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• DEFINITION: Scientific study of behavior CONTINUED OF PSYCHOLOGY
and mental processes and how they are affected c. Stimulus discrimination - different responses are • STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
by an organism’s physical and mental state and made to stimuli which are similar to the CS 1. Central - brain and spinal cord
• OPERANT CONDITIONING 2. Peripheral - sensory and motor nerves which
external environment transmit information
• GOALS: Describe, understand, predict and 1. Reinforcer (reward) - increases response
a. Somatic - control skeletal muscles
control (or modify) behavior or mental processes a. Positive reinforcement - response followed by presentation
b. Autonomic - regulates internal organs and glands
i. Parasympathetic - conserves energy
• PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE: of reinforcing stimulus ii. Sympathetic - expends energy
1. Descriptive studies - describe but not explain b. Negative reinforcement - response followed by removal of
unpleasant stimulus
a. Case history - description of one individual
b. Observation 2. Punishment - stimulus that follows response SYSTEM
i. Naturalistic - natural environment
1. Neuron - basic unit of nervous system
decreases probability response will occur a. cell body - keeps neuron alive
ii. Laboratory - setting controlled by researcher 3. Principles of Operant Conditioning b. dendrites - receive information from other neurons
c. Surveys - questionnaires and interviews a. Extinction - response no longer reinforced c. axons - send information to other neurons
d. Tests - d. myelin - insulates axon to enable information to be
b. Stimulus generalization - response will occur to
i. Reliability - used to measure whether individual transmitted faster
differences in test scores are due to actual differences in
similar stimuli
c. Stimulus discrimination - responses do not occur to 2. Communication between Neurons
the characteristic being measured or due to chance a. Synapses - gaps between neurons
errors and fluctuations different stimuli
b. Message travels through axon to synaptic knob on
ii. Validity - refers to the extent to which a test measures d. Timing of reinforcers - the sooner a reinforcer or axon's tip
what it purports; the validity of a test must be punisher follows an action, the greater its effect c. Synaptic vesicles open and release
empirically established – relating the test to particular e. Schedules of reinforcement neurotransmitter into synaptic gap
criterion that it claims to measure i. Continuous reinforcement - a particular response is d. Neurotransmitter fits into receptor sites on
2. Correlational Studies - strength of relationships always reinforced receiving dendrite, causing it to be more or less
between variables, does not show causation ii. Intermittent reinforcement - reinforcing only some likely to fire
3. Experiment - researcher controls variable(s) to responses • THE BRAIN
discover its effect on other variables (a) fixed ratio (FR) - reinforcement after a fixed number of 1. Hindbrain
a. Independent variable - manipulated/controlled by responses, high rates of responding a. Medulla, pons, reticular activating system, cerebellum
researcher (b) variable ratio (VR) - reinforcement after average b. Responsible for reflexive, automatic behavior
b. Dependent variable - measured by researcher (data) number of responses, very high, steady rates of responding 2. Midbrain - information conduit
(c) fixed interval (FI) - reinforcement after fixed amount of
c. Experimental and control groups - only 3. Forebrain
time, scalloped response pattern
experimental group exposed to independent variable, a. Thalamus - directs sensory messages
(d) variable interval (VI) - reinforcement after a variable
otherwise treated the same b. Hypothalamus - emotion and survival drives
amount of time, low, steady rate of response
d. Change in dependent variable caused by independent c. Pituitary gland - controls many other endocrine glands
f. Shaping - reinforce successive approximations to the d. Cerebral cortex
variable, since all else remained the same
desired response i. Occipital lobes - vision
e. Confounding Variable - an observed effect that may
g. Chaining - a method of connecting responses into a ii. Parietal lobes - sensory information
be due to an intervening third variable between the iii.Temporal lobes - process sounds
dependent and independent variables; the sequence of behaviors; at the end of the chain there
iv. Frontal lobes - motor movements
confounding variable must be systematically must always be a reinforcer; the chain is constructed
4. Two brain hemispheres
controlled or, if possible, eliminated, otherwise by beginning at the end and working backward; all a. Each one controls opposite side of body
obtained results are invalidated behaviors have to be previously conditioned into the b. Left hemisphere dominant for most people
f. Inferred Variable - a non-observable variable that is organism’s repertoire
inferred as the mediator between two observed 4. Cognitive Behavior Modification
events; for instance, inferring the experience of "fear" The principles of learning theory are applied to
from certain measurable physiological anxiety alter undesirable thoughts, rather than only STRESS AND
responses; it is frequently difficult to avoid circular observable behaviors HEALTH
explanations in positing an inferred variable a. Social Learning Theory - (Bandura) four processes • STRESS - EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL
g. Subject Variable - a condition that is part of the which influence learning are: RESPONSES TO STIMULI
subject’s make-up and cannot be assigned randomly; i. Attention 1. Caused by stimuli and the way those stimuli are
e.g., sex, height, hair-color etc; because of their non- ii. Memory perceived
randomnizability, causal conclusions cannot be iii.Behavior 2. Biological reaction
derived from subject variable experiments iv. Motivation a. Fight or flight - increase heart rate, breathing, tense muscles
h. Non-Subject Variable - a characteristic that is not b. Increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system
b. Specific cognitive processes that are recognized:
part of a subject’s make-up, and thus can be randomly i. Attribution c. Adrenal glands secrete epinephrine (adrenalin) and
assigned; e.g., whether the subject received a certain ii. Expectancy norepinephrine
drug or a placebo iii.Logical 3. Coping with stress
iv. Verbal
a. Reappraise situation
b. Maintain control over the stressful situation
v. Imaginable
c. Rational emotive therapy - (Ellis) considers the • PSYCHOLOGY AND ILLNESS
LEARNING 1. Heart disease
central core of dysfunctional behavior to be due to
Change in behavior as a result of experience a. Type A personalities - hard-working, competitive,
irrational beliefs; the therapy focuses on the increased incidence of heart disease
• CLASSICAL CONDITIONING alteration of these irrational beliefs b. Type B personalities - easy going
1. Pavlov’s studies d. Problem-solving therapy - focuses on enhancing the 2. Cancer
a. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - food - elicits an patient’s ability to make decisions and solve problems a. Exposure to carcinogens increases the risk
unconditioned response (UCR) - salivation in stressful or difficult situations b. Psychological factors influence functioning of
b. Pair neutral stimulus - tone - with UCS - food e. Paradoxical intervention - patients are instructed to immune system
c. Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus (CS) purposely perform undesirable symptomatic • HEALTH AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS
- tone - which elicits conditioned response CR - behaviors on command in an effort to demonstrate 1. Friends - assisted coping
salivation their ability to gain control over these behaviors a. Emotional, cognitive and tangible support
2. Principles of classical conditioning f. Attribution therapy - attempts to facilitate the b. Cultural differences in the value placed on friendships
a. Extinction - when the CS is not presented with the patient’s ability to re-attribute undesirable feelings
2. Friends as stress producers
UCS, it will diminish a. Contagion effect - others can exaggerate stress
and symptoms to something less threatening and b. Friend under stress can increase your stress level
b. Stimulus generalization - similar stimuli may elicit
more acceptable c. Burden of caring for others can increase stress
the same response as the CS
• SENSATION - Awareness of physical changes CONTINUED
• ROLES - A social position governed by
• MEASURING SENSATION ii. Use algorithms (systematic methods guaranteed to
1. Absolute thresholds - detection of signal 50 produce a solution) or
iii.Use heuristics (a rule that may or may not produce a 1. Norms - conventions by which we live
percent of time 2. Zimbardo’s Prison Study
solution), (i.e., simplification, reasoning by analogy)
2. Difference thresholds (j.n.d. - just noticeable a. Students assigned to "guard" or "prisoner" roles
b. Insight - sudden understanding of solution
difference) b. Student behavior reflected their assigned roles
a. Difference in sensation detectable 50 percent of time • INTELLIGENCE - capacity to acquire and
use knowledge 3. Milgram’s Obedience Study
b. Weber’s Law - change necessary for j.n.d. is a
1. Measuring intelligence a. Participants thought they were part of an
proportion of original stimulus
a. Binet - IQ tests - mental age (as determined by a test) experiment in learning
divided by chronological age = IQ b. "Teacher" was instructed to shock "learner" for
1. Light enters through the cornea
b. Wechsler - tests include verbal, mathematical and wrong answer
2. Lens focuses light on the retina
3. Retina - at the back of the eyeball nonverbal thinking skills c. Majority of "teachers" complied with the
a. Rods - respond to dim light c. Average score is 100, scores describe a bell-shaped instructions to administer shock
b. Cones - respond to color (normal) distribution • SOCIAL COGNITION - how the social
c. Fovea - center of retina, contains only cones, site d. I.Q. (Intelligence Quotient) is computed by dividing environment influences thoughts,
where vision is sharpest a person’s "mental age" by their "chronological age" perception and belief
• THE EAR and multiplying by one hundred; yielding the 1. Attribution - motivation to explain behavior
1. Outer ear - collects sounds waves formula: IQ = (MA/CA) X 100 a. Situational - caused by the environment
2. Middle ear - waves strike eardrum which passes 2. Uses of IQ tests b. Dispositional - caused by something within
them to three tiny bones which intensify the force a. As a predictor of school success individual
of the vibrations b. Concerns about being "culture fair" c. Fundamental attribution error - overestimate
3. Inner ear - contains receptor cells (hair cells) 3. Nature of intelligence - one ability or many? dispositional and underestimate situational
located within the cochlea which initiate nerve 4. Influence of the environment causes
impulses which travel to the brain a. Hereditability - studies over a forty-year span have d. Self-serving bias - use dispositional
• TASTE revealed 50 – 80 % genetic component to IQ. attributions for good behaviors and situational
1. Four basic tastes - salty, sour, bitter and sweet - each Consequently, the general conclusion seems to be attributions to excuse our own behaviors
associated with different receptors or taste buds that heredity has a substantial effect on IQ scores, 2. Stereotypes - summary impressions when all
• SMELL with at least half the observed variation in IQ scores members of a group share common traits
1. Receptors in mucous membrane of nasal passage attributable to genetic differences 3.Attitude - a relatively enduring opinion
b. Experience determines point within genetic range
• SKIN SENSES including both cognitive and emotional
5. Extremes in intelligence components
1. Touch (pressure), warmth, cold and pain
a. Intellectually Challenged - IQ below 70
• PERCEPTION - organization and i. Biologically based - Downs syndrome, fetal alcohol
a. Attitudes and behavior influence each other
interpretation of sensations syndrome b. Cognitive dissonance - when an attitude and
1. World seen as constant, although the sensations ii. Psychosocial - disease, malnutrition, lack of behavior conflict, we are motivated to make
may change intellectual stimulation them consistent
2. Needs, beliefs, emotions and expectations all b. Intellectually gifted - skills on one or more 4. Prejudice - unjustif ied negative attitudes
influence perception intellectual domains toward a group
• CONFORMITY - behavior that occurs as
a result of real or imagined group
LANGUAGE, MEMORY • OBEDIENCE - following orders from an
THINKING AND Ability to retain and retrieve information authority
• LANGUAGE - Rule-governed system of 1. Information must be encoded to be processed by 1. Groupthink - tendency for all group
symbols used to represent and communicate brain members to think alike and suppress dissent
information a. Storage - retention of information 2. Group Polarization - tendency of a group to
b. Retrieval - accessing information take a more extreme position than those of
1. Understanding language
a. Phonology - knowledge of sounds 2. Three memory systems individual members
b. Semantics - knowledge or word meanings a. Sensory - literal copy of information - held for 1-2 3.Responsibility
c. Syntax - knowledge of grammatical structure seconds a. Diffusion of responsibility - avoidance
i. Deep structure - meaning b. Short-term b. Social loafing - individual slows down to let
ii. Surface structure - organization of words i. Limited capacity (7 + or - 2 items)
the group shoulder the load
d. Psycholinguistics - the study of the ability to ii. Information held for about 30 seconds; then it is
forgotten or further encoded and placed in long-term c. Bystander apathy will not occur when one
produce and understand language
memory i. Perceives the need to help
2. Acquiring language
c. Long-term ii. Decides to take responsibility
a. Rules and strategies are innate
i. Unlimited capacity iii.Weighs the costs of helping
i. Basic timing and sequence of language development is
ii. Information stored and retrieved by category iv. Knows how to help
similar across cultures
ii. Children learn the rules of their native language, (i.e., 3. Forgetting • LOVE - (Sternberg)
overgeneralization) a. In sensory memory - through decay 1.Has three related components:
b. Particular language acquired is based on experience b. In short-term memory a. Intimacy
3. Language and thought - language has an impact on i. Limited capacity subject to “filling up”
b. Passion
ii. Can retain information through rehearsal
how easily we process information c. Commitment
(a) Maintenance (rote) rehearsal
• THINKING (b) Elaborative rehearsal - associating new with old 2.Depending on the combination of these
1. Using concepts - apply past experiences to present information elements, produces different dimensions in a
thoughts c. In long-term memory relationship:
a. Concept - a mental grouping of a set of objects or i. Decay - information fades if not used a. Liking - intimacy alone
events on the basis of important common features ii. Forgetting b. Companionate Love - intimacy and
b. Must be learned through definition or example (a) Interference - similar items interfere
(b) Motivated - conscious or unconscious “hiding” a commitment
c. Concepts aid in predicting and interpreting events c. Empty Love - commitment alone
and organizing experiences (c) Cue-dependent - unable to gain access to the information d. Fatuous Love - passion and commitment
2. Problem solving - set of information used to (d) Zeigarnik effect - interrupted, or incomplete tasks seem e. Infatuation - passion only
achieve goal to be better remembered than completed tasks
f. Romantic Love - intimacy and passion
a. Strategies (e) Non-verbal memory - pictures are remembered
significantly better than words; motor memory seems to be g. Consummate Love - intimacy, passion, and
i. Define the problem
impervious to decay commitment

1. Learning - influence of experience (nurture) 2. Psychosexual development • MOTIVATION - need or desire to act a certain
2. Maturation - unfolding of biological patterns (nature) a. Oral stage (0-1) - sucking, feeding, etc. way to achieve a goal
3. Critical Periods - early development periods during b. Anal stage (2-3) - defecation 1. Range of motives
which particular early experiences are essential c. Phallic stage (3-5) - sexual attraction to the opposite a. Physiological - hunger, thirst, pain avoidance
4. Stages - organization of behaviors and thoughts sex parent produces the Oedipus complex b. Social - learned
d. Latency period (5-puberty) - sexual feelings c. Maslow - motives organized in a hierarchy of needs -
during particular early periods of development - forgotten; child concentrates on skill development
defined by relatively abrupt change physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem,
e. Genital stage - adult sexual relationships
• COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 3. Anxiety - unjustified fears resolved by ego through
2. Motivational system - set of motives and
1. Piaget use of defense mechanisms
a. Assimilation - fit new information into what is known a. Repression - active exclusion of unconscious behaviors that operate in a particular life area
b. Accommodation - change existing beliefs in impulses from consciousness a. Hunger and eating
b. Projection - attribute to others our thoughts and feelings i. Hunger signals - stomach contractions, hypothalamus,
response to new knowledge
c. Reaction formation - behavior patterns opposite to environment
c. Stages of development
i. Sensory-motor stage (birth - 2) - object permanence our anxiety producing urges ii. Food preferences - cultural, personal and biological
ii. Preoperational stage (2-7) - use of symbols and d. Displacement - redirects anxiety producing origins
language; egocentric; lack the principles of conservation behaviors to a more acceptable target b. Sexual motivation - hormones
iii. Concrete operational stage (7-11) - understand e. Rationalization - substitute “good” reasons for real c. Work
conservation, identity, grounded in concrete experiences reasons for behavior i. Extrinsic motivation - working for external reward
iv. Formal operations stage (12-adult) - abstract reasoning 4. Defense Mechanisms ii. Intrinsic motivation - working for pleasure of activity
a. Denial - the refusal to acknowledge an external itself
2. Language development - acquisition depends on
source of anxiety 3. Maslow’s hierarchy of motivations
biological readiness and experience b. Fantasy - utilizing imagination to satisfy desires that
a. In the hierarchy of needs, the needs at each level must
• SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT are, in reality, highly unlikely (e.g., sexually
be satisfied before going on to the next level
1. Attachment - emotional tie between infant and fantasizing about a celebrity)
c. Intellectualization - the repression of the emotional b. The hierarchy of needs
caretaker (Harlow’s monkey studies) i. Physiological needs - food, water, sex, and shelter
2. Sex typing - learning “masculine” or “feminine” component of an anxiety-provoking event; the event
is treated in a purely analytical manner ii. Safety needs - security needs
a. Identification with the same sex parent iii.Belongingness and love needs - acceptance and
d. Regression - resorting to infantile behaviors as a
b. Rewards and punishments for sex appropriate behavior friendship
method for avoiding anxiety and/or responsibility
3. Erikson’s stages e. Identification - identifying with the anxiety- iv. Esteem needs - self-esteem, and esteem from others
a. Trust Versus Mistrust: 0 – 2 years of age producing stimulus in an attempt to reduce one’s own v. Self-actualization needs - realizing one’s potential as a
b. Autonomy Versus Doubt and Shame: 2- 3 years of age anxiety (opposite of projection) creative, productive person
c. Initiative Versus Guilt: 3 – 6 years of age f. Overcompensation - an attempt to conceal perceived • EMOTION
d. Industry Versus Inferiority: 6 – 11 years of age deficiencies in one area by excelling in another; e.g.,
1. Defining features of emotions - subjective
• MORAL DEVELOPMENT - Kohlberg a student with poor academic performance becomes
an excellent athlete experience, physiological arousal, expressive
Theory: g. Sublimation - the re-channeling of sexual or behavior, changes in cognition
1. Preconventional morality - obey because ordered aggressive impulses in a socially acceptable 2. Inborn - people from different cultural
to or will be punished direction; e.g., an aggressive person becomes a backgrounds can identify emotions
2. Conventional morality - based on trust, loyalty or professional boxer 3. James-Lange Theory - emotion is a result of a
understanding social order • HUMANISTIC THEORIES - people are perception of bodily changes and behaviors
3. Postconventional morality - laws are situational rational, capable of choice and desire to 4. Cannon-Bard Theory - emotion is a result of
and can be changed achieve personal growth perception of a stimulus which causes both
• CHRONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 1. Carl Rogers - self-concept directs behavior, physiological changes and subjective feelings
1. Newborn Child conflict between real and ideal self 5. Cognitive Labeling Theory - emotion is a result of
a. Reflexes - automatic behaviors, rooting, sucking, 2. Abraham Maslow - individual strives for self-
the interpretation of the causes of physiological
swallowing, startle, etc. actualization - fulfillment of potential
b. Vision - nearsighted, interested in novelty • EXISTENTIAL PSYCHODYNAMICS
1. Yalom - primary drive of the individual is to derive 6. Frustration-aggression hypothesis - aggression
c. Social skills
i. Smile at 4-6 weeks in response to faces meaning from the complexities of their life results from blocking of efforts to achieve a goal
ii. Rhythmic "conversations" experiences; to understand a structure, rationale, or
2. Adolescence justification to the events they have experienced;
a. Biological development - increased hormone failing this, life is seen as absurd and pointless, leading
to despair, depression, and existential crises; the
production; sex organs mature; growth spurt
b. Intellectual development - formal operational primary concerns of this approach to psychotherapy • JAYNES’ THEORY
(abstract reasoning), independence, questioning deal with confronting the issues of death, freedom, 1. Consciousness not only evolves neurobiologically,
3. Aging existential isolation, and meaninglessness but is also formed by the individual’s interactions
a. Transition Theories - unanticipated, anticipated, • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY - how and with culture
nonevent, chronic hassle under what situations thoughts and behaviors 2. The foundation of consciousness is based in the
b. Major Milestones - starting out, marriage or living are learned
alone, parenthood, empty nest, midlife crises, physiology of the brain’s left and right hemispheres;
retirement, widowhood 1. Trait - relatively enduring quality or characteristic there are three fundamental forms of human
2. Cross-situational - most central to self-concept awareness that are the outcome of this process:
• PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT a. Bicameral - controlled by right hemisphere of brain,
PERSONALITY 1. Assessment methods must be: which dominates left-hemisphere activity; individual
a. Reliable - same results over time subordinates consciousness of self to control by a
Distinctive patterns of behavior, thoughts and b. Valid - measure what it is supposed to measure group, a higher power, or other individual
emotions that characterize individual's 2. Interview
b. Modern - the dominance of the right brain
patterns of adaptation a. Advantage - tailored to individual's previous answers
b. Disadvantage - low reliability hemisphere over the left is weakened as civilization
3. Observation develops and humans become more autonomous and
1. Biological and genetic influences
a. times particular behavior occurs independent; as humans become more independent,
2. Experience - cultural and unique b. Good reliability
3. Stability and change individual consciousness emerges
4. Self-report c. Throwbacks to bicamerality - the re-emergence of
a. Genetic characteristics relatively stable through life a. MMPI - to diagnose psychological disorders
b. Less active, hostile and impulsive with age b. Ten primary scales measure personality dimensions bicameral consciousness in modern life is manifested
c. Personality changes as a result of life experiences 5. Projective techniques - individual provides an by episodes of schizophrenia, hypnosis and poetic
• FREUD interpretation of ambiguous material and religious frenzy
1. Personality consists of three parts a. Rorschach inkblots • SLEEP RHYTHMS
a. Id - basic biological urges; unconscious b. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
b. Ego - gratifies urges within acceptable bounds; conscious c. Concerns about reliability and validity since 1. REM - rapid eye movements associated with
c. Superego - values and ideals of society; conscience interpretations are subjective dreaming

2. Stages of brain waves • TYPES c. Implosion - client required to imagine the anxiety-
a. Alpha Waves - regular, high-amplitude, low 1. Statistical deviation producing stimulus in its most vivid and extreme
frequency wave 2. Violation of cultural standards manifestation; client experiences full anxiety
b. Stage 1 - small, irregular brain waves, light sleep response without suffering any harm; consequently,
3. Maladaptive behavior
the stimulus no longer elicits anxiety due to
c. Stage 2 - bursts of sleep spindles 4. Emotional distress extinction of the response
d. Stage 3 - delta waves; deep sleep 5. Legal (impaired judgment and lack of self-control) d. Flooding - same procedure and theory as implosion,
e. Stage 4 - extremely deep sleep • ANXIETY DISORDERS but real or realistically depicted stimuli are used
f. Entire cycle is 30-45 minutes and then reverses 1. Generalized anxiety disorder - chronic anxiety instead of imaginary ones
• WAKEFULNESS 2. Phobia - fear of specific situation, activity or thing 3. Cognitive therapy - to correct unrealistic thinking
1. Conscious processes 3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder 4. Humanistic therapy
2. Subconscious processes - can be brought into a. Obsessions - recurrent thoughts a. Client-centered - Carl Rogers
consciousness when necessary b. Compulsions - repetitive behaviors i. build self esteem
3. Nonconscious processes - remain outside • MOOD DISORDERS - (depression & mania) ii. critical qualities of the therapist - warm, genuine and
awareness but influence behavior honest
1. Causes b. Gestalt - Frederick Perls - self-actualization
• ALTERED STATES a. Biological (brain chemistry)
1. Meditation - eliminate distracting thoughts 5. Family and Group therapies - theorize that
b. Social (life situations)
2. Psychoactive drugs - influence perception, problems develop in a social context and must be
c. Attachment (disturbed relationships)
thinking or behavior dealt with in that context
d. Cognitive (maladaptive thoughts)
a. Stimulants - speed up nervous system activity - • PERSONALITY DISORDERS • EVALUATING THERAPIES
cocaine, amphetamines 1. Therapies are less effective with serious disorders
1. Paranoid - excessive suspiciousness
b. Depressants - slow central nervous system activity - 2. Relationship between client and therapist is critical
2. Narcissistic - exaggerated sense of self-importance
alcohol, tranquilizers 3. Certain therapies are effective for certain specific
3. Antisocial - lack of social emotions
c. Opiates - relieve pain and produce euphoria - opium, problems
morphine, heroin • MEDICAL TREATMENTS
multiple personality 1. Advantages of Medical Model - promotes a more
d. Psychedelic drugs - alter consciousness - LSD,
• SOMOTOFORM DISORDERS - take the humane understanding of patients; aids in the
3. Hypnosis - heightened state of suggestibility when form of physical disorders understanding of some organic mental disorders
subjects can sometimes control unconscious body • PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS and further initiates research in brain function
functions 1. Schizophrenia - bizarre delusions, hallucinations, 2. Disadvantages of Medical Model - environmental
4. Weil’s Theory severe emotional problems, withdrawal variables are unduly minimized or neglected;
a. Humans have an innate drive to experience states of a. Family dynamics - distorted patterns of communication diagnostic and treatment methods are questionable,
non-ordinary consciousness b. Biological - brain disease(s) or abnormalities in thus fostering an institutionalization syndrome; this
b. Individuals and cultures experiment with ways to neurotransmitters approach removes responsibility for recovery from
change their ordinary states of consciousness c. Stress - combination of heredity and stress the patient while promoting a dependence upon
c. Altered states of consciousness are common; e.g., 2. Organic brain disorders - i.e. diseases, brain injury hospitals and chemicals
daydreaming, sleeping, etc • VIEWS ON THE REALITY OF MENTAL • BEHAVIORISM
d. Individuals often are unaware they are in the midst of ILLNESS 1. Cognitive components to behavior (e.g.,
an experience of non-ordinary consciousness; e.g., 1. Szasz’s Objection - the concept of "mental illness" expectations, verbalization, imitation etc.) are
daydreams, or alcoholic ‘black-out’ episodes is a socially constructed myth for the purpose of unduly minimized or ignored
e. Altered states of consciousness form a continuum or advancing certain social and political agenda; 2. Overly operationalistic - physical correlates are
spectrum ranging from normal, alert, waking clinical psychology is an instrument of repression to closely identified with mental states (e.g., fear is
consciousness to sensory deprivation, to coma enforce conformity and stigmatize non-conformists identified with the physiological manifestations of
f. Psychotropic and psychedelic drugs do not cause as "deviant" people with the label "mentally ill" anxiety); overlooks the possibility that the
altered states of consciousness—they are merely a 2. Reznek’s Definition - something is a mental interpretation of observable physical symptoms can
way to elicit such states illness if, and only if, it is an abnormal* and determine their reality; for instance, the physiological
g. Understanding the mechanisms of altered states of involuntary process that does mental harm and correlates of anxiety may be interpreted as fear,
consciousness can be an avenue to greater should best be treated by medical means excitement, anger, or sexual arousal depending upon
understanding of the nervous system; furthermore, prior expectations, cultural values etc
*Note - "abnormal" is used in the constructivist or
such knowledge may lead to the discovery of 3. Ignores the role played by intervening inferred
normative sense, and not in the statistical or
untapped human potential and a better understanding cognitive variables
idealistic sense, as "normal" is a relative term
of ordinary waking consciousness determined by society • COGNITIVE BEHAVIORISM
1. Difficult to avoid circular definitions in invoking
the meaning of certain mental constructs
2. Difficult to determine what extent to allow
U.S. $4.95 Can. $7.50 TREATMENT AND decreasingly operationalizable mental entities
THERAPY 3. The role of psychosomatic variables may be
NOTE TO STUDENT: This QUICKSTUDY® guide is an outline of the major topics overlooked or minimized
taught in introductory Psychology courses. Due to its condensed format, use it as a • MEDICAL TREATMENTS
Psychology guide, but not as a replacement for assigned class work.
1. Antipsychotic drugs (major tranquilizers) - 4. Some argue that the underlying cause of observable
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, or by any means, symptoms is ignored by behavioral therapies
electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without schizophrenia
written permission from the publisher. © 2001 BarCharts, Inc. 1106 Note - Clinically, both behaviorism and cognitive
2. Antidepressant drugs (stimulants) - mood
behaviorism only seem effective in the treatment of
ISBN-13: 978-142320215-8 very specific disorders; e.g., phobias, specific
ISBN-10: 142320215-5 3. Surgery - to destroy brain areas believed
undesirable behaviors; cannot effectively be applied
responsible for emotional disorders
to amorphous problems such as undifferentiated
4. Electroconvulsive therapy - induces seizures used existential depression
to treat major depression
• PSYCHOTHERAPY 1. Freud’s initial theory based only on case studies
1. Psychodynamic (insight) therapies - explore the and anecdotal evidence, and a patient population
hundreds of titles at unconscious dynamics of personality which was very limited, atypical, and selective
quickstudy.com a. Freud - 2. Postulates entities that are by definition
i. Understanding past produces insight unobservable and cannot be operationalized for
ii. Free association and transference
valid scientific evaluation
b. Neo-Freudians - use Freud’s techniques, usually time
3. Psychoanalysis has been demonstrated (by Eysenck)
to be ineffective in treating emotional disorders
2. Behavioral therapies
4. In reaction to criticism and undermining evidence
a. Systematic desensitization - exposure to a hierarchy
against their theory, Neo-Freudians have modified
of stimuli while relaxing to decrease fears
b. Aversive conditioning - punishment for unwanted their theory with post-hoc hypotheses to the point that
behavior it is no longer scientifically testable even in principle
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