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Power Plant Control System Tuning

Short Course Notes

1003740
Power Plant Control System Tuning
Short Course Notes
1003740

Technical Update, March 2004

EPRI Project Manager


R. Torok

EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 • USA
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Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
CITATIONS

This report was prepared by

EPRI I&C Center


714 Swan Pond Road
Harriman, TN 37748

Principal Investigators
C. Taft

This report describes research sponsored by EPRI.

The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:

Power Plant Control System Tuning Short Course Notes, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1003740.

iii
ABSTRACT

Power plant control system tuning is a continuing challenge for many power producers. To help
address the problem, EPRI began a project in 2002 to investigate improved methods for control
system tuning. One of the tasks undertaken in that project was the development of a power plant
control system tuning short course. This report provides approximately 100 slides that make up
the bulk of the course material. In addition, tuning demonstrations using computer simulation
software will be a part of the course. The course notes provided here include information on
process response concepts, control system fundamentals, PID tuning, and boiler control system
applications examples. It will be useful for plant engineers and technicians involved with control
system tuning and plant responsiveness.

v
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................1-1

2 COURSE OUTLINE.............................................................................................................2-1

3 COURSE NOTES .................................................................................................................3-1

vii
1
INTRODUCTION

Power plant control system tuning is a continuing challenge for many power producers. To help
address the problem, EPRI began a project in 2002 to investigate improved methods for control
system tuning. The project has already produced several short reports on power plant control
system tuning, including one on tuning assessment and one on PID controller tuning software
programs (see Section 3 for complete reference list). The latest effort was the development of a
short course on fossil power plant control system tuning.

This technical update provides the latest information on the course. Section 2 contains the
course outline, and Section 3 provides approximately 100 slides that make up the bulk of the
course material. In addition, tuning demonstrations using computer simulation software will be a
part of the course, but are not included in these notes. The two-day course will be offered at the
EPRI Instrumentation and Control Center in Harriman, TN. The course notes provided here
include information on process response concepts, control system fundamentals, PID tuning, and
boiler control system applications examples. It will be useful for plant engineers and technicians
involved with control system tuning and plant responsiveness.

1-1
2
COURSE OUTLINE

1. Course scope and objectives


1.1. Conventional control system tuning (PID -based)
1.1.1. PID tuning
1.1.2. Cascade control
1.1.3. Feedforward signals
1.1.4. Focussed on boiler control systems
1.1.5. Applicable to other systems
1.2. Make plant engineers and technicians more knowledgeable about control system
tuning methods
1.3. Not a control design course
1.4. References
2. What is tuning?
2.1. Adjustment of control system parameters to make plant respond as desired
2.2. Tuning is not the same as design
2.2.1. Design means selecting a strategy and logic
2.2.2. Tuning means adjusting settings in current design
2.3. There are other adjustments besides PID settings
2.4. Linearizers (f(x)), lead/lags, a few others
2.5. Tuning terminology and definitions
2.5.1. System
2.5.2. Process
2.5.3. Response
2.5.4. Controller
2.5.5. Closed loop
2.5.6. Open loop, etc.
3. Control system diagramming
3.1. SAMA diagrams
3.2. Block diagrams
4. Process response concepts
4.1. Common responses
4.1.1. First order lag
4.1.2. Second order under-damped
4.1.3. Integrator
4.1.4. Deadtime
4.2. Parameters, e.g., Gain, time constant,, time delay
4.3. Second order comments
5. Control system fundamentals
5.1. Feedback

2-1
Course Outline

5.2. PID Controllers


5.3. Cascade Control
5.4. Feedforward control
5.5. Trim controllers
5.6. Loop error or deviation
5.7. Continuous control
5.8. Digital control
5.8.1. Sampled data
5.8.2. Aliasing
6. Performance measures
6.1. Speed vs. stability
6.2. Overshoot
6.3. Rise time
6.4. Settling time
6.5. Setpoint tracking vs. disturbance rejection
7. PID tuning concepts
7.1. Empirical methods
7.1.1. Example
7.2. Analytical Methods
7.2.1. Example
7.3. Automated programs
8. System linearity issues
8.1. Why linearity is important
8.2. Characterization
8.3. Gain scheduling
9. Boiler control system tuning
9.1. Approach to boiler control tuning
9.2. The hierarchy of tuning
9.3. Actuator setup and tuning
9.4. Feedwater flow/drum level
9.5. Furnace pressure control
9.6. Air flow control
9.7. Fuel flow control
9.8. Boiler follow throttle pressure control
9.9. Steam temperature control
9.10. Front end control, throttle pressure and megawatts

2-2
3
COURSE NOTES

This section contains the slides that make up the course notes.

3-1
Power Plant Control
System Tuning
Short Course

Course Notes
by Cyrus W. Taft, PE
EPRI I&C Center

Course Objectives

• Present an overview of control system tuning principles and


practices for fossil power plants.
• Provide detailed guidance on:
– Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuning.
– Feedforward tuning
– Major boiler control loop applications
– Tuning assessment
• Intended audience is plant engineers and technicians, technical
specialists, support engineers.
• Course is not intended as control design course.
• Students should have some experience with power plant control
systems and typical boiler processes.

2 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

1
Tuning References

• EPRI Reports
– Tuning Guidelines for Utility Fossil Plant Process Control,
EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: TR-102052, Volumes 1-4, 1993-1994.
– Power Plant Control System Tuning, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: TE-
113653, 1999
– Automated Control System Tuning: Issues, Available
Solutions, and Potential for Improvement, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
1004067, 2001
– Control System Tuning Assessment Guidelines, EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: 1004425, 2002
– Review of State-of-the-Art PID Controller Tuning Software
Programs, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1004080, 2004

3 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tuning References

• Books
– Astrom, K.J. and Hagglund, T., PID Controllers: Theory, Design
and Tuning, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC: Second Edition,
1995.
– McMillan, G. K., Tuning and Control Loop Performance, ISA,
Research Triangle Park, NC: Second Edition, 1983.
– Corripio, A. B., Tuning of Industrial Control Systems, ISA,
Research Triangle Park. NC: 1990.
– Dukelow, S. G., The Control of Boilers, ISA, Research Triangle
Park. NC: Second Edition, 1991.
– Levin, W., Editor, The Control Handbook, CRC Press, Boca
Raton, FL: 1995.

4 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

2
Tuning References

• Papers
– Morse, R. H., et al, Aspects of Tuning a Boiler Control System - A
Strategy for Optimization, ISA IPI 76462, pp 121-142, ISA POWID
Symposium Proceedings, 1976.
– Hubby, R. N., Pulverizer Control, A Tutorial Review, ISA, ISBN1-
55617-213-3, pp 157-164, ISA POWID Symposium Proceedings,
1991.
– Taft, C. W. and McFarland, G., A Guide to Boiler Control System
Startup and Checkout, ISA, First Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controls
and Automation Conference Proceedings, 1991.
– Heuszel, C. B., Methods of Accurate Control for Environmental
Compliance, Tutorial presented at ISA/94 Conferences in
Philadelphia, PA, and Anaheim, CA., 1994

5 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

What is Control System Tuning?

• Tuning is the adjustment of various control system parameters to


make the process respond as desired.
• Sometimes viewed as a “black art.”
• Mostly based on science with a little art thrown in.
• Not as difficult as you may think.
• More than just PID tuning
• Tuning is not the same thing as design in the conventional control
world but, in advanced control, the two have much overlap.

6 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

3
Tuning Terminology

• Process - The system being controlled, e.g., the feedwater flow system or the air
flow system. Also referred to as the plant.
• Controller - the device or algorithm which is manipulating the process input to
effect a change. Most common is PID controller but there are many other
possibilities.
• Actuator - The device which moves the final control element, such as a valve or
damper, in response to command signals from the controller. May use
pneumatic, electric or hydraulic power.
• Feedback - A type of control in which a measurement of the process is used by
the controller to adjust the final control element. The concept of feedback is used
in all major control functions in a power plant.
• Controlled variable - The process parameter being controlled by the control
system. Also called the process variable.
• Manipulated variable - The controller output signal.

7 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tuning Terminology, cont’d

• Open loop - The system has no feedback in service. Also means the control
loop is in manual mode.
• Closed loop - Feedback from the process is being used by the controller.
Control loop is in automatic mode.
• Gain - The output of a system divided by its input. A measure of the change in
signal size as it passed through a system.
• Frequency response - The output of a system in response to a sine wave input
signal at many different frequencies. Usually specified as a gain and phase shift.
• Step response - The output of a system in response to a step change in the input
signal.
• Impulse response - The output of a system in response to an impulse change in
the input signal. In theory an impulse is an infinitely large and infinitely short
pulse.

8 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

4
Tuning Terminology, cont’d

• Time response - The output of a system as a function of time.


• Time constant - A measure of the speed of response of a system. Sometimes
refers to the time for a first order system to reach 63% of its final step response.
• Stable - In theory, a type of system whose output is bounded for all bounded
inputs. In practice, a system whose output settles out in response to a
disturbance.
• Stability margin - A measure of how close a system is to instability.
• Disturbance - Any upset that occurs in a system. Often implies an unmeasured
upset that the control system is trying to eliminate.
• Continuous control - An analog control system, i.e., one in which all signals are
continuous functions of time.
• Discrete control - Also called digital control. A digital control system, i.e., one in
which the controller signals are only updated at distinct points in time. Also
referred to as a sampled data system.

9 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Control System Diagramming

• There are two methods commonly used in power plant control analysis
– SAMA (Scientific Apparatus Makers Association) Diagrams
– Block Diagrams
• SAMA diagrams functional diagrams in which on block represents one
control system function, such as a summer. They are normally used by
control system vendors to describe how the system works. They
contain no information about the process being controlled.
• Block diagrams are more mathematically oriented and are used widely
in control system analysis. They show the control system and the
process being controlled.
• Both types will be used in this course.

10 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

5
SAMA Diagram Example

Feedwater Flow Drum Level Drum Pressure Steam Flow

FT LT PT FT Circle - Measurement
or readout device

Density
Compensation Measurement

∆ ∆ Rectangle -
Automatically
PI PID Κ processed function

Control
Participation
Σ f(t)

Σ −Κ Σ

f(x) f(x)

A T A A T A
Output
Diamond - Manually
controlled function

f(x) f(x) Trapezoid -


Final control element
Boiler Feed Boiler Feed
Pump A Pump B

11 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Block Diagram Example

Disturbance Controlled
Variable or
Process
Setpoint Variable
8___
Kp + Ki/s
+ 38s + 1
-
Manipulated
Error
Variable
1___
4s + 1

12 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

6
Process Response Concepts

• Real power plant processes are quite complex and include:


– Fluid flow through pipes, valves, turbines, fans, pumps.
– Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation.
– Combustion
– Fluid phase changes, boiling, condensation.
– Material transport and graining, pulverizers.
• These are all mechanical or chemical type processes.
• All processes must obey the laws of physics, including
conservation of mass, energy and momentum.

13 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Process Response Concepts

• An important characteristic of all processes is their speed of response.


This is quantified as either a time or a frequency which are reciprocals of
each other.
• Another important parameter is the gain of the system. It is important to
understand that the gain of a system changes depending on the speed
(or frequency) of the input signal.
• No real processes respond instantly to a change in the input signal. All
have some delay or deadtime in their response. This is very important in
tuning.
• In the following examples, the input signal chosen is a step change. It is
important to remember that the characteristics of the process are
independent from the type of input signal. The step response is just a
convenient signal to visualize.

14 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

7
Common Process Time
Responses to Step Inputs

First Order Lag

2 • Four common process models


e 63%
d
ut
i
1 – First order lag, second order
gn
M
a 0
Time constant
under-damped, integrator, and
0 5 10 15Order
Second 20 25 30 deadtime

e
2
• Most common is 1st order with
d
ut
i
1 deadtime
ng

M
a 0 – Characterized by 3 parameters:
0 5 10 15
Integrator 20 25 30 gain, time constant, deadtime
e
4 – Gain - ratio of final change in
d
ut
i 2 output to change in input.
gn
M
a
0 – Time constant - time to 63% of
0 5 10 15
Deadtime 20 25 30 final response.
e
1 – Deadtime - time before any
d
ut
i Deadtime response begins.
ng
0
M
a – No overshoot in step response
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

15 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

First Order Lag Plus Deadtime


Process Examples

• Boiler pressure response to a step change in fuel input.


• Pulverizer outlet temperature response to a step change in
hot air damper position
• Superheat outlet temperature response to a step change in
spray valve position

16 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

8
Integrator Plus Deadtime
Process Examples

• Drum level response to a step change in feedwater flow


rate.
• Feedwater heater level response to a step change in drain
valve position.

17 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Comments on Second Order Systems

• Processes that have an under-damped second order type


response are rare in power plants.
• However, many second order responses occur in closed loop
control systems.
• The combination of a PI controller and a first order process
produces a second order closed loop system.
• A system must be at least second order to have any overshoot in
its step response.
• A second order system can be over-damped and have no
overshoot in its step response.

18 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

9
Closer Look at the Process

• Every process
Disturbance Controlled
Variable or
Process
Setpoint

contains many smaller


Variable
8___
Kp + Ki/s
+ 38s + 1
-

processes
Manipulated
Error Variable
1___
4s + 1

• Total response is
combination of all
blocks
Process
Controlled
Variable or
Manipulated Process
Variable Variable
Desuper-
I/P Booster Diaphragm Valve
heater

Thermocouple
What
Operator
Sees

19 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Control System Fundamentals

• Feedback is the foundation of automatic control


• PID controllers are the workhorse
• Cascade control and feedforward control are important in boiler
control applications
• All new control systems today are digital
• Field devices, transmitters and actuators, are very important
components in the control system.
• Must know control system objective before tuning

20 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

10
Feedback

• Process measurement is sent


back to the control system Control
Field
system Process
• Negative feedback because Variable
measurement is subtracted from Process Under
Control
setpoint
• Foundation of automatic control
Measurement
• Vastly improves accuracy of Device
control Feedback from process
to control system
• Introduces possibility of instability
• When feedback is used, it is
called closed loop control

21 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Proportional-Integral-Derivative
(PID) Controller

• Dominant control algorithm by far.


• Three possible control modes:
– Proportional
– Integral
– Derivative

• Most common implementation is PI
control, but P, I, and PID are also d
quite common. K dt
• All PID controllers are conceptually
the same, but each vendor has own
implementation.
• Where the tuning action is.
• Tuning settings have a variety of
names.
22 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

11
PID Controller Step Responses

PID Control Step Responses

• Proportional Output = 3

Kp * Input 2
p
or
• Integral Output = P 1

Ki * Int(Input) 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

• Derivative Output = 15

Kd * d/dt(Input) 10
t
nI
5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

1.5

vi 1
r
e
D 0.5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

23 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Forms of PID Controllers

• There are several forms of PID controllers and these two


are quite common today:
• Standard (ISA)

• Kp * (e)[ 1 + 1/Ti * Int(e) + Td * d/dt(e)]


– Note how Kp affects integral and derivative setting.

• Parallel
• Kp * (e) + Ki * Int(e) + Kd * d/dt(e)
– Kp, Ki, and Kd are all independent

24 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12
Proportional Only Control
(Single-mode control)

• Simplest form of control.


• Only one tuning parameter.
• Usually does not produce zero steady state error ( has an offset).
• Application examples:
– Turbine governor speed regulation
– Emergency drain valve on feedwater heaters
– Boiler feedpump minimum flow control
• Tuning parameter may be specified two ways:
– Gain,
– Proportional band
• Gain = 100/PB; PB = 100/Gain

25 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Proportional plus Integral Control


(Two-mode control)

• Most common form of control.


• Two tuning parameters.
• Provides zero steady state error, no offset.
• Examples:
– Feedwater flow control
– Air flow control
– Furnace pressure control
• Integral tuning parameter has several possible names:
– Integral gain
– Reset rate, repeats per minute
– Reset time, minutes per repeat
– Integral time, minutes

26 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

13
Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control
(Three-mode control)

• Not used as much as it should be.


• Three (or four) tuning parameters.
• Can improve the response of slow processes.
• Derivative mode can amplify process noise.
• Application examples:
– Superheat Temperature Control
– Pulverizer Outlet Temperature Control
• Derivative tuning parameter has two names:
– Derivative gain (Rate)
– Derivative time, minutes

27 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cascade Control

• Two feedback loops nested together with the output of the primary loop controller
acting as setpoint for the secondary loop. This control scheme requires that the
secondary loop be much faster than the primary loop.
• Example:
– Drum level control (slow primary or outer loop)
– Feedwater flow control (fast secondary or inner loop)

Primary Control Secondary


Variable Control Variable
Controlled
Secondary Variable or
TT FT Error Process
Setpoint Variable
Primary Secondary Secondary Primary
∆ A + Controller + Controller Process Process
- -
PID
Primary
Error Measurement Inner Loop

∆ Outer Loop

PID Measurement

To Actuator

28 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14
Cascade Control

• Advantages:
– Disturbances arising within the secondary loop are corrected by
secondary controller before they influence primary controller.
– Secondary loop linearizes the process response improves the
speed of response of the primary loop.
• Disadvantages:
– More complex strategy, more tuning adjustments.
– Control of each variable is assumed single-loop and is designed to
operate satisfactorily, Instability may occur when both loops are
closed (in auto).
– Cascade control requires that an intermediate process variable can
be reliably measured.
– Secondary loop must be significantly faster than primary loop.

29 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Feedforward Control

• A control strategy in which a signal other than the controlled variable is


added directly to the controller output to improve a control loop’s
response.
• For a feedforward signal to be advantageous, it must provide some
intelligence about a process change before the controlled variable
detects it.
• Can be dynamic (e.g., kicker) or static (e.g., load index).
• Example:
– Steam flow as a feedforward to drum level control.
• Advantages:
– Can dramatically improve the response of slow loops.
• Disadvantages:
– Adds complexity to loop.
– Can be difficult to tune.

30 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15
Feedforward Control

Process
Feedforward
Variable
FT TT

∆ A

PID

K f(x) Σ

To Actuator

31 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Trim Controller

• A controller whose output is used to bias the main control demand


signal.
• The trim controller’s output is normally zero centered with a +/-
20% to 30% range.
• Example:
– Drum level controller in a three element control strategy.
– Excess oxygen controller
• Main control signal is usually a feedforward signal.

32 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

16
Trim Controller

Demand Process
Signal Variable
FT TT

0 to 100%

∆ A

PID

Trim Controller
-20% to +20%

0 to 100%
Main Signal
Flow

To Actuator
33 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Loop Error or Deviation

• Difference between setpoint and controlled variable.


• To better understand a control loop’s performance, watch
the error signal.
– Especially on setpoint tracking loops
– Easy to spot offset or slow return to setpoint.

34 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

17
Loop Error Step Response

1.2


1

0.8

Loop Error

Magnitude
0.6

0.4
d
K dt 0.2

-0.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

35 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

What is Continuous Control?

• Also called Analog Control


• Control signals are continuous with time.
• Pneumatic control systems and analog electronic
control systems are continuous.
• No computer involved.

36 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

18
What is Digital Control?

• Also called Discrete Control or Sampled Data Systems.


• Implies a computer is involved.
• Control actions are not continuous with time, they only occur at
certain intervals, called the sample time.
• Requires discrete mathematics to analyze.
• No knowledge of the process exists between samples.
• Aliasing of data can occur if sample rate is not fast enough.
• If sample rate is very fast, digital control is very similar to analog
control.

37 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Digital Control Diagram

Digital Controller

Field D/A
A/D Controller Actuator
Transmitter Converter Converter

Analog Analog

Plant Being Controlled

Analog

38 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

19
Digital Data Sampling

S te p R e s p o n s e

2 .5

1 .5
Amp litu d e

0 .5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (s a mp le s )

39 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Aliasing

• Aliasing occurs when a waveform is sampled too slowly.


• The sampled data does not represent the actual waveform. The
apparent frequency of the sampled data may be much lower than
the actual frequency of the original signal.
• A waveform must be sampled at least twice per cycle to prevent
aliasing.
• Aliasing can also be prevented by low pass filtering the signal
before sampling. This eliminates high frequency components in
the signal.
• Some DCS systems don’t adequately filter the analog input
signals before sampling to prevent aliasing.

40 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

20
Aliasing

0 .5

-0 .5

-1
0 20 40 60 80

41 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Control System
Performance Requirements

• Need to know desired performance before loop can be properly tuned.


• Performance is quantified in two categories:
– Speed
• Time taken for the process to respond to a specific input (usually a step)
• Measurables: time constant, delay time, rise time, bandwidth, natural
frequency
– Stability
• Theory - The output response is bounded for all bounded inputs
• Practice - Response does not oscillate too much
• Measurables: damping, overshoot, settling time, offset
• Faster speed of response generally leads to less stability.
• Most power plant control systems do not have well defined performance
goals

42 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

21
Control System
Performance Measurements

1.8

1.6

1.4 Overshoot

1.2

1
Magnitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

Rise Time
0.2

0 Settling Time

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)
43 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Power Plant Control System


Performance Goals

• Usually expressed in terms of maximum deviation allowed for a


given transient
• For example:
– Maintain the final superheater outlet temperature within
+/-15 degF of setpoint during a load ramp at 3% per minute.
• With a goal like this, how would you tune the superheat
temperature loop?
– Probably would sacrifice response time to get more stability to
prevent large overshoots.

44 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

22
Power Plant Control System
Performance Goals

• Important to have some overshoot in a step response.


– Shows that gain is not much too low.
• Good general performance goal:
– Make response as fast a possible but keep overshoot less
than 25%.

45 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Power Plant Control System


Performance Goals

• Another goal to consider in loop performance is whether the


loop’s main function is:
– Setpoint tracking (variable setpoint)
• Air flow control
• Megawatt control
– Disturbance rejection (constant setpoint)
• Also called a regulator
• Drum level control
• Steam temperature control
• Most setpoint tracking loops also do some disturbance rejection.
• Performance tests should match main function.
• In other words, don’t use a setpoint step response to test the
drum level performance.

46 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

23
PID Tuning Concepts

• Many tuning methods available, two main categories


– Empirical (trial and error)
– Analytical
• Manual
• Computer-aided
• Empirical is used much more than analytical.
– Doesn’t mean it is better
– Many tuners don’t know analytical methods
• Should understand both

47 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Simple PID Loop


Empirical Tuning Procedure

• Start with proportional mode.


• Adjust integral and derivative gains to 0.0 or very small.
• Set proportional gain small enough to ensure little control action.
• Make a setpoint change and observe response.
• If response is not significant, double the gain and make another setpoint
change.
• Repeat until response is significant (noticeable).
• If loop is designed for disturbance rejection, introduce a repeatable
disturbance and check response. If loop is designed for setpoint
tracking, continue with setpoint steps.
• Continue increasing gain until desired response is obtained. Doubling
gain at each step is reasonable but finer steps will be necessary to finish
tuning.

48 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

24
Proportional Tuning Example

Proportional Gain Tuning


• Notes: 1.4

• Offset decreases as gain


increases 1.2

• Doubling gain does not cause Setpoint


problems 1

• “Best” gain between 0.2 and 0.4

Controlled Variable
0.8 Gain = 1.6
• No need to do test at a gain of
1.6 because 0.8 was already to Gain = 0.8
high. 0.6

• Could do another test at 0.3 Gain = 0.4

0.4
• Large offset at “best” gain. Gain = 0.2

0.2 Gain = 0.1

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

49 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Integral Tuning Steps

• Very similar to proportional tuning


• Select a slightly conservative proportional gain setting.
• Select a very low integral setting for first try.
• Make setpoint step change and watch response.
• If response is too slow, double integral gain and make another
step in the setpoint.
• As response get reasonable, change to a disturbance input if the
loop is so designed.
• Fine tune gain until response is as desired.

50 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

25
Integral Tuning Example

Integral Tuning Response


1.6
• Notes: Int Gain = 0.4
1.4
• Integral eliminates offset Int Gain = 0.2

• Doubling gain does not cause 1.2


problems
• “Best” gain close to 0.2

Controlled Variable
1

• Could try 1.5 and 2.5 as a final


check. 0.8

0.6 Int Gain = 0.1


• With proportional gain at 0.2 and
integral gain at 0.2, loop is well 0.4
tuned. Int Gain = 0.05

• Overshoot about 14%. 0.2


Prop Gain = 0.2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

51 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Derivative Tuning Steps

• If using a PID controller, tune P first and then D, then I.


• Set D and I to zero or very small values.
• Tune P as before.
• Add derivative action to reduce oscillations.
• Increase P to restore previous response.
• Continue adding derivative and increasing P to maintain the
desired response.
• Stop adding derivative when controller output becomes too
noisy.
• Add integral to eliminate offset.

52 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

26
Derivative Tuning Example

Derivative Tuning Example


• Notes:
• Derivative improves stability Setpoint
1
• Reduces overshoot Kd = 0.0

• Proportional gain increased from 0.8 Kd = 0.2


0.2 to 0.8 with no increase in Kd = 0.4

Controlled Variable
overshoot.
0.6
• Simulation results not always
realistic with derivative because Kd = 0.8
there is no noise. 0.4

• No integral gain shown in this


plot. 0.2

Kp = 0.8

-0.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

53 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Empirical Tuning Comments

• It’s a trial-and-error process.


• Requires some experience and skill to do efficiently.
• Can be very time consuming on slow responding loops.
• On fast loops, can be done in minutes.

54 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

27
Analytical Tuning Methods

• Many methods are described in the references.


• All require a simple process model to start.
• Basic procedure
– Perform open loop test on process, typically a step test.
– Examine controlled variable response and identify process model
– Use parameters from process model such as gain and time constant
to compute PID tuning parameters according to formulas in a table.

• Zeigler-Nichols described two methods in 1942


– Ultimate gain method
– Open loop step response method

• Zeigler-Nichols does not give good results for process


control; too oscillatory.

55 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Analytical Tuning Methods

• Many others have developed new methods for process


control systems.
• Some are:
– Lambda tuning
– Internal model control
– Dominant pole placement
• Some methods are designed for a particular type of
process.
• No single method is best for all processes.
• Modern computer tuning programs provide many of these
methods.

56 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

28
Analytical Tuning Example

• Perform open loop step response test on process.


• Draw straight line tangent to point of greatest slope.
• Determine the value of the two parameters, a and L as shown
below.
1

0.75

0.5

0.25

L L = 0.8
a = 0.22
-0.25

-0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

57 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Analytical Tuning Example

• From previous plot, L = 0.8, a = 0.22.


• Use table of tuning parameters below to determine setting for P, I,
and D.
• Tuning should give maximum speed of response with no more
that 20% overshoot.

Controller K Ti Td

P 0.7/a

PI 0.7/a 2.3L

PID 1.2/a 2L 0.42L

Table from Chien, Hrones and Reswick disturbance response method as


shown in Astrom and Hagglund, p. 150.

58 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

29
Analytical Tuning Example

• From previous table, for a PID controller the tuning would be:
• K = 1.2/a = 1.2/0.22 = 5.45
• Ti = 2.0L = 2.0*0.8 = 1.6
• Td = 0.42L = 0.42*0.8 = 0.336
• With this tuning, the disturbance rejection response would be as
shown below. 1
Disturbance Rejection

0.8

0.6

0.4
Controlled Variable

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (seconds)

59 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Analytical Tuning Comments

• Analytical tuning can yield good results.


• Requires open loop step response test to quantify process
characteristics.
– Some methods only use two parameters
– Others use three (more is usually better)
• Must know the PID controller form and units.
• If PID form does not match tuning table, must convert
values to proper units.
• Notice from the table, that use of a PID controller allow a
higher P gain than with a PI controller.

60 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

30
PID Tuning Software

• Several popular packages available for PID controller


tuning.
• Most connect to a DCS to collect live loop data.
• Identify process model using a variety of test signals such
as step, pulse, double pulse, binary sequence.
• User selectable PID tuning algorithm.
• For supported DCS platforms, the programs understand the
details of the PID algorithm and make sure units are correct.
• Allow simulation of new tuning parameters before putting
them in service.
• EPRI Report 1004080 provides additional information.

61 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Linearity Issues

• A linear system is easier to control than a non-linear


system.
• Linearity definition:
– If input 1 produces output 1, and input 2 produces output 2
then (input 1 + input 2) produces (output 1 + output 2).
• No power plant systems are strictly linear, but some
come close.
• Some common sources of non-linearity include:
– Valve and damper flow characteristics
– Centrifugal pump curves
– Pressure drop vs. flow relationship.
– Backlash in actuators

62 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

31
System Linearity Issues

• Easy to check for linearity using an input/output


• Plot manipulated variable vs. controlled variable at different
loads under steady state conditions.
• If data is not in a straight line, the system is non-linear.
• Slope of line at any point indicates steady state process
gain at that point.
• Change in slope of the line indicates degree of non-linearity.
• Easy to compensate for this type of non-linearity using
function generators in the DCS.
• Better to make field devices as linear as possible first.

63 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Linearity Example

System Linearity Examples

120

100
Controlled Variable (Output)

80

Not Too Bad


60

Pretty Bad
40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Manipulated Variable (Input)

64 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

32
Characterization Example
Linear

Non-linear
Non-linear

Controlled
Setpoint Variable
PID F(x) Actuator Process
+ -

Measurement

F(x) Actuator Result


100 100 100

90 90 90

80 80 80

70 70 70
Manipulated Variable

Controlled Variable

Controlled Variable
=
60 60 60

50

40

30
+ 50

40

30
50

40

30

20 20 20

10 10
10

0 0
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Controller Output Manipulated Variable
Controller Output

65 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Gain Scheduling

• Gain scheduling is another way to deal with non-linear


loops.
• Modern DCSs allow controller gains to be defined as a
function of another variable.
• Enables consistent tuning throughout the load range.
• Drawback is that it requires more tuning tests.
• Tough enough to get a loop well tuned at one load, let alone
3 or 4 loads.

66 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

33
Boiler Control Loops

• Unit Master - Megawatts and Throttle Pressure


• Fuel Control
• Air Control
• Furnace Pressure Control
• Feedwater/Drum Level Control
• Excess Oxygen Control
• Steam Temperature Control
• Pulverizer Control
• Miscellaneous Control Loops
– Oil Temperature Control
– BFP Minimum Flow Control
– APH Cold End Temperature Control

67 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Approach to Boiler Control


Tuning on a New Unit

• Verify proper manual operation of all final actuators.


• Tuning a boiler is an iterative process that requires a few
iterations.
• Initial tuning is done to provide stable operation with little concern
for responsiveness. That will come later.
• Perform initial tuning on single-element drum level and furnace
pressure control first, since these are the most troublesome to the
operator.
• At this point, operator should be able to load unit manually.
• Characterize fuel flow, air flow, steam flow, and feedwater flow at
several load points. Temperatures, pressures and excess oxygen
should be at design and unit must be at steady state.

68 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

34
Approach to Boiler Control
Tuning on a New Unit, continued

• Do initial tuning of flow loops, air, fuel and feedwater.


• Tune three-element drum level control.
• Tune pulverizer controls.
• Tune boiler-follow throttle pressure control.
• Tune steam temperature control
• Tune coordinated control
• At this point, load on the unit can be ramped automatically.
• Go back to beginning and check each loop’s tuning using load
ramps as evaluation criteria.

69 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Control Tuning Hierarchy

Unit Master

Throttle
Megawatts
Pressure

Turbine Master Boiler Master

Excess Oxygen

Fuel Control Air Flow Control

Feeder Control ... Feeder Control FD Fan Control FD Fan Control

Actuators ... Actuators Actuators Actuators

70 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

35
Actuator Setup and Tuning

• Start at the bottom and work up.


• Actuator response very important to overall control loop
performance.
– Should be linearized in the actuator and linkage if possible.
– No slop in linkage
– Pneumatic actuators have stiction
– Electric actuators have deadbands
• Electric actuators have position controllers that may need
tuning to get good response.

71 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Feedwater/Drum Level Control


Feedwater Flow Steam Flow Drum Level DP Drum
Pressure

f(t) f(x)

A
Σ
PID
Drum Level
Controller
FW Flow PID
Controller
3-Element Control
T A

BFP Demand

72 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

36
Drum Level Tuning Notes

• Single element is useful at low loads when reliable feedwater flow


measurements are not available.
• Calibrating compensated drum level measurement can be a
challenge.
• PID controller tuning will be mostly proportional.
• Very little integral can be used without causing excessive
oscillations.
• If level measurement is not too noisy, derivative may improve
response somewhat.
• Don’t try to get response too tight at first. Err on the side of
stability.
• May need to lag steam flow feedforward for about 30 seconds to
prevent problems due to inverse response of some drums.

73 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Furnace Pressure Control


Furnace Pressure Air Flow
Demand

Furnace Pressure
f(x)
PID
Controller

T A

Spray Valve
Demand

74 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

37
Furnace Pressure Control Tuning Notes

• Furnace pressure measurement is very noisy.


• Filtering is necessary to deal with it.
– Gap on error signal is one way.
– Time lag not the best due to impact on loop response time.
• Simple PI tuning.
• Check linearity of ID fan dampers.
• Feedforward from FD fans helps dynamic response.
• Don’t use air flow as feedforward because ID fans influence air
flow.
• Lots of additional interlock logic on the ID fans to prevent furnace
implosions.

75 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Air Flow and Excess O2 Control


Air Flow Fuel Flow Boiler Demand Excess Oxygen Steam Flow

f(x)

> Cross
Limiting
< Programmed
O2 Setpoint

f(x)
× PID O2
Controller

Air Flow PID T A


Controller

Air
T A
Master

FD Fan Demand

76 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

38
Air Flow Control Tuning Notes

• Simple PI control tuning


• If control mechanism is inlet vanes, check linearity over the
range of the fans.
• Air flow measurement will probably be too noisy to allow
effective use of derivative.
• Key to good air flow control is proper calibration of the
demand signal because oxygen analyzers are quite slow.
• Biases should be added to cross-limiting signals to prevent
unnecessary blocking action.
• Oxygen controller is a ratio trim controller with a range
of +/- 30% typically.

77 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fuel Control

Total Fuel Flow Boiler


Demand
Feeder Air Flow
Speeds or
Heat Release Cross
Limiting <

PID

A T Fuel Master (Optional)

Feeder
Demand
to
Feeders

78 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

39
Fuel Control Tuning Notes

• Oil and Gas


– Simple PI flow control tuning.
• Coal
– Initial tuning should just use feeder speed as the fuel
measurement. Almost trivial.
– Later tuning should use “heat release.”
– Heat release is rate of change of drum pressure plus
steam flow.
– Inferential measurement of fuel flow in the furnace.
– Much slower than feeder speed but much more
accurate.

79 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Boiler Follow Unit Master


Megawatts First Stage Pressure
Throttle Pressure
A
Dispatch

Ramp Up/Ramp Down/Hold ÷


PID
× A
PID
Unit Demand

Σ Σ

Turbine Master A T Boiler Master


T A

Turbine Demand Boiler Demand

80 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

40
Throttle Pressure Control Tuning Notes

• Initial tuning of pressure controller for stability at steady


load.
• Feedforward is an important element of good pressure
response.
• Don’t use steam flow as a feedforward on a coal-fired unit. It
is regenerative (positive feedback).
• Pressure ratio is very good feedforward signal. Represents
effective turbine valve area.
• Important to have dynamic compensation on feedforward
signal (kicker) to overcome energy storage changes with
load.

81 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Steam Temperature Control

Desuperheater Final Steam Temp Feedforward


Outlet Temp Signals

f(x)
A
PID Final SH Outlet
Controller
Desuperheater
Outlet Controller
PID
Σ
Typical Feedforward Signals:
T A
Steam Flow, Drum Pressure,

Spray Valve Air Flow, Burner Tilt Position


Demand

82 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

41
Steam Temperature Tuning Notes

• Steam temperature is usually the toughest loop to tune.


• Many sources of disturbances combined with very slow process
response.
• Classic cascade control structure.
• Tune inner loop first with about 20% overshoot.
• Tune outer loop with only slight overshoot. Derivative can be
used quite effectively here.
• Best feedforward signal(s) must be determined by test.
Determine which other process variables have the most impact on
steam temperature.
• Make sure reset limiting is working properly on outer controller.
Normal built in capability usually won’t work correctly.

83 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Typical Parallel Loading Unit Master


Megawatts Operator Throttle Pressure

A
Dispatch

Ramp Up/Ramp Down/Hold A


PID PID

Unit Demand

Σ Σ

Turbine Master A A T Boiler Master


T

Turbine Demand Boiler Demand

84 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

42
Unit Master Control

• Also called Front End Control.


• Load setpoint from operator or load dispatch system.
• Throttle pressure setpoint fixed or sliding.
• Outputs are Boiler Demand and Turbine Demand.
• Several strategies in use, most called Coordinated Control.
• Several modes, Coordinated, Boiler Following, Turbine Following.
• Also handles runbacks and rundowns.
• Lots of logic involved.

85 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Unit Master Tuning Notes

• This is a two input, two output system with a lot of


interaction between the megawatt control and the pressure
control.
• Turbine valves provide fast response while firing rate
provides much slower response.
• Dispatcher would like tight megawatt control while plant
usually favors tight throttle pressure control.
• Most implementations allow for trade-off between the two
loops to achieve desired balance.

86 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

43
Boiler Control Notes

• Boiler control uses many cascade loops which complicates


tracking and anti-reset windup.
• Many loops have multiple final drives. Check participation and
gain changing.

87 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Turbine Control Systems

• Provide speed control during startup.


• Provide frequency control when on-line.
• May require special I/O card for interface with hydraulic actuators.
• Fast response needed for overspeed protection.
• Enhancements such as:
– Bumpless single/sequential valve transfers.
– Automatic startup
• Speed control tuning usually done by OEM.
• MW control is a part of the boiler control system.

88 Copyright © 2004 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

44
Thank you

and

The End !!

45
About EPRI
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solutions for the global energy and energy
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