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IAZANIA I

ISHALL BE FREE I

From Sharpeville to Soweto the road Is bloody.


To die for their freedom, they are willing.
But Azanians are telling theJr oppressors to their faces,
"We won't be dying any longer. We shall be fighting."

Canadian Communist
..
Leag~e. (Marxist~Leninist)
. .
PAC sends CCL(ML)

message on support campaign

At the invitation of the Cana- liberation, including a touching from all over the world in
dian Communist League (ML), $100 contribution from a Cana- condemning farcical trials now·
the Pan Africanist Congress of dian miner. These funds have being held against alleged
Azania, last December, sent a been swiftly delivered to the Pan members of the PAC in South
two-man delegation to tour Cana- Africanist Congress and have now Africa.
da and make public speeches and been deployed for revolutionary
deliver lectures on the Azanian work in Africa. All of these activities, and more,
national liberation struggle. have demonstrated in a living way
The tour took place at a time the close solidarity enjoyed by the
when the first in a series of trials, Azanian people from their Cana-
The tour was a huge success and under the death sentence-carry- clian brothers and sisters.
has made an important landmark ing Terrorism Act, against
in the ever growing relations We warmly thank all who made
Azanian patriots accused of fur-
between the peoples of Azania and the PAC tour a success and take
thering the aims of the PAC. was
Canada. this opportunity to assure the
anno~nced in apartheid South
Africa. This is the so-called PAC Canadian Communist League
Everywhere they went the PAC Guerilla base trial in Pietermaritz- (ML) of our very sincere feelings
delegates were warmly received burg against Stanley Thabo Pule, . of solidarity and comradeship.
and accorded militant hospitality Morgan Cxekwa and Isaac Long live the militant friendship
bv Canadian workers, students Mhlekwa. of the Azanian and Canadian
a~d a broad section of the people. people!
The Azanian freedom fighters also Victory to our common struggle
took this opportunity to renew The Azanian People's Support against imperialism - old and
and establish ties with fellow Committee in Canada has col- new!
Azanians, other Africans and fra- lected more than 4000 signatures Down with superpower
ternal people from other third of people who denounce this trial hegemony!
world countries presently studying and this petition will be handed to Down with all reactionaries!
or working in Canada. the Chairman of the Special Viva CCL(ML)! Viva PAC! Viva
Committee against Apartheid of A.P.L.A.!
Inside three short weeks more the United Nations, H.E. Leslie David Sibeko member of the
than $12,000 was raised to sup- 0. Harriman, of Nigeria, so that Central CommittE'e and Director
port PAC's fight for national he may join it with other protests of Foreign Affairs
This pamphlet is dedicated to
ROBERT MANGALISO SOBUKWE,
founding president of the PAC
great inspirational leader of the
Azanian people and
revolutionary fighter.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

AZANIA SHALL BE FREE ................................................ 4


I. AZANIA, THE LAND OF THE BLACK MAN ............................... 6
ll. APARTHEID- RACIST SYSTEM TO MAINTAIN COLONIALISM ........... 7
m. OPPRESSION BREEDS RESISTANCE ................................... 14
fV.IMPE~ISM IN ~ANIA ............................................. 26
V. ~ANIAN PEOPLE'S STRUGGLE RECEfVES WORLD WIDE SUPPORT ... 31

APPENDICES .......................................................... 34
1. Interview with the PAC ............................................... 34
2. Brief Review of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania Tour of Canada . . . . . 42

MAPS:
1. Africa, page 3.
2. Bantustans, page 11.
3. Sea Routes Around Africa, page 27.

Supplement to The Forge. Legal deposit at Quebec National Library.


MAP
OF
AFRICA

STATISTICS ON SOUTH AFRICA

• Population:
28,000,000 (unofficial) In 1976.
22,000,000 blacks
3,500,000 whites
• Total area of the country Is about
that of the province of Quebec. MOUMOOQ;-1
Natural resources :


• DIAMONDS : 2nd largest pro-
ducer in the world with 16% of
world production.
• GOLD : largest producer in the
world with 59% of world produc-
tion.
• URANIUM : 3rd largest producer
In the world with 33% of world
production.
• South Africa is the world's largest
AZANIA
producer of platinum and vana-
dium. The country also has signi-
(South Africa)
ficant quantities of chrome, asbes-
tos, nickel, fluorspar, coal, etc.
Agricultural products make up
40% of the country's exports. Main
products : cereals, sugar cane,
fruits.
BE FREE

Great events are taking place inspiration to the peoples of the


on the African continent. White world. Its defeat will weaken
colonial rule - this five hundred imperialism and particularly to
year-old system of oppression is the two superpowers, the USSR
going down to final defeat. Free- and US.
dom fighters in Namibia (South The Azanian people, led by its
West Africa), and Zimbabwe national liberation movement the
(Rhodesia) are waging armed Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) of
struggles which are approaching Azania, are rising up in greater
complete victory. In Azania and greater numbers to put an
(South Africa)* the mass move- end to the inhuman apartheid
ments are creating the conditions regime.
for a protracted people's war to Canadian workers have a role to
overthrow the white racists. play in this struggle. We must
South Afric~ is an illegitimate, explain to our fellow workers and
ferociously repressive regime. friends the significance of the
lt is a powerful base of Azanian people's liberation war.
imperialism in Africa. Its fall and Their armed struggle is an exam-
burial will bring great joy and ple for us. We must learn from

*Southwest Africa, Rhodesia, and South Africa are the names used by the
white settlers. Colonialism not only robs people of their land but also their
language.
4
and be inspired by their spirit of the Canadian people expressed
daring to struggle and daring to great interest in the Azanian
win. We must mobilize .political people's struggle. This pamphlet
and material support for the is being published to deepen our
Azanian people and the PAC. understanding and determination
These tasks are inseparable from to support the national liberation
our goal of overthrowing capital- struggle of theAzanian people led
ism and building a socialist by the PAC.
society.
The Canadian Communist
League (Marxist-Leninist) organ-
ized a Canada-wide tour of the Down with the South African
Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) in racist regime!
December 1977 and a support Long live Azania!
campaign. lt is the international- Long live the PAC!
ist duty of the League to build Long live proletarian internation-
mass support for all struggles of alism!
the third world while it works to
build the Marxist-Leninist corn~
munist party to lead the proletar-
ian revolution in Canada.
Through the course of the PAC
tour and the support campaign,
5
Azania: Land of the
Black Man

European colonialists arrived in Azania in


1652. First came the Dutch and then the
British settlers. They brought with them
slavery, genocide, land-grabbing and plunder.
They all wanted to exploit the rich human
and natural resources of Azania.
White historians have tried to justify the
crimes of colonialism with all kinds of racist
theories: "the white man's burden" (it is the
burden or duty of whites to educate Africans),
"the land was empty and barren before the
settlers arrived" and so on...
The truth is that the Azanian people, like
all the African people, contributed politically,
economically and culturally to world progress
and that hundreds of years before the arrival
of the colonialists, tribes such as the Khoi
(Hottentots) and San (Bushmen) occupied
and developed the land of Azania.
Many tribes such as the Zulus fought
heroically against the dispossession of their
land. The Khoi people continuously fought
against the Boers (Dutch) who wanted to steal
their land and cattle. But however valiantly Capitalism greatly developed with the slave
the Africans fought, their spears and arrows trade. Millions of Africans were wrenched from
their homeland and shipped to the Americas to
were no match for the guns and cannons of work as slaves. The white coloniallsts, pushed by
the land-hungry colonialists. their greed for profits, stole Azanlan land and
With the "Great Trek" of 1836, when the subjected the people to near slavery.
Dutch moved into the interior, more and
more Azanian land was stolen. The Boer together the four separate colonies of South
War (1899-1902) gave the British complete Africa (Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal
control over South Africa. British control was and the Cape).
consolidated in 1910 with the founding of the Through their control of the state appara-
"Union of South Africa", which grouped tus, the colonialists began to systematically
b
institutionalize the national subjugation and supporter of Hitler, so much so that Vorster,
racist oppression of the Azanians. In 1913, the present prime minister of South Africa,
the Native Land Act stole large tracts of was jailed for war crimes during the Second
territory from the Azanians, leaving them World War.
with only 13% of the most barren land. South Africa is an illegiti!llate state. It was
In 1948, the white fascist Afrikaan formed by white settlers, who stole the land
Nationalist Party came to power. It institu- from its rightful owners and installed
tionalized racism with the system of apar- themselves as all-powerful rulers. The coun-
theid. Apartheid is no different from Nazism. try is run in their interests only- the African
The Afrikaan Nationalist Party was a zealous majority has no rights at all.

Apartheid: Racist System to


Maintain Colonialism
Apartheid is based on the ideology that colonialists can maintain their power.
whites are superior to Blacks and that to 1hrough their control of the iilegitimate South
safeguard this "superiority", there should be African state, the racists have passed all
no mixing of the races. This means separate kinds of fascist laws. The key feature of these
land, separate schools, separate toilets. The laws is to create the best conditions to exploit
whites have all the privileges, the Blacks have the labour of Azanians and keep them from
nothing. The apartheid regime of South fighting back.
Africa is one of the most barbarous ever seen
on earth. SOUTH AFRICA: LAND
At the base of apartheid is capitalism and OF SUPER-EXPLOITATION
imperialism. In its drive for greater profits,
the capitalist system develops various racist Leaf through many a bourgeois newspaper
ideas to justify its inhuman exploitation and or magazine and you will surely notice the
subjugation of entire nations. Through the advertisements for South Africa, the beau-
institutionalized racism of apartheid, the tiful parks and wildlife reserves, diamonds
white oppressors and their imperialist backers and gold, a great place for tourists, and of
hope to perpetually super-exploit the Black course a great place to invest.
labour in Azania. The profit rate for the capi- The Vorster regime is in deep trouble and
talists here is the highest in the world. about it is trying to paint a glowing picture of South
SO% higher than the world average. It is little Africa by all means possible. Its hack
wonder. despite their pious words, why the propagandists and imperialist supporters
imperialists continue to support the apar- around the world even go so far as to claim
theid system. that the Blacks in South Africa have the
Forcibly depriving the Africans of all their highest standard of living of any people in
rights and inculcating the racist ideology that Africa! And then there are the liberals who
the Black man is inferior is the only way the say that the situation is not great but things
7
Azanians are forced to be aliens In their own country. They cannot travel or work anywhere without
official permission stamped on their documents.

can be changed under the existing colonial Black people. Black workers earn on the
system. All of this is nothing but the lies and average 7 times less than whites; they have no
mystification of a regime on its last legs. right to strike, unions are forbidden, and
The parks, diamonds and tourism are Blacks are barred from skilled jobs.
there, but only for the white ruling class. For In many industries such as mining, the
the Azanians, South Africa is a living hell! Black workers live in company-owned bar-
For 85% of the people, South Africa means racks which are surrounded by barbed wire,
the most ferocious forms of oppression and and look like prisons. Sometimes as many as
exploitation. 14 men have to sleep on the same cement
floor in the barracks, away from their wives
WORKING CONDITIONS and children.
Black workers have no access to any
In describing the development of capital- accident, sickness or unemployment insu-
ism, Kart Marx vividly pointed out that rance.
"capital comes dripping from bead to foot, Recently the South African government
from every pore, with blood and dirt." One proposed a new law which would keep "idle
c~nnot better depict work in Azania for the and work-shy Blacks in check". It states that
8
all Blacks in cities will face arrest if they are
unemployed for more than 122 days in any
calendar year. The four months of unem-
ployment need not be consecutive. Penalties
for the "idle" include detention in a
rehabilitation centre or farm colony or other
similar institutions. This is no less than a
system of forced labour ... better known as
slavery. In South Africa, the unemployment
figures for Blacks increase by 1,000 per day.

The racists also hope to force the Black


workers who are not needed, back to the
Bantustans where they can join the vast
reserve of cheap labour.

Working conditions are particularly barba-


ric for Azanian women. In general, the only
type of job they can find is working as
servants in white households. If they do this
type of work, they must live on the premises
and are not allowed to see their children, even
when they are sick. Azanian women are
automatically fired if they become pregnant.

THE AZANIAN PEOPLE HAVE NO


POLITICAL RIGHTS

The Azanian people do not have the right


to vote or to participate in any national
political institutions. They cannot own land
or houses. Medical care is so horrendous that
27 Azanian children in 100 die before their
first birthday, in comparison to 1 in 100
white children.

The school system is designed so that


Azanian people cannot learn about their own
culture, and the educational level is kept so Azanian miners have made billions of dollars for
low that only 1% of Black students go to the white racists while working under the most
secondary school. The racist education difficult and unsafe conditions. Thousands of
system is to train Blacks as a cheap unskilled Azanian miners have been killed In the diamond
labour force. and gold mines.
9
Azanian Freedom Fighter Describes
the Life of His Father
My father's living conditions were not
as miserable as most other Azanians
because he had a stable job and he could
live with his family. But my mother had
trouble making both ends meet. Once the
rent and transportation was paid there
wasn't much left to feed the family , buy
clothes and school supplies.
My father always refused to accept the
slavery of our people. He always said that
one day the Black people would be free
and his words had a great influence on
us, his children, for my sister, my brother
and myself are all fighting with the
national liberation movement.
During the Soweto uprisings my father
talked to the other workers of the
importance of supporting our struggle
and in solidarity he and thousands of
other workers walked out on strike. He
lost his job because of this and he knows
that he will only find another one when
the whites no longer dominate my
country. However, he is resolved to
struggle with us to make this day arrive .
....
BANTUSTANS MEAN MORE
RACISM NOT FREEDOM Vorster racists claim that the Bantustans are
independent Black areas, but this is a fraud.
Canadian people are familiar with the
bourgeoisie's policy of genocide towards the The Bantustans are under the jurisdiction
native peoples of Canada, especially that of of the South African Ministry of Bantu
relegating them to reserves. In South Africa Affairs. Defence, security and other important
the whole regime operates on this basis. state agencies are completely controlled by the
The Bantustans are so-called homelands of racists. The aim of the Ban tu system is clear:
the Black people, special areas reserved for divide the Azanian people according to their
Azanians. They represent only 13o/o of the different ancestral tribes and provide reserves
most unproductive land in the country. The of cheap labour.
10
The Bantustans create a situation in which
no Black person would have South African
citizenship. Every Azanian will have to be a
citizen of a Bantustan whether he or she lives
in one or not.
In October 1976 and December 1977, two
of these Bantustans, Transkei and Bophu-
thatswana were granted "independence".
This is just another tactic of the racist South
African regime and has been repudiated by ·
the world. All countries have refused to
recognize these two states, saying that this
would amount to accepting apartheid, except
for the US, which abstained from voting on
this question at the UN.
small black patches above represent
the Bantustans, 13% of the land where
22 million Blacks are forced to live.

Azanlans live In the most deplorable conditions In the Bantustans; no health care, electricity, or any
minimal sanitary conditions.
11
,.
South Africa and Israel:
Two Racist Allies
Based on similar ideologies - zionism
and apartheid - their racism knows no
bounds. As one South African zionist
millionaire Oppenheimer proclaimed:
"The mission of our two countries is to
maintain two islands of western civiliza-
tion in the middle of a sea of...
barbarism."

However, the Palestinian and Azanian


peoples will definitely rid the world of
these two islands!

THE FASCIST ATTEMPT TO KEEP THE In order to suppress the resistance and
AZANIAN PEOPLE DOWN fightback of the Azanian people, the racist
regime has every possible means at their
disposal to violently repress the people. It has
The Vorster regime is sitting on a volcano
the strongest military force in Africa, with
of people's war, and every show of revolt or
arms supplied by imperialist countries like
resistance is met by some repressive law. The
Azanians are not allowed to travel without France and Germany as well as Israel. (1) It
permission. Anyone over 16 must carry 10 has the secret police BOSS, Bureau of State
types of documents which limits people to Security, and it has the racist courts and
restricted areas and to the types of jobs they prisons.
can have. Missing one card means instant
imprisonment. 500,000 Azanians are penal- The Anti-Terrorism Act passed in 1967
ized or imprisoned every year under the Pass allows the police to pick up and detain
anyone opposing apartheid. Thousands of
Law Act. Azanians have been condemned to between 5
In 1950, a "Law on the Suppression of
and 20 years of imprisonment by this Jaw.
Communism" was passed which imprisons Every year, more than 200 Azanians are
anyone who opposes apartheid. Gatherings of executed or die under torture. In 1976, 27
more than 10 people are illegal, and Blacks Azanians were murdered in prison and
are absolutely forbidden to carry arms, while another 21 in 1977, according to official
the whites are organized in militias.

1. See box on page 12 for relations between Israel and South Africa.
12
reports. At least 2000 people have been
murdered by the fascist state following the
Soweto rebellion (2) of June 1976.
With the national uprising following
Soweto, the racist Vorster regime has stepped
up its repression, arresting and detaining
thousands of people throughout the country.

In October 1977, · 18 Black and anti-


apartheid organizations were banned and two
Black newspapers were shut down by the
racist regime to clamp down even more on
any signs of opposition.

Following these events, the liberation


movement PAC issued a call: "We call on all·
the oppressed sons and daughters of Azania
to ignore the racist ban of their movements
and go underground to prepare themselves
fully and more effectively for that inevitable
hour."

Any dissent Is met with the severest repression.


All Black people, from children to old people, are
2. See page 16 on Soweto. victims of this oppression.

13
!Oppression Breeds Resistance!
"Now that he (the white man) relies on the gun and
we, too, can get the gun, it appears that confrontation is
inevitable." Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe

Ever since the white settlers first set foot on particularly in the last 70 years that their
Azanian soil, the Black people have been resistance has become more and more
struggling to free their land. And it is organized and determined. Some of the

Azanian women take an active part in the national liberation struggle. The PAC is training Azanian
women in the armed struggle alongside the men.
14
highlights of this resistance are: Between 1919 and 1928, the ICU organized
1906: 250,000 of its members and led the first big
A Zulu chief named Bambatta organized a strikes of the Port Elizabeth dockworkers and
large tribal army to make a stand of the Rand miners. The ICU called for stronger
resistance against the European colonialists. organizational unity and action to bring down
Heroic as Bambatta's rebellion was, the the colonial regime.
British and Dutch settlers crushed it: about
4.000 Africans died on the battlefield. 1943:
1912: Creation of the Youth League by the African
Creation of the first national liberation National Congress to train the Azanian youth
organization, the African National Congress to join the ranks of the freedom fighters.
(A.N.C.). 1952:
1919: The A.N.C. and the South African Indian
Freedom fighters organized thousands of Congress called for a general campaign of
African workers and created the Industrial civil disobedience against the Pass Laws. The
and Commercial Workers Union (ICU). campaign covered all major cities, and about

Striking Durban workers in 1973, brandishing sticks in defiance of the trigger-happy racist gestapo.
Azanian workers are mobilizing more anCI more agalnsl 1ne1r orutal exploitation.
15
8,000 Azanians were arrested for having struggle. PAC leaders were arrested and
participated in it. imprisoned for terms of up to three years.
1956: 1963:
The application of the Pass Laws were Over 10,000 more known members of the
extended to Azanian women. On August 9, PAC were arrested. In panic, the racist
20,000 women marched on Pretoria to protest parliament decreed all types of repressive
this. laws. The "defence" budget was increased
1959: 500% compared to 1960.
Foundation of the Pan Africanist Congress 1973:
(P.A.C.). 65,000 workers in Durban, the largest eastern
1960: port in South Africa and the second largest
On March 21, the PAC began its first industrial city in the country, began a one
political activity by launching the Positive month strike, paralysing the whole town.
Action Campaign for the abolition of the 1976:
"Pass Laws" which led to the Sharpeville Soweto National Insu"ection: In June,
Massacre. In protest to this, the Azanian thousands of high school students demons-
people began a general strike. A State of trated in the Black ghettos of Soweto on the
Emergency was decreed, which brought on outskirts of Johannesburg, as well as in John
the banning ofPAC and ANC. PAC went into Vorster Square - the heart of the fascist
clandestinity in order to prepare for armed state. It was to protest the decision of the

DMplte the police et..cks, Soweto students closed down the reclst schools.
16
racist authorities to make Afrikaans, the LESSONS OF SOWETO
language of the Dutch colonizers, the official
language in Black schools. The students were The mass movement of the Azanian people
organized and led by the Soweto Student has taken great leaps forward in the wake of
Representative Council (S.S.R.C.). They the national uprising following Soweto. The
stressed the fact that they were struggling not inhuman conditions under which the Azanian
only against the language, but also against people lives breed the most determined
the racist and fascist system. This spark was resistance, and through their daily confronta-
fanned into the flames of a national uprising tions with the enemy, the Azanians are
by the discontentment of the entire Azanian realizing the need to get organized and to
nation. have a revolutionary organization like the
The uprising quickly spread to all sectors PACto lead them in the struggle. Soweto has
of the Azanian masses. In September of 1976, shown that Azanians are uniting more and
over 100,000 workers staged a general strike more against their common enemy. They are
in Soweto demanding the liberation of those now shouting, "We are not calling for
who had been arrested. Over 300,000 reforms, we want political power!"
Azanian students are still boycotting the The Azanian people also realize the
colonial education system after a walk-out i.n absolute necessity for armed struggle if they
February 1977. The uprising spread to all are to overthrow the fascist South African
parts of the country including Capetown, regime. The people confronting the guns and
Khaba-Kwa and Vetenhoge. tanks of the racists had just stones and sticks.

Sign at the funeral of a18 year old Soweto student murdered by the racists shows the determination of
the Azanlan youth.
17
This is why the PAC has put out the call way. As a member of the PAC said at the
"Arm the people, free Azania." The mass United Nations, "The day of people's war
movements that the Azanians have expe- throughout the country for our national
rienced could only lead to the inevitable liberation has come and there is no going
conclusion that armed struggle is the only back."

Steve Biko
Steve Biko, 30, was tortured to death, Sept. 12, 1977 by the fascist South
African regime. He was picked up during the wave of arrests following the
Soweto uprising, and detained in prison without ever having been charged.
This young African nationalist leader was hated and feared by the white racists.
He founded the South African Students Organization and the Black People's
Convention to build the mass struggle against the evil system of apartheid.

ON BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS : fill({} •t>\<'O $fJfl[) .. .·~


·. ..·
"By Black consciousness I mean the · · 4Rtr r
cultural and political revival of an ·"·'''
oppressed people. This must be related
to the emancipation of the entire conti-
nent of Africa since the Second Wortd
War. Africa has experienced the death of
white invincibility.
Before that we were conscious mainly
of two classes of people : the white
conquerors and the Black conquered .
The Blacks in Africa now know that tne
whites will not be conquerors forever."

ON THE TWO SUPERPOWERS


" I have no illusions about Russia. lt is
as imperialistic as America . This is
evident in its internal history as well as In
the role it plays in countries like Angola .
But the Russians have a less dirty name.
Because of this, they have had a better

NATIONAL LIBERATION STRUGGLE the Bantustans. see section 11), the Azanian
nation was formed with the consolidation of
The entire nation of Azania is under the colonialism.
domination of white colonialism. Despite The Azanian people are denied all nation-
preo;ent day attempts by the white racists to al, political and economic rights. Azanians
rlh·ide the Azanian people by tribe (by using have nothing to gain from the colonial
1~
system. Black workers are super-exploited, capitalist countries and the national libera-
have the most difficult jobs, and are paid up tion struggles in the coionies: ''The social
to 18 times less than a white man. No revolution cannot come about except ln the
Azanians, including the peasants, have the form of an epoch of proletarian civU war
right to own land. Black businessmen are agalnst the bourgeoisie ln the advanced
limited in their business expansion and Black countries combined with a whole series of
professionals cannot find jobs. democratic and revolutionary movements,
That is why, from the poor landless lncludlng movements for national Uberation,
peasants, to the miners and industrial ln the undeveloped, backward and oppressed
workers in the urban areas, to the small nations." ( A Caricature of Marxism and
shopkeepers and professionals, all Azanians Imperialist Economy).
are fighting to liberate themselves and seize The Azanian toiling masses are pitted
political power for the oppressed Azanian against capitalism and imperialism. It is the
nation from the minority European settlers. white bourgeoisie, supported by imperialism,
Azanians are not just fighting for democra- that controls the racist South African state.
tic rights, constitutional reforms or human The victory of the Azanian people will be a
rights. They are fighting for their national profound defeat for imperialism and an
self-determination and independence. They immeasurable contribution to the world
are not fighting for a "multi-racial" society, proletarian revolution.
something that the white liberals are fond of
pushing. Multi-racialism only protects the NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENTS
privileges of the white oppressors under the
. guise of equal rights for all the races. The The national liberation movements like the
Azanians are fighting for a non-racial, Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) and the
democratic society. African Niltfonal Congress - (ANC) were
The Azanians are determined to seize back formed to regroup the nationalist forces and
their land and their national rights. The lead the national struggle.
rallying cry of all Azanians is "One Azania, The ANC was founded on Jan. 8, 1912.
one nation, one people!" This was the first effort to group together all
Mao Tsetung pointed out the link between the nationalist forces struggling against the
the national liberation struggle and the colonialist regime. At its founding it put
proletarian revolution. He said, "In the final forward the following demands: land for the
analysis, the national struggle is a matter of peasants; the right to vote; and the liberty
class struggle." and unity of all of Africa.
He also showed that in the course of the It adopted a "non-violent" approach to the
national liberation struggle, "no matter what struggle for national liberation. The ANC
classes, parties or Individuals ln an oppressed adopted much of Gandhi's (an Indian
nation joln the revolution, and no matter nationalist leader) movement of passive
whether they themselves are conscious of the resistance. The ANC's activities for many
polnt or understand it, so long as they oppose years consisted of petitioning the racist
lmperlallsm, their revolution becomes part of government, pushing for constitutional chan-
the proletarian-socialist world revolution and ges and relying on the white liberals to hand
they become its allles." (On New Democracy). them reforms.
ln 1916, Lenin clearly exposed the link The ANC was later infiltrated by the
between the proletarian revolution in the revisionist "Communist" Party of South
19
Africa (CPSA), which quickly began to resist all attempts to turn the African
sabotage the honest efforts of ANC national- liberation struggle into a "tool of the
ists. The revisionists pushed to consolidate lukewarm South African Communist Party or
the position of passive resistance at a time that of the Soviet Union."
when a higher stage of struggle was needed.
Wherever true communist parties have THE PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS
existed in colonial countries, they have been OF AZANIA (PAC)
the most resolute and leading force struggling The PAC is a national liberation movement
for liberation. However, right from its which unites together the nationalist forces
inception, the CPSA was communist in name that want to overthrow the racist apartheid
only. It was founded in 1920 by a group of regime. The PAC was founded on April 6,
white liberals and it maintained a white 1959 by revolutionary forces led by Robert
chauvinist political line which denied the Mangaliso Sobukwe.
national oppression of the Black people and The creation of the PAC was necessary to
opposed the self-determination and indepen- lead the Azanian liberation struggle back to
dence of Azania. the correct path. The people who created the
The CPSA opposed the resolution of the PAC fought within the ANC for over a decade
Communist International at its 6th Congress against the reformist, multi-racial line which
in 1928 which called for the establishment of has produced no results for the Azanian
a ··native Black type" state. The CPSA people.
instead held that the struggle in South Africa The Youth League of the ANC was
is for democratic rights and socialism where especially active in this struggle for a clear
all races would be equal. By not recognizing revolutionary strategy for the Azanian revolu-
the colonial nature of South Africa, this line tion. With the infiltration of the r~visionists
led to the protection of white privileges and inside the ANC consolidating its reformist
the denial of the national struggle. line, the youth and nationalist forces took the
By the end of the 1950's the CPSA had bold step of leaving the ANC and forming the
become a faithful follower of Kruschev and PAC.
the line of "peaceful transition" to socialism. Shortly after its founding, the PAC
The CPSA claimed that the consequences of assumed a leading role in the Azanian
civil war will be "horrifying and permanent" national liberation struggle. Through its
and urged an "alternate solution" to a war militant positions and direct action, it
for national liberation. The party, which had developed its influence among the Azanian
been historically led by whites, lost many of people.
its Black members at this time. On March 21, 1960, the PAC launched the
The CPSA no longer officially exists in Positive Action Campaign to abolish the Pass
South Africa. However, it continues to operate Laws. 250,000 Azanians responded to the call
from its base in London, with funds granted by right across the country. Mangaliso Sobukwe
the Soviet Union. The USSR provided it with led the 20,000 demonstrators in Sharpeville to
$3,000,000 in 1969 to further its work in the turn in their pass books.
AN C. Following the Sharpeville massacre, anger
The Azanian people are becoming aware of swept the country. Different organizations
the destructive work of the CPSA. In 1977 mobilized and declared a national general
some nationalist militants left the ANC strike. For three weeks, the whole economy
issuing a statement saying that they would was paralysed. The fascist regime declared a
20
25 Azanian patriots on trial for their lives
"The South African legal system is a starting guerilla bases in the country and
farce. lt Is used to legalize murder by recruiting fighters for the Azanian Peo·
torture or by official hanging ... The racist pie's Liberation Army.
regime in Pretoria Is attempting, through The other 22 patriots are accused of
these mock trials, to break the back-bone furthering the aims of the PAC and other
of growing resistance and simultaneous- charges under the Terrorism Act.
ly to silence hostile public opinion All over the world, a widespread
abroad." campaign has been launched to de·
-Communique from the International nounce the racist trials and save the lives
Committee for the Defence of the PAC of the Azanian patriots. We must support
Trialists. it in every possible way!
There are now 25 Azanian patriots on Demand the liberation of the Azanian
trial for their lives. Three of them, Stanley patriots!
Pule, Morgan Gxekwa and lsaac Lolwane International Committee for the Defence
Mnikwa, on trial since October, are of PAC Trialists
accused of being members of PAC, of 211 East 43rd Street, Suite 506
undergoing military training abroad, New York, N.Y. 10017

state of emergency and arrested hundreds of until his death in Februarby, 1978, he was
militants. Both the PAC and ANC were banned and under house arrest in Kimberley.
banned. In 1963, the PAC mobilized for a general
The president of PAC. Sobukwe, was one of armed uprising. However, following a betra-
the nationalist leaders arrested. He was yal, more than 10,000 PAC militants were
sentenced to three years of hard labour. The arrested in a nation-wide police operation.
racist minister of justice created the "Sobuk- More than a hundred PAC members were
we Clause" of the Sabotage Act giving him executed and thousands were sent to Robbin
the power to imprison Sobukwe for another Island. From 1960 to 1970, armed action was
six years in 'the dreaded Robbin Island carried out by POQO (1), a military unit
prison. From the time of his release in 1969, of PAC. About 200 militants were executed

(1) POQO, which means "genuine" or " pure" African patriots, were armed
cells of the PAC. After the Sharpeville massacre many PAC members
armed themselves with traditional weapons such as pangas, axes and
homemade bombs and a few stolen pistols and guns. POQO staged armed
attacks against white installations in the early sixties. The most serious
attack was called the Paarl uprising, Nov. 22, 1962 where the police station
was attacked. Two Europeans were killed and many police were wounded.
As a result many whites fled to Capetown.
21
The PAC has the support of the Azanlan people as lt leads them In preparing a people's war. Demons-
trators In Tanzania show their support for the PAC.

for political "crimes" during this period. national liberation organization. The PAC
Since these setbacks, the PAC has been views the honest members of the ANC as their
working with the people in preparation for a oppressed brothers and sisters in the same
people's war. It has been building the fight to defeat the racist colonial regime. Due
Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA), to the severe fascist repression, the ANC has
the armed wing of the PAC and sending also called for armed struggle.
cadres to liberated African and other third The PAC calls upon the ANC members to
world countries for a period of military struggle and defeat the revisionists of the
training. CPSA that have crept into the ANC and tried
The PAC is now deeply rooted in the to sidetrack the Azanian people's just
masses of the Azanian people. It is carrying struggle.
out political education among the people and The PAC firmly stands by its call for unity
works in mass organizations such as the of all forces taking up the fight for national
South African Students Organization (SASO) liberation to bring victory closer to the
and the Black Consciousness Movement, Azanian people.
directing the Azanian people's strength The PAC is hated by the reformists and
towards their liberation. revisionists because of the PAC's resolute
Despite its differences with the ANC, the stand for armed struggle and its opposition to
PAC considers the ANC to be a legitimate the two superpowers.
22
March 21, 1960, 20,000 people led by the PAC president Sobukwe gathered In Shapevllle to protest the
pass laws. The Crowd begins to gather In Sharpevllle township, south of Johannesburg. This picture
was taken a few hours before police opened fire.

Police opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing 83 and wounding another 365.
23
.. The final triumph of the liberation movement under
the direction of the PAC is assured. The movement
must triumph because in their march to freedom the
African people have history on their side."
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe

Pan Africanist Congress: Revolutionary


Movement of the Azanian People
What makes the PAC ~he leading force le, socialist society.
among the Azanian people Is their • lt Is struggling for the restoration of
realization that "political power grows the land to its legitimate owners, for
out of the barrel of a gun." Passive growth and developm~nt of all sectors of
resistance, reforms, constitutional bat- the economy, so as to restore the dignity
tles .•. these cannot change the nature of of the oppressed population and return
a fascist regime. Only the armed over- the effective control of their lands and
throw of the whole system will bring destiny to them.
freedom to Azanla. • The PAC has taken a position oppos-
At the same time as PAC fights to Ing the two superpowers, the Soviet
overthrow Vorster's racist regime, it has Union and the United States. lt denoun-
also taken up the struggle against imper- ces their interference in African national
Ialism, particularly the two superpowers, liberation struggles, their expansionist
USSR and the US, and their designs on aims In Africa and In the world and their
South Africa. growing intrusion in many parts of the
PAC Is also opposed to multi-racialism world.
- a concept that promotes the division • In Its program and within its ranks, the
of society into different races, all PAC puts forward the equality of women ·
supposedly enjoying equal rights. But and men. For the PAC, the emancipation
under apartheid, separate means: separ- of Azanian women is achieved by their
ate but unequal - and so this theory full participation In the struggle for
only serves to protect the privileges of national liberation, including armed
the whites. For the PAC there is only one struggle.
race - the human race! • The PAC advocates people's war and is
POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES OF THE totally opposed to terrorism, military
PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS: actions undertaken by a small group cut
off from the support of the masses of the
• The PAC is struggling for national
people.
liberation, to completely overthrow white
• The PAC affirms the necessity of
domination and imperialism in Azania.
developing ideological unity between the
• 1t is struggling to set up a Black
Azanlan national liberation move-
majorrty regime, to establish a democrat-
ments.(1)
(1) For further information on the positions of PAC see "One Azania,
One Nation , One People" , a PAC publication available at the Norman
.._ Bethune Bookstore (see advertisement for address).

24
Mangaliso Sobukwe
Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe, founding president of the PAC, died on Feb. 27,
1978 at the age of 54, at the hands of the racist authorities. Sobukwe was kept
under house arrest after leaving Robbin Island in 1969. He was seriously ill with
cancer but the racists refused to give him proper medical treatment.
Sobukwe was jailed or banned for the last 18 years of his life. lt was illegal to
quote anything that he said or publish any of his writings. However the
message of Sobukwe, the message of liberation, was clear. This message was
taken up by all Azanians who refused to live under slavery. Here are some
quotations of Sobukwe which reflect his determination and vision in the fight
against racial oppression and imperialism.
"The African people, therefore, are determination. We are fighting for the
awake! They are waiting; waiting eagerly noblest cause on earth, the liberation of
and expectantly; waiting for the call, the mankind. They are fighting to retrench an
call to battle - to battle for the outworn, anachronistic vile system of
reconquest of the Continent of Africa oppression. We represent the fresh
which for over 300 years has been the fragrance of flowers in bloom; they
prostitute of the philanderers and rakes represent the rancid smell of decaying
of western capitalism. "Mayibuye I vegetation. We have the whole continent
Afrika," that is the ringing cry through- on our side. We have history on our side.
out the Continent. Africa for the Afri- WE WILL WIN!"
cans! lzwe Lethu - i Africa! Those are
the words that spell doom of white "There is no doubt that with the
supremacy in Africa." liquidation of Western imperialism and
colonialism in Asia, the capitalist market
"The white ruiers are going to be has shrunk considerably. As a result,
extremely ruthless. But we must meet Africa has become the happy hunting
their hysterical brutality with calm, iron ground of adventuristic capital. There is
again a scramble for Africa and both the
Soviet Union and the United States of
America are trying to win the loyalty of
the African states."
"On the 6th April, we met in the
Communical Hall in Orland, Johannes-
burg, to launch the ship of freedom -
the Pan Africanist Congress. On that
historic day, the African people declared
total war against white domination, not
only in South Africa but through the
continent. On that day there entered into
the maelstrom of South African politics
an organization committed to the over-
throw of white supremacy and the
establishment of an Africanist Socialist
Democracy."

25
I Imperialism in Azania
I
The white racists in South Africa have the
highest standard of living in the world. In
order to assure this, they must maintain the
slavery of millions of Azanians. But Vorster's
racist regime is weak! It couldn't last a day
without the economic, political and military
backing of imperialist powers such as Great
Britain and the U.S.
1,632 transnational companies belonging
to 13 imperialist countries operate in Azania:
Country: Number of Companies:
Great Britain: 630
United States: 494
West Germany: 132
France: 73
Sweden: 59
Netherlands: 57
Belgium: 44
Italy: 21
Switzerland: 17
Canada: 15
New Zealand: 3
Japan: 2

The imperialists want to dominate all of


Africa. This third world continent contains
immense reserves of natural resources: 600!o
of the world's deposits of cobalt, chromium,
titanium, diamonds and gold. It also means a
Imperialism makes huge superproflts In Aunla.
vast reservoir of cheap labour for them. Second world Imperialist countries like France
At this point in time, the two greatest and Canada have a lot at stake In preserving the
bandits, the USSR and the US are fighting status quo. For the two superpowers the strategic
position of South Africa Is vary Important In their
!!>OSt bitterly for control of Africa. They lust war plans.
26
not only after its riches, but also after the high emmisary Young there last year, and
important strategic position that Africa why the USSR sent Podgorny and its
occupies with regard to Europe. social-imperialist mercenary Castro. This is
also why the USSR, the more dangerous of
the two superpowers, is presently stepping up
AFRICA - KEY ZONE its acts of aggression, as in the Horn of
FOR THE SUPERPOWERS Africa. This rivalry between the two super-
The superpowers' main target in their powers is leading us to a new world war.
hunger to control the world, is Europe with its However, this war can be delayed if the people
great industrial centres, its technology, and and countries of Africa, along with the rest of
its millions of experienced workers. the world, unite together against the two
The nearby African continent commands superpowers.
all the sea routes that supply the European
countries with oil. The superpower controll- SOVIET SOCIAL-IMPERIALISM
ing eastern Africa with the Red Sea and the Clearly, the USSR has gone on the
Suez Canal at one end, and South Africa at offensive in the African continent. It is
the other, could impose a serious blockade on pouring thousands of arms and tens of
the European countries in the event of war. thousands of Soviet advisors and Cuban
This is why the superpowers are so actively mercenaries into Ethiopia. It launched an
manoeuvring in Africa, why the US sent its armed invasion against Zaire using paid mer-

27
cenaries which included Cuban troops. the Soviets will do all in their power to ensure
this outcome, if only to gain a firm foothold in
The USSR uses a "socialist" image and our country in the interests of its global
proclaims itself the "natural ally" of the expansionist drive and contention with the
African people. Its tactic is to give economic US. So already we see the spectre of our
aid to countries and liberation movements in people in a fierce struggle against the two
order to infiltrate them. This is precisely what superpowers - US imperialism and Soviet
it did in Angola, when the Angolan people social-imperialism, in the not too distant
were waging their heroic national liberation future."
struggle against Portuguese colonialism. It Throughout the struggle, the PAC has
sowed divisions within the liberation move- never ceased educating their people on the
ments by throwing all its support behind the dangers of social-imperialism. They won't let
MPLA. while claiming that the other groups the USSR endanger the independence they're
were reactionary. This "support" for the preparing to win by force of arms!
struggle included sending in thousands of This great revolutionary current is now
Cuban soldiers to fight against Angolans. sweeping all of southern Africa. And the
Now, as a result, more than 20,000 Cuban more aggressive superpower, the USSR, has
soldiers and 2,000 Soviet and Cuban "Advi- been unmasked in several independent
sors" control the Angolan state apparatus, African countries. In just the last three years,
and completely orient the country's develop- social-imperialism has been booted out of
ment for the benefit of the USSR. One Egypt, Sudan and Somalia.
example is that the Soviet Union only pays
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
38% of the world price for Angolan coffee.
In face of Moscow's manoeuvring, the
This means impoverishment and depen- United States, with 494 transnationals active
dence for the Angolan people. in South Africa, isn't sitting quietly on the
The USSR is trying to play the same sidelines. Up until very recently, it openly
scenario in Azania. It has infiltrated the supported Vorster's racist regime. In 1970,
ANC, and is doing its utmost to discredit the South Africa received $230 million in loans
PAC in the eyes of the world. In 1977, an from the European-American Banking Corp.
article was written for the magazine Secheba Consortium, which consists mainly of Euro-
(ANC) by an ANC delegation which had pean, American, and Canadian banks. Up to
visited China. It was never published. The $50 million went through the same channel in
article was censored in East Germany where 1972. In 1977, South African exports to the
the magazine is printed. This shows the great US nearly doubled to $125.3 million from
influence of the USSR in the ANC. $64.9 million a year earlier.
There is also the Kremlin's loyal agent, the But Washington had to change its tactics
South African"Communist"Party. This party when faced with the growing number of
hysterically denounces China and supports struggles by the Azanian people, and the
every Soviet manoeuvre in Africa. It is almost powerful support they are getting from other
entirely funded by the USSR to carry out its third world countries as well as the virtually
dirty work inside the ANC. universal condemnation of the racist Vorster
But the African people have drawn major regime. Carter now claims to be in favour of a
lessons from the negative example of Angola. so-called Black majority rule in Azania. To
As a PAC member said: "It is thinkable that make this sudden change of face seem
28
plausible, he occasionally denounces the At the Alcan plant in South Africa, 13 Black
violations of human rights in South Africa. miners were shot down by police for walking
But this has never stopped him from giving off the job. Alcan's hands are stained not
political, economic and military backing to only with the blood of Canadian workers, but
the racist minority in power. with the blood of Azanian workers too.
None of these manoeuvres have fooled the Massey-Ferguson is also getting the most
Azanian people. They are continuing to fight out of apartheid by paying its black workers
under the PAC's leadership to completely starvation wages of $3 a day. That's less than
wipe out colonialism and imperialism in their what workers in its Canadian plants earn in
country. half an hour. And there are a lot of other
examples like Bata Shoes, Consolidated
Bathurst and three of the big banks, the
CANADIAN IMPERIALISM ALSO Bank of Commerce, the Bank of Montreal
OPPOSES THE LIBERATION and the Toronto Dominion Bank which
OF AZANIA furnish millions and millions of dollars to this
Canadian imperialism is just a baby tiger repressive regime. Canada has over $100
compared to the superpowers or to some of million directly invested in this country.
the other imperialist countri.es, but that Despite hypocritical statements against
doesn't stop it from fattening Itself off the apartheid, the Canadian state maintains close
sweat and blood of the Azanian people. ties with South Africa. Canada has preferen-
The same Canadian monopolies that tial trade tariffs with the racist regime and
exploit us here, exploit the Azanian people. encourages investment in and trade with

At a picket line set up by the League outside the Massey-Ferguson plant In Toronto, Massey workers
expressed their support for their Azanian brothers who are superexplolted by the same company.
29
South Africa. The Canadian crown corpora- Canadian imperialism sham.elessly takes
tion Polymer has interests in South Africa. full advantage of apartheid in South Africa.
,... SOME CANADIAN COMPANIES AND ""'Ill It has no scruples about supporting the
BANKS IN AZANIA AND NAMIBIA racist regime militarily through NATO. So it
is not surprising that servants of Canadian
Companies:
Alcan Aluminum Ltd. imperialism like Trudeau have taken a
Brilund Mines Ltd. position in favour of maintaining diplomatic
Chromium Mining and Smelting and economic relations with South Africa, or
Corp. Ltd. that Coates, the new president of the
Columbus McKinnon Ltd. Conservative Party, enthusiastically supports
Consolidated Bathurst Ltd. the racist regime.
Deleuw Cather and Associates It is clear that all the pious pronounce-
Falconbridge Nickel Co. of Canada ments of the Canadian government are just
Ford Motor of Canada trying to pacify the Canadian people's hatred
International Nickel Co. of Canada of the southern African regime and are
Manufacturers Life Insurance Co.
Massey-Ferguson Ltd. nothing but a smokescreen to hide their real
Morse Corp. aim: to ensure that profits continue to be made
Polymer Corp. at the expense of the Azanian people.
Sun Life Assurance of Canada
Tinto Holdings Canada Ltd.
Banks:
Canadian Imperial Bank of Com-
Toronto Dominion Bank merce
Royal Bank of Canada
Bank of Montreal ...oil

In December 1977, the Trudeau govern-


ment announced that it would apply certain
economic sanctions against the Vorster
regime. The Minister of External Affairs, Don
Jamieson said that they would withdraw their
economic advisors from Johannesburg and
Capetown and prohibit the Export Develop-
ment Corporation from trading with the
regime. But these measures do not affect the
private sector. Alcan, Massey-Ferguson and
all the other Canadian monopolies are free to
continue exploiting the Azanian people.
On AprirT9, 1978, Jamieson announced a
new "code of conduct" for Canadian
companies operating in South Africa. But as The Hudson's Bay Company supports the South
usual, it's all talk and no action. The code is Africa regime only because lt can continue to
make enormous profits from Its operations In
not mandatory and does nothing to stop Namibia which Is Illegally occupied by the racist
racist and discriminatory practices in Cana- regime. This picket line was set up by the League
dian-owned companies in South Africa. In Vancouver during the PAC tour.
30
Azanian People's Struggle
Receives Worldwide
Support
Azania is part of the third world and the Nations: "The Chinese delegation solemnly
liberation struggle in this country is clearly declares once again that the Chinese govern-
seen as a struggle of the whole third world. ment does not have and will never enter into
The South African regime is considered political, economic, commercial or any other
illegitimate by third world countries, such as relations directly, or indirectly with the racist
socialist China, which does not have any regime of South Africa. The Chinese govern-
relations with it. ment and its people will firmly support, as
The militant support that the Azanian they always have, the peoples of Zimbabwe,
people have received from many third world Namibia and Azania in their just struggle
states demonstrates the growing unity and against racism and for national liberation
strength of these countries. This again proves until they have won complete victory.
that the peoples and countries of the third • In July 77, the Organization of African
world - representing 70% of the world's Unity(OAU)(l)passed a resolution condemn-
population, being the most oppressed and ex- ing foreign intervention in the internal affairs
ploited by imperialism - are the main force of the continent. It has a committee
in the struggle against colonialism, imperial- responsible for channelling all foreign aid to
ism and the two superpowers. The facts speak the liberation movements, to prevent super-
for themselves: power infiltration in the struggles of the
• In March 77, at the last Afro-Arab summit peoples of Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Azania.
meeting, concrete material and political The entire third world is standing behind
support was extended to the struggles in the Azanian people. The history of colonial
southern Africa. oppression and the struggle for national
• In May 1977, the People's Republic of liberation is a common history of third world
China, a socialist country of the third world, countries.
clearly expressed its position at the United Through the course of their struggle, the

(1) The OAU groups together all the independent countries of Africa and the
national liberation movements in the colonies. lt was set up to unite the
African countries in the common struggle to rid Africa of all vestiges of
colonialism .
31
Just recently in the United States, 5,000
people demonstrated their anger at the
presence of a South African tennis team in
Nashville, Tennessee and called for the victory
of the Azanian liberation movement.
It is clear that as Mao Tsetung pointed out,
"Enumerable facts point out that a just cause
enjoys abundant support, whUe an injust
cause finds little support."
THE AZANIAN PEOPLES' STRUGGLE
IS OUR OWN
In Canada, only a handful of diehard
reactionaries dare to openly praise South
Africa. Among the Canadian J'eople, apar-
theid is clearly discredited and more and
more people are transforming this general
rejection of the racist regime into concrete
and conscious support for the liberation
struggle in Azania led by the PAC.
The Canadian and Azanian people are
waging the same struggle against imperialism
The Palestinian revolution against Zionism and
imperialism and the struggles of the peoples of and the two superpowers.
southern Africa are Important component These greedy imperialists. especially Ame-
struggles of the whole third world which Is the rican imperialism, never miss a chance to
main force against colonialism, Imperialism and
superpower hegemonlsm. meddle in our affairs and rob our country.
When the Azanian people land a blow against
Azanian people supported by the third world imperialism and the superpowers, they" contri-
countries and peoples are winning over some bute to the world revolution and help us in our
second world countries like Norway, who struggle for socialism in Canada.
recognizes the PAC, to isolate the apartheid confront these two vultures.
regime in South Africa. The revolutionary It is the internationalist duty of Canadian
drive of the Azanian people supported mainly workers to support the Azanian people as we
by the third world have led to various military wage the struggle here against the capitalists.
and economic boycotts against the racist As Lenin said, "the. revolutionary movement
regime. in the advanced countries would in fact be
In the world, the illegitimate South African nothing but a sheer fraud if, in their struggle
regime is isolated and despised. There are against capital, the workers of Europe and
only a handful of countries like Canada that America were not closely and completely
have diplomatic relations with the regime, united with the hundreds upon hundreds of
and everywhere that South African sports and mUiions of "colonial" slaves, who are
cultural representatives travel there are oppressed by the capital." (The Second
demonstrations and protests to greet them Congress of the Communist International)
from England to Australia, from Norway to The struggles of the oppressed peoples and
France. nations are an integral part of the current of
32
world socialist revolution. This is why it is South Africa
important to support these struggles with all • boycott all South African products
our strength. • inform our fellow workers, neighbours and
The Azanian liberation fighters are dealing students about the struggle of the Azanian
blows to Canadian imperialism. Each attack people
against Alcan or Massey-Ferguson and the • pass resolutions in our unions and mass
others in Azania advances the struggle of the organizations
Canadian workers for socialism. The victory • raise funds and material support of all
of the Azanian people will profoundly kinds for the PAC
contribute to the defeat of imperialism. • continue with . the support campaign
The Canadian people on its part must do launched by the Canadian Communist
all it can to aid the armed struggle of the League (ML) for the PAC.
Azanian people. We must denounce the The Canadian people and Azanian people
barbaric apartheid regime. We must oppose live thousands of miles apart and have
Canadian imperialism everywhere in the different customs and culture. But we have
world especially in southern Africa. Cana- common interests, common aspirations: that
dians can build a vast movement of support both our lands be free from exploitation and
for the struggle of the Azanian people. We oppression. The Canadian working class'
should: militant support for the heroic freedom
• Uemand that Canada completely break off fighters in Azania will help to bring us one
diplomatic, economic and military ties with step closer to this noble goal.

Chairman of the Azanian People's Support Committee, left, presenting a petition to Leslle Harrlman
(Nigeria), Chairman of the UN Special Committee against Apartheid. At right Is Davld Slbeko, repre-
se~tative of the PAC. The petition with 39~6 signatures calls on the Canadian government to withdraw
all 1ts support from South Africa and the Immediate release of all political prisoners in South Africa,
particularly the three patriots who have been accused of being PAC members and setting up guerilla
bases in the country. United Nations I Photo by Y. Nagata.
33
!APPENDIX
Interview With the PAC

Mzonke Xuza, left, former student leader who worked with Steve Blko. He was forced Into exile In 1974
for his political activities. He Is presently assistant representative of PAC at the UN. Trofomo Sono, a
young leader of the Soweto uprisings. He was president of the Soweto Students Representative
Council In 1976 and 1977. Both are representatives of the PAC.
The following Interview was made during the PAC tour of Canada. Excerpts of this Interview appeared
in the Dec. 9, 1977 Issue of THE FORGE (Vol.2, no. 23).
34
What is the racist apartheid system _like?
Mzonke: The situation in South Africa is a situation where whites are
separated from the Blacks socially and through the state, and oppress the
Black masses for a privileged and comfortable life.
During the colonial era the British governors followed a policy of divide
and rule. It was Cecil John Rhodes for instance, who came up with the idea of
apartheid. He said once "We will either recognize these people on an equal
footing or regard them as a subject race. And under the present
circumstances in order to maintain a high living for the British Empire we
have to regard them as a subject race." The Land Act of 1913 followed on
that.
The act said 13% ofthe country would be occupied by Black people and 87%
would be taken by white people. There are 20 million Blacks and 5 million
whites.
All Black people as soon as they reach the age of 16 must carry a pass book
where you have your ID, photo, and what is most important, what tribe you
belong to div~de Black people according to tribal lines.
In that pass book, for those who are lucky enough to get work, the
employer must have his signature every month, so that if one month's
signature isn't there the policy can say that you are not employed: "You
belong to this tribe, you cannot come into an industrial area, go back to your
reserve area."
You are not allowed to leave your reserve and go find employment. You
cannot move. Before you can leave the magistrate must stamp your book.
That way they can control the number of Black people in white areas.
The reserves are barren, no industries, nothing. People are herded into
these reserves just ready for when industry needs labour. They'll take
anything as long as they get something to support their families.
If you find a job you cannot bring your wife. Men live in bachelor hostels
for the duration of their contract for three or six or eight months even years
without seeing their families. Then they can go home to their families. You
can imagine what effects this has on family life of Black families.

What is the economic situation like?


Trofomo: On his job a Black man works with a white man as his foreman or
superior. He does 90% of the labour. After a month, when it is time to be
paid, a white man who does nothing gets 990Jo of the salary and a Black man
only gets I%.
Some people get 24 rands a month. You find a parent with six children and
rent is 12 rand a month. These children must go to school, they must eat at
home, they must have clothes, they must have pocket money. All on 24 rands.
It is real little for living.
35
A man could arrive with 24 rands on Friday and by Sunday it is all gone
because the cost of living is so high.

What is the difference between white and Black education?


Trofomo: The government spends 165 rands a year on each white student
and 32 rands for a Black student. In white schools you could find 15 students
being taught by one teacher whereas in Black schools you could find 103
students in one class. Bantu education is only meant to make a Black man a
better slave and to denigrate Black men. It is not to give a Black man light on
the outside world.
Also the syllabus of our subjects is cut. We are not taught for instance,
academic education, and our history courses teach us that whites are right in
taking our land. Bantu education also encourages segregation and separate
development among Blacks.
We don't have equipped laboratories where we can make some
experiments on the things we learn - as a result we learn to pass
examinations but not to really understand. But with white students
everything has been 100% the opposite of what we have.

How did the huge uprising in Soweto last summer start?


Trofomo: Nobody was responsible for going around to the schools and
telling peo.ple there would be demonstrations. It was just a general feeling
among students to abolish the type of education and Afrikaans , as the
language of instruction.
At that point we were not aware that we were boycotting against the
government. We thought it was the teachers who were to blame. They are
forced to take everything that they are given by the authorities. We changed
our attitude toward the teachers and turned our anger towards the
government.

What was the role of the Soweto Students Representative Council?


Trofomo: As we started, the Soweto Students Representative Council
(SSRC) was formed to generate even more struggles and direct the fight and
demonstrations.

How did the SSRC mobilize for the activities?


Trofomo: Well, we used to have meetings with the students and we would
36
have meetings with our parents in churches and prayer meetings. We used to
distribute pamphlets. Some of them we distributed during the day at the
schools. some of them during the night underneath the doors.
What did Vorster's police do?
Trofomo: The police provoked the students who where marching peacefully by
firing at them. The police used the Riotous Assembly Act so if they found us
having meetings they would use tear gas and then they would just open fire
and shoot at us.
But even if they fired the students never ran away. The police just kept on
firing until they became tired or had to flee when they were chased away with
stones.
They don't even try to stop the demonstrations peacefully, or talk to the
students. They use guns to talk, guns to disperse.

Did women play a role in the demonstrations?


Trofomo: It wasn't only the boys who were standing up to the police with
stones, it was also the girls. Some of the girls were shot. By this I want to show
that it wasn't only the boys who were brave, but also the girls. And when the
police came, the girls were even more brave than the boys.
The police knew that most members of the SSRC are boys and if they
wanted to get a leader they would guess a boy. So the girls would stand in
front during the demonstrations.
What were your parents' reactions to the struggle and how did they support
you?
Trofomo: If we had strikes or stay-aways, we would urge our parents to stay
away from work. Then they would not go to their jobs. The parents realized
they had to do something. Now that they had seen the activities of the
students they took advantage of the situation and demanded pay increases.
And that is how they supported the strikes and stay-a ways. And this of course
was of great harm to the South African economy. I remember last year the
government had to make a $1 million loan from the USA because of the
economy. Some of those providing financial support to South Africa were
afraid of giving money because some things were damaged and so on.
Our parents do not tell us to go and fight for freedom. They do not tell us,
my child, we are oppressed. But we ourselves, we see the reflection they give
when they return from work, the anger that they have in their faces. The type
of eyes that they look at us with and the stinking of sweat that they come
home with after their labour duties shows that oppression and exploitation.
We feel that it is oppression. And without being told, without any fear we
volunteer to pick up the gun, to free the masses of Azania, not just our
parents, but the masses.
37
Why did you join the PAC?
Trofomo: I joined the PAC because the PAC is following a Marxist-Leninist
line, and because the PAC is fighting for the total liberation of my country.
The most important reason why I joined the PAC is because I wanted to wage
armed struggle and I cannot do it as an individual. I have to be in a group
that is preparing for armed struggle to liberate the people. I joined the PAC
because it is composed of people who are prepared to liberate the masses,
and because it has no collaboration with the imperialists and social-imperial-
ists, and moreover, because it is the only vanguard of the Azanian masses and
works in the interests of the Azanian masses.

What are the aims of the PAC?


Trofomo: The aims of the PAC, which are the aims of the people of Azania, is
to see that colonialism in Azania goes; is to see to that imperialism and
capitalism are out of our country. And finally to establish a socialist,
democratic government of Africans by the Africans, for Africans with
everyone who considers himself an African and pays his loyalty to Africa.
Our aim is to establish in Azania itself, a socialist republic of Azania or
a people's republic of Azania.

Why does the PAC say that armed struggle is the only way to liberate
Azania?
Mzonke: History has taught us that in a situation where a small group of
people maintains domination over a majority in order to enrich themselves,
for the dominated to reach a situation where the exploitation and the
oppression is removed. They have to fight because from what we know it is
not possible for an oppressor in a privileged position to acquiesce easily or to
hand over power to a group or a class which it has been exploiting for years.
Given the intransigience of the racist regime and the determined efforts
of the people to liberate themselves, the only way is armed struggle. PAC has
long realized this, coupled with the fact that any forms of peaceful resistance
have been met with reactionary violence from the regime.
To liberate the country PAC decided that the best way of liberating
themselves will be a people's war. The Azanian People's Liberation Army was
formed in order to form the foundation to launch a successful people's war.
Now the APLA is being militarily and politically trained and is well equipped
to train the people both militarily and politically, to discuss with the people to
arrive at the correct political way of waging the armed struggle.

What are the interests of imperialism and the two superpowers in Azania?
Mzonke: According to the latest information there are 1,634 foreign
38
companies with investments in the country. This includes the United States,
Britain, Canada, West Germany, France, Japan and even Australia and New
Zealand.
All international capital wants is a stable atmosphere. They're not
interested in how it is achieved, as long as they have a source of cheap labour.
The South African regime, for its existence, depends mostly on the
western imperialist countries because these are the countries which
invest heavily in South Africa. In order to maintain their positions in South
Africa it is in the interests of the western imperialist countries to see that the
status quo remains the same. Therefore they'll do everything they can to see
that the regime remains intact in the country. The liberation movement as a
whole has been supported by the socialist countries in order to bring down
that regime.
In the southwest part of the country there is a big naval base. There is a
big cave there and a big military station; a cave where the USA and Britain
have sophisticated machinery with which they are able to trace any ship
which moves from South America to the east to Australia. The minute it
moves they see it on their screens. So knowing that there are such facilities,
and much more important the geographical position of Azania in relation to
that part of the sea, is of paramount importance and interest to the other
superpower, the Soviet Union.

What is the role of the so-called "Communist" Puty of South Africa and
the Soviet Union in Azania?
Mzonke: There was what was called the "Communist" Party of South Africa.
Now, I understand that this was one of the oldest "communist" parties in the
world. But what I've found out is that the "C"PSA was only white, only white
members. And as time went on, when the government used to issue threats
toward this "C"PSA, rather than face whatever was coming to them, as
they'd do if they believed in their convictions, they decided to disband on
their own.
When they did that, they infiltrated the African National Congress (ANC),
and they tried to direct all its activities. For instance, the ANC had been there
since 1912. In 1949, they drew up a program of action, how they were going to
go about the stages of liberation. But because of the influence and
interference of the so-called CPSA, they never tried to put this program of
action into practice.
What they used to do was to wait until a law was passed in parliament then
organize a demonstration of protest against the law, and then sit down.
Another thing was that most of the members of the "C"PSA had interests
(shares) in the industrial life of the country, especially in Johannesburg
and Capetown. So whenever a strike or a demonstration was planned the~
39
would be there to say, "Oh no, you know what we think about that." So
they'd plan a strike or a demonstration two weeks in advance. Between the
setting of the date of the strike or demonstration, and the actual time of the
strike, the workers would be exhorted to work overtime, so that when the day
ofthe strike arrived there would not be much effect, there would not be much
loss for the bosses.
I also remember what happened when the "C"PSA was stiii officially in
existence. In the late 1920's a man called Sidney Bunting was delegate (from
the "C"PSA) to the Communist International. A resolution was passed there
concerning the situation in our country. It said the "C"PSA must work
to~ard the realization of a Black republic, that is, a national democracy.
Sidney Bunting refused the resolution, went back home and told the other
members that such and such a thing had happened, that he had refused it
and they agreed with him. The people kept all these things in mind. The
"C"PSA, rather than helping, working together towards the liberation of the
majority, were doing everything to suppress and sabotage these actions. This
went on and on until the time the PAC was formed, in 1959. The "C"PSA
was the most active in trying to slander it.
Of late, I have heard that Tambo acting president of ANC led a
delegation to China last year. When they came back they wrote about their
experiences in China. They sent this script to East Germany where ANC's
magazine is printed. But the script never came out in the magazine, they
suppressed it... it was suppressed by Moscow.
So we see that the USSR stiii meddles in the affairs of the people of our
country. We have said time and again that the present regime in the USSR is
continuing to try to divide the people of our country. But we have the
conviction that miilions of people inside our country are united. They can
only manage to divide a few people here and there.

You knew the martyr Steve Biko. Can you tell us about him?
Mzonke: When I first met Steve, we were in college together in 1968. We
came to the conclusion that we had to do something with the masses at home,
and we formed the first Black consciousness movement, SASO (South
African Student's Organization). Steve was always at the forefront. In college
activities, in political activities, he was always at the forefront, that is what
struck me.
He did a lot of work, travelled all over the country to such an extent that
sometimes his school work suffered. I remember one time, he spent all his
summer organizing meetings and he didn't write some mid-term exams.
So when he came back the professor asked, "Mr. Biko why didn't you
come to write your exams?" His answer was, "I had something more
important to do than write this exam". And this professor said, "What could
40
be more important to you Mr. Biko, than seeing that your career doesn't
suffer?" And Steve answered. "I was busy contributing to shaping the future
of the people of this country."
Biko is presented as a moderate. This is a tactic used by white liberals to
divide the movement which has always been militant and enjoying wide
support. They wanted to allay the fears of the white liberal group which has
vested interests in the present economic set-up.
Trofomo: The death of Steve Biko is very upsetting. But it shall not
demoralize our people. Instead, it intensifies the struggle and mobilizes a lot
of the Azanian masses. The death of Steve Biko will only increase the
determination of the people to fight.

With the increasing repression in Azania how do you see the struggle
developing?
Mzonke: With the determination of the people and realizing that these are
frantic efforts to stem the tide of the liberation process we can say that this is
the beginning qf the fall of the regime. Where you have people rising up, the
more the regime increases repression the more the people are politicized, the
more they get determined to get rid of the present regime in the country.
Trofomo: It is armed struggle which is left for the Azanian people, it is death
which is left for the imperialists. As we say to the workers, "Join the Azanian
masses in their struggle, in their march towards socialism, you don't have to
be brave to undergo this route, you only have to count on your determination.
To you we say you are the heroes of the world."

41
Brief Review of the Pan-Africanist
Congress of Azania Tour of Canada

The PAC tour of Canada was part ofthe cross-Canada campaign launched
by the Canadian Communist League (Marxist-Leninist) with the collabo-
ration of the Azanian People's Support Committee from December 1 to
December 16, 1977 to gain political and material support for the PAC and
the struggle of the Azanian people.

The PAC representatives, Trofomo Sono and Mzonke Xusa visited the
following cities: Vancouver, Regina, Toronto, Ottawa, Hull, Montreal and
Quebec City.
During the tour, the PAC comrades addressed over 3000 people in J 3 public
meetings.
More than $18,200 has been collected to date during the campaign from
the sales of posters, pamphlets, support buttons and from donations.
Close to 4,000 people signed the petition demanding freedom for the three
Azanian patriots, Stanley Pule, Morgan Gxekwa and lsaac Lolwane Mnikwa.
The petition was presented to the Anti-apartheid Committee of the UN.
Numerous local and national radio and television programs introduced
the PAC and the Azanian people's struggle to thousands of Canadians.
Informational pickets and tables were set up in hospitals, schools, union
conventions, shopping centres and in front of companies dealing with the
South African regime, such as Alcan and Hudson's Bay.
Numerous local meeting among workers in factories, hospitals and union
locals were held.
Solidarity messages were received from unions, community organizations,
schools, anti-imperialist organizations and individuals:
UNIONS
International Association of Machinists, Lodge No. 111
Confederation of National Trade Unions (CNTU) Central Council of
Trois-Rivieres
42
United Steelworkers, Local 15510
CNTU - St. Charles Borromee Hospital
Union of Ushers and Attendants of Place des Arts
Fran~ois-Xavier-Garneau Cegep Teachers Union
Rimouski Cegep Teachers Union
South-West Central Council of the CNTU
United Steelworkers local 6859
Syndicat de Professionnels du Gouvernement du Quebec
Syndicat des travailleurs du CLSC Seigneurie de Beauharnois (a local union
of community health workers)
Verdun Hospital Workers' Union and Nurses' Union (CNTU)
United Oil workers, Local 6 (Union Carbide)
MASS ORGANIZATIONS
Association of Metis and Non-Status Indians of Saskatchewan
Third World Ethno Cultural Community - Regin a

December 10, 1977, 1700 people attended the solidarity rally for the PAC organized by the League In
Montreal. The PAC comrades, Trofomo Sono and Mzonke Xuza greatly helped develop our proletarian
Internationalist spirit and our determination to support the Azanlan people. Here, the comrades are
singing "The lnt~rnational" together with the League's cultural group.
General Assembly of La Vermouilleuse (daycare centre)- Montreal
Clinique du Peuple (People's Clinic) St. Henri- Montreal
East End Workers' Medical Clinic - Montreal
Montreal committee for the unemployed
SOS Daycare - Montreal
Pavilion d'Education communautaire Hochelaga-Maisonneuve (Montreal
community group)
St. Michel (Montreal) food co-op
STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS
Student's Union of University of Regina
Eritrean Student Association of North America
Ethiopian Student Association of North America
Arab Students Association, University of Montreal
Asian Studies Student Association, University of Montreal
General Association of Students, University of Quebec
General Assembly of Students, Montmorency College
ANTI-IMPERIALIST ORGANIZATIONS
Arab-Palestine Solidarity Organization
National Association of South Africans in Canada
African Liberation Support Committee
Canadian-Arab Federation
Indian People's Association in North America
Bangla Desh People's Association
Third World People's Anti-imperialist Committee
Anti-imperialist Committee, University of Montreal
Iranian Students Association in Montreal (Member of CIS)
Haitian Revolutionary Organization for Patriotic Action
African-Caribbean Progressive Study Group

44
PAC SUPPORT FUND
PAC brochure including an
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kwe, the PAC Manifesto
adopted In April 1959 and
three other documents.
This booklet In
the PAC IN PERSPECTIVE
series comes with In-
Azanian People's Support Committee, depth analysis of the unfol-
P.O.Box 222, Station E, ding struggle for national
Montreal, Quebec, H2T 3A7 liberation in Azania.

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