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GUIDELINES ON ANSWERING

QUESTIONS IN
CHEMISTRY PAPER 2
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1 Important Points
(a) Read all questions carefully and circle all important key words.
(b) In Chemistry, there is no ½ mark. Use the marks allocated to give yourself a guideline on how
many points your answers should have.
(c) Answers must be precise and complete.

Example 1:
State the conversion of energy that occurs during the electrolysis.
Answers
The energy conversion that occurs during electrolysis is from electrical energy to chemical energy.
From electrical energy to chemical energy.
To chemical energy. [Answer incomplete. 0 mark!]

2 Answers question.
- Do not give answers that are not related to the need of the question.
- & Read the question carefully and underline/circle important information or keywords.
Example 2:
State the observation(s). State what you experienced with your ve senses only. [see, hear, smell,
touch, taste].

Incorrect observation Correct observation


Chlorine gas released Effervescence/ yellowish-green gas given out.
Copper formed. Pink solid deposited.

Example 3:
Write the formula for the product formed between sodium and oxygen.
Answer:
Mg + O2 ---> MgO MgO

Example 4:
Write the ionic equation for the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and aqueous potassium
hydroxide.

Answer:
+ – + –
HCI + KOH---> KCl + H2O H + OH --->H2O 2H + 2OH --->2H2O

Example 5:
Given equation of reaction: 4Na + O2 ---> 2Na2O
Name the product formed
Na2O <--- Common Mistake sodium oxide.

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3 Use the correct term.
- If name of a person is used as unit or a chemical process, it must be in capital letter.
- Do not use short form such as ZAP

The following statements are some of the common mistakes made by students.

Wrong Correct
1 Purple solution disappears. Purple solution becomes colourless

2 No reaction. Novisible reaction

3 Colour of water is clear/white Colourless/no colour

4 Rate of reaction is faster/slower. Rate of reaction is higher/lower

5 Zinc donates two electrons Zinc atom donates two electrons

6 Copper molecule. Copper atom

7 Bromine ion Bromide ion

8 H+ ion increase Concentration / Number of moles of hydrogen ion, H+ increases

9 Electrons ow from zinc metal to copper metal. Electrons ow from zinc metal to copper metal through the wire

10 Forces of attraction are weak Intermolecular forces of attraction are weak.

11 Soap consists of two parts. Soap anion consists of two parts.

12 Energy unit: j (joule) Unit joule : J

13 Position of zinc is above copper Position of zinc is above copper in the electrochemical
series. or zinc is more electropositive than copper
14 Reagent to verify iodine. ---> starch Starch solution.

4 Describe
. chemical test:
Answers must contain: (1) correct reagent, (2) procedure, and (3) expected observation.
- Do not give the reagent only.
- You must state the 'Before' & 'After' observation

Example 6:
Name gas Y and describe a method to verify its identity.

Answer:
Hydrogen. Test with wooden splinter
Hydrogen. Place a lighted splinter into the test tube.
Hydrogen. Place/ Put/Near a lighted wooden splinter into the test tube. A ‘pop’ sound is heard
verifying the gas is hydrogen.

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The following are some of the common mistakes made by students.
Wrong Correct
1 Moist litmus paper turns red. Moist litmus paper turns from blue to red
2 Acidied potassium manganate(VII) turns colourless Acidied potassium manganate(VII) turns from purple to colourless.
3 Oxidation number changes to +2 Oxidation number changes from 0 to +2

5 Writing balanced chemical equation.


- Mole ratio in the equation must be in simple ratio.
Zn + 2HCl ---> ZnCl2 + H2 2Zn + 4HCl ---> 2ZnCl2 + 2H2

6 Writing clearly the working of the calculation.


- Marks are also given for workings and hence they must be written clearly.
- Unit must be correct.

Example:
Wrong working and answer Correct working and answer
16 16
Number of mole sodium =
64 = 0.25 64 = 0.25
0.25 x 32 = 8 g Mass of oxygen gas = 0.25 x 32 = 8 g

7 Plotting the graph


- Both axes must be labelled with the correct variable and unit (if any) must be written.
- Use the appropriate scale so that the graph drawn covers at least half of the page.
- Points plotted must be correct.
- Draw the best straight line /curve.

Instead of memorising these facts, use these charts

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GUIDELINES ON ANSWERING PAPER 2 ESSAY QUESTION
A. Why students lose marks
1. Did not give enough facts/points or incomplete facts.
2. Did not give the correct conditions of the experiment.
3. Did not write chemical equation.
4. Wrong words or terms used.

SUGGESTED FORMAT TO USE WHEN ANSWERING PAPER 2 ESSAY QUESTION

Item Description
It would be good if you can write a title or aim of the experiment. This would enable
1. Title /Aim you to stay focused and hopefully you will not write out of point! Just read the question
and write a statement based on the need instruction of the question.

2. Apparatus and List all the apparatus and material separately. If you are unable to do so, you
material can group all under one heading : “Apparatus and material”

Normally two marks are allotted


3. Set–up of - 1st mark: The apparatus set up is functional.
apparatus diagram - 2nd mark: All chemical substance and main apparatus are labelled.
( solutions, solids must be shaded)

• You need to briey explain how to set up the apparatus for the experiment. You must
4. Procedure describe how you ‘measure and pour’ the chemical substances into appropriate containers.
• Values of concentration and volume of the solution and/or other data must be stated;
especially for experiment which include calculation.
• Steps taken while carrying out the experiment must be written in the correct order.
[The correct order of the steps will enable you to carry out the experiment successfully.]
• Write: “Readings or/ and measurements are recorded”. Do not write “being read, observed, etc”
• You must ensure that the chemical substances you choose are correct and will react
accordingly to give the desired result–giving the correct products.
• Chemical substances can be written in words or chemical formulae. If chemical formulae
are used, they must be correct.
•The physical state of the chemical substances must also be stated. Example: solution or solid
or gas, powdered or pieces or ribbon, acidied or neutral, etc.

1. Answer according to the needs of the experiment. If certain facts are not asked, you can
5.Observation / write briey.
theory /explanation 2. Include chemical equation / half equation or graph in your answer. These will make your answer
more easily understood.

The readings normally need to be presented in a table. Your table must have the correct headings
6. Tabulation of and units. Values must be given for the manipulated variable. Symbols can be used for the
data / result responding variable.

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Item Description

Time Second 30 60 90 120


Temperature (0C) t1 t2 t3 t4

7. Calculation If real values are not given, you can use unknown such as x, y or z in your calculations.
All steps must be clearly shown.
Units must be written.

8. Conclusion A conclusion must be written based on the aim of the experiment.

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MORE SUCCESS STORIES FROM
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