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# PROJECT

NUMERICAL THEORY

Arranged By :
NAMA : TIRA KRISTY PANE ( 4163312028 )

## BILINGUAL MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
2018
FOREWORD

Praise and gratitude I pray to the presence of God Almighty for His blessings and
Grace so that the writer can complete the task of this number theory project. In writing this
project, the author certainly can not solve it yourself without the help of others. Therefore, the
authors would like to thank all parties who have helped complete this project.

The purpose of writing this project is to fulfill one of the tasks in the course of Theory
of Numbers. As for the given task that is about "Alternative Determining FFB and KPK".

The author is very aware that this project is still very far from the perfection caused by
the limitations and ability of the author. Because the authors apologize if there is a mistake in
writing and the authors also expect criticism and suggestions that are building for the
perfection of this project.

Finally, the authors say thank you hopefully this project can be useful and can increase

## Medan, 17 mei 2018

Penulis
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1. Backgroud
yang baik tentang konsep bilangan akan sangat membantu dalam memahami konsep-konsep
yang lain, seperti pada materi FPB dan KPK yang merupakan materi yang diajarkan dari
tingkat SD sampai SMP dan akan digunakan pada tingkat selanjutnya.
The concept of factors, multiples, FPB and KPK in elementary and junior high schools
is often presented very basic, but not completely. For example to determine FPB and KPK
tend to use one of the ways that is the concept of factor tree (prime factorization) and tables,
while the emergence of this concept is not studied so methods for determining FPB and KPK
are only following the prevailing ways in textbooks. Quite a lot of alternatives can be
presented from FPB and KPK. On generally the way that already exists in some junior books
like M. Cholik Adinawa and Sugijono, determine FPB and KPK by using factor tree
(factorization) prime and tables.
The Greatest Guild Factor (FPB), obtained from the product of prime factors which is
equal to the smallest rank . FPB of several numbers is a factor the greatest alliance of the
allied factors of numbers which is known.
While the Smallest Participation Multiplier (KPK), obtained from the product times
factor different primes by taking the highest rank . KPK of two the number is the least
common multiplicity of multiples the existing fellowship of two known numbers Based on
the things mentioned above, it is necessary to find alternatives to determine FPB and KPK to
improve students' ability to solve problems.

2. Purpose

to introduce a method of finding Guild Factors Largest (FPB) of two numbers for junior
high school students, later expanded determines the FPB using Euclide algorithm. The
determination of KPK and FPB from more than two numbers will also be discussed
CHAPTER II BASIS THEORY

Definition 1 (Keterbagian)
Given 𝑏, 𝑏 ∈ ℤ. The integer a is said to divide 𝑏 if and only if there is 𝑐 ∈ ℤ such that 𝑏
= 𝑎𝑐. If 𝑎 divides 𝑏, then 𝑎 is called divisor or factor (divisior) 𝑏, and 𝑏 is called multiple 𝑎.
The integer 𝑎 dividing 𝑏 is denoted by 𝑎 | 𝑏. If 𝑎 does not divide 𝑏, then we note 𝑎 ∤ 𝑏 [9].
From Definition 1, suppose 5 | 15 because there are 3 ∈ ℤ such that 15 = 5 3. However, 8 ∤ 26
because for every 𝑏 ∈ ℤ applies 26 ≠ 8𝑏.

## Definition 2. (Biggest Guild Factor)

Given integers 𝑎 and 𝑏 yang both are non-zero. Nonnegative integer d is said to be the
greatest common factor of a and b, denoted 𝑑 = 𝑎, 𝑏 if and only if d satisfies the following
two properties .
1. 𝑑 divide 𝑎 and 𝑑 divide 𝑏, ie 𝑑 | 𝑎 and 𝑑 | 𝑏.
2. If 𝑑 'divides 𝑎 and 𝑑' divides 𝑏, then 𝑑 '≤ 𝑑.
For example, the FPB of 12 and 8 is 4, which is written as 12.8 = 4 because it fulfills the two
properties above, ie
1. 4 divide 12 and 4 divide 8.
2. Let 𝐵 be the set of all common divisors of 8 and 12, ie 𝐵 = 𝑑 ∈ ℤ: 𝑑 12, 𝑑 8. It can be seen
that 𝐵 = 1,2,4. From this it is clear that for each 𝑑 'member 𝐵, then 𝑑' is less than or equal to
4.

From properties 1 and 2, based on Definition 2, then 4 is the FPB of 12 and 8. Before
talking about the theorems that can be used to find FPB of two numbers, the following is
given a theorem which is one of the foundations of the algorithm in the search for FPB of two
numbers.

## Definition 3. (Distribution Algorithm)

Given integers 𝑎 and 𝑏 with 𝑎 more from 0. Then there is a singular number q and r
with 0 ≤ 𝑟 <𝑎 such that 𝑏 = 𝑎𝑞 + 𝑟. In such a case, we say 𝑞 quotient (qoutient) and r
remainder (remainder) of division b by a .

## Definition 4. (Multiple Smallest Multiples)

Given integers 𝑎 and b. The smallest commonweight of 𝑎 and b, denoted 𝑎, 𝑏, is
defined as the smallest positive integer divisible by 𝑎 and at the same time divisible by b. In
other words, a positive integer 𝑚 is a KPK of 𝑎 and b if and only if 𝑚 is the smallest positive
number such that 𝑎 | 𝑚 and 𝑏 | 𝑚 . To solve the smallest multiples of 15 and 25 is 75, because
75 is the smallest positive number that meets 15 | 75 and 25 | 75.
CHAPTER III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
There are several ways of determining FPB and KPK developed at the elementary
level and junior high schools such as using factor and multiplier theorems, and factorization
prime (factor tree), there are no books on this level using an alternate different. The following
will be introduced define FPB by means of extension algorithm Euclide, looking for FPB
collections from FPB and by reducing the number of funds who wanted to look for his FPB.
While for the KPK by utilizing set operations and reduction methods. Before determining
FPB with the various alternatives presented by the author, then the author will introduce the
usual way used to determine FPB, ie by using a factor tree to be described as follows. For
example, suppose that FPB will be searched from 12 and 24 using factor tree, obtained :

## Thus, the FPB of 12 and 24 is 22 × 3 = 4 × 3 = 12.

Then, using the concept of the slice on the set, it will be obtained as follows.
12 = 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 = 1,2,3,4,6,8,12,24
We let 12 be the set 𝐴 and 24 as the set 𝐵, then it is obtained as follows.
𝐴 = 1,2,3,4,6,12
𝐵 = 1,2,3,4,6,8,12,24
From the set above, the FPB will be drawn from 12 and 24 with make maximum use of
the set slices, to obtain 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 1,2,3,4,6,12. So the FPB of 12 and 24 is 12. From the above
FPB search, several alternatives of FPB were introduced with the following theorems.
1. Alternative Search FPB from More Two Numbers by Finding a Collection FPB of FPB.
In addition to FPB search methods commonly used above, the author will try
provides another alternative in FPB search by finding a collection of FPBs of FPB based on
the following theorem.
Theorem 6. Let 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛 be a positive integer. Then the FPB of
𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛, denoted 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛, are
𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎1, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎1, 𝑎𝑛.
Suppose that FPB 24, 30, and 48 will be searched. Then based on Theorem 6, it is obtained
24, 30, 48 = 24, 30, 24, 48
That is 24, 30, 48 = 6.24
From here, it can be seen that
24, 30, 48 = 6
So the FPB of 24, 30, and 48 is 6.
From the above example, it can be seen that searching FPB from many numbers, can be done
by specifying a number, and searching for its FPB with the other numbers, so from here
obtained the number of wanted numbers his FPB search will be reduced by one number.

## 2. Search Alternative of FPB from More Two Numbers by Reducing Method

The numbers that the FPB wants to look for. Here is another alternative in finding FPB
from many numbers with utilize Theorem 6. These results are set at the following theorem.
Theorem 7. Let 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛 be a positive integer with 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎1, then
𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, 𝑎3 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, Evidence. In Theorem 6, it is found that 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛 =
𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎1, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎1, 𝑎 On the other hand, 𝑎1, 𝑎𝑗 = 𝑎1, 𝑎𝑗 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1 So obtained 𝑎1, 𝑎2, 𝑎3,
..., 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎1, 𝑎2 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, 𝑎1, 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, ..., 𝑎1, 𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1 .
And again, by looking at Theorem 6, then dperoleh 𝑎1, 𝑎2 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, 𝑎1, 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, ..., 𝑎1, 𝑎𝑛
𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1 = 𝑎1, 𝑎2 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, 𝑎3 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, ..., 𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1 From here, it can be concluded that 𝑎1,
𝑎2, 𝑎3, ..., 𝑎𝑛 = 𝑎1, 𝑎2 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, 𝑎3 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1, ..., 𝑎𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑎1
Suppose that FPB will be searched from 72, 1116, and 1206. So based on Theorem 7
obtained that 72,1116,1206 = 72,36,54 = 36,72,54 = 36,0,18 = 18,0,36 = 18,0,0 = 18
So 72,1116,1206 = 18.

## 3. Alternative Searching KPK of Two Numbers by Utilizing Operation The set.

In this section, we will explain the search method of KPK from two numbers by utilizing set
operations. Let A be the set of all the prime factors of 105 and B is the set of all the prime
factors of 207. Then it is derived that 𝐴 = 3,5,7 and 𝐵 = 3,3,23.
Based on the nature of the set, it is known that

𝐴∪𝐵=𝐴+𝐵-𝐴∩𝐵

Thus, observing that the multiplication of all sets A is 105, the multiplication of all members
of set B is 207, and the multiplication of all members set 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 is 105,207, then by
converting the summation to operation times and subtraction as the inverse operation of the
divide, it is obtained

Then obtained ∪ 𝐵 = 105.207 = 7245, the KPK of 105 and 207. With Thus, it can be
concluded that the KPK search method can also be done with utilizing set operations.
CHAPTER IV CLOSING

1. Conclusion
The conclusions can be drawn from the above explanation, among others are:
1. For FPB by searching FPB collection from FPB and search for FPB with minimize the
numbers the FPB wants to look for.
2. As for KPK by utilizing set operations. However, increasingly many numbers, the more
complicated the calculation of his KPK is due by the more FPB to count for all possible
combinations of the numbers.

2. Suggestion
In terms of aspects of the scope of the article should be improved again so that the project
can be a relevant reference source.