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CHAPTER 11: CARBON COMPOUNDS


1. Write the general
1. Write the formula of formula of alkenes.
alkane. 2. Explain why boiling
1. Define the carbon 2. Explain why boiling point of alkenes
compound.
point of alkanes increase descending
2. What is an increase descending the homologous series
organic compound?
the homologous series 3. Write the equation
3. List 3 examples 1. Define isomerism
3. Write the equation of combustion of
of organic 2. Draw structural
of combustion of pentene
compound and 3 formula of pentane
pentane
examples of non- isomers
organic compound. 3. Draw structural
formula of pentene
Alkane isomers
Alkenes
Carbon
compound

Isomerism
1. Define polymer.
2. Explain the Natural
coagulation process of
rubber
CARBON
latex when it is added COMPOUND
with formic acid.
2. Explain why 1. Define the
vulcanized rubber is homologous series of
stronger than natural alcohol
rubber. 2. Write the chemical
equation of combustion
Alcohol of propanol.
Fat 3. Describe a laboratory
experiment to produce
alcohol
Ester
Carboxylic acid
1. Define saturated fat
and unsaturated fat.
2. Stated the difference
between saturated fat
and unsaturated fat. 1. Define an ester. 1. Define carboxylic
3. What is the type of 2. Write the general acid.
reaction that changes formula of ester. 2. Write the equation
unsaturated fat to 3. Describe an involved in the
saturated fat? experiment to production of carboxylic
produce etil acid from propanol.
methanoic. 3. Explain why
methanoic acid cannot
conduct an electric

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ORGANIC COMPOUND

Compound consists of carbon


element.

Definition of carbon
compound

Examples

ORGANIC CARBON
Combustion of
COMPOUND
organic compounds
sebatian organik

Type of compound Inorganic compound

Saturated Unsaturated
hydrocarbon hydrocarbon
s s

Inorganic carbon Compound consists of


Organic carbon compound carbon and did not come
Hydrocarbon compound from the organism
(animal or plant)

Compounds contain
Examples; carbon and come from
. organism (living thing). Examples:
Animal or plants Carbonate of metal,
Bicarbonate of metal,
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Examples:
Glucose,
Protein,
Fat, etc
ALKANE

n Molecular Name Structural formula Members Size of Melting Density State


formula molecule point
Methane Small Low Low Gas
1 CH4 methane Ethane Gas
Propane Gas
2 C2H6 ethane …….. Butane Gas
Pentane Liquid
3 …….. propane ………. Hexane Increase Increase Increase Liquid

4 C4H10 butane

5 ……… pentane ………

10
1. Non soluble in
water
2. Non conductor of
electricity
Physical
Explanation to
properties and
General formula and the physical
the changes properties
group members
change.

General formula Non complete combustion


ALKANE CH4 + O2 C + 2H2O
CnH2n +2 C2H6 + O2 …. + …..
n = 1,2,3,…
…… + ….. …. + …
Substitution Chemical
reactions properties

Sun light Combustion


CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl

CH3Cl + Cl2 CH2Cl2 + HCl


Complete combustion.
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 …….. + ……
CH4 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O
…….. + Module
Chemistry ……. 2009……… + …….
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C4H10 + O2 …….. + …….


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ALKENE
n Molecular Name Structural
Formula Formula

1 C2H4 ethene Members Molecul Melting Density State


ar size point
2 C3H6 propene Ethene Low Low Gas
Propene Gas
3 …….. butene Butene Gas
Pentene Gas
4 C5H10 pentene Hexene Liquid
Heptene Increase Increase increase Liquid
5 ……… hexene

10

1. Non soluble in
water
2. Non conductor of
General Physical electricity
formula General formula and properties and
group members the changes
Explanation to
CnH2n the changes
n = 2.3,4, … Homologous
Series ALKENE

Test to differentiate alkenes using


bromine water /Acidic potassium Chemical
magnate (VII). Experiment. properties
Polymerization
of alkene
Reaction Examples

1. Addition reaction

(a) Addition of hydrogen (hydrogenation) C2H4 + H2  C2H6

(b) Addition of bromine C3H6 + Br2  C3H6Br2


H3PO4, 300oC, 60 atm.
(c) Addition of steam C2H4 + H2O  C2H5OH
acidic KMnO4
(d) Oxidation C2H4 + H2O + [O]  C2H6O2

2. Combustion
Combustion in the air (oxygen) C2H4 + 3O2  2CO2 + 2H2O
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C4H8 + ……  ……. + ……
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ISOMERISM

Isomers of pentane Isomers of butene

Compound with the


same molecular
formula but
different structural
formula

IUPAC
Example of isomer naming

Definition of isomerism

Instruction:
ISOMERISM 1. Specify the number of carbon
atom in the longest continuous
carbon chain.
2. Numbering carbon atoms with
1,2,3,… starting near functional
Isomer of an alkene (pentene)
IUPAC name of group /and branch..
isomer Isomer of alkane (hexane)
3. Branch names -CH3 , methyl
-CH2CH3, ethyl

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ALKOHOL
Carbon compound CH3OH methanol
Misuse of the contained hydroxyl C2H5OH ethanol
alcohol and the functional group, OH C3H7OH propanol Physical
effect C4H9OH butanol properties and the
changes
downward series.
Fuel, solvent, Formula Am:
Medical aspect, CnH2n+ 1OH
Cosmetic aspect.. n = 1,2,3,… Naming

Definition
of alcohol
Usage of Homologous
alcohol series of alcohol

Chemical properties ALCOHOL Isomerism in the alcohol


of alcohol

Chemical properties of
the ethanol

1. Combustion Ethanol
C2H5OH + O2 CO2 + H2O
2. Oxidation
2[O]
C2H5OH CH3COOH +
H2O Preparation In industry:
The physical properties of ethanol Steam + ethene
3. Dehydration of the ethanol
Alumina
C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O

Cotton Dissolve in water In laboratory:


Alumina
+ Dissolve in organic solvent, Fermentation Process.
Ethanol Neutral, Experiment
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Heat
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Ethene

Diagram
Water
Dehydration of ethanol

Carboxylic Acid
CnH2n+1COOH
n = 0,1,2,…

HCOOH methanoic acid O


CH3COOH ethanoic acid
C2H5 COOH propanoic acid R -C -
General
OH
formula
C3H7COOH butanoic acid where R
C4H9COOH pentanoic acid is an alkyl
Acid that contain the group
functional group
carboxyl, -COOH
Oxidation of ethanol
Homologous Naming Acidic KMnO4
Series C2H5OH CH3COOH
+ H2O Conc. H2SO4
Definition

Preparation of
ethanoic acid
Ketertiban dalam CARBOXYLIC
siri homolog ACID

Physical properties of
the carboxylic acid
karboksilik
The usage of
carboxylic acid
Chemical properties
of ethanoic acid

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1. Ethanoic acid + base salt + water


CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O

2. Ethanoic acid + carbonate salt + water + carbon


dioxide
2CH3COOH + K2CO3 2CH3COOK + H2O + CO2

3. Ethanoic acid + metal salt + hydrogen


2CH3COOH + Mg (CH3COO)2Mg + H2

4. Ethanoic acid + alcohol esther + water


Ethanoic + ethanol ethyl ethanoat + water
CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O Ethanoic acid + ethanol +
concentrated sulphuric acid
( after boiling)
ESTER

n m Molecular formula Name of ester

0 2
CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1
n = 0,1,2,…
m = 1,2,3,… 1 1

2 3

General formula
of ester
Diagram?
Molecular formula and
the name of ester
Homologous
series of ester Preparation

A group of
homologous series Definition
ESTER
with functional
group of carboxyl, Ethyl ethanoate
-COO- etanoat

Physical properties
Natural source
The ester daily life of the ester
usage To predict the
formation of the ester

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FAT AND
OIL The fat molecule that built of
only singular covalent bond
…is an ester formed from between carbon atom in the The fat molecules that built of
glycerol (alcohol) and molecules. multiple bond between
carboxylic acid. carbon atom in molecules.

Definition
Definition
Examples: definition
Chicken’s fat,
? fat and oil. Cow’s fat,
Saturated Unsaturated
Etc. Contoh:
fat fat

Comparison
Type of fat

Fat Oil
Higher melting Lower melting Conversion of the
point (more than point (less than unsaturated fat to the
20oC) 20oC) saturated fat.
Solid at room Liquid at room FAT AND OIL
temperature temperature
Found in animals Found in plants
& human & fish
Production of margerine:
The effect of Hydrogenation process of unsaturated fat
fat on health (palm oil)
Palm oil
Ni
- C = C - + H2 -C – C –

The needed to H H
use palm oil Extraction process of Double bond single bond
palm oil in industry

Taken too much saturated


fat may cause:
1. Obesity
2. Hardness of an artery
3. High blood pressure
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R O R O R O R O

n H2N - CH - C - OH + H - N - CH – C - OH N - CH – C - N - CH – C - + nH2O

H H H n
Amino acid amino acid protein
(monomer) (monomer) (polymer)

Protein nC6H12O6 (C6H10O5)n + nH2O


glucose starch
(monomer) (polymer)
Giant molecule with long chain
(macromolecule) consist of
repeated sequence small molecules Carbohydrate
(micro molecule) called monomer
found in an animal & plant

NATURAL
Several polymer
RUBBER
Definition of and it’s monomer
natural polymer

Usage of
natural rubber Natural nC5H8 (C5H8)n
rubber Isoprene natural rubber
(monomer) (polymer)
Comparing the properties
of the natural and
vulcanized rubber
-- Explain Preventing Coagulating of
coagulation of the latex Experiment
latex
Vulcanization
of rubber. Definition
Latex is a colloid. It is a mixture of rubber particles
and water. A rubber particle is made up of negatively
charged protein membrane surrounds many rubber
Experiment: molecules. The negative charges are preventing the
1. Vulcanization of natural collision between molecules. When an acid is added to
rubber.
the latex, H+ from an acid is neutralized the negative
2. Comparison of properties
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vulcanized Milik JPN Pahang between the rubber particles. The protein membrane
breaks, and then the rubber molecules are free to
clump together. Latex has coagulated
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Diagram

ACTIVITIES 1

A. Analysing Alkanes

1. The general formula of alkanes are : ______________________________

2.. Complete the table by writing the name , molecular formula and structural formula of alkanes.

Number of Carbon Molecular


Name Structural formula
atom per molecule formula

3. All alkanes _______________________ in water because they are _____________________


compounds.

4. As the number of carbon atoms increases,

a) the size of the molecule _____________________________

b) the boiling and melting point ___________________ because _____________________

________________________________________________________________________

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c) the amount of soot produced ______________________ because ___________________

________________________________________________________________________

5. Complete combustion of alkanes produces carbon dioxide and water only.

a) C2H6 + O2 

b) C5H12 + O2 

6. Alkanes undergo substitution reaction with halogrns in the presence of ultra violet light.

CH4 + Cl2 

ACTIVITIES 2

B. Analysing Alkenes

1. The general formula for alkenes is __________________________________________

2 Complete the table below by writing the names, molecular formula and structural formula .

Number of
Molecular
Carbon atom per Name Structural formula
formula
molecule

3. Alkenes undergo addition reaction due to the presence of the double bonds.

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a) Hydrogenation : C3H6 + H2 

Condition of reaction : _________________________________

b) Halogenation : C3H6 + Br2 


- C– C=C- + Br-Br 

c) Hydration :

Condition of reaction : ____________________________________

d) Oxidation :

4 . Polimerization : The process whereby small molecules are joined together to form large
molecules.

5. Compare and contrast between alkanes and alkenes.

Alkanes Alkenes

General Formula

Bonding

Combustion

Physical properties

Chemical properties

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Flowchart for the reaction of ethene

Ethane-1,2-diol Poliethene
C2H4(OH)2

IV VI Ethanoic acid
CH3COOH

II I
Ethanea IX Ethyl ethanoate
C2H5Cl
Ethene VIII
C2H6 C2H4 VII CH3COOC2H5

III
X
V Ethanol
C2H5OH
1,2 dibromoethane
C2H4Br2
Carbon dioxide and
water
Write the balanced equation for the processes labeled above.

I VI

II VII

III VIII

IV IX

V X

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Flowchart for the reaction of ethene

Butane-1,2-diol Polibutene
C4H8(OH)2

IV VI
Butanoic Acid
C3H7COOH

II I
Butane Butene IX Butyl butanoate
C4H9Cl VIII
C4H10 C4H8 VII C3H7COOC4H9

III
X Butanol
V C4H9OH
1,2 dibromobutane
C4H8Br2
Carbon dioxide and
water
Write the balanced equation for the processes labeled above.

I VI

II VII

III VIII

IV IX

V X

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Flowchart for the reaction of propene

propane-1,2-diol Polipropene
C3H6(OH)2

IV VI
Propanoic acid
C2H5COOH

II I
Propane Propena IX Propyl propanoate
C3H7Cl VIII
C3H8 C3H6 VII C2H5COOC3H7

III
X Propanol
V C3H7OH
1,2 dibromopropane
C3H6Br2 Carbon dioxide and
water

Write the balanced equation for the processes labeled above.

I VI

II VII

III VIII

IV IX
V X

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OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1 What are the expected major products of the fermentation of glucose solution in the
presence of yeast?

A Ethanol and carbon dioxide


B Ethanol and water
C Ethanol, methanol and water
D Carbon dioxide and water

2 Which of the following equation represents the combustion of C3H7OH in excess of


oxygen?

A 2C3H7OH + 3O2 → 6C + 8H2O


B 2 C3H7OH + 5O2 → 6CO2 + 8H2
C 2 C3H7OH + 6O2 → 3CO2 + 8H2O + 3C
D 2 C3H7OH + 9O2 → 6CO2 + 8H2O

3 Which of the following reacts both with ethanol and ethene?


A Calcium carbonate
B Methanol
C Potassium dichromate(VI) solution
D Acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution

4 Which of the following compounds undergo addition polymerisation?


A CH3CH=CH2
B CH3CH2CH2CH3
C CH3COOH
D OH–(CH2)2–OH

5 Which of the following correctly describes the properties of both hexane and hex-1-ene?
A They are unsaturated hydrocarbons
B They readily decolourise bromine solution in tetrachloromethane
C They react with steam to give ethanol
D They burn completely to produce carbon dioxide and water

6 In a dehydration reaction, the vapour of an alcohol is dehydrated by heating concentrated


sulphuric acid to 180 °C. A gas is produced. This gas decolourises bromine solution. Which
of the following is the molecular formula of this gas?
A C4H10
B C2H4
C C2H6O
D CH3COOH

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7 The structures of three hydrocarbons are given below.
• CH2=C(CH3)CH3
• CH2=CHCH2CH3
• CH3CH=CH2

Which of the following statements are correct about these hydrocarbons?


I They react with bromine solution
II They produce carbon dioxide and water when burn completely
III They are isomers of the same hydrocarbon
IV They belong to the same homologous series
A II and IV only
B I, II and III only
C I, II and IV only
D I, II, III and IV

8 What is produced in the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol?


A Carbon dioxide and water
B Ester and water
C Water and salt
D Salt and carbon dioxide

9 What are the molecular and empirical formulae of ethyl ethanoate?


Molecular Empirical
formula formula
A C2H4O C4H8O2
B C4H6O2 C2H3O
C C4H8O2 C2H4O
D C2H4O2 CH2O

10 Which of the following is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?


A Alkene
C Alcohol
B Alkane D Carboxylic acid

11 An alkane with four carbon atoms has the formula


A C4H4 C C4H8
B C4H8 D C4H10

12 The general formula for alkene is


CnH2n C CnH2n + 2
A
C2nHn D CnH2n + 4
B

13 Which of the following is produced when a mixture of propene and hydrogen is


channelled over nickel at a temperature of 180oC?

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A Propene C Propane
B Propanoic acid D Propyl propanoate

14 Which of the following is able to undergo an oxidation reaction?


I Alkene
II Alkane
III Alcohol
IV Carboxylic acid
A I and II only C II and III only
B I and III only D I, III and IV only
15 Esterification occurs when
A carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol
B an alkene is produced from alcohol through heating
C one carbon atom is bonded to an –OH group
D one big alkane molecule is broken up into smaller alkene molecules

16 Which of the following is a polymer?


A Rubber C Glucose

B Ethene D Isoprene

17 The chemical equation below represents the reaction between Butene and bromine.
Butene + Br2 → Y

Which of the following is the structural formula for Y?


A
H H H H

H–C–C –C–C–H

Br H H Br

B H H H H

H–C–C –C–C–H

H Br H Br

C H H H H

H–C–C –C–C–H

Br Br H H

D H H H H
B
H – C – C – C – C – Br

H H H Br

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18 The figure below shows the structural formula for an ester molecule.

What is the name of the ester?


A Methyl ethanoate C Propyl ethanoate
B Propyl methanoate D Methyl propanoate

19 The chemical equation below shows the conversion of ethene to ethanol.


o
300 C,
60 atmospheric pressure
phosphoric acid
C2H4 + H2 O C2H5OH
What is the name of the process shown by the equation above?
A Dehydration C Hydrogenation
B Hydration D Oxidation

20.
Propene Propanol Propanoic Acid

X Y

Two reaction schemes in the transformation of propene to propanoic acid are shown
above.Which of the following represents reactions x and y?

X Y
A Oxidation Addition
B Dehydration Oxidation
C Hydration Oxidation
D Dehydration Reduction

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21. Which of the following is a result of an addition reaction of propene with bromine gas?

I Br

II

III

IV

A I dan II only
B I, II and III only
C II, III and IV only
D I, II, III and IV

22. Which of the following substance can be used to differentiate ethane from ethene?

A Lime water B Bromine water


C Dilute sulphuric acid D Sodium hydroxide solution

23. What are the products formed when ethanol burns completely in excess air?
A Water and carbon dioxide gas
B Water, carbon and carbon dioxide gas
C Water, carbon monoxide gas and carbon dioxide gas
D Water, carbon, carbon monoxide gas and carbon dioxide gas

24. The following chemical equation shows the conversion of ethanol to ethane.
Piece of porcelain

C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O


Heat

What is the name of the process shown by the above equation?

A Dehydration B Oxidation
C Reduction D Fermentation

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25. Perfume contains esters. Which of the following is a property of an ester?
A. Dissolves in water B. Low boiling point
C . More dense than water D . Can conduct electricity

26. The figure shows the structural formula of pent-1-ene

Which of the following are structural formulae and correct names for isomers of pent-1-ene?

I II
Pent-2-ene 3-methylbut-1-ene

IV

III
Pent-3-ene 2-methylbut-2-ene

A . I and IV only
B. II and III only
C. I, II and IV only
D. I, II, III and IV

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‘27. The diagram shows a polymerization process.

n
Substance R Substance S

Which of the following properties is identical for substances R and S?


A. Melting point B. Density
C . Relative molecular mass D. Percentage composition

’28. The structural formulae of two isomers are as follows.


Br

Br

Which of the following names can be used for both isomers?


A . Bromoethane B. Bromopropane
C . Bromobutane D . Bromopentane

’29. A liquid produced effervescence (pembuakan) when reacted with sodium carbonate solution.
What is the molecular formula of the liquid?
A. HCOOH B .CH3CH2OH
C . CH3COOCH3 D. CH3COONa

CH3COOH

Reaction I

C2 H5OH

Reaction II

C2H4

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30. The diagram above shows the changes of ethanol to two other organic compounds by
reactions I and II. Which of the following is correct ?

Reaction I Reaction II
A Esterification Dehydration
B Oxidation Dehydration
C Oxidation Esterification
D Dehydration Esterification

31. One hydrocarbon is found to contain 75.0% of carbon and 25.0% of hydrogen based on its
mass. The empirical formula of the hydrocarbon is
[Relative atomic mass: C, 12; H, 1]
A. C3H
B. CH3
C. CH4
D. C4H

32. Complete combustion of one mole of an alkane in excess oxygen produces 8 moles of
water. The alkane is
A. Pentane
B. Hexane
C. Heptane
D. Octane

33. Consider a structural formula below:

Based on the IUPAC system, what is the name of the compound having this structural
formula?
A. 3-methylpent-1-ene
B. 3-ethyl-3-methylbut-1-ene
C. 3,3-dimethylpent-4-ene
D. 3,3-dimethylpent-1-ene

34 Which of the following is not a natural polymer?


Di antara berikut, yang manakah bukan polimer semulajadi?

A Protein
Protein
B Cellulose
Selulosa
C Polyethene
Polietena

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D Natural rubber
Getah asli

35 Diagram 8 shows the structural formula of a hydrocarbon.


Rajah 8 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi satu hidrokarbon.

DIAGRAM 8
RAJAH 8
What is the name of the hydrocarbon?
Apakah nama hidrokarbon itu?

A pent-2-ene
pent-2-ena
B 2-methylbut-2-ene
2-metilbut-2-ena
C 3-methylbut-2-ene
3-metilbut-2-ena
D 1,1-dimethylprop-1-ene
1,1-dimetilprop-1-ena

36 Polymerization occurs when many small molecules combined to form a long chained molecule
(polymer).

Diagram 16 shows the structure of a small molecule.

Diagram 16

Which of the following represents the structure of a polymer formed when these small molecules
are linked together?

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37. Ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid to form ethyl ethanoate.
Etanol bertindak balas dengan asid etanoik membentuk etil etanoat.
C2H5OH + CH3COOH → CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
What is the formula of the ester formed when methanol reacts with butanoic acid, (C3H7COOH)?
Apakah formula bagi ester yang terbentuk apabila metanol bertindak balas dengan asid butanoik,
(C3H7COOH)?

A C2H5COOC2H5
B C3H7COOC2H5
C C3H7COOCH3
D CH3COOC3H7

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38 When a mixture of 2-butanol, CH3CHOHCH2CH3 and concentrated sulphuric acid is
heated, gas X is produced. Which of the following is the molecular structure of X?

A CH3CH=CHCH3
B CH3CH=C(CH3)2
C (CH3)2CHCH=CH2
D CH3CH2CH=CH2

STRUCTURE QUESTIONS

1. Diagram 2 shows the formation of compound X from glucose and its conversion to several
other carbon compounds.
Gambar rajah 2 menunjukkan penghasilan sebatian X dan perubahannya kepada
sebatian karbon lain.

Process I Process II
[Proses I] Compound X [Proses II]
Glucose [Sebatian X] Compound Y
[Glukosa] C2H6O [Sebatian Y]

Process III Process IV


[Proses III] [Proses IV]

Compound Z [Bahan Z] Ethyl propanoate


C2H4O2 [Etil propanoat]

Diagram 2 [ Gambar rajah 2 ]

(a) Process I involves the use of yeast. Name Process I.


Proses I melibatkan penggunaan yis. Namakan Proses I.

...........................................................................................................................................
........
[1 mark]

(b) Draw the structural formula of compound X.


Lukiskan formula struktur sebatian X

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[1 mark]

(b) Compound Y is formed when the vapour of compound X is passed over heated porcelain
chips in Process II.
Sebatian Y terbentuk apabila wap sebatian X dialirkan melalui serpihan proselin yang
panas dalam Proses II.
(i) Write the general formula for the homologous series of compound Y.
Tuliskan formula am bagi siri homolog untuk sebatian Y.

................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Suggest a chemical test to identify compound Y.
Beri satu ujian kimia untuk mengenalpasti sebatian Y

…...............................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................

[2 marks]

(d) Compound Z liberates carbon dioxide gas when calcium carbonate is added to it.
Bahan Z membebaskan gas karbon dioksida apabila kalsium karbonat dicampur
kepadanya.

(i) Name the functional group of compound Z.


Namakan kumpulan berfungsi dalam sebatian Z.
.

..........................................................................................................................................
...... [1 mark]

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the conversion reaction in Process III.
Tuliskan persamaan seimbang untuk tindak balas yang berlaku dalam Proses III

..........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(iii) Name a reagent that is suitable to be used in Process III.

Chemistry Module 2009


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Namakan suatu reagen yang sesuai untuk digunakan dalam Proses III..

................................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(e) Describe briefly the method of preparing ethyl propanoate from compound X in the
laboratory.
Secara ringkas terangkan kaedah penyediaan etil propanoat dari sebatian X dalam
makmal.

...............................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................
.
[2 marks]

ANSWER FOR Q 1

1 (a) [able to state the process correctly]

fermentation 1 .......1

(b) [able to draw the correct structural formula of compound X]

1 .......1

(c) (i) [able to write the general formula for the homologous series of
compound Y]

CnH2n
1 .......1

(ii) [able to suggest a chemical test to identify compound Y]

Deliver compound Y / ethene into bromine water / potassium 1


manganate(VII) solution

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Brown colour of bromine water decolourises / changes to colourless / 1 .......2
pruple colour of potassium manganate (VII) decolourises / changes to
colourless

(d) (i) [able to name the functional group of compound Z]

Carboxyl group 1 .......1

(ii) [able to write a balance chemical equation]

C2H5OH + 2[O]  CH3COOH + H2O 1 .......1

(iii) [able to name the reagent]

acidified potassium manganate(VII) / acidified potassium dichromate 1 .......1


(VI) solution

(e) [able to identified the reagent and describe briefly the method of
peparing ethyl propanoate from compound X]

Add propanoic acid to compound X / ethanol


1
Reflux / heat with concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst
1 ......2

Total 10

Chemistry Module 2009


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QUESTION 2

2 Diagram 6.1 shows the changes of a carbon compound involving a series of reaction.
Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan perubahan suatu sebatian karbon yang melibatkan beberapa siri tindak
balas.

Porcelain
Chips
Serpihan
Butanol porselin Butene H2 Butane
Butanol Heat Butena Heat Butana
Panas Panas

Diagram 6.1
Rajah 6.1

(a) Write the molecular formula of butane.


Tuliskan formula molekul bagi butana.

..........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

(b) Draw the structural formulae of two isomers of butane.


Lukiskan formula struktur bagi dua isomer butana.

[2 marks]

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(c) Table 6 shows the results of a test to differentiate between butane and butene.
Jadual 6 menunjukkan keputusan ujian untuk membandingkan antara butana dan butena.

Procedure Observation
Prosedur Pemerhatian

Bromine water is added to butene. Brown colour is decolourised.


Air bromin ditambahkan kepada butena. Warna perang dinyahwarnakan.

Bromine water is added to butane. Brown colour remains.


Air bromin ditambahkan kepada butana. Warna perang kekal.

Table 6
Jadual 6

Based on Table 6, explain why there is a difference in these observation.


Berdasarkan Jadual 6, terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian ini.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(d) Butene reacts with hydrogen to produce butane. Write the chemical equation of the
reaction.
Butena bertindak balas dengan hidrogen untuk menghasilkan butane.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini.

..........................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

(e) Butene can be obtained from the reaction of butanol through dehydration process.
Draw a labeled diagram of the set-up of the apparatus for the experiment.

Butena boleh didapati daripada tindak balas butanol melalui proses penghidratan.
Lukis gambar rajah berlabel susunan radas untuk eksperimen ini.

2 marks]

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(f) Diagram 6.2 shows the burning of hexane and hexene in air.
Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan pembakaran heksana dan heksena dalam udara.

Soot
Jelaga

Filter paper
Kertas turas

Porcelain dish
Mangkuk pijar

Hexane Hexene
Heksana Heksena

Diagram 6.2
Rajah 6.2

Compare the sootiness of hexane and hexene. Explain.


Bandingkan kejelagaan bagi heksana dan heksena. Terangkan.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

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ANSWER FOR Q2

NO ANSWER MARK
6 (a) C4H10 1

(b)

1
(c) - Butene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon/ has double
1
bond
- Butane is a saturated hydrocarbon/ has single bond

1
(d) C4H8 + H2 C4H10
1
- correct reactants and products
- balanced equation

(e)
Glass wool soaked with
Porcelain chips
butanol

Butene

Heat Heat
1
Water 1

1
- Functional diagram 1
- Labelled diagram
Total
(f) Hexene produced more soot
% of carbon in one molecule of hexene higher than in hexane

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ESSAY QUESTION

9 (a ) (i) Explain by naming an example each, the meaning of saturated hydrocarbons and
unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Dengan menamakan setiap contoh, terangkan maksud hidrokarbon tepu dan
hidrokarbon tak tepu
[4marks]
Unsaturated hydrocarbon can be converted into saturated hydrocarbon.
(ii)  State the process and the condition needed
 Write the chemical equation involved.
Hidrokarbon tak tepu boleh ditukarkan kepada hidrokarbon tepu.
 Nyatakan proses dan keadaan yang diperlukan
 Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang terlibat.

[4marks]

Alkohol  Carboxylic acid  Ester


(b) (i)
Explain briefly how the conversion of homologues series above can be
carried out .
Jelaskan dengan ringkas bagaimana pertukaran siri homolog di atas dapat dilakukan.
[4 marks]

Simple carboxcylic acid with low molecular mass can dissolve in


water to produce acidic solutions
(ii)
Asid karboksilik yang ringkas dengan jisim molekul yang kecil
boleh larut dalam air untuk menghasilkan larutan berasid.

By using an example describe the properties of carboxylic acid. Include your answer with
chemical equation.
Dengan menggunakan contoh, terangkan sifat-sifat asid karboksilik.
Sertakan persamaan kimia dalam jawaban anda.
[8 marks]

Answer of essay Question 2

No Answer Marks
9 (a) SaturateUnsaturated hydrocarbons – hydr d hydrocarbons – hydrocarbons that
(i) contain only carbon-carbon single bonds or single covalent bond. 2
Example : hexane

ocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double or triple bond. 2


Example : Propene

(ii) By Hydrogenation process. 1


Ethene reacts with hydrogen at 1800 C in the presence of nickel or platinum 1
catalyst to form ethane.

Chemistry Module 2009


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2 4
+ H2 
accepted: chemical equation
(b) - refluxing ethanol/alcohol with an oxidizing agent such as acidified 2
(i) potassium dichromate(VI) solution or Potassium manganate
(VII) solution.

- esterification reaction carboxylic acid reacts with alcohol with 2


the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst
4
(ii) a) carboxylic acid reacts with metal to produce hydrogen gas 2
2CH3CH2OOH + Zn  Zn(CH3CH2O)2 + H2
( any example) ( any electropositive metal – not Na/K)

b) carboxylic acid reacts with base to produce salt and water 2


2CH3CH2OOH + ZnO  Zn(CH3CH2O)2 + H2O
(any example) ( any base)

c) carboxylic acid reacts with carbonate to produce salt, carbon dioxide and 2
water
2CH3CH2OOH + ZnCO3  Zn(CH3CH2O)2 + H2O + CO2
( any example) ( any carbonate)

d) carboxylic acid reacts with alkali to produce salt and water 2


CH3CH2OOH + NaOH  CH3CH2ONa + H2O
( any carboxylic acid) ( any alkali)
2 8
e) pH 3-4 , sour taste, conduct electricity (Max = 8 Total 20

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