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In fulfilment of the requirement

for the degree of


MASTER OF BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION
(SESSION 2008-10)

Submitted to: Submitted


By:
B.S. COMPUTERS HARDEEP SINGH
LC CODE 445
B.S. COMPUTERS
MALERKOTLA

PREFACE

1
One should always work with an objective in its mind. To accomplish that
objective efficient management of material, time and financial resources
is very important. Above coordination is must that determines the degree
of success.

Awareness at each level of life is necessary for a human being keeping all
this is in view this report on “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT” is
prepared by me. The rounded encouraging support by Mr. Sarabjit Singh
towards this report has created in me confidence regarding the approval
of the subject matter.

The present report is well arranged in coherent manner. An attempt has


been made to provide the general public the necessary information about
the Private and Public Banks. The main intention behind this report is to
compile the subject matter in such way that even a layman could get the
knowledge.

So I would like to say that this report is a result of an assignment, to


improve and gain confidence.

Acknowledgement

2
I am sincerely thankful to all those people who have been giving
me any kind of assistance in the making of this project report.

I express my gratitude to Mr. Jagpreet singh (Executive


Director) (Officiating), who has through his vast experience and
knowledge has been able to guide me, both ably and successfully
towards the completion of the project. I express my gratitude to
B.S. Computers I would hereby, make most of the opportunity by
expressing my sincerest thanks to Mr. Sachin all my faculties
whose teachings gave me conceptual understanding and clarity of
comprehension, which ultimately made my job more easy.

Last of all but not the least I would like to acknowledge my


gratitude to the respondents without whom this survey would have
been incomplete.

I am also thankful to authority of VEER Enterprises (SEASON’Z ICE


CREAM) providing me the information.

Hardeep Singh

CERTIFICATE

3
This is to certify that MR. HARDEEP SINGH has done the
Major Research Project report entitled “TOTAL QUALITY
MANAGEMENT” under my supervision for the fulfillment of the
degree of Master of Business Administration of Punjab Technical
University, Jalandhar. The work done by him is a sole effort and has not
been submitted as or its part for any other degree.

Mr. ………………

Member of Faculty of Management


QUEST INFOSYS
LUDHIANA.

Table of Contents
Contents

Introduction of TQM
Aspects of TQM
What is Quality?

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Introduction about Enterprise
Veer Enterprises SEASON’Z Ice Cream
Practical Experience
Types of Machinery
Packing material
Conceptualization
Principles of TQM
Four C’s of TQM
Factors effecting the commitment of employees
Operationalization of the concept
Quality Management
History of Quality Management
Quality Improvement Process—Tools & Techniques
TQM Improvement Methodology
Objectives
Research Methodology
Limitations
Conclusion
Recommendations

INTRODUCTION OF TQM

Total Quality Management is an approach to the art of management that

originated in Japanese industry in the 1950's and has become steadily

more popular in the West since the early 1980's.

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Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a

company that aims to provide, and continue to provide, its customers with

products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality

in all aspects of the company's operations, with things being done right

first time, and defects and waste eradicated from operations.

TQM is the way of managing for the future, and is far wider in its

application than just assuring product or service quality – it is a way of

managing people and business processes to ensure complete customer

satisfaction at every stage, internally and externally. TQM, combined

with effective leadership, results in an organisation doing the right things

right, first time.

Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. Surveys by

consulting firms have found that only 20-36% of companies that have

undertaken TQM have achieved either significant or even tangible

improvements in quality, productivity, competitiveness or financial

return. As a result many people are sceptical about TQM. However, when

you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage of

successful TQM implementation.

Some useful messages from results of TQM implementations:

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 if you want to be a first-rate company, don't focus on the second-

rate companies who can't handle TQM, look at the world-class

companies that have adopted it

 the most effective way to spend TQM introduction funds is by

training top management, people involved in new product

development, and people involved with customers

 it's much easier to introduce EDM/PDM in a company with a TQM

culture than in one without TQM. People in companies that have

implemented TQM are more likely to have the basic understanding

necessary for implementing EDM/PDM. For example, they are

more likely to view EDM/PDM as an information and workflow

management system supporting the entire product life cycle then as

a departmental solution for the management of CAD data

ASPECTS OF TQM

a) Customer-driven quality,

b) Top management leadership and commitment,

c) Continuous improvement,

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d) Fast response,

e) Actions based on facts,

f) Employee participation, and

g) A TQM culture.

The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces, both externally and

internally, and at each interface lie a number of processes. This core must

be surrounded by commitment to quality, communication of the quality

message, and recognition of the need to change the culture of the

organisation to create total quality. These are the foundations of TQM,

and they are supported by the key management functions of people,

processes and systems in the organisation.

 Customer-driven quality

TQM has a customer-first orientation. The customer, not internal

activities and constraints, comes first. Customer satisfaction is seen as

the company's highest priority. The company believes it will only be

successful if customers are satisfied. The TQM company is sensitive

to customer requirements and responds rapidly to them. In the TQM

context, `being sensitive to customer requirements' goes beyond defect

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and error reduction, and merely meeting specifications or reducing

customer complaints. The concept of requirements is expanded to take

in not only product and service attributes that meet basic requirements,

but also those that enhance and differentiate them for competitive

advantage.

Each part of the company is involved in Total Quality, operating as a

customer to some functions and as a supplier to others. The

Engineering Department is a supplier to downstream functions such as

Manufacturing and Field Service, and has to treat these internal

customers with the same sensitivity and responsiveness as it would

external customers.

 TQM leadership from top management

TQM is a way of life for a company. It has to be introduced and led

by top management. This is a key point. Attempts to implement

TQM often fail because top management doesn't lead and get

committed - instead it delegates and pays lip service. Commitment

and personal involvement is required from top management in

creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent

with the objectives of the company, and in creating and deploying

well defined systems, methods and performance measures for

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achieving those goals. These systems and methods guide all quality

activities and encourage participation by all employees. The

development and use of performance indicators is linked, directly

or indirectly, to customer requirements and satisfaction, and to

management and employee remuneration.

 Continuous improvement

Continuous improvement of all operations and activities is at the

heart of TQM. Once it is recognized that customer satisfaction can

only be obtained by providing a high-quality product, continuous

improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the only way

to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction. As well as

recognizing the link between product quality and customer

satisfaction, TQM also recognizes that product quality is the result

of process quality. As a result, there is a focus on continuous

improvement of the company's processes. This will lead to an

improvement in process quality. In turn this will lead to an

improvement in product quality, and to an increase in customer

satisfaction. Improvement cycles are encouraged for all the

company's activities such as product development, use of

EDM/PDM, and the way customer relationships are managed. This

implies that all activities include measurement and monitoring of

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cycle time and responsiveness as a basis for seeking opportunities

for improvement.

Elimination of waste is a major component of the continuous

improvement approach. There is also a strong emphasis on

prevention rather than detection, and an emphasis on quality at the

design stage. The customer-driven approach helps to prevent errors

and achieve defect-free production. When problems do occur

within the product development process, they are generally

discovered and resolved before they can get to the next internal

customer.

 Fast response

To achieve customer satisfaction, the company has to respond

rapidly to customer needs. This implies short product and service

introduction cycles. These can be achieved with customer-driven

and process-oriented product development because the resulting

simplicity and efficiency greatly reduce the time involved.

Simplicity is gained through concurrent product and process

development. Efficiencies are realized from the elimination of non-

value-adding effort such as re-design. The result is a dramatic

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improvement in the elapsed time from product concept to first

shipment.

 Actions based on facts

The statistical analysis of engineering and manufacturing facts is

an important part of TQM. Facts and analysis provide the basis for

planning, review and performance tracking, improvement of

operations, and comparison of performance with competitors. The

TQM approach is based on the use of objective data, and provides

a rational rather than an emotional basis for decision making. The

statistical approach to process management in both engineering and

manufacturing recognizes that most problems are system-related,

and are not caused by particular employees. In practice, data is

collected and put in the hands of the people who are in the best

position to analyze it and then take the appropriate action to reduce

costs and prevent non-conformance. Usually these people are not

managers but workers in the process. If the right information is not

available, then the analysis, whether it be of shop floor data, or

engineering test results, can't take place, errors can't be identified,

and so errors can't be corrected.

 Employee participation

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A successful TQM environment requires a committed and well-

trained work force that participates fully in quality improvement

activities. Such participation is reinforced by reward and

recognition systems which emphasize the achievement of quality

objectives. On-going education and training of all employees

supports the drive for quality. Employees are encouraged to take

more responsibility, communicate more effectively, act creatively,

and innovate. As people behave the way they are measured and

remunerated, TQM links remuneration to customer satisfaction

metrics.

A TQM culture

It's not easy to introduce TQM. An open, cooperative culture has to

be created by management. Employees have to be made to feel that

they are responsible for customer satisfaction. They are not going

to feel this if they are excluded from the development of visions,

strategies, and plans. It's important they participate in these

activities. They are unlikely to behave in a responsible way if they

see management behaving irresponsibly - saying one thing and

doing the opposite.

 Product development in a TQM environment

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Product development in a TQM environment is very different to

product development in a non-TQM environment. Without a TQM

approach, product development is usually carried on in a

conflictual atmosphere where each department acts independently.

Short-term results drive behavior so scrap, changes, work-arounds,

waste, and rework are normal practice. Management focuses on

supervising individuals, and fire-fighting is necessary and

rewarded.

Product development in a TQM environment is customer-driven

and focused on quality. Teams are process-oriented, and interact

with their internal customers to deliver the required results.

Management's focus is on controlling the overall process, and

rewarding teamwork.

 Awards for Quality achievement

The Deming Prize has been awarded annually since 1951 by the

Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers in recognition of

outstanding achievement in quality strategy, management and

execution. Since 1988 a similar award (the Malcolm Baldrige

National Quality Award) has been awarded in the US. Early

winners of the Baldrige Award include AT&T (1992), IBM (1990),

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Milliken (1989), Motorola (1988), Texas Instruments (1992Xerox.

WHAT IS QUALITY?

A frequently used definition of quality is “Delighting the customer by

fully meeting their needs and expectations”. These may include

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performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability,

maintainability, cost effectiveness and price. It is, therefore, imperative

that the organisation knows what these needs and expectations are. In

addition, having identified them, the organisation must understand them,

and measure its own ability to meet them.

Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements

for the product or service and the true needs of the customers. However,

for an organisation to be really effective, quality must span all functions,

all people, all departments and all activities and be a common language

for improvement. The cooperation of everyone at every interface is

necessary to achieve a total quality organisation, in the same way that the

Japanese achieve this with company wide quality control.

Customers and suppliers

There exist in each department, each office, each home, a series of

customers, suppliers and customer- supplier interfaces. These are “the

quality chains”, and they can be broken at any point by one person or one

piece of equipment not meeting the requirements of the customer, internal

or external. The failure usually finds its way to the interface between the

organisation and its external customer, or in the worst case, actually to the

external customer.

Failure to meet the requirements in any part of a quality chain has a way

of multiplying, and failure in one part of the system creates problems

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elsewhere, leading to yet more failure and problems, and so the situation

is exacerbated. The ability to meet customers’ (external and internal)

requirements is vital. To achieve quality throughout an organisation,

every person in the quality chain must be trained to ask the following

questions about every customer-supplier interface:

Customers (internal and external)

• Who are my customers?

• What are their true needs and expectations?

• How do, or can, I find out what these are?

• How can I measure my ability to meet their needs and

expectations?

• Do I have the capability to meet their needs and expectations?

(If not, what must I do to improve this capability?)

• Do I continually meet their needs and expectations?

(If not, what prevents this from happening when the

capability exists?)

• How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations?

Suppliers (internal and external)

• Who are my internal suppliers?

• What are my true needs and expectations?

• How do I communicate my needs and expectations to my

suppliers?

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• Do my suppliers have the capability to measure and meet

these needs and expectations?

• How do I inform them of changes in my needs and

expectations?

As well as being fully aware of customers’ needs and expectations, each

person must respect the needs and expectations of their suppliers. The

ideal situation is an open partnership style relationship, where both

parties share and benefit.

Poor practices

To be able to become a total quality organisation, some of the bad

practices must be recognised and

corrected. These may include:

• Leaders not giving clear direction

• Not understanding, or ignoring competitive positioning

• Each department working only for itself

• Trying to control people through systems

• Confusing quality with grade

• Accepting that a level of defects or errors is inevitable

• Fire fighting, reactive behaviour

• The “It’s not my problem” attitude

The essential components of TQM – commitment & leadership

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TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness and

flexibility of an organisation for the benefit of all stakeholders. It is a way

of planning, organising and understanding each activity, and of removing

all the wasted effort and energy that is routinely spent in organisations. It

ensures the leaders adopt a strategic overview of quality and focus on

prevention not detection of problems.

Whilst it must involve everyone, to be successful, it must start at the top

with the leaders of the organisation. All senior managers must

demonstrate their seriousness and commitment to quality, and middle

managers must, as well as demonstrating their commitment, ensure they

communicate the principles, strategies and benefits to the people for

whom they have responsibility. Only then will the right attitudes spread

throughout the organisation.

A fundamental requirement is a sound quality policy, supported by plans

and facilities to implement it. Leaders must take responsibility for

preparing, reviewing and monitoring the policy, plus take part in regular

improvements of it and ensure it is understood at all levels of the

organisation.

Effective leadership starts with the development of a mission statement,

followed by a strategy, which is translated into action plans down through

the organisation. These, combined with a TQM approach, should result in

a quality organisation, with satisfied customers and good business results.

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The 5 requirements for effective leadership are:

• Developing and publishing corporate beliefs, values and

objectives, often as a mission statement

• Personal involvement and acting as role models for a culture

of total quality

• Developing clear and effective strategies and supporting plans

for achieving the mission and objectives

• Reviewing and improving the management system

• Communicating, motivating and supporting people and

encouraging effective employee participation

The task of implementing TQM can be daunting. The following is a list

of points that leaders should consider; they are a distillation of the various

beliefs of some of the quality gurus:

• The organisation needs a long-term commitment to

continuous improvement.

• Adopt the philosophy of zero errors/defects to change the

culture to right first time

• Train people to understand the customer/supplier

relationships

• Do not buy products or services on price alone – look at the

total cost

• Recognise that improvement of the systems must be managed

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• Adopt modern methods of supervising and training –

eliminate fear

• Eliminate barriers between departments by managing the

process – improve communications

and teamwork

• Eliminate goals without methods, standards based only on

numbers, barriers to pride of

workmanship and fiction – get facts by studying processes

• Constantly educate and retrain – develop experts in the

organisation

• Develop a systematic approach to manage the

implementation of TQM

Culture change

The failure to address the culture of an organisation is frequently the

reason for many management initiatives either having limited success or

failing altogether. Understanding the culture of an organisation, and using

that knowledge to successfully map the steps needed to accomplish a

successful change, is an important part of the quality journey.

The culture in any organisation is formed by the beliefs, behaviours,

norms, dominant values, rules and the “climate”. A culture change, e.g,

from one of acceptance of a certain level of errors or defects to one of

right first time, every time, needs two key elements:

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• Commitment from the leaders

• Involvement of all of the organisation’s people

There is widespread recognition that major change initiatives will not be

successful without a culture of good teamwork and cooperation at all

levels in an organisation, as discussed in the section on People.

The building blocks of TQM: processes, people, management systems

and performance measurement

Everything we do is a Process, which is the transformation of a set of

inputs, which can include action, methods and operations, into the desired

outputs, which satisfy the customers’ needs and expectations.

In each area or function within an organisation there will be many

processes taking place, and each can be analysed by an examination of

the inputs and outputs to determine the action necessary to improve

quality.

In every organisation there are some very large processes, which are

groups of smaller processes, called key or core business processes. These

must be carried out well if an organisation is to achieve its mission and

objectives. The section on Processes discusses processes and how to

improve them, and Implementation covers how to prioritise and select the

right process for improvement.

The only point at which true responsibility for performance and quality

can lie is with the People who actually do the job or carry out the process,

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each of which has one or several suppliers and customers.

An efficient and effective way to tackle process or quality improvement is

through teamwork. However, people will not engage in improvement

activities without commitment and recognition from the organisation’s

leaders, a climate for improvement and a strategy that is implemented

thoughtfully and effectively. The section on People expands on these

issues, covering roles within teams, team selection and development and

models for successful teamwork.

An appropriate documented Quality Management System will help an

organisation not only achieve the objectives set out in its policy and

strategy, but also, and equally importantly, sustain and build upon them. It

is imperative that the leaders take responsibility for the adoption and

documentation of an appropriate management system in their

organisation if they are serious about the quality journey. The Systems

section discusses the benefits of having such a system, how to set one up

and successfully implement it.

Once the strategic direction for the organisation’s quality journey has

been set, it needs Performance Measures to monitor and control the

journey, and to ensure the desired level of performance is being achieved

and sustained. They can, and should be, established at all levels in the

organisation, ideally being cascaded down and most effectively

undertaken as team activities and this is discussed in the section on

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Performance.

ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE

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VEER ENTERPRISES
SEASON’Z ICE CREAM

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After the discussion of TQM in detail now we will discuss about TQM in

a particular manufacturing plant. Here we will discuss that due to

production which problems can be decrease the quality of product. We

will discuss that how we can be maintain the quality.

Every production procedure is differ than another. Every product is

shifted from one to next department where quality is the main thing to

produce a product.

Now we will discuss about the particular product which is produced in

manufacturing plant that is ICE CREAM, it is called also frozen desert.

Ice cream is food product which demand much care about quality. In ice

cream production quality is the main thing every point of production

depend upon quality. Without quality we cannot spread our product in the

market. Quality is main cause to increase the business. Due to ice cream

production we need much consistency of quality. Quality increase the

taste of ice cream.

Now we will discuss about a firm of ice cream manufacturing. The firm

name is VEER ENTERPRISES and the brand name is SEASON’z ice

cream.

 Firm Name :- Veer Enterprises

 Brand Name :- Season’z Ice cream

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 Place :- Ludhiana

 Prop. :- Hardeep Singh

PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE

Myself Hardeep Singh. I am the owner of the plant of ice cream. I have

the practical knowledge about the quality of ice cream. I am running this

factory from last three years.

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When I established this plant, the one thing was in my mind that was a

quality maintenance. I kept one thing in my mind that I will never

compromise with quality in any situation. I did not compromise with

quality thus I earn less profit.

Now we will discuss every point where quality exist from bottom to top.

Purchasing of raw material :- The quality of every product is depend on

the quality of raw material. So the raw material should be purchased

from the good dealer and good distributor and should be branded

company.

In ice cream manufacturing raw material is very important thing. Raw

material is the base of taste. The material which is used for making ice

cream is that :-

 Milk

 Milk Powder

 Sugar

 G.M.S.

 Stab

 Custard Powder

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 Cream

 Essence

 Sticks

 Water

1. Milk:- Milk is the main thing for making ice creams. Milk

should

be pure and full of fat. The minimum fat of milk should be 6

and

the maximum 7.5 to making ice cream. Milk should be

pure quality and should be fresh. If it is not fresh we can not

improve the quality. When, we purchase milk then milk should be

checked by the fat machine and it should be pure and fresh.

2. Milk powder :- Milk powder is also making from milk. It is

also called dry milk. In making of ice cream milk powder is

used for increase the gravity of milk. Many companies are

available in the market of dry milk. But the better one should

be purchased like Uttam etc.

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3. Sugar :- Sugar is basic part of taste. Sugar should be carefully

put in the mixture. It should be neither much nor less.

4. G.M.S. :- GMS is ingredient which is used for smoothness and

to make ice cream fluffy.

5. Stab :- It is also ingredient, which is used for making mixture

thicker and light.

6. Custard powder:- Custard powder is mainly used in “ Stick

Kulfi”

7. Cream :- Cream should be pure and fresh, because it is very

important to increase the quality. Cream is very helpful in

becoming material soft and tasteful.

8. Essence :- Essence are available in many flavors. In ice cream

different types of flavors are used. In market many companies

are available of essence. But according to me FBI (Bush) is the

best one in this category. FBI(Bush) is best quality product. But

every essence should be used till the expiry date. The expiry

date is mentioned by the company on every bottle.

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9. Sticks :- Sticks are mainly used in ice candy. Sticks should be

in perfect size and every stick should be in same size. Stick

should be in smooth stuff and very clean.

10.Water :- The water is used for making ice candy must should

be filtered.

Quality of Mixture

To make the mixture every ingredient should be put in the selected ratio

because much quantity or less quantity of ingredient and become the

cause of bad quality Every ingredients like GMS, Stab, Milk Powder,

Sugar, Essence should be put in the milk accordingly to the quantity of

the milk and this mixture should be cooked on the gas burner or the boiler

till the giving time according to recipe. If it is done accordingly to the

selected ratio of ingredients we can get the best quality and delicious

taste.

Skilled Staff :- the staff should be skilled because the quality of product

is in the hand of staff.

The person who is appointed to make the ice cream should be skilled. He

should have the knowledge about every ingredient. He should have the

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ability to produce the ice cream in any flavor. He should have the ability

to give the shape to ice cream clearly.

The other staff should be also skilled. Helper, who helps the ice cream

maker should be knowledgeable about his work. The all staff should have

the efficiency to do work continues.

The hands of every staff member should be covered with gloves and head

with cloth or cap. The head of the department should be able to produce

the quality in product and he should be able to operate the all machines

properly.

Quality of machinery

The machineries which are used to produce ice cream should be good

quality and should be purchased from well know company. The machine

should be purchased from branded company.

TYPES OF MACHINES

Machine is the main processor to produce the quality. Different types of

machines are used to produce ice cream.

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There are four types of machines which are mainly used in this process

that are:-

1. Boiler

2. Homonizer

3. Chiller

4. Charner

A Indian branded company which is manufacturing machines that is

“SIGMA”. SIGMA is a branded company which is famous in all over

India for ice cream machines. My own factory I purchased all machines

from this company. Because the accuracy of this machine is better than

local company machines.

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1. Boiler :- Boiler should be purchased from branded company the

mixture should be Boiled 15-20 mins. Gauge should be accurate

of the boiler.

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2. Homonizer :- After making the mixture, the mixture is passed

into the homonizer. The mixture put in the bowl and it reaches in

the piston. Where mixture is pressed by the piston for getting the

smoothness and better quality and then mixture is come out from

a pipe.

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3. Charner :- Here mixture is reached in final process. The normal

charner have ten liter capacity to produce ice cream in one time.

The charner takes twenty minute to ready one lot. Every gauge of

charner should have accuracy. All gauges should be in running

condition.

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The blades of charner should be sharped. Before using the charner, it

washes with water and after complete the work it washes again with

water.

Packing

Packing is the last stage which keep maintain the quality. Every packing

wrapper and brick boxes should be made by better quality poly and better

paper or card sheets. Every packing material should be food grade. Which

is approved by health department. The ice cream should be packed

properly in the wrapper and brick boxes. The both sides of every brick

box should be laminated. The inner and outer side should be laminated.

The expiry date should be mentioned on every packing material and

manufacturing date also should be mentioned. The main thing is that ice

cream should be packed properly and sealed properly in the wrapper and

brick box.

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PACKING MATERIAL

38
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Storage

The packed ice cream should be stored in the freezer. Ice cream should be

stored in rows and columns so that it remain safe and in original shape.

The temperature of the freezer should be in minus (-) degree. It should be

near about of minus -20 to -26. The door of the freezer should be properly

closed and the freezer should be switched on continues 24 hours. And

generator should be available in the factory.

Cleanliness

Cleanliness is the main cause to increase the quality .the all side of

factory should be clean the floor of the factory should be washed daily.

Garbage of the factory should placed in separate place. cleanliness is

must to produce the better quality. Every thing which is used to produce

ice cream like steel bucket, steel jar, tubs etc should be washed before and

after using. Every tub and jar in which material is kept should be covered

with net. Do not keep the material without cover. There should be proper

ventilation in the factory. Cleanliness is must for the customer’s specially

for children health even it is must quality maintenance. Cleanliness is

also checked by the health department. It is must for getting quality.

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CONCEPTUALIZATION

This is Total Quality Management Project Report. Human resource is the

most important factor for any organization and success of any

Organization is depending upon its resource .If human resource of

organization is not happy with the organization. It will adversely affect

the organization.

The higher degree of commitment toward work will improve productivity

and will decrease rejection cause due to human factor.

So to make the people happy is the responsibility of the organization. So

this study is helpful to measure the level of commitment toward work and

to know the factor affecting the commitment level.

QUALITY:-

1. Quality means fitness for use.

2. Quality means productivity, competitive cost, and timely delivery, total

customer satisfaction.

3. Quality means conformance to specification and standard.

4. Conformance to requirements.

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5. Quality is what the customer says

6. Quality means getting every one to do what they have agreed to do and

to do it right the first time and every time.

TOTAL QUALITY:-

It means all the people of the organization are committed to product

quality by doing right things right, first time, every time by employing

organization resource to provide value to customer.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: -

It is the process designed to focus external/internal customer expectation

preventing problems building, commitment to quality in the workforce

and promoting to open decision making.

TOTAL:

Every one associated with the company is involved in continuous

improvement, in all functional area, at all level.

QUALITY:

Customer express and implied requirement is met fully.

MANAGEMENT:

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Decision in a planned way.

To maintain existing lever of quality.

To improve existing lever of quality.

Effective utilization of resource.

43
PRINCIPLES OF TQM

1. Delight the customer

2. Management by fact

3. People based management

4. Continuous improvement

5. Strong leadership

6. Quality system measure& record

7. Team work, Team accountable, correct problem

8. People oriented technology, speed.

FOUR C’S OF TQM

1. Commitment

2. Competence

3. Communication

4. Continuous improvement

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FACTOR AFFECTED THE

COMMITMENT OF THE

EMPLOYEES

General worker attitude toward the company.

General worker attitude toward the supervisor.

Lever of satisfaction toward job standard.

The lever of consideration the supervisor shows to his subordination.

The workload & work pressure level.

The treatment of individual by the management

The lever of worker’s satisfaction with the salaries

The level of worker pride in the company and its activity

Worker reaction to the formal communication network in the

organization.

Intrinsic job satisfaction level of the worker.

45
Worker attitude toward the fellow worker.

46
OPERATIONALISATION OF THE

CONCEPT

I have studied on impact of employee’s commitment toward. I have

explained earlier. In the company, they already have implemented TQM

so through this study, I measured the degree of implementation in the

organization and what are the factor that are affected the commitment

lever and to check how much they are satisfaction with the TQM

implement.

For this purpose, I have made the questionnaire which consisting of

multiple-choice questions. I have collected the data from them and after

that I have tabulated them and interpreted them and give the

recommendation.

Focus of the problem:

The main emphasis will be on to find out quality employee’s commitment

toward their work as a result total quality implementation.

Review of Existing literature:

Many people have work on this topic. They sum up various finding. They

found that apply TQM has directly increased their morale; increase the

47
satisfaction lever and commitment toward their work. These are the

finding of various researchers.

Several articles have been published in different journals, magazines and

newspaper such as HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW, THE ECONOMIC

TIMES, VIKALPA etc.

But the effect of TQM on employees commitment in the company has so

far not undertaken. This project has been done first time in the company.

TQ(S)M Squared

In May's issue of Focus, Paul Varga of Service Graphics wrote an article

entitled TQ(S)M= Total Quality (Sales) Management. While many total

48
quality management programs have fallen into disfavor, TQ(S)M is a

critical issue for sales and executive management. Paul's comments about

the value of TQ(S)M struck a chord based on some tough experiences

over past years.

Quality in the sales and marketing process first became a critical issue to

me about six years ago. While the basic tenets of quality have always

been appealing, imagine my plight as a sales executive for a high

technology company faced with the following scenarios:

Many of our Department of Defense Subcontractors (at the time about

40% of our business) were imposing their vendor quality programs on us.

Our salespeople found themselves being measured against yardsticks they

didn't understand. We were found non-compliant by some customers and

not allowed to compete. Our "bid" prices were uplifted by others to

reflect the cost of non-compliance. Each customer had their own

program, all of which were bad news if you did not comply. The sales

teams were not equipped to deal with any of these programs.

At the same time, many of our commercial customers were implementing

their own quality programs. At the time, Motorola was telling us that we

would be required to compete for the Baldrige award. Other customers

were beginning to look at ISO 9000, and others were applying Six Sigma

49
measurement criteria, while others had their unique programs. The sales

organization wanted to comply with our customers' needs and continue to

be recognized as a quality business partner, but did not know where to

begin. We had several challenges:

 The first was getting our own company to recognize that quality is

defined by the customer. Like our customers, our corporation had

defined and implemented an aggressive quality program. However,

no one had spoken with the salespeople or with the customers.

Many of the tough goals the corporation had set for itself were

non-compliant when compared to those goals our customers were

setting for their suppliers (us!!).

 Second was finding a quality training program that focused on the

needs of salespeople. The quality professionals seemed to focus on

the "hard" sides of business--manufacturing, development and

administration. None had programs targeted to the sales and

marketing functions. I visited some of the Baldrige award winners

to discover how they had trained their sales organizations. Most

had developed their own programs with minimal help from quality

professionals.

 Finally, we had to learn how to take a close look at ourselves and

clean up our own house. We had to recognize that sales and

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marketing are definable processes, just as the other functions in an

organization. We had to define our process, define how to measure

ourselves and then seek to improve our processes (the Japanese and

quality guru's call it Kaizen.).

It took a lot of work, but it meant our survival, both as a corporation and

as sales professionals--after all, each failure hit the salesperson in the

wallet!!

The first step was relatively easy. We mapped the 44 customer driven

quality programs and compliance requirements against our corporate

quality goals. (These 44 customers represented a significant amount of

business.) Frankly, the job became fairly easy at that point. I had the

opportunity to present our customers' quality requirements to our

corporate quality council. It helps when the Chairman of the Board chairs

that council. Once it became obvious that meeting our internal quality

goals would not meet our customers' quality requirements and that we

faced losing business, we caught the attention of our chairman and the

rest of the corporation. It was one step in becoming customer focused.

Then we undertook developing our own quality programs. First, we

began introducing our people to the basic concepts of quality and

51
customer satisfaction. Then we sponsored a number of projects to

understand where we were and to make small improvements. Rather than

just tracking revenue, expenses and a few other things, we started

becoming attentive to a number of other factors---returns, delivery, the

number of telephone rings in our offices and telemarketing centers and

other measurements. Each of these projects started establishing awareness

in different parts of the organization. On second thought, maybe they

established better awareness with the executive management staff. In

hindsight, I remember countless individuals talking about small problems

impacting our customers that we needed to fix, but taken separately they

didn't catch our attention. I think our people always knew we could and

should do better, but could not capture the attention of management. Now

we were paying attention.

Finally we began to undertake the big task. We started to examine the

process of selling. How did we define our process from the overall

management of the business down to the daily activities of the

salespeople? How could we do this without creating a bureaucracy which

diverted our focus--satisfying our customers' requirements and profitably

growing our business? Benchmarking some leading sales organizations

helped us tremendously. We opted for simplicity. We realized that we

could adopt a simple process and apply that, with discipline, to

52
everything that we did--from business management, to territory

management, to improving the effectiveness and productivity of each

salesperson, to coaching and developing everyone in the organization.

Only upon implementing this process were we able to see the

PHENOMENAL results it produced! We started to see the following:

 We had a common language and process to manage the business.

Our forecast integrity improved tremendously.

 Our process forced us to focus on the way the world was, not the

way we wanted it to be. We drove a fact base approach to

managing the organization, the selling process and each sales

situation.

 In each selling situation, we began to focus on the customer need to

buy, not our need to sell. Customers would call me and ask "What

have you done? Your salespeople are asking me questions I have

never been asked before. They are really interested in my business

and my problems!"

Our results were tremendous. We were no longer "blacklisted" as non-

compliant by our customers. Our customers started looking at us as a

valued business partner. Our company was becoming much more

customer focused. The productivity of the sales organization was

53
improving, cost per order dollar was declining. We were growing.

TQ(S)M makes sense! In the greater Cleveland area, specifically,

examine the factors driving all of us to improve the quality and

effectiveness of our sales organizations. The automotive industry has

adopted a standard by which it will measure all suppliers--QS9000. Many

companies in this area need to train their salespeople in partnering with

their automotive customers in implementing the QS9000 programs.

ISO9000 is driving other companies. Supplier participation is an

important factor in this standard--our salespeople stand at the forefront of

working with customers in assuring that we comply with the needs of our

customers.

If those reasons are not important enough, consider the results other

companies have achieved by introducing a quality and process orientation

to sales. One organization adopting a process similar to that I described

reduced its sales cycle by an average of 40%. Organizations I have

managed have reduced cost per order dollar by over 20%. One

organization implementing this process orientation has enabled itself to

become the strategic vendor of choice to many of its customers--purely

because of the ability of the sales organization to focus on its customers'

problems.

54
TQ(S)M makes business sense! As Paul's article pointed out, creating

customer focused partnerships which drive growth and profitability is key

to all sales executives. Whether you call it total quality or not, it makes

the sales organization more effective and productive. It provides the

competitive edge.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Quality Management history, gurus, TQM theories, process improvement,

and organisational commitment

55
The history of quality management, from mere 'inspection' to Total

Quality Management, and its modern 'branded interpretations such as 'Six

Sigma', has led to the development of essential processes, ideas, theories

and tools that are central to organizational development, change

management, and the performance improvements that are generally

desired for individuals, teams and organizations.

These free resources, materials and tools are an excellent guide to the

quality management area, for practical application in organizations, for

study and learning, and for teaching and training others.

These free pdf materials are provided by permission of the UK

Department of Industry - now the Department for Business, Enterprise

and Regulatory Reform - which is gratefully acknowledged. The

materials listed and linked from this page are subject to Crown Copyright.

Please note that since the replacement of the UK Department of Industry

by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, the

branding on the materials is now obsolete. Nevertheless, since the Quality

Management technical and historical content is unaffected by the DTI

branding the materials remain relevant for training, learning and

reference.

56
It is appropriate to note the passing a little while back now, of Joseph

Juran, a seminal figure in the history of quality management, who died 28

February 2008, age 103. Juran did more than teach the Japanese about

quality management. He was also arguably the first quality expert to

emphasise that no quality management system works unless people are

empowered and committed to take responsibility for quality - as an

ongoing process - effectively for quality to become part of part of

people's behaviour and attitudes - an ethos. The section below

on Kaizen explains the connections between the true ethos of quality

management, and the positive ethical management of people.

HISTORY OF QUALITY

MANAGEMENT

The roots of Total Quality Management can be traced to early 1920's

production quality control ideas, and notably the concepts developed in

57
Japan beginning in the late 1940's and 1950's, pioneered there by

Americans Feigenbum, Juran and Deming..

QUALITY MANAGEMENT GURUS AND THEORIES

Quality Management resulted mainly from the work of the quality gurus

and their theories: the American gurus featured in the 1950's Japan:

Joseph Juran, W Edwards Deming, and Armand Feigenbum; the Japanese

quality gurus who developed and extended the early American quality

ideas and models: Kaoru Ishikawa, Genichi Taguchi, and Shigeo Shingo;

and the 1970-80's American Western gurus, notably Philip Crosby and

Tom Peters, who further extended the Quality Management concepts after

the Japanese successes... More about the Quality Management gurus and

their theories, including the development and/or use of the Plan, Do,

Check, Act (PDCA) cycle, Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagrams,

stratification, check-sheets, histograms, scatter-charts, process control

charts, system design, parameter design, tolerance design ('Taguchi

methodology'), Quality Improvement Teams (QIT), Just In Time (JIT),

Management By Walking About (MBWA), McKinsey 7-S Framework,

etc.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

58
Total Quality Management features centrally the customer-supplier

interfaces, (external and internal customers and suppliers). A number of

processes sit at each interface. Central also is an organizational

commitment to quality, and the importance of communicating this quality

commitment, together with the acknowledgement that the right

organizational culture is essential for effective Total Quality

Management.... More about the fundamentals and structures of the TQM

model, including the people, processes and systems in the organization.

PROCESSES - UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES AND METHODS

FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT

Understanding processes is essential before attempt is made to improve

them. This is a central aspect to Total Quality Management, and also to

more modern quality and process improvement interpretations and

models such as Six Sigma.... More about Total Quality Management

process and process improvement methods.

59
QUALITY PROCESS

8IMPROVEMENT TOOLS AND

TECHNIQUES

A wide range of tools and techniques is used for identifying, measuring,

prioritising and improving processes which are critical to quality. Again

these ideas and methods feature prominently in modern interpretations of

Total Quality Management methodology, such as Six Sigma. These

process improvement tools and techniques include: DRIVE (Define,

Review, Identify, Verify, Execute), process mapping, flow-charting, force

field analysis, cause and effect, brainstorming, Pareto analysis, Statistical

Process Control (SPC), Control charts, bar charts, 'dot plot' and tally

charts, check-sheets, scatter diagrams, matrix analysis, histograms..

A summary of quality tools is below Developing people and teams

People are a fundamental component within any successfully developing

organization. Take away the people and the organization is nothing. Take

away the people's motivation, commitment and ability to work together in

well-organised teams, and again, the organization is nothing. Conversely,

inspire the people to work well, creatively, productively, and the

organization can fly. Logically therefore, the development and proper

60
utilization of people are vital to the success of all quality management

initiatives. There are a wide range of models that are used

in selecting, assessing, training and developing and motivating people,

among which are classical models such as Belbin, Myers Briggs Type

Indicator (see the personality models section), Bruce Tuckman's

'Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing' model, John Adair's Action

Centred Leadership model.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

A 'Total Quality organization' generally benefits from having an effective

Quality Management System (QMS). A Quality Management System is

typically defined as: "A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control

an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and

efficiency of its performance." Customer expectations inevitably drive

and define 'performance' criteria and standards. Therefore Quality

Management Systems focus on customer expectations and ongoing

review and improvement.

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

There are many ways to measure organizational performance other than

financial output or profit. Modern measurement focuses on the essential

activities, resources and other factors - many less intangible than

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traditional indictors - that impact on final outputs. These include modern

methods such as Balanced Scorecard.

EXCELLENCE AND THE EUROPEAN QUALITY

MANAGEMENT MODEL

The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence

Model® is a useful framework for developing quality and excellence

within an organization.

TQM SELF-ASSESSMENT AND AWARDS USING THE EFQM®

MODEL

Any organization can assess itself provided it has the commitment to so

so, and a framework for the self-assessment... Here are some ideas, and

a process for quality and excellence self-assessment.

TQM BENCHMARKING AND QUESTIONNAIRE (READINESS

FOR BENCHMARKING)

Benchmarking is a widely used term within the field of organizational

measurement and management .... Here is an explanation of

benchmarking, and a questionnaire by which an organization (or a

department or process team) can assess its readiness for benchmarking.

TQM IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK AND BLUEPRINT

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Here is a framework and 'blueprint' for the implementation of a quality

improvement or 'excellence' initiative. It includes the following elements:

 TQM Processes

 Tools and techniques

 People and teamwork

 Quality management system

 Performance measurement

 EFQM Excellence Model®

 Self-assessment

This blueprint for achieving organizational excellence is based on many

years of research, education and advisory work in the European Centre

for Business Excellence (ECforBE), and the research and education

division of Oakland Consulting plc. It is, along with the other resources

in this section, information and advice initially from the UK Department

of Industry, now replaced by the Department for Business, Enterprise and

Regulatory Reform.

KAIZEN

Kaizen is a very significant concept within quality management and

deserves specific explanation:

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Kaizen (usually pronounced 'kyzan' or 'kyzen' in the western world) is a

Japanese word, commonly translated to mean 'continuous improvement'.

Kaizen is a core principle of quality management generally, and

specifically within the methods of Total Quality Management and 'Lean

Manufacturing'.

Originally developed and applied by Japanese industry and

manufacturing in the 1950s and 60s, Kaizen continues to be a successful

philosophical and practical aspect of some of the best known Japanese

corporations, and has for many years since been interpreted and adopted

by 'western' organizations all over the world.

Kaizen is a way of thinking, working and behaving, embedded in the

philosophy and values of the organization. Kaizen should be 'lived' rather

than imposed or tolerated, at all levels.

The aims of a Kaizen organization are typically defined as:

 To be profitable, stable, sustainable and innovative.

 To eliminate waste of time, money, materials, resources and effort

and increase productivity.

 To make incremental improvements to systems, processes and

activities before problems arise rather than correcting them after the

event.

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 To create a harmonious and dynamic organization where every

employee participates and is valued.

Key concepts of Kaizen:

 Every is a key word in Kaizen: improving everything that

everyone does in every aspect of the organization in every department,

every minute of every day.

 Evolution rather than revolution: continually making small, 1%

improvements to 100 things is more effective, less disruptive and more

sustainable than improving one thing by 100% when the need becomes

unavoidable.

 Everyone involved in a process or activity, however apparently

insignificant, has valuable knowledge and participates in a working team

or Kaizen group (see also Quality Circles below).

 Everyone is expected to participate, analysing, providing feedback

and suggesting improvements to their area of work.

 Every employee is empowered to participate fully in the

improvement process: taking responsibility, checking and co-ordinating

their own activities. Management practice enables and facilitates this.

 Every employee is involved in the running of the company, and is

trained and informed about the company. This encourages commitment

and interest, leading to fulfilment and job satisfaction.

65
Kaizen teams use analytical tools and techniques to review systems and

look for ways to improve (see Quality Tools below).

At its best, Kaizen is a carefully nurtured philosophy that works smoothly

and steadily, and which helps to align 'hard' organizational inputs and

aims (especially in process-driven environments), with 'soft' management

issues such as motivation and empowerment.

Like any methodology however, poor interpretation and implementation

can limit the usefulness of Kaizen practices, or worse cause them to be

counter-productive.

Kaizen is unsuccessful typically where:

 Kaizen methods are added to an existing failing structure, without

fixing the basic structure and philosophy.

 Kaizen is poorly integrated with processes and people's thinking.

 Training is inadequate.

 Executive/leadership doesn't understand or support Kaizen.

 Employees and managers regard Kaizen as some form of imposed

procedure, lacking meaningful purpose.

Kaizen works best when it is 'owned' by people, who see the concept as

both empowering of individuals and teams, and a truly practical way to

improve quality and performance, and thereby job satisfaction and

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reward. As ever, such initatives depend heavily on commitment from

above, critically:

 to encourage and support Kaizen, and

 to ensure improvements produce not only better productivity and

profit for the organization, but also better recognition and reward and

other positive benefits for employees, whose involvement drives the

change and improvement in the first place.

Interestingly, the spirit of Kaizen, which is distinctly Japanese in origin -

notably its significant emphasis upon individual and worker

empowerment in organizations - is reflected in many 'western' concepts

of management and motivation, for example the Y-Theory principles

described by Douglas McGregor; Herzberg's Motivational

Theory, Maslow's Needs Hierarchy and related thinking; Adams' Equity

Theory; and Charles Handy's motivational theories.

Fascinatingly, we can now see that actually very close connections exist

between:

 the fundamental principles of Quality Management - which

might be regarded as cold and detached and focused on 'things' not

people, and

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 progressive 'humanist' ideas about motivating and managing

people - which might be regarded as too compassionate and caring to

have a significant place in the optimization of organizational

productivity and profit.

The point is that in all effective organizations a very strong mutual

dependence exists between:

 systems, processes, tools, productivity, profit - the 'hard' inputs and

outputs (some say 'left-side brain'), and

 people, motivation, teamwork, communication, recognition and

reward - the 'soft' inputs and outputs ('right-side brain')

Kaizen helps to align these factors, and keep them aligned.

Quality tools

'Quality Tools' refers to tools and techniques used in support of Kaizen

and other quality improvement or quality management programmes and

philosophies.

Based mainly on statistical and manufacturing process tools, Quality

Tools are used at all levels of an organization - typically in 'quality

circles' or Kaizen work teams to analyse and review activities and

uncover inefficiencies.

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The main Quality Tools are:

 The '5 Whys' - asking 'Why?' at least five times to uncover root

cause of a problem.

 Flowcharts - boxes and arrows method of examining activities,

potentially used in brainstorming, also found in business process

modelling.

 Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams - fishbone-structured diagram for

identifying cause/effect patterns, in which primary categories are

generally pre-determined according to context. See fishbone diagram

and usage examples for project management.

 Run Charts - a graph which plots data/change along a timeline.

 Pareto Charts - a line and bar graph displaying cause/effect ratios,

especially biggest relative cause, based on Pareto theory.

 Histograms - a bar graph displaying data in simple categories

which together account for a total.

 Checklists/Checksheets - pre-formatted lists for noting incidence,

frequency, etc., according to known useful criteria

 Control/Shewhart Charts - a standard pattern of

performance/time for a given process, often in Run Chart format, which

acts as a template to check conformance and deviation.

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 Scatter Diagram/Scatterplot - a graph which plots points

(typically very many individual instances) according to two variables,

which produces a useful visual indication of the relationship between the

two variables.

Some quality tools, like flowcharts and checklists, have become part of

mainstream management.

Others tools such as the Fishbone diagram have stayed quite specific to

the engineering and manufacturing disciplines, which traditionally have a

strong focus and expertise in Kaizen, 'Lean' management and other

quality management methodologies.

QUALITY CIRCLES

Quality circles, similar to Kaizen teams, are a key part of any continuous

improvement programme.

In this context the word 'circle' refers to a team of people.

Teams or small groups (the circles) meet to analyse, and review working

practices with a view to making suggestions for improvement in their

work and the systems.

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As with many Quality Tools, the specific use of Quality Circles is chiefly

concentrated among manufacturing and engineering organizations or in

technical departments of this sort.

The term Quality Circles may be found in more general use outside of

these traditional areas, in which case the name tends to imply or

symbolise that teams are working in an empowered, cooperative way,

especially focused on problem-solving and improvements, rather than a

strict adherence to technical Total Quality Management or related

processes.

This article contains a summary of implementation of TQM improvement

projects in the Manufacturing and Service Sectors over the last 5 years. It

highlights difficulties encountered in using specific improvement tools as

well as handling of the team members.

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TQM IMPROVEMNT

METHODOLOGY

Throughout these TQM improvement projects, a common methodology

was used as a systematic way to 7 QC tools are widely employed within

this methodology

1. The DEFINE phase

In this phase, team members are required to identify improvement

projects. Some tools commonly used to help members to select

improvement projects are as follows:-

a) Brain Storming

b) Multi Voting

c) Selection Grid

d) Problem Statement

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Upon completion of using the tools, team members will be able to select

and agreed to a project which may be an opportunity for improvement or

problem. A Problem Statement is used as a summary of this phase to state

the nature of the project, boundaries of the process to be improved, goal

and target, resource required and potential constraints

While this is a simple phase to accomplish, often team members are faced

with difficulties for some valid reasons. Some of the common difficulties

encountered are as follows:-

a) Team leader cannot decide whether to use the above tools to select

project even though project is already assigned by the management

b) Team leader lack experience in directing team members

c) Lack of initial data to support decision making

d) Team members are not well verse with the subject matter

e) Lack understanding of the improvement tools

2. The ANALYSE phase

This is a critical phase where the current state of the subject matter as

well as root causes will be analysed in detail. This analysis is done

systematically and logically as follows:-

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a) The scope of the subject matter

b) Current performance (problematic) trend

c) Identify possible causes of the opportunity or problem

d) Detail diagnostic to the root cause of the confirmed true causes

Certainly, these steps are performed using common improvement tools

include 7-QC tools such as Brainstorming; Data collection; Trend

Charting; Fish-Bone Diagram and why-Why Analysis. Team members

use these tools selectively to dissect the problem into smaller junks and

look at them critically. As expected, team members do not seems to able

to grasp the use of these tools effectively. Often than not, team members

make conclusion to the "root cause" too soon without factual data to

support. The reasons for this are several, some of them are as follows:-

a) Team leader dominate in team discussion

b) Some team members used past experience to make conclusion

c) Data collection is tedious

d) Lack data analytical skill

e) Lack focus during brainstorming on possible causes

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f) Did not spend enough time to validate the possible causes

g) Too judgmental on the causes

h) Root cause analysis is often skip after possible causes is identified

3. The IMPROVE phase

There are two steps in this phase, namely; plan the improvement and

Implement the improvement plan. Upon completed the Analyse phase,

the team members would have some ideas what are some of the causes of

the problem. And to some extend, the root causes of the problem is

identified. Based on these causes, planning to improve them is the key

objective of this IMPROVE Phase. There are several tools involve in

doing so, namely:-

a) Brainstorming of action / solution

b) Selection Grid

c) Benchmarking

d) Cost-Benefit Analysis

e) Control lot and testing

f) Pilot the action / solution

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g) Force-Field Analysis

h) Prevention Planner

Traditionally, when an action / solution is identified, often than not, they

are implemented without considering the risk involved. Sometime when

they are implemented, these action / solution cause different set of

problem. During my consulting projects, team leaders failed to stay

control of the "excitement of success" when action / solution is identified.

Risk analysis was not enough or lacking before they are implemented.

Some of the difficulties encountered by the team members during this

IMPROVE phase are as follows:-

a) Action / solution taken causes other problem (Jump into the action

without further evaluation of the risk)

b) Action / solution does not yield long term result (Member got over

exited about the action / solution and forgot about the root causes.

c) Line workers refuse to abide to the new action / solution (Focus too

much on technical aspect of the action / solution, forgot about the human

factor. New action / solution involve change. Managing the change is

often neglected)

d) Some action / solution are not carried out as expected

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4. The CONTROL phase

This is the most neglected but critical phase to ensure action / solution put

in placed are permanently yield expected results. It cannot be over

emphasized the importance of CONTROL. Not only team need to control

the improvement result but equally important the action / solution. These

are the critical components of the whole Improvement Projects to ensure

sustainability of the improvement. However, members tends to keep track

of the result without realizing it is the action / solution that bring about

the improvement of the results. Besides tracking and monitoring, it is

important that new action / solution are standardized across the company

with simple yet effective work instructions and Standard Operating

Procedures. And they are periodically audited for compliance. That

Management team has included these items in their operation review

meeting until such a time they feel it is sustainable. They are some basic

tools used in this phase, namely:-

a) Trend Charting

b) Control Chart

c) Documentation

d) Audit

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e) On-job training

f) Re-certification

During this phase, least difficulties were encountered by team members.

Perhaps it was due to the fact that most action / solution are taken placed

in the work area they are in charge. However, there are cases where teams

are set up for a cross-function project in which action / solution to be

taken are in work areas not the responsibility of the team members. In

which case, team members faced with the following difficulties:-

a) Action and solution are not carried out consistently

b) Some of the line workers are not aware of the changes

c) Tracking is focus on results but did not extend to the action / solution

The above article is a compilation of issues in several TQM projects

facilitated by the author in various manufacturing and service sectors

from year 2001 to 2006. These projects are categorized as:-

Sales Improvement Projects such as:-

a) Customer & Market Analysis

b) Reduction in Customer Complaints

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c) Production Uptime

d) Delivery Cycle Time

e) Loan Processing

And Cost Reduction Projects such as:-

a) Quality Improvement

b) Process Optimization

c) Increase Boiler Efficiency

d) Reduce Material Losses

e) Reduce Electricity Consumption

f) Reduce Machine Downtime

g) Reduce Repair & Maintenance

h) Reconcile Insurance Policy Premium etc

This article deals with some common difficulties encountered during the

implementation of improvement projects with regards to the use of tools,

implementing action and solutions, sustaining the effort and so on.

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However, other aspects not included in this article are management

commitment, sustainability and Reward & Recognition.

In summary, the above projects were completed and their duration varied

depending on project complexity. Also, the cost of project, improvement

and its related cost saving varied too. As an indication, the project saving

ranged from few thousand to a million Malaysian Ringgit. Besides these

tangible benefits, there are several intangible benefits too. To name a few;

team member work well together as a team than before, gaining extra

understanding to the processes, gain analytical and project improvement

skill etc

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study are:

1. To find the degree of TQM implemented in the organization.

2. To study the level of commitment of employees toward their work.

3. To find out factor influencing the commitment.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem in a

systematic manner. It may understand as a science of studying how the

research is done significantly. The methodology may differ from problem

to problem, yet the basic approach towards the research remains the

same. The sequence or steps followed have been explained as under:

UNIVERSE AND SURVEY POPULATION

The universe is the employee working at mill. I have selected 100

employees 40 FROM THE STAFF, 60 FROM THE WORKER for the

survey.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This research is of EXPLORATARY RESEARCH DESIGN.I have used

the questionnaire method for collecting the data.

ANALYSIS PATTERN

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Data collection: This data is primary data, which I have been collected

with the help of questionnaire. I have prepared a questionnaire on the

basis of the factors responsible for employee’s commitment in the

organization

MACRO ANALYSIS (Inferences &Interpretation)

The detailed analyses of the results are explained below:

MOST OF EMPLOYEES FEELS THAT:

Most of the staff member and worker feel that organization is quality

conscious toward the employees. This also increases their commitment

toward the work and toward the organization.

Some of the employee’s feel that thy have proper information about the

policies, practices followed in the organization. But some of employees

feel that there is no proper communication.

Most of the facts related with the organization are hided by the

management from the employees.

Most of the employees feel that they don’t get rewarded for their good

performance.

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Most of the staff’s member feels that their performance is properly

measured in the organization.

LIMITATIONS

1. Employees of the organization may hide the fact.

2. The management did not agree to disclose all the confidential data.

3. Numbers of respondents are very less, so clear conclusion can’t be

drawn.

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CONCLUSION

After of the discussion about quality in the particular manufacturing

plant we can say that the over all product is depend on quality. Without

quality we can not spread our product in the market and our brand name

can not be get famous without quality.

Ice cream is a food product where existence of quality is must. The food

product business like ice cream can be survive only upon quality and

originality.

Quality can raise popularity of our product on region, national as well as

international level.

In the nutshell we can say that all over business depends upon the better

quality. If the product quality is better then people would like our product.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

The suggestions I have given for the betterment are explained below:

ü It is very important to provide the opportunity to the employees of

the organization to express their ideas or whatever they want to

express.

ü Management should clear their vision mission and goals towards

the employees in the organization.

ü Management should involve the workers representatives in

managerial activities so that the transparency could be maintained

and through this they can win the confidence of the employees.

ü Management should give due importance to mental relaxation

&social cultural development of an employees who strives hard for

the company.

ü Reward or Praise/appreciation works as magic for an individual

and motivates them for work.

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ü Role clarity of each position should be defined and based on that

individuals can plan their work accordingly. Self-potential system

should be encouraged.

ü There are regular review and comparison of current & past

performance to detect gradual deterioration in the strategy.

ü Proper cooperation should be necessary in the company.

We believe that people need small moments of pleasure in their lives. Our

passion is inspired by our love for simple ingredients like milk, fruit and

chocolate, which make our products the best “Pleasure Food” there is.

In a world of stress, denial, restraint and 'less is more', providing

moments of daily pleasure is still really important for our customers and

their families. Moreover, we take great pride in believing that we are, in a

way responsible for putting that smile on the consumer's face.

Taste the fun side of life

Mention ice cream and most people think of the Heartbrand. The brand

with the big red heart logo is behind many much-loved ice cream classics

- from indulgent treats like Magnum and Cornetto, to the refreshing fruit

tastes of Solero and family favourites like Viennetta.

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Making you happy

Few foods are guaranteed to put a smile on people's faces like ice cream.

But while ice cream should always be fun, we've an ever-growing range

of lower fat, lower sugar products. Heartbrand now provides lighter

versions for those watching the calories and smaller sizes for smaller

appetites, as well old favourites - there's something for everyone.

Ice Cream makes you happy - its official!

A study carried out using FMRI brain scanners showed that eating Wall's

had an immediate effect on the part of the brain that is activated when

someone is really enjoying themselves - The pleasure areas .

So we now have scientific evidence to prove what we all already knew,

that ice cream really does make you happy!

We believe that little pleasures in life, at some point, add up to make a

huge difference. Pleasure is not a sin. It is actually oxygen for the soul.

We say that because it is a scientifically proven fact that happy people

live longer.

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