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Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

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Precambrian Research
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Crustal growth in the 3.4–2.7 Ga São José de Campestre Massif, Borborema

Province, NE Brazil
Elton Luiz Dantas a , Zorano Sérgio de Souza b,∗ , Eberhard Wernick c , Peter Christian Hackspacher c ,
Hervé Martin d , Deng Xiaodong e , Jian-Wei Li e
Instituto de Geociências–UnB, Brasília, Brazil
Pós-Graduação em Geodinâmica e Geofísica and Departamento de Geologia – UFRN, Natal, Brazil
Departamento de Mineralogia e Petrologia–UNESP; Rio Claro, Brazil
Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, OPGC, CNRS, IRD, Université Blaise Pascal 5, Rue Kessler 63038, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex, France
State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Hubei Province 430074 Wuhan, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The Archean (3.45–2.70 Ga) rocks of the São José do Campestre Massif (SJCM) in the Borborema Province
Received 7 January 2012 (NE Brazil) make up a small area (∼6000 km2 ) and are composed of granitoids and metasupracrustal rocks
Received in revised form 7 August 2012 that define a complex magmatic and deformational history. The massif provides the opportunity to study
Accepted 15 August 2012
mantle- and crustal-derived magmas generated since the Palaeoarchean. The orthogneisses of the SJCM
Available online 27 August 2012
are composed of: (1) tonalite to granodiorite with diorite enclaves (Bom Jesus gneiss, 3412 ± 8 Ma; TDM Nd
model ages from 4.1 to 3.5 Ga and negative epsilon Nd values); (2) biotite and ferroan-diopside monzo-
granite (Presidente Juscelino complex, 3356 ± 21 Ma and 3251 ± 44 Ma; TDM model ages range from 4.1 to
Magmatic accretion
3.4 Ga and epsilon Nd values that are slightly positive to negative); (3) hornblende tonalite to granodiorite
Recycling (Brejinho complex, 3333 ± 77 Ma and 3187 ± 8 Ma; dominantly positive epsilon Nd values and TDM ages
Crustal growth from 3.6 to 3.2 Ga); (4) biotite monzogranite (São Pedro do Potengi gneiss, 3120 ± 22 Ma; TDM = 3.5 Ga;
NE Brazil negative epsilon Nd value); (5) ferroan-diopside-grossular anorthosite and metagabbro (Senador Elói
de Souza complex, 3033 ± 3 Ma); and (6) quartz diorite to syenogranite (São José do Campestre com-
plex; 2685 ± 9 Ma and 2655 ± 4 Ma; negative epsilon Nd values and TDM ages from 3.9 to 3.3 Ga). The
orthogneisses are subalkaline to faintly alkaline, magnesian to ferroan, M- and I-type granitoids that
follow either the K-enrichment or the trondhjemite trends. Each group has a subset with REE char-
acteristics similar to Archean TTG and another that is analogous to Phanerozoic granitoids. They have
negative Ta–Nb and Ti anomalies and have trace element contents of granitoids from subduction zones.
Geochemical and Nd isotope data suggest that subducted oceanic crust and a depleted and metasoma-
tised mantle wedge both acted as the magma sources. We propose a convergent tectonic model in which
hybridisation of the upper mantle occurs through interactions with adakitic or trondhjemitic melts and
recycling of earlier crust. The results imply that both the subducted oceanic crust and the mantle wedge
played major roles in continent formation throughout successive episodes of arc accretion in Palaeo- and
Mesoarchean times. The Archean rocks of the SJCM shares some similarities with the Pilbara, Kaapvaal,
West African, and São Francisco cratons. However, the most reliable comparisons with the SJCM are with
the neighbouring basement of the Nigeria and Cameroon shields.
© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction understanding the mechanisms of continental growth and empha-

sises crustal recycling as a relevant process of magma genesis.
The Archean comprises the main period of crustal growth in The most accepted crustal growth models indicate that the con-
Earthı̌s history, but few areas of the world preserve rocks older tinental crust grew progressively with time (Hurley and Rand,
than 3.0 Ga. The presence of early sialic crust is an important clue to 1969) and suggest episodicity and rapid crustal growth early in
Earth history before the end of Archean at 2.5 Ga (Condie, 2000;
Rollinson, 2006). In contrast, no-growth models that suggest steady
state crustal evolution consider the continuous and irreversible
generation of new continental crust over geological time (Reymer
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +55 84 32153831; fax: +55 84 32153831.
and Schubert, 1984; Liu et al., 1990; Armstrong, 1991; Bruguier
E-mail addresses: elton@unb.br (E.L. Dantas), zorano@geologia.ufrn.br,
z desouza@hotmail.com (Z.S. de Souza). et al., 1994; Kroner and Tegtmeyer, 1994; Bowring and Housh,

0301-9268/$ – see front matter © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 121

1995; Rudnick, 1995). The episodicity of crustal growth suggests formation during the Archean in this segment of the South Ameri-
major events of rapid continental growth at 3.6, 2.7 and 1.8 Ga can platform.
according to McCulloch and Bennett (1994) or at 2.9, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9,
1.8, 1.2, 0.9 and 0.8 Ga according to Condie (1998, 2000) and Condie
2. Geologic setting
and Aster (2010). This episodic pattern led Albarède (1998) to
consider mantle plume periodicity in addition to continuous sub-
2.1. Tectonic framework
duction zone activity.
The Archean was characterised by much higher geothermal
The Borborema Province (Almeida et al., 1981) in northeast-
gradients than present because of higher heat production, which
ern Brazil (Fig. 1) comprises several metasupracrustal sequences
resulted in the genesis of unique lithologies such as komatiites
deposited over Archean to Palaeoproterozoic gneissic base-
and widespread occurrences of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite
ments that have been subsequently intruded by large bodies of
(TTG) magmas (Condie, 1981; Martin, 1986, 1994). The genera-
Brasiliano-age (0.60 ± 0.05 Ga) granitoids. This province resulted
tion of trondhjemites and tonalites has been investigated since the
from the convergence of the West African—São Luís and São
classical papers of Arth and Hanson (1972) and Barker (1979).
Francisco—Congo cratons during the assembly of Western Gond-
Classical TTGs exhibit strongly fractionated Rare Earth Element
wana. In a pre-drift reconstruction, the province extends from
(REE) patterns that have low Heavy REE (HREE) contents and are
central and southeast Brazil to West Africa through the Cameroon,
devoid of significant Eu anomalies. Petrological and experimental
Nigeria and Hoggar shields (Fig. 1). This province includes a com-
studies, as well as geochemical modelling, indicate that the gen-
plex system of crustal-scale high temperature shear zones that
esis of Archean TTG may be explained by batch partial melting of
separate domains of variably strained massifs and Neoproterozoic
an Archean tholeiite that was transformed into garnet amphibo-
metasupracrustal sequences and controlled the emplacement of
lite or eclogite, leaving garnet as a residual phase (Barker and Arth,
Brasiliano/Pan-African granitoids (Caby et al., 1991; Jardim de Sá,
1976; Condie, 1981; Martin, 1986, 1994; Rapp et al., 1991). How-
1994; Vauchez et al., 1995).
ever, experimental results reported by Johnston and Wyllie (1988)
The SJCM comprises (Fig. 2; Dantas et al., 1998, 2004): (1)
showed that the mineral assemblage of trondhjemites could repre-
Archean complexes in its central part, which are composed of vol-
sent residual phases from sialic crust protolith and that tonalites
umetrically dominant orthogneisses (described in detail below)
and trondhjemites could be derived from the remelting of ear-
and subordinate metasupracrustal rocks; (2) Palaeoproterozoic
lier tonalite and trondhjemite melts that crystallised and were
orthogneisses (ca. 2.25–2.15 Ga) that surround the Archean nucleus
emplaced in the lower crust.
and are correlated with the Caicó Complex basement (Souza
Late Archean crustal evolution was characterised by the pres-
et al., 2007); (3) late Neoproterozoic metasupracrustal sequences
ence of K-rich granites. A crustal origin from the melting of older
belonging to the Seridó Group (Van Schmus et al., 2003); and (4)
sialic crust was generally accepted for the generation of K-rich gran-
voluminous Brasiliano age granitoid plutons.
ites (Goodwin, 1991; Sylvester, 1994). The crustal origin may be
related to the partial melting of a lower crust with low crustal res-
idence times or contaminated continental crust involving negative 2.2. Lithologic units and structural patterns
Nd signatures and alkaline geochemistry (Jahn et al., 1981; Martin,
1986). However, subsequent studies suggested a mantle-derived The Archean rocks of the SJCM are composed of volumetrically
source in the generation of most K2 O-rich basic to intermediate dominant medium- to high-grade orthogneisses with at least six
magmas emplaced at the end of the Archean, which are gener- successive events of intrusion from 3.41 to 2.66 Ga (Dantas, 1996;
ally referred to as sanukitoids (Stern and Hanson, 1991; Smithies Dantas et al., 2004; Souza et al., 2010; Souza and Kalsbeek, 2011).
and Champion, 2000; Martin et al., 2010) or Closepet-type granites Fig. 2 shows the geologic units referred, which are described below.
(Jayananda et al., 1995; Martin et al., 2005; Moyen, 2009; Moyen Fig. 3 shows these units in the field, and Fig. 4 shows typical petro-
et al., 2001, 2003; Smithies and Champion, 2000). graphic facies of the rocks.
The São José do Campestre Massif (SJCM) is located at the north- The Bom Jesus gneiss (BJ, 3412 ± 8 Ma) forms a small block in
east corner of South America, north of the Patos (Brazil)—Adamaoua the central part of the Archean massif. It is composed of grano-
(Africa) lineaments and east of the Hoggar/Transbrasiliano lin- diorite to tonalite with gabbro to quartz diorite (now recrystallised
eament (Fig. 1). The SJCM is an ancient crustal block in which to amphibolite) enclaves, and centimetre scale trondhjemitic leu-
the Archean components outcrop over an area of approximately cosomes (Fig. 3a). Green hornblende and biotite are common and
6000 square kilometres. This Archean fragment is surrounded contain relicts of diopside (Fig. 4a). Due to the banded texture of this
by voluminous Palaeoproterozoic (2.25–1.9 Ga) orthogneisses that gneiss, we thoroughly sampled it in one unique outcrop to better
were amalgamated during the assembly of Palaeoproterozoic distinguish the different lithologies (samples BR57F and H shown in
(Columbia) and early Neoproterozoic (Rodinia) supercontinents Fig. 3a). In other locations, amphibolite xenoliths are hosted in the
and acted as the basement of Neoproterozoic metasupracrustals Presidente Juscelino orthogneiss (Fig. 3b). The most representative
(the Seridó Group) and late Neoproterozoic (0.62–0.58 Ga) plutons Bom Jesus gneiss (named Bom Jesus I—BJ I) is located west of Bom
(Van Schmus et al., 2003; Dantas, 1996; Dantas et al., 1998, 2004). Jesus village (Fig. 3a). Hornblende-biotite-bearing granodiorite that
Petrologic and geochronologic studies of the SJCM indicate that outcrops southwest of Bom Jesus village has a characteristic geo-
it consists of several distinct lithologic units that correspond to dif- chemical composition (sample ES915; SiO2 = 68.2 wt.%, Mg# = 40,
ferent phases of magmatism. A systematic study for major, trace Na2 O + K2 O = 7.9, Na2 O/K2 O = 1.5, YbN = 4.4) and has been named
and REE elements and Sr–Nd isotopes was carried out on fresh Bom Jesus subset II (BJ II).
samples that are representative of all units identified in the SJCM. Dantas et al. (2004) reported SHRIMP U–Pb zircon dates of a
The main purposes of the study were as follows: (1) describe the hornblende-bearing tonalite gneiss of the BJ I suite (sample BR57H;
magmatic components of this Archean fragment; (2) constrain its SiO2 = 62.8 wt.%, Mg# = 53, Na2 O + K2 O = 4.9, Na2 O/K2 O = 2.6,
petrogenesis; and (3) discuss the involvement of slabs, mantle YbN = 11.8). The analysed zircons are brown, euhedral, prismatic
wedges and preexisting continental crust in magma generation and grains (100–300 mm long and 50–110 mm wide with an aspect
evolution. Thus, we intend to understand and characterise magma ratio of 2.54) that are strongly zoned an commonly have a fine
generation from different sources and the processes that modified metamorphic rim; they yield an age cluster at ca. 3.4 Ga. Sim-
the magmas once formed to constrain crustal growth and continent ilar results were reported by Dantas (1996) based on thermal
122 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 1. Geodynamic context of the São José do Campestre Massif (NE Brazil) in a pre-drift reconstruction for West Africa and eastern South America (after Jardim de Sá,
1994). WAC, West African Craton; AC, Amazonian Craton; SFC, São Francisco Craton; CC, Congo Craton; BRMB, Brasília and Ribeira mobile belts; BP, Borborema Province; CS,
Cameroon Shield; NB, Nigerian Belt; HS, Hoggar Shield; PL, Patos lineament; PeL, Pernambuco lineament; AdL, Adamaoua lineament.

ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) isotope dilution of eight titanite as the mafic phases in the PJ II subset (Fig. 4d). Granodiorite
air-abraded zircons from the same sample with an upper intercept and monzogranite grey gneisses are composed mainly of biotite,
at 3412 ± 8 Ma. The dispersed range of zircons in the Concordia quartz, plagioclase and microcline. Hornblende, allanite, zircon and
diagram are distributed along the 3.2–3.0, 2.1–2.0 and 0.6 Ga age apatite are common accessory minerals. These rocks predominate
lines and were interpreted as representing metamorphic events in the central portion of the Archean nucleus and constitute the
superimposed over the Archean gneisses (Dantas et al., 2004). majority of the palaeosome of migmatites that occurs in the area.
The Presidente Juscelino complex (PJ, I—3356 ± 21 Ma and The leucosomes form an interconnected network that extends into
II—3251 ± 44 Ma) represents the dominant Archean lithologies in the host tonalite.
the SJCM. It is composed of monzogranite gneisses that reflect Thirty-seven zircons from sample ES450, which is a biotite-
two periods of magmatism at 3.36 and 3.25 Ga (U–Pb zircon ages), bearing monzogranite and equigranular, leucocratic gneiss that
which are hereafter named the Presidente Juscelino I and II sub- displays a weak flat lying foliation and represents the PJ I sub-
sets (PJ I and PJ II). These subsets are not easily distinguished in the set, were dated by LA-ICP-MS (see the methodology described
field because crosscutting relationships were not found; they have in Appendix A) and reported recently in an abstract by Souza
been distinguished primarily by petrographic criteria. PJ II contains et al. (2010). The sample is a relatively evolved alkali-rich
clinopyroxene and titanite that are visible to the naked eyes, while granite (SiO2 = 74 wt.%, Mg# = 15, Na2 O + K2 O = 7.2, Na2 O/K2 O = 2.6,
PJ I only contains biotite. As we will see below, they are also dis- YbN = 77.1). The zircons are from 50 to 150 mm wide and 100 to
tinguished based on geochronologic and geochemical data (high 500 mm long (aspect ratio of 2.48), usually have igneous-like zon-
and low normalised Yb, respectively). Locally, xenoliths of tonalitic ing and sometimes have a fine, discontinuous, recrystallised rim.
gneiss from the old nucleus are observed (Fig. 3b). The Presidente Laser ablation data show 14 concordant zircons at 3356 ± 21 Ma
Juscelino unit is volumetrically important and is located on the (MSWD = 0.96).
western portion of the Archean block (Fig. 2). The rocks are typically Eight zircons from a biotite-bearing equigranular, leucocratic,
holocrystalline massive to foliated gneisses (Fig. 3c) and usually monzogranite gneiss (PJ II subset) from the Teixeira Quarry (sample
contain perthitic orthoclase (Fig. 4c) and brown biotite with green CE118; SiO2 = 75 wt.%, Mg# = 40, Na2 O + K2 O = 7.6, Na2 O/K2 O = 0.9)
ferroan-diopside (Wo46 En32 Fs21 ) uralitised to blue hornblende and that were dated by TIMS plotted in a Discordia diagram with an
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 123

Fig. 2. Simplified geological map of the São José do Campestre Massif. Modified after Dantas et al. (2004).
124 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 3. Field aspects of metaplutonic rocks of the São José do Campestre Massif. (a) Gabbro to quartz diorite (black) and granodiorite in slightly partially melted 3.41 Ga Bom
Jesus gneiss (point KZ1; the same as ED57 of Dantas et al. (2004); due to the banded characteristic of this gneiss, we did a detailed sampling over an unique outcrop in order
to separate the different lithologies (samples A to H). (b) Xenolith of amphibolite of the Bom Jesus gneiss within the Presidente Juscelino gneiss (southeast Bom Jesus village).
(c) Presidente Juscelino hololeucocratic 3.25 Ga monzogranite gneiss (point ES40) from the Teixeira Quarry. (d) Orthoclase phenocryst granodiorite of the 3.12 Ga São Pedro
do Potengi gneiss (point ES387). (e) Typical pink facies of the 2.70 Ga São José do Campestre complex syenogranite. (a), (b), (d) and (e) are horizontal views, whereas (c)
represents vertical sections.

upper intercept of 3255 ± 44 Ma (Dantas, 1996; see also Dantas late-Neoproterozoic metamorphic overprinting event at approxi-
et al., 2004). The zircons are long, euhedral, uncoloured, and pris- mately 0.6 Ga.
matic and are considered to be igneous. Dantas et al. (2004) It is worth noting the presence of lenses of metasupracrustal
reported SHRIMP analyses of ten zircons from the same gneiss rocks represented by sillimanite-cordierite-garnet-biotite gneiss,
that yielded a distinct age cluster from 3.4 Ga (3364–3342 Ma) to forsterite-bearing dolomitic marble, diopside-grossular calc-
3.1 Ga (3250–3118 Ma), which represent igneous and metamor- silicate rocks and banded iron formation. These rocks are not
phic events, respectively. An additional eight zircons indicated a discussed in this paper.
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 125

Fig. 4. Petrographic and textural features of the analysed rocks. Relict diopside (Dio) surrounded by green hornblende (Hb) in the 3.41 Ga Bom Jesus (a) and the 3.33 Ga
Brejinho diorites (b) (samples KZ1 and ES568F, respectively). (c) Patchy and flame-like perthitic orthoclase (Ort) in the 3.36 Ga Presidente Juscelino monzogranite – sample
ES450; earlier formed thin albite continuous lamellae are also observed. (d) ferroan-diopside (Dio) surrounded by blue to green hornblende (Hb) in the 3.36 Ga Presidente
Juscelino monzogranite (sample ES888). (e) Green hornblende (Hb) locally altered to brown biotite in the 2.70 Ga São José do Campestre syenogranite (sample ES471). Crossed
polars in (c). Uncrossed polars in the other pictures. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of the article.)

The Brejinho Complex (Br I—3333 ± 77 Ma and Br II—3187 ± 8 Ma) diopside (Fig. 4b). The presence of diopside (in the less evolved
includes quartz diorite, granodiorites and tonalites that outcrop facies) and the abundance of biotite characterise Br I, whereas Br II is
around the villages of Brejinho, Lagoa de Pedras and Lagoa Sal- devoid of diopside, rarely contains hornblende, and often contains
gada, east of the Archean block (Fig. 2). These lithotypes are biotite.
often strongly deformed and interleaved and appear now as Dantas (1996; see also Dantas et al., 2004) reported TIMS
banded gneisses. Palaeoproterozoic quartz diorite (now amphibo- ages for samples BR68 (four zircons) and BR72 (three zircons).
lite) crosscuts Archean recumbent folds that deform earlier fabrics. These samples are from silica-rich tonalite gneisses of the Br I
The main mafic phase is green hornblende that borders relicts of and Br II suites, respectively (SiO2 = 75.4–78.4 wt.%, Mg# = 7–27,
126 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Na2 O + K2 O = 5.1–5.0, Na2 O/K2 O = 4.1–5.3, YbN = 30.9–55.7). They

have upper intercepts at 3333 ± 77 Ma (MSWD of 6.2) and
3178 ± 8 Ma (MSWD of 0.19), respectively. It was not possible to
distinguish the Br I and Br II suites during the field work. Careful
investigation is necessary to separate these subgroups; the 3178 Ma
date most likely represents a younger event in the area.
The São Pedro do Potengi gneiss (SP, 3120 ± 22 Ma) is a small
body of biotite-hornblende-bearing, medium-grained, slightly
inequigranular granite to granodiorite gneiss that sometimes dis-
plays relict K-feldspar phenocrysts (Fig. 3d). It has a moderate
dipping to flat lying foliation that is cut by discrete, vertical high-
temperature shear zones tentatively related to late-Neoproterozoic
reactivation. The gneiss appears as xenoliths within the São José do
Campestre quartz diorite and syenogranite in Santa Maria village.
Twenty-five zircons from sample ES387 were dated by LA-ICP-
Fig. 5. Modal composition of metaplutonic rocks of the São José do Campestre Massif
MS (see the methodology described in Appendix A) and reported
reported in the Q-A-P triangle (Streckeisen, 1976). To, tonalite; Gd, granodiorite;
recently in an abstract by Souza et al. (2010). The sample is a Gr, granite; QM, quartz monzonite; QMD, quartz monzodiorite. The arrows corre-
moderately evolved alkali-rich granite (SiO2 = 68.5 wt%, Mg# = 41, spond to typical differentiation trends (Lameyre and Bowden, 1982): T, tholeiitic;
Na2 O + K2 O = 7.2, Na2 O/K2 O = 1.6, YbN = 7.3). The zircons range in A, alkaline. Calc-alkaline trends: a, low-K; b, intermediate-K; c, high-K.
size from 30 to 100 mm wide and 90–450 mm long with an aspect
ratio of 3.24, have igneous-like zoning, sometimes have a fine,
sinuous, discontinuous recrystallised rim, and yielded an upper southwest dipping linear fabric in the 2.7 Ga quartz diorite and
intercept at 3118 ± 21 Ma (MSWD = 7.1). syenogranite. These observations indicate that the tectonic frame-
The Senador Elói de Souza complex (SESC, 3033 ± 3 Ma, Dantas, work of the Archean block was controlled by strong tangential
1996) forms a small group of NW-SE oriented dyke-like bodies deformation. Vertical structures were formed only locally along
near Senador Elói de Souza village that are composed of grey to late Neoproterozoic strike-slip shear zones synchronously with
green ferroan-diopside (Wo52 En25 Fs22 )-grossular anorthosite (pla- NW-SE synforms and antiforms that overprint the Archean
gioclase with An92-97 ), garnet-bearing metagabbros, and norites. structures.
The dykes crosscut garnet-bearing paragneisses of the Presidente
Juscelino complex. The SESC is not discussed in this paper.
The São José do Campestre Complex (SJC, 2685 ± 9 Ma and 2.3. Petrography
2655 ± 4 Ma) marks the final phase of Archean magmatism that
is recognised in the SJCM. It is represented by ∼2.7 Ga plutons of In this paper, the modal composition of 40 samples was
quartz diorite to syenogranite that outcrop around the São José established from an average counting of 1000 points in each
do Campestre, Boa Saúde and Santa Maria villages (Fig. 2). The individual thin section. All samples were plotted in a Q-A-P (Quartz-
plutons are leucocratic to mesocratic equigranular, massif to foli- Alkali Feldspar-Plagioclase) triangle (Fig. 5; Lameyre and Bowden,
ated grey to pink gneisses (Fig. 3e) with syeno- to monzogranite 1982). The regular variation of mafic and felsic minerals together
(and subordinate gabbro, diorite and tonalite) compositions; the with the preserved igneous minerals (clinopyroxene, amphibole,
main mafic phase is green hornblende that is often altered to biotite, titanite, feldspar phenocrysts), the absence of metasomatic
brown biotite (Fig. 4e), and allanite, apatite and zircon are acces- replacement of K-feldspar by Na-plagioclase (Drummond et al.,
sory phases. The mafic to intermediate facies are interleaved and 1986) and the apparent conservation of magmatic geochemical
show gradational contacts with the more felsic silica-rich facies. trends (see below) suggest that the observed mineral assemblage
Dantas (1996, see also Dantas et al., 2004) reported TIMS ages is the same as in the magmatic protoliths.
of two samples (CE116B, EC80) from the SJC. The samples are The modal compositions of the Bom Jesus and Brejinho sam-
biotite-bearing, medium-grained, silica-rich pink gneisses, with ples follow tholeiitic to low-K calc-alkaline differentiation trends.
very similar geochemical contents (SiO2 = 73.5 wt%, Mg# = 11–5, The São José do Campestre samples define a clear intermediate-K
Na2 O + K2 O = 8.6–8.0, Na2 O/K2 O = 0.6–0.5, YbN = 42.3–43.7). Twelve calc-alkaline trend. The BJ, Br and SJC samples feature an abun-
zircons (six for each sample) yielded two ages at 2685 ± 9 Ma dance of ferromagnesian minerals, mainly clino-amphibole and
(CE116B) and 2655 ± 4 Ma (EC80). biotite, which distinguishes them from the typical amphibole-poor
The polycyclic evolution of the Archean fragment is recorded Archean TTGs (Martin, 1994). In the Bom Jesus and Brejinho rocks
in monazite grains, as well as the lower intercepts in Concordia the less evolved facies are richer in diopside and hornblende and
diagrams (Dantas, 1996; Dantas et al., 2004) and the rims of meta- poorer in biotite than the more differentiated members, which
morphic zircons (Souza and Kalsbeek, 2011). These data suggest emphasises the role played by the fractionation of those phases at
overprinting by metamorphic events at 3.0 Ga, 2.0 Ga and 580 Ma. the onset of differentiation. An alternative hypothesis would be that
Although they have different emplacement ages, the they are residual phases from the migmatisation process. However,
orthogneisses of the Archean block have similar structural because the rocks sampled showed no signs of migmatisation and
geometries, in which tight to isoclinal recumbent folds were collected far from neosomes and melanosomes, the former
with flat-lying axial plane foliations and NW to E-W trend- interpretation is assumed here.
ing stretching lineations mark the so-called D2 event in In contrast to the units described above, samples from the
the area. U–Pb zircon age determinations in leucosomes Presidente Juscelino complex (PJ) and the São Pedro do Potengi
(Dantas, 1996) and metamorphic rims in zircons (Souza and gneiss (SPP) plotted in the monzogranite and syenogranite fields
Kalsbeek, 2011) indicate that the peak of the high grade meta- and followed a line of differentiation between the intermediate-K
morphism (sillimanite + cordierite + hercynite + mesoperthitic (granodioritic) to high-K (monzonitic) calc-alkaline trends. These
K-feldspar + almandine-rich garnet in metapelites) and the corre- rocks have brown biotite as the main mafic phase and rare horn-
sponding main tangential deformation occurred at 3.08–3.07 Ga. blende (SPP and the older PJC I) and ferroan-diopside and titanite
The younger Archean structure is represented by a low angle (younger PJC II) as mafic phases. They are leucocratic and devoid of
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 127

(discussed below) illustrates the distribution of Nd model ages vs.

epsilon Nd (t). The geographic distribution of Nd TDM model ages in
the studied area shows that all the rocks in the Archean nuclei are
more than 3.0 Ga years old.
Early Archean rocks of the Bom Jesus gneiss have Nd signa-
tures that indicate the involvement of older crust in their genesis.
TDM model ages for these rocks range between 4.1 and 3.8 Ga,
and the epsilon Nd (t) values that range from −5.6 to −2.2 indi-
cate that most were derived either from pre-existing crust or from
an enriched lithospheric reservoir that underwent melt extraction
prior to 3.8–3.7 Ga. Moreover, the differences observed in the TDM
model ages for each layer of the Bom Jesus gneiss suggest a com-
plex history for these rocks. The Bom Jesus I samples have epsilon
Nd values that vary from moderately positive (+1.5) to negative
(−5.61); the latter give the oldest TDM model ages (4.1 Ga). Three
samples (ES85X, BR57 C, and BR57 K) have positive epsilon Nd val-
ues (+0.12 to +1.5) and TDM ages of 3.6–3.5 Ga. Four other samples
have negative epsilon Nd values (−2.24 to −5.61) and slightly older
TDM ages in the range of 4.1–3.9 Ga. The only Bom Jesus II sample
analysed (BR57D) has a TDM age of 3.86 and an epsilon Nd value
of −3.02. These features indicate the contribution of both juvenile
and recycled sources (or crustal contamination) sources for the Bom
Jesus orthogneisses.
The Presidente Juscelino I and II complexes display distinct iso-
topic signatures. In complex I, two samples have negative epsilon
Nd values (−5 to −4) and TDM ages of 4.1 and 3.9 Ga; the other sam-
ple has a slightly positive epsilon Nd value (+0.34) and a younger
TDM age (3.54 Ga). Most samples in the Presidente Juscelino II subset
have negative epsilon Nd values and TDM model ages in the range
of 3.7–3.4 Ga. Both subsets indicate that this suite is primarily com-
Fig. 6. (a) Neodymium model age (TDM ) vs. epsilon Nd (t) value, and (b) Present- posed of enriched or “reworked” crust or that crustal contribution
day 87 Sr/86 Sr vs. 143 Nd/144 Nd ratios for Archean orthogneisses of the São José do was involved in their evolution.
Campestre massif (data are in Table 2). Mixing hyperbolas by combining depleted Brejinho I has positive epsilon Nd values (+1.60 to +2.04) and
mantle (DM) with lower continental crust (LC) and upper continental crust (UC) are
also displayed. For mixing computation, we used the equations deduced by DePaolo
TDM ages of 3.59–3.42 Ga, whereas Br II has positive and negative
(1981; reviewed by Faure, 1986; Wilson, 1989). The ticks on the DM-UC and DM- epsilon Nd values (+3.36 to −1.48) and TDM ages of 3.50–3.19 Ga.
LC curves mark the ratio of DM to LC and UC. For modelling we used the mixing Two samples of the Br II subset (BR72a, BR74) have Nd model ages
equations of Langmuir et al. (1978) and DePaolo (1981), with DM, UC and LC trace similar to the U–Pb zircon age (ca. 3.18 Ga), confirming their juve-
element and isotopic compositions from Faure (1986) and Rollinson (1993). BSE
nile character; these samples were from the eastern margin of the
(Bulk Silicate Earth) composition is from Workman and Hart (2005).
older nucleus.
All of the SJC samples display strong negative epsilon Nd val-
mafic-rich (gabbro to diorite) facies, and are clearly distinct from ues (−4.12 to −6.24) and TDM ages from 3.57 to 3.29 Ga. Negative
the other units. epsilon Nd value (−3.21) and TDM age in the same range (3.53 Ga)
characterise the SPP. Almost all the previous units (BJ, PJ, SPP and Br
3. Nd and Sr isotopic data I) have epsilon Nd values that overlap the epsilon Nd values of the
SJC rocks at 2.70 Ga. These isotopic data suggest the contribution of
Table 1 summarises the U–Pb geochronologic and Nd and Sr (or contamination by) recycled continental crust in the genesis of
isotope data for the Archean rocks of the São José do Campestre these rocks.
massif, including our data and the data available in the literature. Fig. 6b shows present-day 87 Sr/86 Sr vs. 143 Nd/144 Nd ratios for
Table 2 presents all the isotopic data acquired in this study. Fig. 6 some of the orthogneisses. In this figure, the mixing hyperbolas

Table 1
Summary of U–Pb zircon ages and Sr and Nd isotope data for the orthogneisses of the São José do Campestre Massif (NE Brazil).

Rock complex Age* (Ma) Rock Dated TDM epsilon Nd (t)

Bom Jesus I 3412 ± 8a Tonalite 4.08–3.51a , b +1.5 to −5.6d , a , b

Bom Jesus II 3413 ± 8a Tonalite 3.86 −3.02
Presidente Juscelino I 3356 ± 21c Monzogranite 4.09–3.54b +0.34 to −4.9b
Presidente Juscelino II 3255 ± 44d , a Monzogranite 3.72–3.41a , b +0.1 to −3.9a , b
Brejinho I 3333 ± 77d , a Tonalite 3.59–3.42d , a +1.6 to +2.04a
Brejinho II 3178 ± 8d , a Tonalite 3.50–3.15d , a +3.36 to −1.48a
São Pedro do Potengi 3118 ± 21c Monzogranite 3.53b −3.1b
Senador Elói de Souza 3033 ± 3d Gabbro 3.91–3.74d −3.6 to −2.1d
São José de Campestre 2685 ± 9 and 2655 ± 4d , a Syenogranite 3.57–3.29a , b −4.12 to −6.18a , b
Dantas et al. (2004).
This paper.
Souza et al. (2010).
Dantas (1996).
1 sigma error.
Table 2
Sr and Nd isotope data for Archean orthogneisses of the São José do Campestre Massif.
Complex Age (Ga) Lithology Sample Rb (ppm) Sr (ppm) Rb/86 Sra 87
Sr/86 Srm Sm (ppm) Nd (ppm) 147
Sm/144 Nd 143
Nd/144 Nd Error εNd (t) TDM (Ga)
(±2%) (±0.002%) (×10−6 )

Bom Jesus I 3.41 Tonalite BR57Hb 1.0 408 nd nd 3.71 18.45 0.121800 0.510664 08 −5.61 4.08
Tonalitec ES85X 36.4 83.9 1.2608 0.753314 12.33 16.67 0.136520 0.511357 05 +1.50 3.51
Tonalite BR57b 27.6 496.1 nd nd 7.11 34.62 0.124230 0.510890 10 −2.24 3.81
Tonalite BR57 Cd 119.8 331.1 nd nd 3.77 20.55 0.111200 0.510716 10 +0.12 3.59
Diorite BR57Fb 16.2 168.0 nd nd 5.52 25.27 0.132200 0.510961 05 −4.38 4.05
Dioritee KZ1Z (BR57 K) 9.0 183.0 0.1424 0.715766 0.25 1.21 0.124200 0.511043 11 +0.79 3.56

Bom Jesus II 3.41 Tonalite BR57Dd 17.0 395.8 nd nd 2.26 11.37 0.120500 0.510766 05 −3.02 3.86

3.36 Granitee ES450 22.0 74.0 0.8643 0.756420 28.63 132.39 0.118830 0.510925 19 +0.34 3.54

E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Presidente Juscelino I
Granodioritee ES543A 39.0 386.0 nd nd 6.21 32.09 0.116900 0.510666 12 −4.02 3.87
Granitee ES895 5.0 126.0 0.1149 0.713806 11.63 52.14 0.134800 0.511012 08 −4.93 4.09

Presidente Juscelino II 3.25 Granite CE118b 290.0 85.0 nd nd 7.34 41.33 0.107440 0.510599 09 −2.39 3.63
Granite BR62ab 95.0 234.0 nd nd 1.38 8.32 0.100740 0.510512 10 −1.27 3.53
Granitec ES53 39.4 622.0 0.1833 0.710310 1.37 8.25 0.100340 0.510490 06 −1.53 3.55
Granitec ES177 58.4 600.8 0.2814 0.714487 1.31 7.67 0.103520 0.510437 08 −3.92 3.72
Granitec ES40A3 91.9 129.9 2.0490 0.812965 5.58 9.67 0.115615 0.510761 07 −2.66 3.68
Granitec ES40A6 101.5 103.0 2.8950 0.861485 2.50 11.67 0.079609 0.510127 09 +0.09 3.41
Granitec ES40X 100.4 112.8 2.6161 0.869976 3.8 13.67 0.088360 0.510244 05 −1.31 3.50
Granite EC15b 96.0 388.0 nd nd 3.53 21.14 0.100870 0.510477 09 −2.01 3.58

Brejinho I 3.33 Tonalite BR68b 105.0 172.0 nd nd 4.17 13.94 0.180830 0.512370 08 +1.60 3.59
Gabbroe ES568B 5.0 148.0 0.0977 0.708036 4.21 16.17 0.157300 0.511874 08 +2.04 3.42
Brejinho II 3.18 Tonalite BR72 17.0 124.0 nd nd 16.88 63.85 0.159870 0.511926 09 +1.22 3.44
Tonalite BR71b 86.0 853.0 nd nd 0.73 4.24 0.104770 0.510631 08 −1.48 3.50
Tonalite BR67d 94.0 545.0 nd nd 4.89 16.79 0.174200 0.512260 05 +1.87 3.41
Tonalite BR74b 109.0 448.0 nd nd 3.68 23.07 0.096550 0.510684 09 +2.96 3.19
Tonalite BR72ad 93.0 145.0 nd nd 4.69 20.16 0.140550 0.511629 08 +3.36 3.15

São Pedro do Potengi 3.12 Granitee ES387 72.0 528.0 0.3952 0.725391 9.60 61.28 0.094700 0.510372 15 −3.21 3.53

São José de Campestre 2.70 Granite CE116Bb 129.0 64.0 nd nd 12.43 64.47 0.111660 0.510909 13 −4.20 3.32
Granite EC80b 140.0 145.0 nd nd 16.08 80.39 0.120910 0.510973 09 −6.18 3.55
Granite CE116Ad 46.0 58.0 nd nd 21.16 118.84 0.107660 0.510842 06 −4.12 3.29
Granitec ES36 134.4 71.9 5.5198 0.918662 13.01 19.67 0.122750 0.511003 07 −6.24 3.57

The NBS 987 standard gave 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of 0.710248 ± 0.000009. Nd model ages (TDM ) were calculated relative to a depleted mantle with 147 Sm/144 Nd = 0.2137 and 143 Nd/144 Nd = 0.51315. εNd (t) [epsilon Nd (t)] represents the
deviation of initial 143 Nd/144 Nd relative to CHUR and is equal to (measured 143 Nd/144 Nd = 0.512638 − 1) × 10000 (DePaolo, 1988). Primary ages used for εNd (t) are based on available U–Pb ages (Table 1).
Calculated values. m, measured values. nd, not determined.
Compiled after Dantas et al. (2004).
Université Blaise Pascal.
University of Brasília.
Dantas (1996).
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 129

formed by combining depleted mantle (DM) with lower continental

crust (LC) and upper continental crust (UC) suggest moderate to
strong contamination (20–40%) by the lower continental crust for
some samples of the BJ I and PJ I and II suites. SJC, SPP and other
samples from BJ and PJ II have high 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios and most likely
had strong contributions from continental sources in their genesis.
On the other hand, the only Br I sample (ES568B) does not express
a crustal contribution, corroborating its positive epsilon Nd value.
The geographic distribution of TDM model ages in the stud-
ied area demonstrates that all rocks in the Archean nucleus are
older than 3.0 Ga (this estimate includes the Senador Elói de Souza
suite reported by Dantas, 1996; see above). Early Archean rocks
of the SJCM have Nd signatures that indicate the involvement of
even older crust in their genesis. Neodymium model ages for these
rocks range from 4.1 to 3.2 Ga, and epsilon Nd (t) values range
from −5.6 to +3.4, which all indicate that most were derived either
from recycling of (and/or contamination by) pre-existing crust or
an enriched lithospheric reservoir that underwent melt extraction
prior to 3.6 Ga. In addition, the differences observed in the TDM
model ages for each layer of the Bom Jesus gneiss indicate a com-
plex history of these rocks. The Presidente Juscelino and Brejinho
units display distinct isotopic signatures that possibly reflect the
migmatisation process. In the former, most rocks display nega-
tive epsilon Nd (t) values with TDM model ages ranging between
4.1 and 3.4 Ga, indicating that this suite is primarily composed of
enriched or “reworked” crust. Nonetheless, a younger segment of
the Brejinho complex (U–Pb zircon age of 3.18 Ga) that occurs along
the eastern margin of the older nuclei is a juvenile crust (positive
epsilon Nd (t) values).
These data indicate that the primary phases of Archean crustal
growth of the SJCM involved recycling of older crustal material as
well as juvenile accretion. Epsilon Nd (t) values ranging from −2 to
+3 and TDM model ages between 3.6 and 3.2 Ga suggest both crustal
recycling/reworking events and the growth of juvenile crust. Fig. 6b
shows the behaviour of the Brejinho samples, all of which have
positive epsilon Nd (t) values between +3.36 and +1.22 (except for
sample BR71, which had an epsilon Nd (t) value of −1.48).
The Neoarchean rocks of the SJCC have TDM model ages of 3.2 Ga,
negative epsilon Nd (t) values and greater alkalinity, suggesting
that these plutons may represent melting of the surrounding older
gneisses. The São José do Campestre, São Pedro do Potengi and
Senador Elói de Souza (Dantas, 1996) samples also have negative
epsilon Nd (t) values from −6.24 to −2.06 (Tables 1 and 2).
The isotopic data reported here suggest the involvement of a
depleted mantle in the generation of the Brejinho rocks and some
of the Bom Jesus rocks. The main event of crust extraction from the
mantle may have been approximately 3.7–3.6 Ga, which is the most
important peak of TDM ages. The other metaplutonic rocks may have
contributions from both depleted and enriched (metasomatised)
mantle and/or crustal protoliths.

4. Petrogenesis
Fig. 7. Geochemistry of the metaplutonic rocks of the São José do Campestre Massif.
(a) (K2 O + Na2 O) vs. SiO2 diagram (Rickwood, 1989), showing the subalkaline to
4.1. Geochemical characteristics slightly alkaline character of the acidic metaplutonics. The lower dotted line is from
Kuno (1966) and the upper limit is from Irvine and Baragar (1971). (b) Plote of
The complete whole rock analysis is displayed by increasing SiO2 Na2 O + K2 O-CaO vs. SiO2 showing the approximate ranges of alkalic, alkali-calcic,
content (the iron being expressed as Fe2 O3 t) in Tables 3–7. calc-alkalic and calcic rock series. (c) FeO/(FeO + MgO) vs. SiO2 illustrating the
boundary between the ferroan plutons and magnesian plutons and also the fields of
Figs. 7–9 describe the overall geochemistry of the studied rocks.
Cordilleran and A-type granite. (b) and (c) after Frost et al. (2001). Symbols are the
Most samples are subalkaline to calc-alkaline in the total alkali vs. same as in Fig. 7b.
silica diagram; the more evolved Presidente Juscelino and São José
do Campestre gneisses are calc-alkaline or transitional to alkaline evolved portion of the calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic line. The plot of
(Fig. 7a). The Bom Jesus and São José do Campestre units vary from FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratios vs. silica (Fig. 7c) discriminates between
basic (gabbro) to acidic (granite, tonalite). The alkali-lime index vs. ferroan and magnesian granitoids and also between A-type and
silica shows the calcic (Fig. 7b) nature of the Bom Jesus and Bre- Cordilleran granites (Frost et al., 2001). The Bom Jesus and the less
jinho rocks and the concentration of the other samples in the more evolved São José do Campestre gneisses are similar to Cordilleran
Table 3
Major (wt.%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of the 3.41 Ga Bom Jesus orthogneisses.

Subset I Subset II

Composition Gabbro to Tonalite Tonalite

Accessory phase Dio-Hb Dio-Hb Dio-Hb Dio-Hb Hb-Bio Hb-Bio Hb-Bio Hb-Bio Hb-Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio
Sample BR57 K BR57JB BR57F BR57G BR 57E BR57H BR57 BR57 C BR 57I BR57B ES85X BR57D ES915

SiO2 (wt.%) 50.32 52.73 52.95 53.72 60.95 62.81 63.22 63.37 63.80 68.02 74.86 66.40 68.20
TiO2 1.42 0.79 0.78 0.35 0.54 0.56 0.78 1.01 0.69 0.42 0.58 0.50 0.49
Al2 O3 13.95 10.57 10.86 5.01 12.68 13.83 13.2 16.11 13.73 13.94 12.15 14.19 15.48
Fe2 O3 t 13.54 13.14 11.65 10.91 8.19 6.77 8.72 5.69 6.89 4.72 4.51 5.20 2.83
MnO 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.22 0.13 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.03
MgO 4.74 9.52 7.82 16.87 6.07 3.84 5.38 1.10 4.46 2.79 0.99 3.58 0.97
CaO 9.44 10.03 9.18 11.52 6.90 5.63 1.68 3.03 5.09 4.82 1.58 4.80 2.47
Na2 O 3.43 1.96 1.28 0.71 2.93 3.53 2.69 3.63 3.44 3.89 3.92 3.73 4.71
K2 O 1.18 0.93 3.34 0.64 1.50 1.35 1.8 5.66 1.60 1.18 1.44 1.45 3.14
P2 O5 0.21 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.41 0.34 0.23 0.15 0.20 0.09 0.17
LOI 1.30 0.90 1.20 1.68 0.74 1.20 1.99 0.80 0.93 0.78 0.25 0.52 1.10

E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Total 99.72 100.90 99.32 101.68 100.74 99.76 99.99 100.80 100.93 100.78 100.51 100.52 99.59
Ba (ppm) 118.00 550.00 2287.00 360.00 408.00 329.00 350.00 1223.00
Co 57.90 120.90 24.70 7.30 143.70
Cr 143.68 588.82 972.00 1878.83 331.90 280.53 504.20 113.74 368.01 275.62 211.0 186.00 21.00
Hf 4.10 1.70 4.40 5.70
Nb 9.00 3.00 13.00 8.16 7.02 8.30 10.00 28.44 10.11 13.12 23.00 8.00 8.40
Ni 110.00 202.28 218.00 552.84 169.46 71.00 152.10 56.87 114.25 98.94 7.00 108.2 10.80
Pb 3.80 3.80 2.00 3.50
Rb 8.60 9.00 45.80 15.00 12.00 25.40 27.60 119.83 29.32 16.00 36.00 17.00 76.60
Sr 183.40 139.19 186.30 36.72 304.82 450.10 496.10 331.07 317.46 432.11 84.00 395.80 646.20
Sc 34.00 22.00 12.00 6.30 4.00
Ta 0.50 0.70 0.20 0.70
Th 0.40 1.70 0.60 11.00
U 0.20 0.50 0.20 0.40
V 435.00 150.00 98.00 22.00 38.00
Y 48.20 24.03 35.20 6.12 31.08 22.40 27.60 47.73 25.28 30.29 90.00 13.00 11.80
Zr 155.80 41.06 52.50 36.72 80.22 191.50 233.70 762.67 147.61 154.47 381.00 106.2 252.30
La (ppm) 24.60 6.94 20.70 22.10 44.05 22.59 25.88 41.00 14.93 61.70
Ce 33.50 15.78 54.70 41.30 76.15 43.79 54.19 89.10 27.15 114.40
Pr 5.95 6.55 4.88 11.85
Nd 25.90 10.28 25.00 18.60 35.53 18.91 27.03 42.40 11.42 38.90
Sm 5.70 4.34 5.22 3.60 8.31 4.39 6.64 12.40 2.14 5.52
Eu 1.69 1.22 2.25 1.50 2.10 1.34 1.71 2.59 1.08 1.21
Gd 6.89 2.57 4.96 3.47 6.68 3.13 4.96 13.60 2.15 3.76
Tb 1.21 0.89 0.60 0.53
Dy 7.25 3.77 5.24 3.56 5.10 3.50 5.42 15.20 1.93 2.50
Ho 1.60 0.84 1.10 0.75 1.14 0.72 0.91 0.42 0.40
Er 4.53 2.13 3.30 2.17 2.99 1.98 2.73 7.91 1.19 1.06
Tm 0.67 0.51 0.33 0.14
Yb 4.09 2.12 3.16 2.03 2.58 1.57 2.22 8.75 1.12 0.75
Lu 0.64 0.61 0.49 0.30 0.35 0.60 0.55 1.42 0.14 0.10
Location 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.57◦ W
(Datum WGS84) 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 5.98◦ S 6.03◦ S

Dio Diopside, Hb Hornblende, Bio Biotite.

LOI Loss on ignition (fusion at 1000 ◦ C of 0.5 g of rock powder mixed with 3.5 g of lithium tetraborate).
Major and trace element analyses at the Universities of Lyon and Blaise Pascal (BP), France, the State University of São Paulo (UNESP) and a comercial laboratory (AcmeLabs, Canada).
BJ Bom Jesus, SES Senador Elói de Souza.
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 131

Table 4
Major (wt.%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of the 3.36 Ga Presidente Juscelino I orthogneisses.

Composition Monzogranite Monzogranite

Accessory phase Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Dio-Hb
Samples ES543A EC15 EC71 EC16 BR58 ES444 ES450 ES170 C ES895

SiO2 (wt.%) 64.7 69.62 69.98 71.05 73.23 73.77 73.95 74.05 74.96
TiO2 0.85 0.87 0.44 0.75 0.25 0.43 0.22 0.25 0.20
Al2 O3 15.23 13.84 14.11 13.04 14.17 12.78 13.29 14.40 13.38
Fe2 O3 t 5.14 3.25 2.69 2.91 1.61 2.80 2.30 1.97 1.37
MnO 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01
MgO 2.13 1.18 0.25 0.66 1.00 0.36 0.21 0.22 0.40
CaO 4.50 2.42 1.97 1.83 1.53 1.52 0.63 1.04 1.83
Na2 O 4.06 4.48 4.26 3.20 3.57 5.67 5.22 4.18 5.94
K2 O 1.42 2.66 4.35 4.88 4.09 0.92 2.01 4.47 0.96
P2 O5 0.22 0.32 0.22 0.19 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.09 0.05
LOI 0.46 1.21 0.91 1.22 0.41 0.26 0.44 0.27 0.70
Total 98.79 99.90 99.22 99.79 99.96 98.62 98.35 100.97 99.80
Ba (ppm) 242.00 745.00 1927.00 1397.00 1057.00 219.00 610.00 2521.00 152.00
Co 15.90 0.78 0.28 2.10 184.70
Cr 59.20 13.17 118.00 9.13 10.04 14.90 27.40 184.00 14.00
Hf 4.14 13.50 10.30 8.50
Nb 15.50 41.00 30.50 13.90 20.00 16.80
Ni 28.30 21.28 50.00 16.23 11.05 1.14 1.03 4.00 1.50
Pb 13.50 6.49 7.30 1.40
Rb 39.30 96.26 169.00 118.70 126.00 6.89 22.20 90.00 5.40
Sr 386.00 388.10 146.00 276.97 568.52 94.20 74.30 905.00 126.10
Sc 10.80 8.05 1.59 2.60 3.00
Ta 1.34 3.18 0.20 1.40
Th 6.38 3.93 7.19 6.70
U 1.37 1.07 1.47 0.60
V 49.70 1.43 1.90 31.00 4.00
Y 32.40 20.27 48.90 40.58 3.01 147.00 166.00 33.00 75.00
Zr 168.00 256.37 339.00 324.65 174.78 528.00 343.00 205.00 337.10
La (ppm) 41.70 74.04 58.60 128.00 48.50
Ce 79.30 147.36 129.00 191.00 101.90
Pr 9.01 15.60 30.50 12.36
Nd 33.60 50.80 64.90 125.00 48.10
Sm 6.48 8.82 16.50 27.40 10.38
Eu 1.62 1.83 3.47 6.43 3.04
Gd 6.02 7.06 19.60 30.50 11.18
Tb 0.91 3.63 5.25 1.99
Dy 5.53 6.51 24.10 33.10 12.18
Ho 1.06 1.76 4.96 6.54 2.57
Er 3.04 4.78 14.60 17.90 7.59
Tm 0.43 2.09 2.28 1.12
Yb 2.81 4.14 13.30 13.10 7.34
Lu 0.43 0.65 1.84 1.90 1.08
Site sampledb BS SES Tang Tang Tang Tang SC Tang Tang
Location 35.60◦ W 35.90◦ W 35.58◦ W 35.89◦ W 35.62◦ W 35.85◦ W 35.73◦ W 35.83◦ W 35.85◦ W
(Datum WGS84) 6.16◦ S 6.14◦ S 5.97◦ S 6.14◦ S 5.99◦ S 6.13◦ S 6.09◦ S 6.19◦ S 6.11◦ S

Dio Diopside, Hb Hornblende, Bio Biotite.

LOI Loss on ignition (fusion at 1000 ◦ C of 0.5 g of rock powder mixed with 3.5 g of lithium tetraborate).
Major and trace element analyses at the Universities of Lyon and Blaise Pascal (BP), France, the State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Brazil, the China University of
Geosciences at Wuhan (CUG) and a comercial laboratory (AcmeLabs, Canada).
SES Senador Elói de Souza, Tang Tangará, SC Serra Caiada, BS Boa Saúde.

granite, and the most differentiated São José do Campestre, Presi- (Fig. 8). The Presidente Juscelino I samples all are corundum nor-
dente Juscelino and Brejinho samples plot within the A-type granite mative, ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 wt.%; the other samples rarely
field or overlap the ferroan-rich portion of the Cordilleran granite present normative corundum. Bom Jesus sample BR57 is peralu-
field. However, the silica-rich samples of the São José do Campestre minous (A/CNK = 1.4, normative corundum = 4.9%); it has higher
orthogneisses in Fig. 7c appear to be evolved members of the dif- Fe2 O3 t, Mg and LOI, and lower CaO and Na2 O contents than other
ferentiated series. Furthermore, this unit and samples of the other samples with similar silica contents (Table 3). The conspicuous
suites (PJ, Br) do not display (see below) the classical geochemical transformation of plagioclase to epidote in this sample is assumed
features of A-type granitoids outlined in the literature, including to have modified its magmatic A/CNK ratio and the normative
low La/Yb ratios, flat HREE, moderate to strong negative Eu anoma- corundum content.
lies, and pronounced positive Ba and Ta–Nb anomalies (Collins The distribution of samples in the normative anorthite–
et al., 1982; Pearce et al., 1984; Whalen et al., 1987; Dall’Agnol albite–orthoclase triangle (Fig. 9a) shows a variation from tonalites
et al., 2005). (less evolved Bom Jesus, Brejinho and São José do Campestre
Shandı̌s index (Shand, 1943) indicates the metaluminous char- gneisses) to trondhjemites and granites (as a rule, the Presidente
acter of the Bom Jesus and the less evolved São José do Campestre Juscelino and the more evolved São José do Campestre, Bom Jesus
samples and the transition to the slightly peraluminous Presidente and Brejinho gneisses). Most BJ I samples and the two samples of BJ
Juscelino (I and II), Brejinho and São Pedro do Potengi gneisses II seem to follow the sodium enrichment trondhjemite trend. The
Table 5
Major (wt.%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of the 3.25 Ga Presidente Juscelino subset II and the São Pedro do Potengi orthogneisses.

Presidente Juscelino I S. P. Potengi

Composition Accessory phase Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio-Hb
Samples ES572 BR60 BR62a ES177 ES53 ES40A4 CE118 ES40A2 ES40X ES40A5 ES40Y ES40A7 ES40A3 ES40A1 ES40Z ES40A6 ES387

SiO2 (wt.%) 65.28 69.52 72.53 72.63 72.64 74.30 74.93 75.26 75.38 75.49 75.84 76.16 76.26 76.34 76.36 77.16 68.52
TiO2 0.53 0.15 0.16 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.16 0.15 0.12 0.26 0.06 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.08 0.10 0.46
Al2 O3 17.46 16.84 14.33 15.62 15.66 12.19 12.45 13.31 13.24 13.17 12.68 12.56 12.68 12.96 12.46 12.63 15.75
Fe2 O3 t 3.05 1.42 2.79 1.17 1.20 1.38 1.77 1.51 1.51 2.05 1.26 1.45 1.78 1.01 1.53 1.48 2.29
MnO 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03
MgO 1.37 0.45 0.01 0.15 0.23 0.12 0.59 0.38 0.19 0.65 0.14 0.19 0.25 0.28 0.16 0.11 0.81
CaO 4.38 2.48 1.52 1.49 1.72 0.68 1.15 1.05 0.82 1.55 1.05 0.81 0.99 1.09 0.84 0.74 2.73
Na2 O 4.22 5.77 3.71 4.20 4.71 3.13 3.54 3.49 3.16 3.43 3.59 3.22 3.45 3.69 3.12 2.95 4.38
K2 O 2.13 2.16 3.73 3.83 3.09 4.56 4.10 3.94 4.66 3.00 4.22 4.39 3.81 3.62 4.34 4.30 2.82
P2 O5 0.17 0.05 0.02 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.40 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.02 0.27
LOI 1.00 0.80 1.26 0.44 0.32 0.20 1.00 0.50 0.44 0.08 0.90 0.26 0.58 0.44 0.47 0.08 0.54
Total 99.63 99.66 100.09 99.74 99.77 96.70 100.10 99.65 99.56 99.73 99.8 99.2 99.98 99.65 99.42 99.50 98.60

E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Ba (ppm) 1233.00 880.00 463.00 916.00 948.00 1096.00 1040.00 1188.00 1219.00 771.00 1167.00 1153.00 990.0 1057.00 1264.00 1120.00 1095.00
Co 27.00 167.70 1.40 0.60 1.50 2.00 2.90 2.00 2.40 0.90 2.40 0.70 1.50 1.30 5.13
Cr 27.00 14.00 7.00 234.00 233.00 221.00 23.00 228.0 257.00 239.00 239.00 206.00 217.0 199.00 243.00 238.00 58.80
Hf 5.30 0.90 4.10 11.10
Nb 9.50 3.60 5.00 3.00 3.00 7.00 22.00 10.00 7.00 15.00 3.20 9.00 9.00 11.00 4.00 8.00 11.10
Ni 17.40 2.00 11.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 135.00 6.00 5.00 7.00 5.50 4.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 8.42
Pb 2.20 1.40 12.00 24.60
Rb 55.40 35.00 95.00 58.00 39.00 95.00 290.00 96.00 100.00 87.00 86.60 93.0 87.00 92.00 85.00 98.00 71.60
Sr 540.90 613.80 234.00 601.00 622.00 94.00 85.00 125.00 113.00 149.00 113.20 105.0 122.00 118.00 97.00 97.00 528.00
Sc 4.00 2.00 0.50 1.90 2.20 2.30 1.70 0.80 0.05 1.90 1.00 1.00 2.00 0.20 2.88
Ta 0.70 0.20 0.05 0.55
Th 12.20 0.40 7.00 22.40
U 0.60 0.10 0.40 0.90
V 38.00 12.00 23.00 25.00 20.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 23.00 19.00 24.00 22.00 21.00 19.0 27.60
Y 10.50 3.00 20.26 4.00 4.00 5.00 19.00 24.00 11.00 19.00 9.30 14.00 11.00 12.00 10.00 6.00 19.70
Zr 228.40 36.70 134.70 72.00 86.0 106.00 112.00 111.00 94.00 136.00 125.50 114.00 119.00 142.00 94.00 95.00 445.00
La (ppm) 60.20 11.80 28.91 10.30 12.00 48.10 43.90 106.00
Ce 105.80 21.20 47.27 19.40 21.10 86.20 87.80 188.00
Pr 11.25 2.11 9.53 20.40
Nd 37.60 7.00 17.59 6.90 7.28 24.80 33.80 69.50
Sm 4.98 1.17 2.96 1.15 1.18 4.03 6.51 11.00
Eu 1.13 0.84 1.16 0.58 0.56 0.90 2.15 2.01
Gd 3.05 0.85 2.21 0.81 0.85 2.92 5.64 7.97
Tb 0.41 0.12 0.71 0.95
Dy 1.91 0.55 1.26 0.38 0.48 1.92 2.62 4.55
Ho 0.33 0.10 0.29 0.30 0.74
Er 0.90 0.26 0.78 0.21 0.25 0.84 0.58 1.82
Tm 0.14 0.04 0.07 0.21
Yb 0.85 0.24 1.11 0.22 0.27 0.80 0.45 1.24
Lu 0.11 0.04 0.16 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.07 0.19
Analysisa AcmeLabs AcmeLabs UNESP Lyon Lyon Lyon UNESP Lyon Lyon Lyon AcmeLabs Lyon Lyon Lyon Lyon Lyon CUG
Site sampledb Tang SC SC BJ Tang Tang SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SPP
Location 35.54◦ W 35.61◦ W 35.60◦ W 35.85◦ W 35.87◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.74 W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.71◦ W
(Datum WGS84) 6.15◦ S 5.96◦ S 5.97◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.13S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 6.12◦ S 5.87◦ S

Dio Diopside, Hb Hornblende, Bio Biotite LOI Loss on ignition (fusion at 1000 ◦ C of 0.5 g of rock powder mixed with 3.5 g of lithium tetraborate).
Major and trace element analyses at the Universities of Lyon and Blaise Pascal (BP), France, the State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Brazil, the China University of Geosciences at Wuhan (CUG) and a comercial laboratory
(AcmeLabs, Canada).
BJ Bom Jesus, Tang Tangará, SC Serra Caiada, SPP São Pedro do Potengi.
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 133

Table 6
Major (wt.%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of the 3.33–3.18 Ga Brejinho orthogneisses.

Subset I (3.3 Ga) Subset II (3.18 Ga)

Composition Gabbro to Tonalite Tonalite

Accessory phase Dio Bio Bio Hb-Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio
Samples ES568B ES568A BR68 BR66 BR74 BR71 BR69 BR72a BR67 BR72

SiO2 (wt.%) 47.67 73.13 75.43 67.68 70.67 71.24 71.34 72.58 73.10 78.40
TiO2 1.44 1.00 0.24 0.61 0.21 0.15 0.19 0.43 0.25 0.36
Al2 O3 14.43 11.08 11.26 15.79 12.63 15.46 15.51 12.66 14.03 11.85
Fe2 O3 t 12.62 3.91 4.34 3.06 1.58 1.30 1.35 5.11 2.15 1.42
MnO 0.19 0.05 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.08
MgO 7.46 0.92 0.17 0.50 0.42 0.27 0.29 0.66 0.63 0.27
CaO 10.09 2.66 2.05 2.10 6.39 1.83 1.70 1.90 2.23 1.79
Na2 O 3.00 3.47 4.38 3.76 3.08 4.68 4.51 4.26 4.83 4.22
K2 O 0.73 0.93 0.70 4.76 4.02 3.69 3.32 1.50 1.25 0.80
P2 O5 0.21 0.35 0.03 0.16 0.07 0.05 0.12 0.06 0.05 0.06
LOI 0.63 0.64 1.20 1.49 0.91 1.10 1.65 0.74 1.40 0.74
Total 98.47 98.14 99.88 99.95 100.02 99.80 100.00 99.95 99.95 99.99
Ba (ppm) 94.50 160.00 275.00 1780.00 59.00 1568.00 662.00 187.00 179.00 260.00
Co 56.70 2.51 2.10 2.60
Cr 248.00 49.70 198.00 17.00 13.00 144.00 7.00 13.00 13.19 9.00
Hf 2.23 21.40 14.10 2.40
Nb 8.00 41.10 6.30 12.00 14.00 2.40 4.00 8.00
Ni 181.00 1.38 11.50 6.00 4.00 7.50 16.00 23.00 11.16 18.00
Pb 3.42 5.15 0.60 3.20
Rb 5.01 21.20 5.70 123.00 109.00 52.40 56.00 93.00 94.37 17.00
Sr 148.00 106.00 169.70 152.00 448.00 570.50 1117.00 145.00 544.90 124.00
Sc 35.00 14.50 3.00 0.05
Ta 0.59 2.62 0.10 0.05
Th 2.48 7.90 0.60 0.30
U 0.76 1.84 0.40 0.10
V 243.00 29.00 21.00 22.00
Y 34.50 236.00 43.20 16.00 7.00 2.80 12.00 23.00 28.00 89.00
Zr 91.30 833.00 614.10 90.00 154.00 88.50 255.00 288.00 174.00 563.00
La (ppm) 11.90 58.00 9.90 84.41 22.93 8.60 31.33 50.55
Ce 26.90 130.00 22.70 155.41 48.95 14.70 72.98 106.49
Pr 3.70 18.30 3.12 1.47
Nd 15.80 83.20 15.10 48.60 16.40 4.70 32.69 66.34
Sm 4.22 23.90 4.30 7.89 3.21 0.85 8.29 18.48
Eu 1.53 5.92 5.22 1.56 0.93 1.04 2.02 3.10
Gd 4.89 29.10 5.95 5.29 2.15 0.69 7.51 18.78
Tb 0.87 5.58 1.13 0.10
Dy 5.60 37.20 7.07 2.87 1.15 0.49 4.37 17.52
Ho 1.12 7.90 1.65 0.69 0.31 0.09 0.96 3.66
Er 3.27 23.50 4.79 1.40 0.76 0.25 2.29 10.53
Tm 0.50 3.44 0.77 0.04
Yb 3.17 22.60 5.26 1.00 0.64 0.24 1.69 9.47
Lu 0.48 3.43 0.97 0.13 0.14 0.04 0.28 1.34
Site sampledb LP LP LS Br Br Br Br LS LS LS
Location 35.42◦ W 35.42◦ W 35.41◦ W 35.80◦ W 35.37◦ W 35.40◦ W 35.42◦ W 35.41◦ W 35.80◦ W 35.41◦ W
(Datum WGS84) 6.16◦ S 6.16◦ S 6.13◦ S 6.41◦ S 6.20◦ S 6.08◦ S 6.14◦ S 6.10◦ S 6.41◦ S 6.10◦ S

Dio Diopside, Hb Hornblende, Bio Biotite.

LOI Loss on ignition (fusion at 1000 ◦ C of 0.5 g of rock powder mixed with 3.5 g of lithium tetraborate).
Major and trace element analyses at the State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Brazil, the China University of Geosciences at Wuhan (CUG) and a comercial laboratory
(AcmeLabs, Canada).
LP Lagoa de Pedras, Br Brejinho, LS Lagoa Salgada.

other sample does not define a classical trondhjemite tendency and almost no modification of Al2 O3 . This contrasting behaviour may
instead follows the orthoclase enrichment. This is also observed in indicate that the two groups are not related by any type of magmatic
the cationic K–Na–Ca plot (Fig. 9b), where most samples describe a differentiation. Alternatively, some samples could represent cumu-
trend that parallels the classical K-enrichment calc-alkaline differ- lates (e.g., BR57G has abundant diopside and hornblende and very
entiation line, but in the Ca-poorer portion of the triangle. The less low Al2 O3 and high MgO contents). As a whole, the Bom Jesus sam-
evolved Bom Jesus gneisses appear to follow the Na-enrichment ples have higher Fe2 O3 t, MgO and CaO contents than other suites
trondhjemitic line. with similar SiO2 contents. The silica-rich rocks of the Presidente
Harker’s plots for major elements in Fig. 10 (data from Juscelino I and II and São Pedro do Potengi gneisses are plotted
Tables 3–7) show some particular features for the studied com- in Figs. 10b (PJ I) and 10c (PJ II and SPP). Their most distinctive
plexes. Samples of the Bom Jesus complex (Fig. 10a) can be divided characteristics when compared with the Bom Jesus suite are the
into two groups: one with 50–54 wt.% SiO2 (BR57 K, BR57F, BR57JG, higher SiO2 and lower Fe2 O3 t, MgO, CaO, TiO2 and P2 O5 contents.
BR57G) and another with SiO2 > 60 wt.%. The first group shows near Subtle differences are observed between the PJ I and PJ II samples.
vertical trends for Al2 O3 , MgO, Na2 O, TiO2 and P2 O5 , which usually Both show decreases of Fe2 O3 t, MgO, CaO, TiO2 and P2 O5 during
decrease with differentiation; the second group shows a moderate differentiation. They are distinguished by the behaviour of Na2 O,
to strong decrease of Fe2 O3 t, MgO and CaO, an increase of Na2 O, and which is negatively correlated in the PJ II and correlated in PJ I; K2 O
Table 7
Major (wt.%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of the 2.69–2.66 Ga São José do Campestre orthogneisses.

Composition Quartz diorite to syenogranite

Accessory phase Hb-Bio Hb-Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio
Samples ES407 ES467 ES580A ES363 ES471 ES1-2-X BR82 ES36 CE116D CE116B EC80 ZH1 CE116 C CE116A

SiO2 (wt.%) 52.83 58.49 66.59 67.80 69.19 69.81 70.72 71.49 72.85 73.47 73.49 74.56 74.98 75.12
TiO2 1.84 0.88 0.84 0.81 0.52 0.54 0.32 0.47 0.41 0.28 0.33 0.36 0.24 0.23
Al2 O3 15.07 15.55 13.70 13.80 13.27 12.16 14.27 12.46 12.31 12.45 12.28 11.93 12.96 12.60
Fe2 O3 t 8.96 6.82 5.78 5.86 5.33 6.97 1.85 5.38 4.45 3.13 3.81 4.28 2.25 2.45
MnO 0.14 0.10 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.03
MgO 5.35 4.21 0.61 0.57 0.31 0.11 0.52 0.22 0.27 0.19 0.10 0.16 0.28 0.27
CaO 9.02 6.49 2.73 2.82 1.68 1.85 1.77 1.54 1.29 0.98 1.12 1.26 0.84 0.84
Na2 O 3.48 4.04 2.66 2.70 2.98 2.69 3.51 3.08 3.05 3.25 2.77 2.92 3.65 3.52
K2 O 1.06 1.11 4.38 4.76 5.55 4.92 4.86 4.95 5.24 5.31 5.23 4.66 4.73 4.89
P2 O5 0.27 0.29 0.16 0.18 0.08 0.07 0.14 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.12 0.05 0.06 0.05
LOI 1.70 0.66 0.35 0.54 0.05 0.20 1.90 0.11 0.03 0.40 0.76 0.19 0.35 0.33
Total 99.72 98.64 97.87 99.91 99.05 99.43 99.90 99.85 100.03 99.55 100.05 100.43 100.35 100.33

E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Ba (ppm) 197.00 242.00 4588.00 4401.00 1849.00 1636.00 999.00 1639.00 1091.00 930.00 1092.00
Co 147.40 15.90 5.46 7.00 3.19 3.80 7.00 238.00 3.30
Cr 41.00 164.00 28.30 12.00 17.60 202.0 14.29 222.00 31.96 14.00 12.09 211.50 129.60 140.65
Hf 1.80 4.99 21.30 12.50 11.50
Nb 11.00 9.42 45.40 7.00 34.00 35.00 30.00 29.96 34.40 28.00 32.70 13.96 15.96
Ni 81.00 96.30 1.60 2.00 2.79 7.00 17.35 7.00 38.95 2.40 7.48 6.50 39.88 85.79
Pb 2.00 11.50 23.90 18.50 2.20
Rb 33.10 20.80 81.90 83.00 138.00 101.00 128.57 134.00 93.89 182.00 134.00 152.00 134.58 141.65
Sr 249.10 628.00 685.00 630.00 104.00 74.00 575.49 72.00 59.93 68.10 145.04 53.30 76.76 70.82
Sc 25.00 14.70 13.30 9.70 5.00 4.80 5.60 3.00 2.10
Ta 1.00 0.45 1.88 1.65 2.40
Th 1.70 5.14 17.70 11.40 23.70
U 1.70 0.23 1.13 1.36 4.30
V 212.00 74.20 11.50 15.00 7.15 21.00 26.00 4.00 23.40
Y 19.70 22.70 96.40 45.00 87.9 90.00 9.18 82.00 80.90 75.00 53.38 94.50 39.88 48.88
Zr 72.00 218.00 910.00 278.00 535.00 554.00 243.87 512.00 636.24 403.20 317.26 447.10 212.34 241.40
La (ppm) 9.00 115.00 281.00 114.00 80.20 78.00 73.00 77.80 81.15
Ce 21.40 201.00 546.00 216.00 150.00 164.00 149.00 154.50 163.12
Pr 2.70 20.60 66.80 24.20 18.30 17.10
Nd 11.20 69.10 242.00 87.40 71.60 68.10 59.20 62.80 62.56
Sm 2.67 8.81 36.20 14.50 14.60 14.10 12.20 11.76 14.30
Eu 1.10 2.03 6.97 6.88 3.71 3.30 2.90 1.78 1.99
Gd 2.99 6.71 27.30 12.60 14.40 14.00 11.80 11.42 13.03
Tb 0.54 0.83 3.78 1.72 2.38 2.01
Dy 3.26 4.44 19.50 8.66 14.60 14.90 13.00 11.97 12.43
Ho 0.68 0.81 3.58 1.63 2.89 2.53 2.60
Er 1.90 2.26 9.67 4.69 8.21 8.66 7.55 7.23 7.93
Tm 0.29 0.30 1.23 0.68 1.17 1.12
Yb 1.87 1.92 7.67 4.80 7.72 8.62 7.29 7.20 7.43
Lu 0.27 0.33 1.13 0.69 1.16 1.48 1.30 1.07 1.11
Analysisa AcmeLabs CUG CUG AcmeLabs CUG Lyon-BP UNESP Lyon-BP UNESP AcmeLabs UNESP Lyon UNESP UNESP
Location 34.05◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.70◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.71◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.69◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.60◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W 35.72◦ W
(Datum WGS84) 5.86◦ S 6.32◦ S 5.87◦ S 5.83◦ S 6.24◦ S 6.31◦ S 6.33◦ S 6.32◦ S 6.28◦ S 6.28◦ S 6.16◦ S 6.25◦ S 6.28◦ S 6.28◦ S

Dio Diopside, Hb Hornblende, Bio Biotite LOI Loss on ignition (fusion at 1000 ◦ C of 0.5 g of rock powder mixed with 3.5 g of lithium tetraborate).
Major and trace element analyses at the Universities of Lyon and Blaise Pascal (BP), France, the State University of São Paulo (UNESP), the China University of Geosciences at Wuhan (CUG) and comercial laboratory (AcmeLabs,
SM Santa Maria, SJC São José do Campestre, BS Boa Saúde.
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 135

than subset I. The São José do Campestre suite defines a somewhat

continuous trend from the less evolved to the more evolved sam-
ples (Fig. 10e). Fe2 O3 t, MgO, TiO2 , CaO, and P2 O5 are negatively
correlated with SiO2 ; Al2 O3 is also gently curved, but in contrast
to the other oxides, the curve is convex upward, first increasing
and then decreasing with differentiation. The turning point is at
approximately 62 wt.% SiO2 .
Figs. 11a–e shows Harkerı̌s plots of trace elements for the stud-
ied complexes (data from Tables 3–7). Although they are dispersed
in most diagrams, some distinctions are observed. Discarding the
less evolved samples of the Bom Jesus suite (see discussion above),
Sr, Nb and Zr have incompatible behaviour, whereas Cr, Rb and Ni
tend to be negatively correlated with SiO2 (Fig. 11a). Fig. 11b shows
a Harkerı̌s plot of PJ I; the PJ II and SPP gneisses shown in Fig. 11c.
Presidente Juscelino I is usually more enriched in Nb, Y and Zr than
Fig. 8. Classification of the studied rocks according to the Shandı̌s index (Shand, PJ II and shows negative correlations for Ba, Rb, Nb and Ni and pos-
1943) in the Maniar and Piccoli (1989) diagram. A/NK = Al2 O3 /(Na2 O + K2 O) mol; itive correlations for Y and Zr. These trace elements are scattered
A/CNK = Al2 O3 /(CaO + Na2 O + K2 O) mol.
for PJ II. Except for sample ES568B, Ba and Rb are correlated, and
Ni, Y and V are negatively correlated in the Brejinho suite (Fig. 11c).
has the opposite behaviour. As a whole, PJ II is somewhat poorer In the São José do Campestre suite, Rb shows negative correlation
in Fe2 O3 t, Na2 O, P2 O5 and TiO2 . Despite the scatter in Fig. 10d, with SiO2 , and Ni (except for samples CE116A, CE116 C and CE116D)
most Brejinho samples are CaO-enriched and MgO-impoverished and Nb are correlated (Fig. 11d). Considering the major and trace
compared to the Bom Jesus and Presidente Juscelino suites. Among elements together, the MgO, CaO, TiO2 , Fe2 O3 t, Cr and Ni contents
the Brejinho samples, subset II is richer in SiO2 and poorer in K2 O are higher in the less silicic (<60 wt.% SiO2 ) samples of the Bom
Jesus, Brejinho and São José do Campestre complexes. On the other
hand, PJ I samples and the more silicic (>60 wt.% SiO2 ) São José do
Campestre samples have higher Ba, Rb, Nb and Zr contents. Silica-
rich samples of the Bom Jesus, Brejinho, PJ I and II and São José do
Campestre complexes have the highest Sr contents.
Fig. 12 shows rare earth elements (REE) patterns for the gneisses.
The less evolved (gabbro to diorite) Bom Jesus I (BR57F, BR57 K,
BR57JB) and Brejinho (ES568B) samples have patterns that are
similar to those of enriched Archean tholeiites and are charac-
terised by slight LREE enrichment (normalised LaN /YbN ratios from
2.7 to 4.3) and small positive or negative europium anomalies
(Eu/Eu* = 0.82–1.32). Other samples have high REE patterns akin to
the average of Archean TTG, with an average YbN < 10 and LaN /YbN
ratios from 26 to 70, including: (i) Bom Jesus II—BR57D, ES915;
(ii) São Pedro do Potengi gneiss—ES387; (iii) Presidente Juscelino
II—ES40X, ES40Y, ES53, BR60, ES177; and (iv) Brejinho II—BR66,
BR72A, BR74, BR71. Other samples have spectra similar to the aver-
age of Phanerozoic granitoids, with YbN > 10, LaN /YbN ratios from
2 to 26 and often positive Eu/Eu* ratios: (i) Bom Jesus I—ES85X,
BR57 C, BR57I, BR57H; (ii) Presidente Juscelino I—ES450, ES444,
ES895, EC71; (iii) São José do Campestre—EC80, ES471, ES580A,
ES363, ES543A, CE116B, ES-1-2-X, ES36; and (iv) Brejinho I—BR66,
BR72A, BR568A. Sample BR68 (Br II) has a REE pattern similar to
the less evolved sample ES568B and similar to enriched Archean
tholeiites. Among the Br II group, sample BR72 has a REE pattern
that is similar to Phanerozoic granitoids as displayed by sample
ES568A, although the latter is HREE-enriched. The positive Eu/Eu*
ratios of some samples may be ascribed to their greater abundances
of feldspar. Although they have classical Archean-like REE spectra,
the PJ II gneisses are K-rich and do not follow the trondhjemitic
trend in Fig. 9b and c as was noted by Souza et al. (1999).
Fig. 13 presents multi-elemental diagrams of the rocks stud-
ied compared with the averages of Archean sanukitoids and TTGs.
Some of the less differentiated samples of the BJ I (BR57K, BR57F,
BR57JB) and SJC (ES407) rocks have similarities with sanukitoids,
especially the overall inclined trend and the negative Nb, P and Ti
anomalies; however, they are poorer in La-–m and slightly richer
Fig. 9. Geochemistry of the metaplutonic rocks of the São José do Campestre Massif. in Y–Yb than the sanukitoids. Other samples (e.g., BJ I—ES568B, and
(a) Normative An–Ab–Or triangle (O’Connor, 1965) with the fields of trondhjemites SJC—ES407) are much more discordant, have no significant anoma-
(Tdh), tonalities (To), granodiorites (Gd) and granites (Gr) from Barker (1979) and
lies and are impoverished in the more incompatible elements. The
calc-alkaline Archean granites (CGr) from Sylvester (1994). (b) Cationic Ca–Na–K
diagram showing the classical calc-alkaline (CA; Nockolds and Allen, 1953) and BJ I silicic rocks (ES85X, BR57C, BR57D, BR57I, BR57H) approxi-
trondhjemitic (Tdh; Barker and Arth, 1976) evolutions. mately follow the averages of sanukitoids and Archean TTGs, but
136 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

are richer in Y and Yb; sample BR57 (BJ I) has a spectrum that almost phase in the evolution of high Zr/Sc samples (Martin, 1986, 1994).
parallels Archean TTG but is poorer in Ba to Y; sample ES915 (BJ Higher Y and Yb contents follow the same line of reasoning. The
II) tracks the average of TTGs but is poorer in Yb. The Brejinho I elemental characteristics outlined above suggest the presence of
gneisses also display patterns that are similar to those of sanuki- garnet in the parental source (e.g., garnet amphibolites or eclogite)
toids and TTGs but are impoverished in Ba to K and La to Sr (except of the TTG-like units and almost no garnet (or a very small pro-
for sample ES568A) and enriched in Ti to Yb (much more in sample portion) in the source of the sanukitoid- or modern-like units (e.g.,
ES568A). The Brejinho II subset shows a better adjustment to the shallow upper mantle).
average for TTGs (except for sample BR72, which is richer in Y to Archean terranes have frequently been compared to Phanero-
Yb). The silica-rich SJC and PJ I gneisses have patterns that are very zoic subduction settings (see above). Following this assumption,
similar to the average of sanukitoids and TTGs (overall negative Fig. 14 shows multi-elemental diagrams of the studied rocks
inclination and negative anomalies of Nb, Sr–P and Ti in addition to compared with the averages of arc andesites for the less differen-
being richer in Y–Yb). Finally, the PJ II gneisses also have TTG-like tiated samples and volcanic arc granites (VAG) for the silica-rich
spectra but are more fractionated, poorer in elements from Nb to samples. Aside from spikes in some elements, the less evolved BJ
Yb and are clearly distinct from the nearby PJ I suite. I BR57F and BR5 K, SJC ES407 and ES467, and Br I ES568B samples
Because of the partition coefficient, Sc is very sensitive to the role have strong similarities with the average for arc andesites; the
of garnet either as a fractionating phase or remaining in the melt only exceptions are sample BR68, which has a stronger negative
residue. The garnet may be assumed to be an important residual Th-Ta anomaly and a stronger positive Hf-Zr anomaly, and sample

Fig. 10. Oxide Harker diagrams for the studied suites (data in Tables 3–7). (a) Bom Jesus. (b) Presidente Juscelino and São Pedro do Potengi. (c) Brejinho. (d) São José do
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 137

Fig. 10. (continued)

ES568A, which has a nearly flat spectrum and is richer in Th to Yb 4.2. Mechanism of differentiation
than arc andesites. The Bom Jesus I BR57H and BJ II ES915 samples
are markedly similar to arc andesites; ES915 is poorer in Y and Yb Diagrams with curved or broken lines, such as those for the Bom
and richer in K2 O to Ta. The Brejinho II BR71 sample has a pattern Jesus, São José do Campestre and Presidente Juscelino complexes,
that is very similar to ES915 but has a stronger negative Th–Ta are most likely produced by magmatic differentiation (Wilson,
anomaly and is much more impoverished in Y–Yb. The Presidente 1989). In this case, the break reflects changes in the fractionat-
Juscelino II BR60 and ES40Y and SPP ES387 samples have strikingly ing mineral assemblage during differentiation, including evolution
similar spectra (similar to samples BR57H and BR71 described from the fractionation of Al-, K- and Na-poor phases (e.g., pyrox-
above) that are similar to those of arc andesites and VAG, but ene) toward Al-, Fe-, Mg-, Ca- and Ti-rich phases (e.g., plagioclase,
they have strong negative Ta–Nb anomalies and are all poorer hornblende, biotite, magnetite and titanite).
in Y to Yb; in addition, sample BR60 is even more impoverished Fig. 15 shows log (compatible element) vs. log (incompatible
from Th to Sm. The behaviour is very distinct for PJ I ES444, ES450 element) diagrams. This type of diagram is useful for deducing
and ES895, which have nearly flat patterns from Th to Yb and are which mechanism predominated during the magmatic differentia-
richer in Ce to Yb than VAG. The silica-rich São José do Campestre tion; fractional crystallisation forms a high-angle trend, whereas
I samples CE116B, ES471, ES543A and ES580A all have spectra that partial melting forms a sub-horizontal trend (Cocherie, 1986;
follow VAG; sample ES580A is enriched in all elements from Nb Martin, 1987, 1994). Despite scattering of some samples, the
to Yb. plots suggest fractional crystallisation as the main mechanism of
138 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

evolution for the Presidente Juscelino, Brejinho and São José do unrealistically high (>70%) melting of the silica poor Bom Jesus
Campestre suites. Some PJ II samples (BR60, ES53, and ES177) samples (e.g., BR57K, BR57JB, BR57G) to generate the silica rich
have positive Eu anomalies, which could indicate plagioclase cumu- samples (e.g., BR57I, BR57B), leaving a residue composed of 50%
lates during differentiation. Because of the contrasting distribution plagioclase, 25% hornblende, 20% clinopyroxene and 5% garnet.
coefficients (see Nielsen, 2007), those positive anomalies could The interpretation of fractional crystallisation as the major mecha-
also be explained by concomitant crystallisation of plagioclase, nism of differentiation is reinforced by petrographic observations of
amphibole, clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite, and allanite. The two zoning of plagioclase and clinopyroxene in the less deformed meta-
samples of the BJ II subset (BR57D and ES915) appear to track plutonic rocks. It is currently assumed that mantle-derived magmas
the fractional crystallisation line. The Bom Jesus I samples do interact with the lower and upper crust leading to crustal assimila-
not display clear geochemical behaviour and may be interpreted tion and concurrent fractional crystallisation (AFC; DePaolo, 1981).
as having evolved by either fractional crystallisation (excluding However, even this possibility may be discarded as a major mech-
sample BR57 C) or partial melting (except for samples BR57G, anism in Fig. 16, where fractional crystallisation again appears to
ES85X and ES915). However, by applying the batch melting equa- be the dominant process.
tion CL = CO /[D + F(1 − D)] of Shaw (1970) [where CL = concentration
of trace elements in the melt; CO = concentration of trace ele-
4.3. Genesis of Magma
ments in the melt residue; D = global partition coefficients for Zr
and Ni; F = rate of melting] and the partition coefficients com- The mineralogical and chemical descriptions of the Archean
piled by Martin (1987) and Nielsen (2007), this would require an São José do Campestre metaplutonic rocks show that they can be

Fig. 10. (continued)

E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 139

Fig. 10. (continued)

divided into two groups: (i) rocks with compositions that vary derivation by melting of earlier igneous protolith or the CI (crustal
from basic (gabbro, diorite, quartz diorite) to acidic (granodior- igneous source) granite of Didier et al. (1982).
ites, tonalites, leucotonalites), which are represented by the Bom Table 8 compares the studied metaplutonic rocks with Archean
Jesus, Brejinho and São José do Campestre units; and (ii) less dif- TGG and sanukitoid and modern (Phanerozoic) granitoids. The large
ferentiated silicic rocks of the PJ I and II and SPP gneisses. Samples SiO2 variations of the BJ I, Br I and SJC gneisses are roughly within
of the first group are often diopside normative or have normat- the range of sanukitoid and modern granitoids. The other subsets,
ive corundum less than 1.0; hornblende is common with relicts of as well as the São Pedro do Potengi gneiss, are akin to Archean TTG.
clinopyroxene (Fig. 4a, b). The second group includes one subset (PJ These resemblances are also observed for the normalised Yb, La/Yb
II rocks); the samples in this subset from the São Pedro do Potengi and Zr/Sc ratios, which are much higher for the BJ II, PJ II, Br II, SJC
gneiss are all corundum normative in the range of 0.6–1.2. Three of and SPP rocks. As a whole, the K2 O/Na2 O, Cr/Ni and Rb/Sr ratios of
the eight samples from the PJ I complex have normative corundum the rocks studied tend to be higher than in Archean TTG.
from 1.0 to 1.5, and the others are slightly diopside normative. Con- The diagrams described above (Figs. 13 and 14) suggest that
sequently, these groups are essentially metaluminous or slightly the investigated metaplutonic rocks are analogous to the Andean
peraluminous, respectively, with Shand’s A/NCK ratios < 1.2 (Fig. 8). continental margin. We propose a magmatic arc setting for their
The characteristics of the first group are typical of M-type (mantle- generation and emplacement. Several experimental and theoretical
derived) granitoids according to Didier et al. (1982) classification. studies have indicated that the generation of calc-alkaline mag-
The second, which is slightly peraluminous, may indicate crustal mas in modern subduction zones depends on the age and the heat
140 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 10. (continued)

distribution between the subducted oceanic plate and the overly- in a normalised (La/Yb)N vs. YbN plot. The samples are grouped into
ing mantle wedge (Wyllie, 1979; Martin, 1986, 1999; Maury et al., two fields: (i) high (La/Yb)N and low YbN (PJ II, SPP, BJ II, some BJ
1996). High geothermal gradients (as are assumed to have been I, Br I, SJC); and (ii) low (La/Yb)N and high YbN (PJ I, some Br I, BJ I
dominant in the Archean) along Benioff planes may favour the ES85X, and most of SJC). Group (i) agrees well with the partial melt-
partial melting of the subducted lithosphere at comparatively shal- ing curves for garnet amphibolites and eclogites (Fig. 17a) melted
lower depths (Martin, 1986, 1999; Defant and Drummond, 1990; from 5 to 50% (Fig. 17b). Group (ii) may be explained by melt-
Drummond and Defant, 1990; Rapp et al., 1991, 1999; Peacock ing of depleted (Brejinho and São José do Campestre samples) or
et al., 1994; Maury et al., 1996; Stern and Kilian, 1996; Bourdon slightly metasomatised mantle (pargasite-phlogopite-spinel lher-
et al., 2002; Martin et al., 2005; Samsonov et al., 2005), whereas zolite with up to 6% garnet) followed by olivine fractionation at
low geothermal gradients (typical of Phanerozoic tectonic settings) mantle depths (Bom Jesus, Brejinho and São José do Campestre
support the partial melting of the mantle wedge that is meta- units). As demonstrated above, variable recycling of (or contami-
somatised by fluids released from dehydration of the subducted nation by) older crust might explain the negative epsilon Nd values
lithosphere (Wyllie and Sekine, 1982; Tatsumi, 1989; Bureau and of the majority of samples (see Tables 1 and 2, and Fig. 6).
Keppler, 1999; Schmidt et al., 2004; Kessel et al., 2005; Li et al., The discussion above indicates that the upper mantle (Fig. 17c)
2009). and oceanic crust, as well as older continental material, were the
Fig. 17 shows how magmas could be generated by partial melt- sources of magmas in the São José do Campestre units. Consider-
ing of either an oceanic crust that was transformed into garnet ing the small influence, if any, of AFC processes, we consider the
amphibolites or eclogite (Fig. 17a) or of the upper mantle (Fig. 17c) actual composition of the studied rocks as reflecting the source or
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 141

the effects of fractional crystallisation during differentiation. This partial melting of LREE- and LILE-enriched lherzolite with little or
is particularly important for the less evolved silica-poor samples no residual garnet followed by olivine fractionation at depth. This
(47.7–53.0 wt.% SiO2 ), which are from petrographically metagab- petrogenetic model is similar to that proposed for late-Archean
broic rocks that are relatively MgO-impoverished (4.2–9.5 wt.% sanukitoids and Closepet-type granites, which involved remelting
MgO) and LREE-enriched (Figs. 12 and 13). These features strongly of a peridotite that was previously metasomatised by reactions
favour an origin by melting of an enriched (metasomatised) upper with slab-melts (Shirey and Hanson, 1984; Stern and Hanson, 1991;
mantle peridotite with olivine fractionation at depth accounting for Rapp et al., 1999; Smithies and Champion, 2000; Moyen et al., 2001,
the low MgO contents. It follows that the other samples in the same 2003, 2010; Halla, 2005; Lobach-Zhuchenko et al., 2005; Martin
differentiation series are also mantle-derived and are represented et al., 2005). In this case, melting of LREE-enriched peridotite is
by samples with high Yb contents, which are similar to the modern assumed to generate gabbros, diorites, monzodiorites and syenodi-
(Phanerozoic) granitoids in Figs. 12 and 13 and also plot in the low orites with high Mg#, Ni, Cr, Sr, Ba, P2 O5 and LREE contents (Stern
La/Yb and high Yb field in Fig. 17. The same reasoning is applied to et al., 1989; Stern and Hanson, 1991). Subsequent differentiation
the silica-rich (69.6–74.0 wt.% SiO2 ) PJ I metaplutonic rocks, which of these melts would yield granodiorite with the following char-
all show negative europium anomalies and normalised Yb values acteristics (at 70 wt.% SiO2 ): (1) hornblende, titanite and apatite
even higher than those of modern granitoids. as accessory phases; (2) Mg# ∼ 45, MgO ∼ 0.8 wt.%; (3) Sr and
The geochemical reasoning described above supports the sug- Ba ∼ 660–1150 ppm, Cr ∼ 20 ppm, Ni ∼ 00 ppm; (4) Rb/Sr ∼ 0.17;
gestion that the parental magmas of the Archean metaplutonic and (5) fractionated REE patterns with only minor Eu anomalies.
rocks with mantle-like signatures could have been generated by These characteristics are shared by most of the mantle-like São José

Fig. 11. Trace elements Harker diagrams for the studied suites (data in Tables 3–7). (a) Bom Jesus. (b) Presidente Juscelino and São Pedro do Potengi. (c) Brejinho. (d) São
José do Campestre.
142 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 11. (continued)

do Campestre rocks except for their slightly higher Mg#, MgO and heterogeneous upper mantle is needed to accommodate the iso-
Cr, and lower Rb/Sr values. topic characteristics of these suites, including a depleted mantle
In an experimental study at 4 GPa, Rapp et al. (1999) allowed for Br I (positive epsilon Nd value) and a mixed depleted and unde-
the hybridisation of slab-derived melts by reactions with overlying pleted mantle for BJ I (positive and negative epsilon Nd value).
mantle peridotite to produced high-Mg adakitic liquids. A number The negative epsilon Nd values of the SJC suite may indicate its
of studies have reported liquids produced by experimental melt- derivation from melting older crustal rocks (e.g., BJ, Br, PJ and
ing of depleted and enriched mantle peridotite (Robinson et al., SPP). However, the composition of those hypothetical sources when
1998; Takahashi et al., 1993; Hirose, 1997; Hirschmann et al., 1998; melted (in garnet granulite or eclogite facies) cannot generate by
Wasylenki et al., 2003). Experimental melting of fertile peridotite the less differentiated (50–60 wt.% SiO2 ) and Yb-rich facies of the
at low pressure (<15 kbar) produces near-solidus silica- and alkali- SJC unit by melting. Another magma source that should be consid-
rich melts (>55 wt.% SiO2 ) (Baker and Stolper, 1994; Baker et al., ered is a moderate to strongly metasomatised mantle to generate
1995). Experimental melting of fertile peridotite at temperatures of the modal composition and Phanerozoic-like RRE spectra of the SJC
1000–1050 ◦ C for both water undersaturated and saturated condi- samples.
tions generated high-silica (54–60 wt.% SiO2 ) and high-magnesian The lower Yb contents and higher La/Yb ratios of samples
(MgO = 5.6–6.8 wt.%) liquids (Hirose, 1997). Among the studied of the PJ II, SPP, BJ II, and Br II rocks share chemical charac-
suites, the less evolved (48–58 wt.% SiO2 , Mg# = 59–41) BJ I, Br I, and teristics with Archean TTGs (Figs. 12–15). Over the last 30–35
SJC samples are similar to experimental mantle melts (46–53 wt.% years, several basalt and amphibolite melting experiments have
SiO2 ), high-Mg andesites (53–58 wt.% SiO2 ) and hybridised melts simulated both water-saturated and water-undersaturated (dehy-
(60–66 wt.% SiO2 ), all of which had Mg# from 50 to 60. A dration melting) conditions (Rushmer, 1991; Beard and Lofgren,
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 143

1991; Rapp et al., 1991, 2003; Winther and Newton, 1991; Peacock years (from 3.41 to 2.7 Ga) of Archean crustal evolution. The number
et al., 1994; Wolf and Wyllie, 1994; and references therein). Par- of distinct magmatic events (at 3.41, 3.36, 3.33, 3.25, 3.18, 3.12, 3.03,
tial melting of a tholeiite crust under both water-saturated and and 2.70 Ga) and the protracted Archean evolution of the SJCM sug-
water-undersaturated (dehydration melting) conditions leaves a gest that it formed a larger cratonic mass at the end of the Archean
residue made up of mainly amphibole, plagioclase and pyroxenes (Dantas et al., 2004). However, it is difficult to establish geologi-
at pressures lower than 8 kbar; garnet appears at pressures greater cal correlations and genetic links between the SJCM and Archean
than 10 kbar, and amphibole disappears above 16 kbar. The liq- fragments in neighbouring cratons (São Francisco and Amazonian
uids that are formed vary from diorite to tonalite/trondhjemite and cratons in Brazil and the West African and Congo in Africa) due
granodiorite and are slightly peraluminous, with normative corun- to the lack of precise geochronological and geochemical data from
dum greater than 1.3 and Shandı̌s A/CNK ratios between 1.0 and comparable units in the neighbouring cratons and the dispersion of
1.3. Andesitic to dacitic or rhyolitic liquids coexist with amphibole, these small Archean remnants within widespread Palaeoprotero-
clinopyroxene, plagioclase and magnetite in the temperature range zoic and Neoproterozoic terranes (Fig. 1).
from 800 to 1050 ◦ C. All Archean units of the SJCM have Nd TDM ages that are much
older than the crystallisation ages (except for two samples of
5. Discussion the 3.18 Ga Brejinho suite) and negative and/or positive epsilon
Nd values, which may indicate recycling of older crustal frag-
The genesis of continental crust within the SJCM can be ments and the accretion of juvenile material. Moreover, the units
described as a succession of phases of intrusions that resulted in have trace element contents (especially the REE) that are similar
the accretion of compositionally heterogeneous rocks over 700 Ma to classical Archean TTG, Phanerozoic granitoids or sanukitoids.

Fig. 11. (continued)

144 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 11. (continued)

Multi-elemental plots usually match the average of arc andesite and borders of the massif; this may indicate the direction of crustal
volcanic arc granite with the exception of some samples from the growth in the area. We suggest a multi-component mixing model
Bom Jesus, Brejinho and São José do Campestre units that resemble for Archean crust generation that involved contributions from older
enriched Archean tholeiites. continental crust and the mantle. Discriminating between the dif-
Any hypothesis that explains the complex evolutionary his- ferent contributions of slab melt, old continental crust, and the
tory of the rocks must involve partial melting of different sources mantle wedge to the process of Archean TTG genesis and crust for-
(depleted mantle and/or undepleted mantle both variably contam- mation is an important line of research for (re)interpreting Archean
inated through interactions with crustal material, LILE-enriched crustal genesis (Rollinson, 2006).
tholeiite transformed into garnet-bearing amphibolites, and older Several geodynamic processes may be required to explain the
sialic crust) and at different depths. The highly negative values of zoning of the SJCM, either involving normal differentiation of the
εNd (0) (>−30) and the decreasing U–Pb crystallisation ages and mantle or cooling at different crustal levels within the lithosphere.
initial epsilon Nd values toward the border of the Archean nucleus Compositional stratified continental crust does not reflect deriva-
suggest a docking process that occurred in the SJCM during the tion from a single stage of mantle melting. The positive and negative
Archean. These results are consistent with the formation of conti- epsilon Nd values in some rock units (metasediments, metavol-
nental crust throughout the successive accretion of magmatic arcs canics and metagranitoids) are consistent with crustal recycling
to an ancient nucleus. during the Early Archean (Chase and Patchett, 1988; Bowring
The compositional zonation in the Archean nuclei is the clear- and Housh, 1995) and require the presence of an older enriched
est feature that has been recognised in the SJCM. The magmatic crustal source during the melting process that generated trond-
pulses became successively more potassic and younger toward the hjemite magmas. Another relevant feature is the lack of a significant
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 145

Fig. 11. (continued)

volume of more primitive Archean rocks (e.g., gabbro and diorites) be analogous to the São Francisco craton forming part of Atlantica
and the absence or very small volume of granulite facies rocks. (Rogers, 1996) and may be useful for worldwide geological corre-
This may reflect the dominant midcrustal exposure level in the lations.
area and indicate that the roots of the Archean lithosphere are The generation of large areas of high-temperature terranes and
deeper and not yet exposed in the region. Both depleted man- granulite facies metamorphism is characteristic of the Archean cra-
tle and enriched mantle or crustal sources (tholeiite crust) are tons of the South American and West African continents. These
required to explain the Nd isotopic variations in these Archean cratons have zircon U–Pb ages of ca. 3.0–2.9 Ga that are related
rocks. to the development of Archean juvenile crust accreted to older ter-
The most cited models of palaeogeographic reconstructions ranes (Figueiredo and Barbosa, 1993; Toteu et al., 1994, 2001). In
of old supercontinents have correlated the South American and contrast with those cratons, high grade metamorphism is rarely
African continents in terms of the relationships between the expressed in the SJCM, occurring only as an intrusive complex of ca.
Amazon-Congo and São Francisco-West African cratons but do not 3.03 Ga metagabbros, anorthosites and low temperature granulites
mention the presence of older terranes in the Borborema Province (the Senador Elói de Souza complex in Fig. 2).
(Rogers et al., 1995). This was addressed by Neves (2003, 2011) for However, there are basic differences between the Palaeopro-
the generation of the Atlantica supercontinent during the Palaeo- terozoic evolutionary history of the crustal fragment described
proterozoic by the amalgamation of Archean microcontinents. As here and the equivalent cratons in this correlation. The collisional
the geographic position of the SJCM in Fig. 1 shows, this model could processes related to the Eburnean orogeny in the São Francisco
146 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 12. Chondrite normalised (Sun and McDonough, 1989) rare earth elements of samples of São José do Campestre units. REE patterns of Archean TTG and modern granitoids
are from Martin (1994).
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 147

Fig. 13. Primitive mantle normalised (Taylor and McLennan, 1985) multi-elemental plots for the studied samples, compared with Archean TTG and sanukitoids–San (Martin
et al., 2005).

and West African cratons are characterised by the generation of 1992; Ledru et al., 2003). These processes are not observed together
juvenile crust and involved large amounts of metasupracrustals, S- within the SJCM, but voluminous high K-calc-alkaline juvenile
types granites, greenstones and granulite belts, alkaline syenitic crust formation (metaplutonic and metavolcanic suites) and sub-
rocks and foreland basins (Abouchami et al., 1990; Boher et al., ordinate metasedimentary rocks bordering the massif, which are
148 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Fig. 14. Primitive mantle normalised (Taylor and McLennan, 1985) multi-elemental plots for the less evolved and silica-rich samples of the Bom Jesus, Presidente Juscelino,
Brejinho, São Pedro do Potengi and São José do Campestre gneisses. Arc andesite and volcanic arc granite (VAG) are from Thorpe et al. (1984) and Pearce et al. (1984),

regionally referred to as the Caicó complex, are described by Souza migmatite-granulite complexes and the Itabuna-Salvador-Curaçá
et al. (2007). high grade belt. The Gavião block is mainly composed of
Some of the oldest fragments of continental lithosphere in South ca. 3.2–2.9 Ga greenstone belts (Contendas-Mirante, Umburanas,
America, represented by the Archean counterparts of the São José Riacho de Santana, Mundo Novo), ca. 2.9–2.8 Ga tonalite to grano-
do Campestre massif, occur as basement inliers within Palaeopro- diorite orthogneisses, and the older nucleus of the Sete Voltas
terozoic gneisses. The SJCM was only slightly reheated during the Massif. According to Martin et al. (1997), the Sete Voltas Massif
Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic, as evidenced by metamor- is a small (40 km long × 10 km wide) N–S elongated body with
phic rims on zircons (Dantas, 1996; Dantas et al., 2004) and the 3.4 Ga (Nutman and Cordani, 1993; Martin et al., 1997) typical TTG,
preservation of Archean structures (this paper). This suggests that 3.17–3.15 Ga younger tonalitic to trondhjemitic grey gneiss, and
the lithotectonic units of the SJCM and eventually other smaller 2.6 Ga grey granite dykes that were generated by partial melting
Archean fragments dispersed throughout the region were amal- of Archean tholeiite (3.4 Ga TTG) and continental crust (the other
gamated during the 2.25–2.15 Ga Eburnean accretion to form the rocks); all these rocks have TDM ages of approximately 3.66 Ga,
Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent Atlantica (Fetter et al., 2000; implying the existence of an even older continental crust (Martin
Costa et al., 2000; Dantas et al., 2004; Neves, 2003, 2011). et al., 1997). The Serrinha block (Barbosa and Sabaté, 2004; Rios
Palaeoarchean to Mesoarchean crust has already been identi- et al., 2008; E.P. Oliveira et al., 2010) is an elongated N–S crustal seg-
fied in the São Francisco (SFC) and Amazonian (AC) cratons in ment (250 km long × 70 km wide) composed of banded gneisses,
South American. The basement of the SFC (Barbosa and Sabaté, migmatites, 3.2–2.8 Ga orthogneisses and tonalities (TDM ages of
2004) is composed of the 3.4–2.8 Ga Gavião (central portion 3.2–3.1 Ga), mafic dykes and mafic-ultramafic complexes. All were
of craton), 3.1–2.7 Ga Serrinha (NE part), and 2.8–2.7 Ga Jequié variably affected by an early Mesoarchean metamorphic event at
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 149

Fig. 15. Bi-log diagrams correlating compatible (y-direction) vs. incompatible (x-direction) behaviour of some elements for Archean metaplutonic rocks from the São José do
Campestre Massif. The distribution of samples suggests fractional crystallisation as the main mechanism of evolution. Symbols for curves: PM Partial Melting, FC Fractional

3.09 Ga that generated the basement of the Rio Itapicuru and Rio trondhjemites and tonalities, and intrusive 2.87–2.86 Ga sanukitoid
Capim Palaeoproterozoic greenstone belts. These characteristics do granodiorites, and younger trondhjemites and granites. These units
not allow the correlation of the terranes described above with the are overlain towards the northeast by a ca. 2.76 Ga volcanic and sed-
Palaeoarchean and Mesoarchean units of the SJCM. imentary sequence of the Carajás Ridge (Tassinari and Macambira,
In the southeastern part of the AC, the so-called Mesoarchean 1999; Souza et al., 2001; M.A. Oliveira et al., 2010). Again, it is not
Rio Maria granite-greenstone terrane, which occurs to the south of possible to correlate these units with those of the SJCM.
the Archean Central Amazonian Province is composed of juvenile Potrel et al. (1996, 1998) presented ages of 3.52 Ga and 3.42 Ga
∼3.0 Ga basalts, komatiites and dacites of the Andorinhas Super- for migmatitic orthogneisses with trondhjemitic and granodioritic
group, and a variety of Archean granitoids, including 2.96–2.93 Ga compositions, 3.0 Ga for the magmatic protolith of a charnockitic
150 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

(2004). Because the Nigeria Province represents an extension of

the Palaeoproterozoic terranes of the Borborema Province and the
early Archean Kaduna region have similar zircon ages and TDM ages
to early Palaeoarchean rocks of the SJCM (the 3.4–3.3 Ga Bom Jesus,
Presidente Juscelino and Brejinho suites), these provinces may have
once been part of the same Archean continent (Dantas et al., 2004).
The Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa is one of the oldest and
best preserved Archean continental fragments on Earth. It evolved
episodically over a one billion year period (3500–2500 Ma) and
involved magmatic arc formation and accretion as well as tectonic
amalgamation of numerous discrete terranes or blocks (Poujol,
2007). In the Barberton granitoid-greenstone terrane, which is the
southern part of the Kaapvaal Craton, geochronological data indi-
cate three main phases of relatively short-lived TTG plutonism
(Poujol, 2007; Kisters et al., 2010). Early TTG suites intruded at
3.58 and 3.43 Ga and were largely coeval with the deposition of
Fig. 16. Rb/Sr vs. Sr plot for the São José do Campestre rocks. The continuous and
the lower parts of the greenstone belt sequence. This was followed
dashed curves illustrate pure fractional crystallisation (FC) and assimilation and
concurrent fractional crystallisation (AFC), respectively. The curves for AFC were by ca. 3.35–3.22 Ga juvenile tonalite and younger TTG plutons and
calculated following DePaolo (1981). a later suite of 3.14–3.10 Ga potassic granites. A refined study using
U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopes on rocks from the Kaapvaal Craton led Zeh
et al. (2009) to identify two other discrete events at ca. 3.07–2.80 Ga
pluton, 2.84 Ga for migmatitic orthogneiss, and 2.73 Ga for late- (S-type, low-Ca granite) and 2.78–2.69 Ga (highly differentiated
tectonic gabbros and granites in the West African Craton (Amsaga high-Ca alkali granites). The complex geology of the Kaapvaal Cra-
terrane in the Reguibat Rise of western Mauritania). Positive ton, including a thick sequence of early Eoarchean greenstones and
epsilon de Nd values and TDM ages approximately 3.64 Ga for a predominance of TTG plutons as old as 3.6 Ga, distinguish it from
the 3.52–3.42 Ga orthogneisses support an early Archean crustal the SJCM.
accretion event in this craton (Potrel et al., 1996, 1998). The only The 3.53–2.83 Ga Pilbara Craton of Western Australia contains
similarity with the SJCM is some rocks as old as 3.5–3.4 Ga, so it is some of the largest and best-exposed and preserved low-grade
not possible to correlate these units with the Archean of the West Palaeoarchean rocks on Earth and is comparable to the Kaapvaal
African Craton. Craton in southern Africa (Van Kranendonk et al., 2002, 2003, 2007).
The northern part of the Congo Craton (south of the Cameroon Following the main supracrustal sequences (the ca. 3.51–3.50 Ga
shield) is composed primarily of 2.90 Ga charnockites and 2.83 Ga Coonterunah and ca. 3.49–3.31 Ga Warrawoona Groups), sev-
TTG suites that intruded earlier greenstone belt sequences (Toteu eral granitoid suites/supersuites (mainly TTGs) were emplaced
et al., 1994; Pouclet et al., 2007). In northern Nigeria within the Pan at discrete intervals between ca. 3.5 and 2.8 Ga: 3.48–3.42 Ga,
African orogenic belt of west-central Africa, migmatitic orthogneiss 3.32–3.24 Ga, 3.18–3.16 Ga, and 3.07–2.83 Ga. The latter group
with a granodioritic composition from the Kaduna area have zircon included 2.95 Ga sanukitoid diorite, mafic-ultramafic sills and
ages of 3.05–3.04 Ga, which is interpreted as the age of emplace- alkaline granite, and late- to post-tectonic 2.89–2.83 Ga Sn–Ta–Li-
ment and crystallisation of the granodioritic magma (Bruguier bearing granites. These rocks make up the basement of a succession
et al., 1994; Dada, 1998). Zircon cores from the same orthogneiss of 2.78–2.45 Ga volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Hamersley
yielded ages of 3.55–3.34 Ga and had Nd model ages in the same Basin. The supracrustal sequence of the Hamersley Basin, the sev-
range, which suggest the production of juvenile continental crust eral magmatic episodes from ca. 3.5 to 3.1 Ga and the ca. 3.0–2.8 Ga
at approximately 3.5 Ga in Nigeria (Dada, 1998; Kröner et al., 2001). sanukitoid-like granites in the basement of the Pilbara Craton
Similar older ages (3.54 Ga) were determined for metagabbro and clearly distinguish it from the ca. 3.41–2.70 Ga magmatic rocks of
trondhjemitic gneiss in southeastern Guinea by Thiéblemont et al. the SJCM.

Table 8
Selected average oxide and trace element ratios of the São José do Campestre metaplutonic units compared with Archean and Phanerozoic juvenile granitoids.

Archean Phanerozoic Averages of the Archean São José de Campestre rocks a

TTGb Sanukc grb BJ PJ PJ Br

Subset I Subset II Subset I Subset II Subset I Subset IId SPP SJC

SiO2 (wt.%) 64.9–74.7 55.9–61.7 61.9–74.3 50.3–74.9 68.20 69.6–74.0 69.5–77.2 47.7–75.4 67.7–75.3 68.52 52.8–75.1
K2 O/Na2 O 0.40 0.70 0.90 0.66 0.67 0.67 1.06 0.22 0.78 0.64 1.30
Mg# 43.00 57.00 41.00 57.26 40.44 30.96 25.42 31.00 29.20 41.20 29.48
Rb/Sr 0.10 0.00 0.40 0.13 0.12 0.25 0.78 0.09 0.33 0.14 0.41
A/CNK 1.00 0.80 1.00 0.65 0.99 0.99 1.09 0.84 0.98 1.03 0.92
(La/Yb)N 41.70 32.60 7.00 4.91 59.01 5.85 40.47 1.96 31.31 61.32 11.90
YbN 1.5–5.0 3.7–11.9 15.9–21.8 20.13 4.41 55.71 3.31 60.84 5.25 7.29 33.72
Eu/Eud 1.30 1.40 0.80 0.90 0.77 0.68 1.40 1.08 1.63 0.63 0.76
Cr/Ni 2.10 1.80 2.20 3.23 1.94 3.68 38.68 18.20 5.03 6.98 3.06
Zr/Sc 32.30 19.90 12.90 10.79 63.08 82.28 – 1.72 – 154.51 38.90

Abbreviations used: BJ Bom Jesus gneiss, PJ Presidente Juscelino gneiss, Br Brejinho complex, SPP São Pedro do Potengi gneiss, SJC São José do Campestre complex.
Other abbreviations: TTG Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite, Sanuk Sanukitoid, gr Granite.
Magnesium number Mg# = 100*(mol MgO/(MgO+ FeO2+ ).
Chondrite normalising values after Sun and McDonough (1989).
Data from Tables 3–6.
Martin (1994).
Martin et al. (2005), and Stern & Hanson (1991) for Zr/Sc.
Average of Brejinho subset I without sample BR72, which has chemical ratios similar to the Brejinho II samples.
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 151

Fig. 17. Plots of (La/Yb)N vs. YbN normalised to chondritic values (Sun and McDonough, 1989) for all samples (a), considering a tholeiitic crust (b) and the upper mantle (c)
as the sources of the parental magmas of the São José do Campestre Massif. In (a) Archean TTG (trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite) and post-Archean granitoid fields are
from Martin (1986). Partial melting curves of eclogites (E), garnet amphibolites (GA) and amphibolites (A) were calculated using the batch melting equation of Shaw (1970)
and the partition coefficients compiled by Martin (1987), Rollinson (1993) and Nielsen (2007). In (b) curves for melting of spinel-bearing (Spl) and garnet-bearing (2, 3 and
6% garnet) were plotted, while the dashed curve represents fractional crystallisation of olivine (FC Ol); DM, EM and RS1 represent Depleted Mantle, Enriched Mantle and
strongly metasomatised peridotite, DM and EM after (Martin, 1986), and RS1 after Menzies et al. (1987). Residue composition for mantle melting: olivine 58%, orthopyroxene
25–23%, clinopyroxene 12–10%, phlogopite 2%, pargasite 2%, garnet 6–0%, spinel 0–5%. Residue composition for melting of oceanic crust: garnet-free amphibolite (A), garnet
(10%) amphibolite (GA) and eclogite (E).

Multi-elemental spiderdiagrams indicate that the majority of evolution. Although initially thought to be restricted mainly to
the Archean rocks of the SJCM correlate well with arc andesites the Archean (Martin, 1986), trondhjemites have also been gener-
and volcanic arc granites. Simple models of subduction in Phanero- ated (in smaller volumes and extents) throughout geological time
zoic island arcs cannot be applied to geological processes that (Windley, 1995). Rapid tectonic processes and mantle depletion
operate for longer than 200 Ma, especially for Archean terrane are consistent with this interpretation (Martin, 1986; Chase and
152 E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156

Patchett, 1988). The tectonic setting of Archean TTGs is still strongly tangential fabrics, and the successive accretion and docking
debated (Rapp and Watson, 1995; Wolde et al., 1996; Kusky and of newly formed magmas over the earlier Palaeoarchean core.
Polat, 1999; Foley et al., 2002; Smithies et al., 2007). Two main This led to the assembly of a megacontinent at the end of the
hypotheses have been suggested: slab melting in a subduction Archean that was fragmented and dispersed sometime prior to
zone and hotspot-related melting of underplated basaltic crust. the 2.25–1.90 Ga Palaeoproterozoic Eburnean orogeny.
Further interpretations involve delamination of the lower crust (5) The interpretation of the tectonic evolution may account for
(Rudnick, 1995) or even derivation of grey gneiss by melting of ear- the metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, I- and M-type geo-
lier tonalites or by mixing with new underplating mafic material chemistry of the rocks and for both the Yb-poor (high La/Yb
(Johnston and Wyllie, 1988; Kroner and Tegtmeyer, 1994). ratios) and Yb-rich (low La/Yb ratios) magmas, which indi-
Post-Archean granitoids are richer in K than TTG; their com- cates that mantle wedges operated back to Palaeoarchean and
positions range from granodiorite to granite with YbN > 10 and Mesoarchean times.
negative Eu anomalies. They usually have trace element and iso- (6) The Archean evolutionary history of the SJC, which most likely
topic compositions of mantle-derived magmas and are considered lasted more than one billion years (taking into account the older
to be generated in subduction zone environments by partial melt- TDM ages of approximately 4.0 Ga and the emplacement of the
ing of fluid metasomatised mantle wedges (Martin, 1986; Martin Neoarchean gneisses at ca. 2.70 Ga) and the chiefly Archean
et al., 2005). The mechanism is envisaged as subduction of oceanic recurrent magmatism from ∼3.5 Ga to 2.70 Ga are similar to the
crust, which produces LILE-enriched fluids that interact with the geologic characteristics of the Pilbara, Kaapvaal, West African
overlying mantle wedge. Melting of these hybridised slab-derived and São Francisco/Congo cratons. Nevertheless, the chemistry
melts caused by reactions with mantle peridotite produces high of the magmas that formed during this time interval and the
magnesian adakite liquids that in turn evolve by fractional crys- overall geology of these cratons preclude a closer correlation
tallisation to produce potassic calc-alkaline magmatism. This may between these areas; the most suitable candidates would be
explain the common geochemical characteristic of the suites, which Archean remnants that are entrained within the Nigeria and
are characterised by negative anomalies of Ta–Nb, Rb, Sc and Ti Cameroon shields, but these correlations require additional
in primitive mantle normalised spiderdiagrams (e.g., Wyllie, 1983; geochronological and geochemical data.
Martin, 1986; Hawkesworth et al., 1993; Bureau and Keppler, 1999;
Kessel et al., 2005; Li et al., 2009). A similar mechanism is proposed
here for the some of the studied suites (e.g., 3.41 Ga BJ I, 3.36 Ga PJ I, Acknowledgements
3.33 Ga Br I, and 2.70 Ga SJC orthogneisses). On the other hand, par-
tial melting of a tholeiitic crust that was transformed into garnet ZSS and ELD acknowledge Brazilian governmental agencies
amphibolites and eclogite is the mechanism envisaged for suites CAPES/COFECUB, FINEP/PADCT, CNPq (research fellowships grants
with high Yb (and thus low La/Yb ratios), which are exemplified by 479762/2008-2 and 313654/2009-3 for ZSS and 475717/2001-5,
the 3.18 Ga Br II, the 3.25 Ga PJ II, the 3.12 Ga SPP, and the 2.70 Ga São 303808/2010-1, 478504/2009-8 and 474380/2006-8 for ELD). The
José do Campestre gneisses. The variably modified mantle wedge authors thank Ênio Queiroz, Mário Viegas and Felipe Barbosa for
(either depleted, undepleted or metasomatised) and the subducted assistance during the field work. We are also grateful to S. P. Neves
oceanic crust were thus involved in the Archean tectonic evolution and J. Halla for helpful comments and suggestions that considerably
of the SJCM. This means that mantle wedges, as interpreted today improved the paper. The data reported here came from long dura-
for Phanerozoic tectonic settings, were magma sources as far back tion research projects and included funding from Brazilian agencies
as the early Palaeoarchean. and cooperation with USA (PhD Thesis of ELD), French (sabbatical
stage of ZSS) and Chinese universities (sabbatical stage of ZSS), and
also a commercial laboratory (AcmeLabs). These projects lead to
6. Conclusions the acquisition of analytical data from a number of laboratories, as
is described in Appendix A.
The main results of this paper can be summarised as follows.

Appendix A. Analytical procedures

(1) Available geochronological data suggest at least six episodes of
magma generation (at 3.41, 3.36, 3.33, 3.25, 3.12, and 3.03 Ga) A.1. Whole rock major and trace element analyses
followed by quiescence for 330 Ma and a later episode of magma
formation at 2.70 Ga. A.1.1. Universities of Lyon and Blaise Pascal
(2) Late Palaeoarchean to early Mesoarchean (3.35–3.12 Ga) rocks The concentrations of major and trace elements for fifteen
are volumetrically predominant and enclose small slices of the samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass
early Palaeoarchean suite that is located in the core of the spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the University of Lyon. The analytical
massif. An early Neoarchean unit (2.70 Ga) is also present. precision for major elements is within 2%, but may reach 10% for
(3) Major, trace and rare earth element concentrations and Nd elements of low abundance (MnO, P2 O5 ). The REE contents were
isotopes suggest contributions mainly from depleted and unde- determined by ICP-MS at the Blaise Pascal University. For trace
pleted peridotite mantle and also LREE-enriched tholeiitic elements (including REE), precision is better than 5%, except for ele-
crust, which were both variably contaminated by older con- ments present at concentrations <30 ppm, where the uncertainties
tinental crust. The proposed model suggests the formation of are within 10%.
magmas by partial melting of: (i) hybridised lithospheric man-
tle, which generated Mg-andesite that subsequently evolved by
fractional crystallisation to form suites with Phanerozoic-like A.1.2. State University of São Paulo (UNESP)
geochemical characteristics (BJ I, SJC and Br I orthogneisses); The concentrations of major and trace elements for twenty-
and (ii) Archean tholeiite crust that was transformed into gar- one samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass
net amphibolites or eclogite, which melted to form TTG-like spectrometry (ICP-MS), plasma emission spectroscopy ICP-OES and
units (BJ II, PJ II, Br II and SPP orthogneisses). X-ray fluorescence at the State University of São Paulo (UNESP). The
(4) The magmas were generated in a convergent tectonic envi- analytical precision for major elements is within 2%, but may reach
ronment that accommodated a mix of sources of magmas, 10% for elements of low abundance (MnO, P2 O5 ).
E.L. Dantas et al. / Precambrian Research 227 (2013) 120–156 153

A.1.3. China University of Geosciences (CUG) A.3. U–Pb zircon dating

The major and trace element analyses for nine samples were
conducted by LA-ICP-MS at the State Key Laboratory of Geological The U–Pb dating for samples ES450 (Presidente Juscelino gneiss)
Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, and ES387 (São Pedro do Potengi gneiss) was conducted by LA-ICP-
Wuhan. Detailed operating conditions for the laser ablation system MS at the State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral
and the ICP-MS instrument and data reduction are described by Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan. Detailed oper-
Liu et al. (2008). The uncertainties of the analyses are estimated to ating conditions for the laser ablation system and the ICP-MS
be better than ±5% for most trace elements with concentrations instrument and data reduction are described by Liu et al. (2008,
>10 ppm, and ±10% for those <10 ppm. 2010a, 2010b). Laser sampling was performed using a GeoLas 2005.
An Agilent 7500a ICP-MS instrument was used to acquire ion-
signal intensities. Helium was applied as a carrier gas. Argon was
A.1.4. AcmeLabs
used as the make-up gas and mixed with the carrier gas via a T-
The concentrations of major and trace elements for thirteen
connector before entering the ICP. Nitrogen was added into the
samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass
central gas flow (Ar + He) of the Ar plasma to decrease the detec-
spectrometry (ICP-MS) after fusion by lithium tetraborate and
tion limit and improve precision (Hu et al., 2008). Each analysis
acidic digestion at the Acme Analytical Laboratories Ltda (Vancou-
incorporated a background acquisition of approximately 20–30 s
ver, Canadá). The analytical errors are less than 5% for oxides and
(gas blank) followed by 50 s data acquisition from the sample. The
of 10–15% for trace elements.
Agilent Chemstation was utilised for the acquisition of each individ-
ual analysis. Off-line selection and integration of background and
A.2. Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr Isotopic analyses analyte signals, and time-drift correction and quantitative calibra-
tion for trace element analyses and U–Pb dating were performed
Sr and Nd isotopic compositions measured at Blaise Pascal Uni- by ICPMSDataCal. Zircon 91500 was used as external standard
versity for seven samples were determined by mass spectrometry for U–Pb dating, and was analysed twice every 5 analyses. Time-
with a Cameca THN-206 [analytical methods have been described dependent drifts of U–Th–Pb isotopic ratios were corrected using a
by Pin and Paquette (1997)]. 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios were normalised to linear interpolation (with time) for every five analyses according to
86 Sr/88 Sr = 0.1194 (Faure, 1986), and 143 Nd/144 Nd ratios were nor-
the variations of 91500 (i.e., 2 zircon 91500 + 5 samples + 2 zircon
malised to 146 Nd/144 Nd = 0.7219. The decay constants and isotopic 91500). Preferred U-Th-Pb isotopic ratios used for 91500 are from
abundance ratios for all methods are those of Steiger and Jäger Wiedenbeck et al. (1995). Uncertainty of preferred values for the
(1977). The ages, MSWD and errors were calculated using the Excel- external standard 91500 was propagated to the ultimate results of
based version 3 of Isoplot (Ludwig, 2003). All isotopic ratios and age the samples. Concordia diagrams and weighted mean calculations
calculations in this paper, as well as previously published data, were were made using Isoplot/Ex ver3 (Ludwig, 2003).
(re)calculated to a 2 error.
Six samples analysed for Sr and Nd isotopes at the Univer-
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