sulfate body temperature.
Plaster of paris Calcium sulfate Pesticides: They are used to kill pests.
Pests are living organism, who destroy
Precipitated chalk Calcium carbonate
crops or eat away grains.
Quicklime Calcium oxide Insecticides: They are used to kill insects
Quicksilver Mercury for example D.D.T aluminium phosphate
gammexene.
Rock salt Sodium chloride Fungicide: They are used to kill fungus. For
Saltpeter Potassium nitrate example. Copper sulphate, Bordeax mixture.
Soda ash Sodium carbonate Rodenticides: They are used to kill
rodents. For example, Aluminium
Soda nitre Sodium nitrate phosphide, Thalium sulphate.
Sugar Sucrose Herbicides: They are used to kill weeds
Vinegar Impure dilute acetic Benzipram, benzadox.
Sulphadrugs: Alternatives of antibiotics,
acid sulphanilamide, sulphadiazine, Sulpha
Vitamin c Ascorbic acid gunamidine.
Vitriol Sulfuric acid Antacids: Substances which neutralise the
Washing soda Sodium carbonate excess acid and raise the pH to appropriate
level in stomach are called antacids.
Water glass Sodium silicate Epsom salt: Hydrated magnesium sulphate
White caustic Sodium hydroxide (MgSO4 · 7H2O), used in medicines to empty
White lead Basic lead carbonate bowels.
White vitriol Zinc sulfate crystals Chloroform: A sweetish, colourless liquid.
It is used as a solvent and anaesthetic.
Yellow prussiate Potassium Saccharin: A white crystalline solid which
of potash ferrocyanide is 550 times sweeter than sugar, but does
Yellow prussiate Sodium ferrocyanide not have any food value. It is used by
of soda diabetic patients.
Zinc vitriol Zinc sulfate DDT: Dichloro diphenyl tricholoro ethane,
Zinc white Zinc oxide a white powder used as an insecticide.
28
carbohydrate, but not without protein.
GENERAL ORGANIC
NUCLEIC ACIDS
CHEMISTRY Nucleic acids are colourless, complex,
amorphous, compounds made up of
CARBOHYDRATES three units: bases, sugar and phosphoric
Carbohydrates are defined as the optically acid. These are macro-molecules of high
molecular weight and are present in every
active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones
or substances which yield these on living cell.
hydrolysis.
BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
Classification of Carbohydrates
Based on Molecular Size Acarology – study of mites
Adenology – study of glands
CARBOHYDRATES
Angiology – study of blood
flow and
lymphatic
system
MONOSACCHARIDES OLIGOSACCHARIDES
Apiology – study of bees
Based on Nature Arthrology – study of joints
Carbohydrates are also classified as Astheniology – study of diseases
reducing and non-reducing sugars of weakening and
depending on whether they reduce aging
Fehlings and Tollen’s reagent or not. Auxology – science of
Based on Taste growth
Barology – study of
Carbohydrates with sweet taste are called
sugars while those without a sweet taste gravitation
are called non-sugars. Biometrics – study of biological
measurement
LIPIDS
Bromatology – study of food
Lipids are organic compounds soluble in
non-polar fat solvents such as acetone, Ctetology – study of the
ether, chloroform, benzene, etc. and inheritance
insoluble in water. The most important of acquired
role of lipids is that of biological characteristics
fuel. Lipids supply more energy than Cacogenics – study of racial
carbohydrates, excess of lipids is stored degeneration
in the body and used at the time of Carcinology – study of cards
starvation.
and other
PROTEINS crustaceans
Proteins are highly complex, natural Carpology – study of fruits and
compounds, composed of a large number seeds
of different amino acids joined Catacoustics – science of echoes
together with peptide linkage, i.e., they or reflected
are naturally occurring polypeptides.
sounds
The biological importance of proteins
can be judge by the fact that the animals Cetology – study of whales
can live for a long time without fat or and dolphins
29
Chemistry – study of properties Gynaecology – study of women's
of substances physiology
Chirography – study of Halieutics – study of
handwriting or fishing
penmanship Helminthology – study of
Coprology – study of worms
pornography Hematology – study of blood
Cosmology – study of the Hepatology – study of liver
universe
Herpetology – study of
Craniology – study of the skull reptiles and
Dactylography – the study of amphibians
fingerprints Histology – study of the
Dactylology – study of sign tissues of
language organisms
Demography – study of Horology – science of time
population. measurement
Demology – study of human Horticulture – study of
behaviour gardening
Dermatology – study of skin Hyetology – science of
Ecology – study of rainfall
environment Hygienics – study of
Edaphology – study of soils sanitation;
Emetology – study of vomiting health
Emmenology – the study of Hygiastics – science of health
menstruation and hygiene
Endocrinology – study of ductless Hypnology – study of sleep;
glands study of
hypnosis
Entomology – study of insects
Insectology – study of
Entozoology – study of parasites insects
that live inside
larger organisms Ichthyology – study of fish
Epidemiology – study of diseases; Irenology – the study of peace
epidemics Kalology – study of
Euthenics – science concerned beauty
with improving Kinematics – study of
living conditions motion
Geochemistry – study of chemistry Kinetics – study of forces
of the earth's crust producing
Geogony – study of formation or changing
of the earth motion
Geology – study of earth's Karyology – study of cell
crust nuclei
Geoponics – study of Laryngology – study of larynx
agriculture Lepidopterology – study of butterflies
Graminology – study of grasses and moths
30
Leprology – study of Oology – study of eggs
leprosy Optics – study of light
Magnanerie – art of raising Ornithology – study of birds
silkworms
Osteology – study of bones
Magnetics – study of
Otology – study of the
magnetism
ear
Malacology – study of molluscs
Paedology – study of
Malariology – study of malaria children
Mammalogy – study of mammals Palaeontology – study of fossils
Mastology – study of mammals Parasitology – study of
or mammary parasites
glands or breast
diseases Pathology – study of
disease
Meteoritics – study of meteors
Pharmacology – study of drugs
Meteorology – study of weather
Physiology – study of processes
Metrology – science of weights
of life
and measures
Psychology – study of mind
Microbiology – study of
microscopic Pyretology – study of
organisms fevers
Microclimatology – study of local Rheumatology – study of
climates rheumatism
Microphytology – study of very Radiology – study of X-rays
small plant life and their medical
Morphology – study of forms and applications.
the development Seismology – study of
of structures earthquakes
Myology – study of muscles Sociology – study of society
Magirics – art of cookery Tectonics – science of
Nasology – study of the nose structure of
objects, buildings
Neonatology – study of newborn
babies and land forms
Nephology – study of clouds Toxicology – study of poisons
Nephrology – study of the Urology – study of urine;
kidneys urinary tract
Obstetrics – study of Virology – study of viruses
midwifery Xylology – study of wood
Odontology – study of teeth Zoiatrics – veterinary surgery
Oncology – study of tumours Zoology – study of animals
31

Biology
• Edward Jenner is famous for creating
INTRODUCTION the irst effective vaccine for smallpox-
Biology is the study of life and living (father of immunology)
organism, including their structure, func- • Joseph Lister is famous for using
tion, evolution, distribution, identi ication antiseptics for cleaning and sterilizing
and Taxonomy wounds.
• Aristotle is often called “the father of • Robert Brown discovered the cell
biology”. nucleus.
• Leeuwenhoek invented a simple • William Watson (1909) introduced
the term Genetics.
microscope and studied living cells.
• Watson and Crick gave the model of
• Alexander Flemming discovered
DNA.
Penicillin. • In 1866 Ernst Haeckel coined word
• Carolus Linnaeus introduced Binomial “ecology”
Nomenclature for naming plants and • Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the
animals. foundation of ecology.
• Charles Robert Darwin proposed • Camillo golgi discovered golgi body.
the theory of Pangenesis to explain • Salim Ali known as the “birdman of
inheritance and also proposed Origin of India”
species by Natural Selection. • Har Gobind Khorana is a biochemist
• Gregor Johann Mendel discovered who won the Nobel Prize in 1968 for
principles of inheritance. demonstrating how the nucleotides in
• Lamarck discarded the idea of ixity of nucleic acids control the synthesis of
proteins.
species.
• Louis Pasteur proposed ‘Germ
theory of disease. He also proposed
CELLS
pasteurization for sterilization. • All living organism are constituted of
• Robert Hooke assembled a compound structural and functional units called
microscope and discovered cells in cells.
cork. • Robert Hook coined the term ‘cell’ in
1665.
• William Harvey discovered blood
• Cells are grouped into tissues, tissues
circulation.
into organ and organs into organ
• T.H. Morgan laid foundation of gene system.
theory. • Smallest cells- Mycoplasmas.
• David Baltimore is known for his • Largest isolated single cell- egg of an
discovery of reverse transcriptase. ostrich
• Charles Darwin is famous for the
theory of Natural selection. Prokaryotic Cells
• Hippocrates is considered to be the • Morphologically most primitive cells.
“father of western medicine”. • It is without nucleus.
32
• A single membrane surrounds the cell. Genetics
• It is found in bacteria, blue green algae, • Study of genes is known as genetics.
mycoplasma.
• The plasma membrane is semi Gene
permeable in nature. • It is a segment of DNA and basic unit
• Many prokaryotes have small circular of heredity. These are located on
DNA molecules called plasmids. chromosomes.
• Cell devision occurs by ission or • DNA is found in nucleus, and also found
budding.
in mitochondria and chloroplast.
Eukaryotic Cells • It stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
• The eukaryotic cells occur in all protists, (DNA).
fungi, plants and the animals. • It is double stranded.
• Eukaryotic cells are typically composed • It consists of Nitrogenous bases-
of plasma membrane, cytoplasm
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine or
and its organelles viz. mitochondria,
Guanine, 5-carbon sugar and a
endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex a
true nucleus, etc. phosphate molecule.
Cell Wall • RNA is single stranded.
• Cell wall is present in plants. • It consists of phosphate, ribose sugar,
• Cell division occurs by mitosis and nitrogenous bases- Adinine, Uracil,
meiosis. Cytosine, and Guanine.
• Cell wall is unique feature of plant cell • Mendel conducted cross hybridization
which is made up of cellulose and is experiments on green pea plant (Pisum
totally absent in animals. sativum).
Cell Membrane Mutation
• Cell membrane is composed of lipids. • Sudden change in the sequence of DNA
• The function of plasma membrane is the is known as mutation.
transport of the molecules across it.
Sex Determination
• Lysosomes these are popularly called
• X and Y are the sex chromosomes which
“suicide bags”
Nucleus are responsible for the determination
• It is centrally located spherical and of sex. 46 chromosomes are present
largest component of all eukaryotic cell. in human body cell. In which 22 pairs
Nucleolus is present in nucleus. of these are autosomes & 23nd is sex
• Robert Brown named it Nucleus. chromosomes, ie. x & y.
Mitochondria
Genetic disorder
• These are also called “Powerhouse of
• It is caused due to abnormality in an
cells”. individual DNA.
Some Human Body Disorder
Disorder Symptom Defect
Cystic ibrosis Mucus clogs lungs, liver, Failure of chloride ion
and pancreas transport mechanism
Sickle-cell anemia Poor blood circulation Abnormal hemoglobin
molecules
Tay-Sachs disease Deterioration of central Defective enzyme
nervous system in infancy (hexosaminidase A)
Phenylketonuria Brain fails to develop in Defective enzyme
infancy (phenylalanine hydroxylase)
33
Hemophilia Blood fails to clot Defective blood-clotting factor
VIII
Huntington’s disease Brain tissue gradually Production of an inhibitor of
deteriorates in middle age brain cell metabolism
Muscular dystrophy Muscles waste away Degradation of myelin coating
(Duchenne) of nerves stimulating muscles
Congenital Increased birth weight, Failure of proper thyroid
hypothyroidism puffy face, constipation, development
lethargy
Hypercholesterolemia Excessive cholesterol levels Abnormal form of cholesterol
in blood, leading to heart cell surface receptor
disease
Blood Group
• Karl Landsteiner (1900) discovered the blood group in human.
• There are four groups of blood A, B, AB and O.
• Universal Donor : ‘O’ blood group person is ‘universal donor’, i.e can give blood to all
the four blood groups (O, A, B, and AB).
• Universal Recipient : ‘AB’ blood group person is universal recipient’, i.e can take
blood from all the four groups (AB, A, B, O).
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Photosynthesis
• It is the process by which plants makes their food in the presence of sunlight, CO2,
water and chlorophyll.
Light
6CO 2 + 12H 2 O ¾¾¾¾¾® C6 H12 O6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O
Chlorophyll
Respiration
• It is the process of oxidation which occurs in three steps. Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and
Electron transport system.
It occurs in Cytoplasm (Glycolysis) and rest cycle in Mitochondria.
C6 H12 O6 + 6O 2 ® 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy
Transpiration
• Loss of water in the form of water vapour from plant through a small pore stomata is
known as Transpiration.
• Plants obtains nitrogen from soil in the form of nitrites, nitrates and salts.

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Animals & their teeth
Man (Child) 20 Cow & Sheep 32
Man (adult) 32 Cat 30
Horse 44 Rabbit 28
Dog 42 Mouse 16
34
Digestion of Food
Name of the Name of the Substrate End product
Digestive enzymes
juice
Saliva Ptyalin (Salivary Starch Maltose
amylase)
Pancreatic Amylopsin Starch, Maltose and Glucose
juice (pancreatic amylase) Glycogen
Intestinal Sucrase (invertase), Sucrose; Maltose, Glucose and fructose, Glucose,
juice Maltase, Lactase Lactose and galactose
Gastric Juice Pepsin, Rennin Proteins, Proteoses and peptones,
Casein Calcium caseinate
Pancreatic Trypsin, Proteins, Proteoses and Peptides
Juice Chymotrypsin, Peptides Amino acid.
Carboxyl peptidases
Intestinal Amino peptidase, Peptides Amino acids
juice Dipeptidase
Vitamin required by the body
Vitamin Chemical Name Function in De iciency Disease Sources
Body
B1 Thiamine Part of Beri-beri: nerve Found in whole
pyrophosphate coenzyme for and heart disorders grain cereals, etc.
respiration
B2 Ribo lavin Part of Aribo lavinosis: Milk, yogurt, etc.
coenzyme FAD skin and eye
needed for disorders
respiration
B12 Cyanoco-balamin Coenzyme Pernicious Animal products
needed for anaemia etc.
making red
blood cells, etc.
B5 Nicotinic Part of Pellagra: skin, gut Widespread in
acid (‘niacin’) coenzymes and nerve disorders foods.
NAD, NADP
used in
respiration
C Ascorbic acid Not precisely Scurvy: Lemon, orange,
known degeneration of etc.
skin teeth and blood
vessels.
A Retinol Visual pigment, Xeropthalmia: ‘dry Milk, eggs, etc.
rhodopsin eyes’
35
D Cholecalciferol Stimulates Rickets: bone Found in dairy
calcium deformity products, etc.
absorption by
small intestine,
needed for
proper bone
growth
E Tocopherol Not precisely Infertility Found primarily
known in plant oils,
green, leafy
vegetables, etc.
K Phylloquinone Involved in Possible Green, leafy
blood clotting haemorrage vegetables, etc.
Minerals required by the body
Minerals Source Function
Sodium (Na) Table salt large amounts is for proper luid balance, etc.
present in processed foods, etc.
Chloride Table salt, large amounts is for proper luid balance, etc.
present in processed foods, etc.
Potassium Meats, milk, etc. for proper luid balance, etc.
Calcium Milk and milk products, etc. Important for healthy bones and teeth,
etc.
Phosphorus Meat, ish, poultry, eggs, milk, Important for healthy bones and
processed foods. teeth, etc.
Magnesium Nuts and seeds; etc. Found in bones, etc.
Sulfur Occurs in foods as part of protein, Found in protein molecules.
meats, etc.
Iron Organ meats; etc. found in red blood cells.
Iodine Seafood, foods grown in iodine- Found in thyroid hormone.
rich soil, etc.

Protein Deficiency Diseases


• Marasmus is produced by a simultaneous de iciency of proteins and calories.
• Kwashiorkar is produced byprotein de iciency.

Respiratory System
The organ system which aids in the process of respiration is called the Respiratory
system.
Organs of Respiration in Animals
Respiratory Animals
Organ
Lungs Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians
Gills Fish, Crabs, Tadpole larva of Frog
Skin Earthworm, Leech, Amphibians
Trachea Insects
36
Human Respiratory System carbonic acid (H2CO3) by the enzyme
• Human respiratory system consists carbonic anhydrase (present in RBC).
of external nostrils, nasal cavity, • CO2 reacts with amine radicals (NH2)
nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchiole of haemoglobin molecule and forms
and lungs. a carbamino – haemoglobin (HbCO2)
• Human respiratory system consists molecule. Nearly 23% of CO 2 is
of external nostrils, nasal cavity, transported through this mode.
nasopharynx, larynx, trachea,
Circulatory System
bronchiole and lungs.
• These are of two types open circulatory
system and closed circulatory system.

Open Circulatory System


• Generally present in arthopods and
molluscs.

Closed Circulatory System


• Annelids and chordates have a closed
circulatory.

Heart beat and pulse


• The human heart beats at the rate of
about 72-80 per minute in the resting
Transport of gases condition.
• 97% of oxygen is transported from the Electrocardiograph
lungs to the tissues in combination with
• ECG stands for Electrocardiogram.
haemoglobin (Hb + O2 HbO2, It is the graphic record of electronic
oxyhaemoglobin). 3% is transported in current produced by the excitation of
dissolved condition by the plasma. cardiac muscles.
Excretion
There are three ways of transport • It is process of removal of undigested
of CO2. wastes from the body.
• 5%–7% (approximately) of CO2 is • Kidney plays a major role in the
transported, being dissolved in the elimination of water waste in the form
plasma of blood. of urine.
• CO2 react with the water to form • Urine contains ammonia, urea, uric
acid, etc.
Skeletal System
37
Axial Skeleton: Skeleton which occurs in (ii) Vertebral column: 33 in babies, 26 in
the mid axial or longitudinal part of the adults. Grouped into 5 categories :
body. • Cervical-7; Thoracic-12; Lumber-5;
(i) Skull is made up of 29 bones. It is
Sacral - 5; Coccygeal - 4 (fused in
composed of
• Cranium (8 bones): Frontal -1; adults).
Parietal-2; Occipital-1; Temporal - 2; (iii) Sternum: Composed of 3 parts ®
Sphenoid - 1; Ethmoid - 1. Manubrium, body of sternum and
• Facial bones (14 in number): xiphoid process .
Nasal-2; Maxillae - 2; Zygomatic -2; (iv) Ribs: They are twelve pairs. First
Lacrymals-2; Mandibles - 1; Inferior seven pairs are true ribs. The 8th, 9th
turbinals-2; Vomer-1; Palatines-2.
and 10th ribs are called false ribs or
Hyoid Tongue bone-1
• Ear ossicles (6 bones): Malleus -2; vertebrochondrial ribs. The last 11th
Incus - 2; Stapes - 2. and 12th pairs are called floating ribs.
38
Appendicular Skeleton: Present laterally or attached to the axial skeleton.
(i) Girdles : 2 types - pectoral and pelvic.
Pectoral girdle: made of two parts - clavicle and scapula.
Pelvic girdle: made of three bones - ilium, pubis and ischium.
(ii) Limb bones: Hind limbs and fore limbs - both made up of 30 bones each.
Fore limbs: Humerus (1); Radius-Ulna (2); Carpals (8); Metacarpals (5); Phalanges
(14); Phalanges formula = 2, 3, 3, 3,
(iii) Hind limbs: Femur (1); Tibia-Fibula (2); Patella (1); Tarsals (7); Metatarsals (5);
Phalanges (14).

IMPORTANT FACTS OF HUMAN BODY


Blood volume 5 to 5.5 L (in 70 kg body)
Blood platelets 200000-400000 per cubic mm
Blood clotting time 2-5 minutes
Universal blood donor O Rh-(ve)
Universal blood recipient AB
Longest bone Femur (Thigh bone)
Smallest bone Ear-ossicle and stapes
Normal body temperature 98.6° F or 37°C
Weight of brain 1424 g
Total number of bones in the human body 206
Total number of muscles in the body 639
WBC 5000-7000/cub.ml
RBC 5m/cub.ml OR 50,00000/cub.ml
Largest muscle in the body Gluteus maximus (Buttock muscle)
Largest organ of human body Skin
Largest endocrine gland Thyroid
Menopause age 40-50 years
Minimum regeneration power In brain cells
Thinnest skin Conjunctiva
Number of cells in body 75 trillion
Hb (Hemoglobin) content in body
(i) 12-17 g/dl (male)
(ii) 12-15 g/dl (Female)
(iii) New born: 14-24 g/dl
(vi) Child: 11-16g/dl
Normal BP 120/80 mm Hg
Pulse rate 72/minute
Breathing rate 16-20/minute
ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) 4-10 mm/hour
Normal sperms count 200-350 million/ejaculation &
40-300 million/ml
39
Functions of different regions of the brain
Region Functions
Forebrain Sense of smell.
Olfactory lobes
Thinking, memory, learning and emotions.
Cerebrum
Speech, facial muscular activities and higher mental activi-
Frontal lobe ties.

Hearing.
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe Sight.
Parietal lobe Touch, taste, smell, temperature and conscious association.
Diencephalon Controls hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, body temperature,
sweating and emotions.
Mid brain Connects the forebrain and hind brain, controls re lex move-
ments of head, neck, and trunk in response to visual and au-
ditory stimuli.
Hind brain Maintains posture, equilibrium and muscle tone.
Cerebellum
Controls respiration.
Pons varoli
Medulla oblangata Controls heart beat, breathing movements, regulates blood
pressure, swallowing, coughing, sneezing and vomiting.

Disease and Defence Mechanism 3. Ringworm Trichoplyton


Pratozoan diseases
4. Blastomycosis Blasto myces
Disease Pathogen dermatitidis
1. Malaria Plasmodium
5. Sporotnichosis Sporothrix Schenckii
2. Amoebiasis Enta moeba
histolytica
Immunity
3. Giardiasis Giardia Lambia • The term immunity refers to the
speci ic resistance exhibited by the host
4. Sleeping Trypanosoma
towards infections by micro-organisms
Sickness
(pathogens) and their products.
5. Leshmanis Leishmania Innate immunity
• It is developed in an individual without
6. Trichomoniasis Trichomonas
having the disease or immunization,
Vaginalis
e.g.,

Fungal diseases Acquired Immunity


• The resistance against infectious
Disease Pathogen disease that an individual acquires
during life is known as acquired
1. Aspergillosis Aspergillus fumigatuo immunity.
MERS: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
2. Candidiasis Candida albicens (MERS) is new viral disease related to
respiratory illness.
40
Ebola: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) Common Lung diseases
is a severe, often-fatal disease in humans • Asthma
and non-human primates (monkeys, • Bronchitis (Inflammation of the
gorillas, and chimpanzees). Bronchi):
AIDS: Acquired Immuno De iciency
Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human Common Brain diseases
De iciency Virus (HIV). • Epilepsy: Epilepsy is a condition
where a person has recurrent seizures,
Common Heart diseases abnormal discharge of electrical
• Coronary artery disease or activity in the brain cells
Arthrosclerosis: Cancer : Cancer is a complex genetical disease
• Angina (angina pectoris): which occurs due to the environmental
• Heart Failure (congestive heart failure): factors. Cancer causing agent (carcinogen)
may be present in food and water, in air in
sunlight and in chemicals.
BACTERIAL DISEASES
Disease Pathogen Affected Organ Symptom
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Skin and intestine
Skinulcer, sore
throat, nausea, fever,
breathlessness
Cholera Vibrio cholerae Intestine Vomiting, acute
diarrhoea, muscular
cramps, dehydration
etc.
Diphtheria Corynebacterium Respiratory tract Dif iculty in
diphtheriae respiration (mainly in
child of age 2-5 yrs).
Gonorrhoea Neisseria Urinary tract Swelling in urinary
(sexual disease) gonorrhoea tract.
Leprosy or Mycobacterium Chronic infection of Ulcers, nodules, scaly
Hansen’s disease leprae skin and nerve scabs (the infected
part of the body
becomes senseless).
Plague Pasteurella, Blood disease High fever, weakness
(i) Bubonic plague Yersinia pestis and haemorrhage
which turn black.
(ii) Pneumonic “ Lungs Haemorrhage of
plaque bronchi, lungs.
(iii) Septicemic “ Blood Anaemia, fever, chills
plague leading to death with
in two days.
Tetanus (lock jaw) Clostridium tetani Central nervous Painful contraction of
system neck and jaw muscles
followed by paralysis
of thoracic muscles.
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Lungs Repeated coughing,
tuberculosis high fever.
41
Whooping cough Bacillus pertussis Respiratory system Continuous coughing.
or Pertussis
Pneumonia Diplococcus Lungs Sudden chill, chest
pneumoniae pain, cough, high fever.
Typhoid Salmonella typhi intestine High fever, diarrhoea
and headache.
VIRAL DISEASES
Disease Pathogen Affected Part Symptom
AIDS (Acquired HIV (Human White blood cells Weak immune system.
Immuno De iciency Immuno
Syndrome) De iciency Virus)
Chicken pox Vericella virus Whole body High fever, reddish
eruption on body
Small pox Variola virus Whole body Light fever, eruption of
blood on body
Dengue fever RNA containing Whole body, High fever, backache,
dengue virus particularly head, headache, retro-orbital
eyes and joints pain behind the eye ball.
Ebola virus Ebola Virus Whole body Fatal hemorrhagic
disease ( ilovirus) fever, liver and kidney
disfunction vomiting,
headache.
Hepatitis Hepatitis virus Liver Loss of appetite, nausea,
(Epidemic whitish stool and
Jaundice) jaundice.
(i) Hepatitis - A Hepatitis - A virus Not fatal
(ii) Hepatitis - B Hepatitis - B virus Fatal
Herpes Herpes virus Skin Swelling of skin.
In luenza ( lu) In luenza virus Whole body In lammation of upper
respiratory tract, nose
throat and eyes.
Measles German Rubella virus Whole body Loss of appetite, reddish
eruption on the body.
Polio or Polio virus Throat, backbone Fever, backbone and
poliomyelitis and nerve intestine wall cells are
destroyed. It leads to
paralysis.
Rabies RNA virus called Nervous system Encephalitis, fear
(hydrophobia) rabies virus of water, high fever,
headache, spasm of
throat and chest leading
to death
Swine in luenza H1N1 lu virus Whole body Headache, tiredness,
( lu) (muscles) sore throat, vomiting,
breathing problems.
42
PROTOZOAN DISEASES, THEIR VECTORS
AND AFFECTED PART DISEASES

Disease Pathogen (Caus- Vector Parts Affected and


ative agent) Symptoms
African try- Trypanosoma Tsetse ly (Glos- Blood and nervous tissue.
panosomiasis gambienes sina palpalis) Man feels sleepy, may
cause death.
Amoebic Entamoeba histo- None, Infection by Colon (intestine). Develop
dysentery (Am- lytica contamination loose motion with blood,
oebiasis) pain in abdomen
Diarrhoea Giardia None, infection by Digestive system causes
contamination loose motions, vomitting
Filaria or el- Wuchereria Culex mosquito Swelling of legs, testes
ephantiasis bancrofti and other body parts.
Kala azar or Leishmania Sand lies (Phlebo- Spleen and liver enlarge
dumdum fever donovani tomus) and high fever develops.
Malaria Plasmodium Female Anopheles Periodical attacks of high
vivax. mosquito fever, pain in joints ac-
companied by chill, heavy
perspiration and fast pulse.

FUNGAL DISEASES IN HUMAN BEINGS


Disease Pathogen (fungi) Symptoms

Asthma or aspergillosis Aspergillus fumigatus Obstruction in the


functioning of lungs.
Baldness Tinea capitis Hair fall
Athlete’s foot Tinea pedis Skin disease, cracking of feet.
Ringworm Tricophyton Verrucosum Round red spot on skin
Scabies Acarus scabiei Skin itching and white spot
on the skin.

SOME VIRAL DISEASES IN ANIMALS


Animal Virus Disease
Buffalo Pox virido orthopox Small pox
Cow Herpes virus Herpes
Cow Variola vera Small pox
Cow Blue tongue virus Blue tongue
Dog Street rabies virus Rabies
43
BLOOD • Basophils are involved in in lammatory
reactions.
• Blood is a liquid connective tissue.
• Eosinophils are associated with
• Blood has a luid matrix called plasma.
• Plasma is a pale coloured luid which allergic reactions.
contributes 55% of blood volume. • Lymphocytes are responsible for
Plasma contains 90 to 92 % of water. immune response.
• Blood corpuscles are of three types: Red • Platelets (thrombocytes) are
blood corpuscles (RBCs) ,white blood responsible for clotting of blood
corpuscles(WBCs) and Blood platelets. during accidents.
• RBC’s are formed in the red bone- • For a healthy adult person the average
marrow.
systolic/diastolic pressure is 120/80
• RBC lack, nucleus.
• Life span of RBCs (Erythrocytes) is
mm of Hg in arteries near heart.
about 120 days. • Blood pressure is measured by
• WBCs (Leueocytes) are responsible sphygmomanometer.
for immunity. • The Rh factor is a type of protein on
• WBCs are manufactured in bone the surface of red blood cells. Most
marrow.
people who have the Rh factor are
• Neutrophils and monocytes are
phagocytic cells (destroy foreign
Rh-positive. Those who do not have
bodies) the Rh factor are Rh-negative.

VACCINES AND THEIR DOSES


Age Vaccination Dose

Birth to 12 • DPT (triple vaccine, against diptheria, • Three doses (commonly


months whooping cough/pertussis and oral) at intervals of 4-6
tetanus) weeks.
• Polio (Sabin’s oral, previously Salk’s • Three doses at intervals of
injectible) 4-6 weeks.
• BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) • Intradermal and one vaccine

8-24 months • DPT • Booster dose


• Polio (oral) • Booster dose
• Cholera vaccine (can be repeated • One
every year before summer)
9-15 months • Measles vaccine (MMR or Measles, • one dose
Mumps and Rubella)
5-6 years • DT (Bivalent vaccine against • Booster dose
diphtheria and tetanus)
• TAB (vaccine against Salmonella
typhi, S. paratyphi A and S paratyphi • Two doses at intervals of
B) or Typhoid Paratyphoid vaccine 1-2 months
10 years • Tetanus, TAB (typhoid) • Booster dose
16 years • Tetanus, TAB • Booster dose
44
VACCINES AND INVENTORS
Vaccine Developed by Country Year
Small Pox Edward Jenner England 1796
Cholera Louis Pasteur France 1880
Diphtheria and Emil Adolf Von Behring and Shibasa- Germany/ 1891
Tetanus buro Kitasato Japan
TB Vaccine Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin France 1922
Polio Vaccine Jonas E. Salk US 1952
Oral Polio Vaccine Albert Bruce Sabin US 1955
Measles Vaccine John F. Enders, Thomas peeble US 1953
Rabies Vaccine Louis Pasteur France 1885
Typhus Vaccine Charles Nicolle France 1909
Rubella Vaccine Paul D.Parkman & Harry M. Meyer jr 1966
Scurvy vaccine James Lind 1753

MEDICAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES


Invention Inventor Year
• Adhesive plaster-covered Paul Beiersdorf 1882
bandages. Penicillin Alexander Fleming (scotland) 1928
• Anesthetic William Morton 1846
• Anthrax vaccine Louis Pasteur 1881
• Antiseptic Joseph Lister (Scotland) 1867
• Arti icial heart Denton Cooley 1969
• Arti icial hip John Charnley 1972 (perfected)
• Arti icial skin Dr. John F. Burke and Ioannis Yannas 1979
• Bacteria (discovered) Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674
• Birth control pill Gregory Pincus, John Rock and Min- 1960 (approved
Chueh Chang by FDA)
• Cholera and T.B. Germs Robert Koch (Germany) 1883
• Blood William Harvey (Britain) 1628 (published)

• Blood transfusion Dr. Thomas Blundell 1818


(modern)
• Cholera vaccine Louis Pasteur 1880
• Contact lenses (glass) Adolf Fick 1887
45
• Corneal transplants Eduard Zirm 1905
• Cough drops James Smith and sons 1847
• Dental drill George Fellows Harrington 1864
(motor-driven)
• Disposable syringe Colin Murdoch 1956
• DNA (structure Frances Crick, James Watson and 1953
discovered) Rosalind Franklin
• Electrocardiograph Willem Einthoven 1903
• Gas mask Garrett Augustus Morgan 1912
• Genetics Johann Gregor Mendel 1865
• Heart transplant Christiaan Barnard 1967
• Hypodermic syringe Charles Gabriel Pravaz and Alexan- 1853
der Wood
• Insulin (discovery) Frederick Banting and Charles Best 1921
• Iron lung Philip Drinker 1929
• Microscope Hans Janssen 1590
(compound)
• Morphine Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner 1803
• Ophthalmoscope Charles Babbage 1847
Hermann Ludwig von Helmholtz 1851
• Pacemaker (human) Wilson Greatbatch 1960 ( irst use)
• Pasteurisation Louis Pasteur 1864
• Pathology Giovanni Battista Morgagni 1761

• Penicillin Alexander Fleming 1928

• Plastic surgery Archibald Hector McIndoe 1940s

• Polio vaccine Jonas Salk 1953

• Quinine Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph 1820


Bienaime Caventou
• Stethoscope René Laënnec 1819
• Thermometer (medical) Thomas Allbutt 1866
• X-rays Wilhelm Roentgen 1895
Genetically Modified Plants
• Golden Rice: It is a genetically modi ied variety of Rice.
• Bt Cotton : Bacillus thuringiensis
• Flavr savr variety of tomato: Flavr savr is the irst genetically engineered crop in which
tomatoes have longer shelf life.