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PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
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permission of the copyright owner.
PETRONAS Technical Standards (PTS) publications reflect the views, at the time of publication,
of PETRONAS OPUs/Divisions.

They are based on the experience acquired during the involvement with the design, construction,
operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. Where appropriate they are based
on, or reference is made to, national and international standards and codes of practice.

The objective is to set the recommended standard for good technical practice to be applied by
PETRONAS' OPUs in oil and gas production facilities, refineries, gas processing plants, chemical
plants, marketing facilities or any other such facility, and thereby to achieve maximum technical
and economic benefit from standardization.

The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and
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When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use PTS they shall be solely responsible for the
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for those requirements not specifically covered, it is expected of them to follow those design and
engineering practices which will achieve the same level of integrity as reflected in the PTS. If in
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responsibility, consult the owner.

The right to use PTS rests with three categories of users:

1) PETRONAS and its affiliates.

2) Other parties who are authorized to use PTS subject to appropriate contractual
3) Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with
users referred to under 1) and 2) which requires that tenders for projects,
materials supplied or - generally - work performed on behalf of the said users
comply with the relevant standards.

Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with
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The copyright of PTS vests in PETRONAS. Users shall arrange for PTS to be held in safe
custody and PETRONAS may at any time require information satisfactory to PETRONAS in order
to ascertain how users implement this requirement.

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This document was jointly prepared with contribution from the following persons and their
respective organisations:

1. Lee Tzee Wan (GHSED)

2. M Azhar Satar (PPMSB)
3. Noor Ezleena Jenal (PGB)
4. Azizah M Deli (MLNG)
5. Faizal Kamarudin (PDB)
6. Irwan Hamdan (PPTSB)
7. Siti Hamidah M Zin (MTBE)
8. Ahmad Rasydan Ramli (VCMSB)
9. Ezzaini Ramli (PFK)
10. Nur Aniza Zahari (OPTIMAL)
11. Edmund Tan (PCSB)
12. Noor Shashanita Nasaruddin (PCSB)
13. Hassan Ibrahim (EPEMSB)
14. Anpalagan Sockalingam (GHSED)
15. Neoh Siew Lan (GHSED)
16. Nurul Akmar Amran (GTS)
17. Nuraini Hambali (PRSB)
18. Noor Suhailah Bt Othman (GHSED)
19. Azlan Ali (PMU)
20. Chui Yuet Yue (PJH)
21. Sakura-Mazanah Abdullah (GTS)
22. Sandra Redelinghuys (ENGEN)
23. Adelene Anthony Sinniah (MISC)

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1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 6

1.1 Objectives and Scope ............................................................................................ 6
1.2 Legal and Other Requirements ............................................................................. 6
1.2.1 Local and National Regulatory Requirements ........................................... 6
1.2.2 International Requirements ......................................................................... 6

2.0 DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 8

3.0 PRINCIPLES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................... 8

3.1 Protection of the Environment and Human Health ............................................. 8
3.2 Waste Management Best Practice ........................................................................ 9
3.3 Life Cycle Thinking ............................................................................................... 10
3.4 The Polluter Pays Principle ................................................................................. 10
3.5 The Proximity Principle ........................................................................................ 10

4.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT APPROACH ............................................................................ 10

4.1 Preparation of Waste Management Plan ............................................................ 10
4.2 Documentation and retention of records ........................................................... 11
4.3 Contractors and Contractors-Related Rules ..................................................... 11
4.4 Implementation of Area Waste Management Plan ............................................ 12
4.5 Waste Management Audit and Review ............................................................... 12

5.0 HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT ......................................................................... 12

5.1 Characterisation of Hazardous Waste ................................................................ 13
5.2 Classifications and Segregation ......................................................................... 13
5.2.1 Special Categories of Hazardous Waste .................................................. 14

5.3 Labeling and Packaging ....................................................................................... 15

5.4 Notification and Inventory ................................................................................... 16
5.5 Waste Minimisation .............................................................................................. 16
5.6 Storage ................................................................................................................... 17
5.7 Treatment............................................................................................................... 17
5.7.1 On-site/ off-site treatment .......................................................................... 17

5.8 Transportation....................................................................................................... 18
5.9 Disposal ................................................................................................................. 18
5.9.1 Responsible disposal ................................................................................. 18

6.0 NON HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT ................................................................ 19

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6.1 Segregation ........................................................................................................... 19
6.2 Inventory ................................................................................................................ 20
6.3 Waste Minimization Programme for Domestic Waste ...................................... 20
6.4 Disposal ................................................................................................................. 21

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 22

GLOSSARY OF TERMS ............................................................................................................... 24

APPENDIX 1 – MALAYSIA WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...................................... 26


EU LEGISTLATION ...................................................................................................................... 30






APPENDIX 6 – EXISTING TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES ....................................................... 42

APPENDIX 7 – EXAMPLES OF DISPOSAL METHODS ............................................................. 48

APPENDIX 8 – SPECIFIC WASTE HANDLING INFORMATION ................................................ 51

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1.1 Objectives and Scope

This guideline provides structured guidance for PETRONAS Operating Units (OPUs) on
handling, collecting, transferring, transporting, treating and disposing of waste.

All OPUs should use this guideline to develop a waste management plan for their
activities and ecological sensitivity of the operating location. All measures discussed in
this guideline need not necessarily be implemented in all geographical areas or types of
operations. Specific requirements and standards should be determined by the agreement
between the OPUs and the authorities of their host country/ local council.

The purpose of this document is to set the recommended standards for good technical
practices on waste management for PETRONAS Groupwide.

1.2 Legal and Other Requirements

International, regional and host country laws and regulations should be reviewed to
determine the types of wastes that must be highlighted by management practices.
Management requirement should identify those waste types which regulations are not
adequately defined.

1.2.1 Local and National Regulatory Requirements

Waste generator should comply with local and national regulations as required. For
OPUs in Malaysia, please refer to Appendix 1.

1.2.2 International Requirements Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Waste and their Disposal

The international control of trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes and

their disposal is regulated under the United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP)
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste
and their Disposal dated on 22 March 1989 and implemented since May 1992. The
Basel Convention generally allows transboundary movements of hazardous waste
only if the state of export does not have the appropriate facilities for treating and
disposing the wastes in an environmentally sound manner or if the waste is required
as raw material for recycling or recovery operations in the state of import. This
international treaty identifies the waste streams to be classified as 'hazardous' and
sets the conditions under which these wastes are allowed to be transported between
signatory countries. It requires the management of hazardous waste to be consistent
with the protection of human health and the environment, wherever the place of
disposal, taking into account the limited capabilities of the lesser developed

Exports of hazardous wastes for disposal from the Organisation for Economic Co-
operation and Development (OECD) countries to non-OECD countries have been
banned since September 1995. Moreover the signatories of the Basel Convention
have decided to prohibit exports of hazardous waste for recovery from OECD to
non-OECD countries after 1997. The purpose of these measures is to discourage
waste transport and the disposal and treatment in foreign countries. In cases where
trans-boundary movement and disposal of waste is considered, it is necessary to
know the legal constraints of the country from where export will take place and the

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country of destination.

Under the Basel Convention, the categories of waste to be controlled and the list of
hazardous characteristics are outlined in its Annex I and Annex III.

For waste category lists conforming to the Basel Convention and European Union
(EU) legislation, please refer to Appendix 2. Marpol 73/78

Marpol 73/78 is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From
Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978. ("Marpol" is short for marine
pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978.)

Marpol 73/78 is one of the most important international marine environmental

conventions. It was designed to minimize pollution of the seas, including dumping,
oil and exhaust pollution. Its stated object is: to preserve the marine environment
through the complete elimination of pollution by oil and other harmful substances
and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances.

Marpol contains 6 annexes, concerned with preventing different forms of marine

pollution from ships as listed below. Out of which, two are applicable to Waste

Annex I – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil

Annex II – Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances
carried in Bulk
Annex III – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances
Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
Annex IV – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
Annex IV contains a set of regulations regarding the discharge of sewage into the
sea, ships' equipment and systems for the control of sewage discharge, the
provision of facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of sewage, and
requirements for survey and certification. It also includes a model International
Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate to be issued by national shipping
administrations to ships under their jurisdiction.
In general, the discharge of sewage into the sea will be prohibited, except when
the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or is discharging
comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of
more than three nautical miles from the nearest land; or is discharging sewage
which is not comminuted or disinfected at a distance of more than 12 nautical
miles from the nearest land.
Annex V – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
MARPOL Annex V allows for the creation of special areas with more stringent
regulations for the discharge of garbage. In general, the regulations prohibit the
discharge of all garbage from a ship in special areas except food wastes. The
discharge of food wastes must be made as far as practicable from land, but in
any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.
Annex VI – Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships

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Waste: Any substance, whether or not that substance can be reduced, reused, recycled and
recovered –
a) that is surplus, unwanted, rejected, discarded, abandoned, obsolete, expired or
disposed of;
b) which the generator has no further use of;
c) that must be treated or disposed of; or
d) that is identified as a waste by the authority,
Exceptions are:
i. a by-product is not considered waste except a by-product which has no value to the
producer or any other parties known; and
ii. any portion of waste, once re-used, recycled and recovered, ceases to be waste;

Waste can be categorised into hazardous and non hazardous waste.

Hazardous waste: Any gaseous, liquid or solid waste, which because of its quantity, physical,
chemical or infectious characteristics can result in hazards to human health or the environment.
This guideline discusses only liquid and solid waste.


The general approach in waste management is based on the following principles:

 protection of the environment and human health,
 waste management best practise,
 life cycle thinking,
 „the polluter pays' principle,
 'the proximity' principle.

3.1 Protection of the Environment and Human Health

The waste management plan should ensure that the whole process of waste generation
to waste disposal is harmless to the environment and health. Waste minimisation helps
to sustain the natural resources, prevent environmental pollution and degradation and
address sustainability concern.

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3.2 Waste Management Best Practice

Table 1: Examples of waste management hierarchy practices are as below:-

No Practices Examples
1 Remove: Material elimination
The elimination of source of Material change
waste material Modification of process design
2 Source Reduction: Inventory control and management
The generation of less waste Material substitution
through more efficient practices. Process modification
Improved house-keeping
3 Reuse: Reusable containers, e.g. glass, plastic,
The use of materials or products metal
that are reusable in their original Reusable packaging materials, e.g. drum,
form. pallet
Reuse of existing equipment, e.g. storage
tank and vessel
4 Recycling: Recycling scrap metal
The conversion of wastes into Recycling drilling mud
usable materials Recycling waste water
5 Recovery: Recovering oil from tank bottoms and
The extraction of energy or produced water
materials from wastes. Recovering of nickel, platinum and copper
from catalyst
6 Treatment: Biological methods, composting, tank based
The destruction, detoxification degradation.
and/or neutralisation of residue Thermal methods; incineration, thermal
through processes. desorption
Chemical methods, neutralisation,
stabilisation, solidification, encapsulation

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No Practices Examples
Physical methods, filtration, centrifugation,
7 Responsible Disposal: Land filling
Deposition of wastes on land or Burial
in water using methods Surface discharge
appropriate for a given situation. Land spreading and land farming
Underground injection

3.3 Life Cycle Thinking

Life Cycle Approach to Waste Management (Cradle-to-Grave)

Cradle-to-Grave is defined as a responsibility to monitor every aspect of a product or

programme through its entire life cycle; from design or acquisition to disposal, or from
proposal to termination. ~ Business Dictionary.com

Cradle-to-Grave is the full Life Cycle Assessment from manufacture ('cradle') to use
phase and disposal phase ('grave'). The components of Cradle to Grave of the schedule
waste management are:
1. Waste generator;
2. Waste contractor/ transporter; and
3. Waste treatment and disposal facilities.

3.4 The Polluter Pays Principle

This principle states that those who damage the environment must pay for the damage
they have caused.

3.5 The Proximity Principle

This principle requires the disposal of waste to take place at the nearest suitable disposal


4.1 Preparation of Waste Management Plan

Business and Operating Units should prepare a waste management plan with clear

A good waste management plan should be reviewed periodically to keep it current and
relevant. The procedures and criteria for waste management should be established in
compliance with the company‟s policy and legislative requirements, whilst minimising
health, safety and environmental risks and liabilities systematically.

Management approval and support should be obtained. Key personnel or other resources
and scheduling issues should be resolved so that management is aware of the timing and
scope of the plan. The overall goal(s) of the waste management plan should be
established with measurable objectives stated for each goal.

A waste management plan should also include emergency response procedures in case
of spill or accidental discharge.

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4.2 Documentation and retention of records

Business and Operating Units should implement procedures for record keeping,
maintenance and control of in-house documents relating to all aspects of waste

Documents and essential records should be safeguarded against loss, destruction or

inaccessibility. In order to be used in possible future litigation, it is essential that these
records should be retained for a period of time as specified.

PETRONAS HSE Management System (HSEMS) requires records and documents to be

kept for five years unless otherwise specified by the authority. The following documents
and records shall be retained:
Waste management plan
Licenses or permits
Procedures on waste management
Inventory on generation and disposal of waste
Note: The requirement is only applicable for hazardous waste, but not for the non
hazardous waste. It is merely a best practice.
Reporting documents to authority
External communication on waste

4.3 Contractors and Contractors-Related Rules

Managements of Business and Operating Units should ensure that waste is properly
handled by their personnel as well as contractors. They should also comply with local
and national regulations, international treaties and conventions, PETRONAS Policy and
PETRONAS Technical Standard (PTS) for HSE.

Responsible companies will take independent and positive management action, similar to
what responsible waste generators should take to avoid incidents which can reasonably
be expected to cause harm, and to be able to provide evidence proving this. It is
important to ensure that a documented audit trail covers all aspects of waste
management from generation to disposal.

The transfer of waste to duly certified/ licensed and regularly audited waste transporters
and disposal facilities in accordance with legislation is key to the minimisation of a waste
generator's potential liability for damage allegedly caused by such waste. From a legal
point of view, the waste generator holds responsibility even if the waste has been
transferred or disposed of in this manner.

Contractors involved in handling, storing and disposing of waste for Business and
Operating Units should have a management system consistent with the company's HSE
policy and objectives. For guidance see Rules for dealing with waste contractors in Table
2 below.

Table 2: Rules for dealing with waste contractors

No Rules
1 The contractor should practise a H, S & E management system.
2 The evaluation of a proposed waste contract should take into account:
 the contractor's size, financial stability and technical capability;
 skills of personnel and condition of equipment and facilities;
 availability of a HSE policy and the status of its implementation;

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 standard of operation and environmental performance;
 the contractor's valid status with authorities;
 status of relevant permits to handle or dispose the waste material in question
3 Provide contractor with all relevant environmental, safety, health and technical data
relating to waste.
4 Require signed confirmation from the contractor that the consignment will be
transferred, treated or disposed of at specified locations according to the contractual
obligations and provisions of the relevant laws and regulations.
5 Ensure that emergency procedures are in place and are effective.
6 Carry out periodic audits of the contractor/ sub contractor's facilities and operations,
including their waste disposal practices (If the (sub)contractors can provide regular
audit reports of audits performed by certified outside (waste management system)
auditors, there may not be a need for the waste generator to conduct additional
7 The waste material transferred to the contractor should be packed and labelled
appropriately, and transport notification and documentation completed in
accordance with regulatory requirements
8 Review the performance of the contractor periodically and keep a complete

4.4 Implementation of Area Waste Management Plan

Compile all preferred waste management and disposal options for each waste in a given
operating area into one comprehensive, area-specific waste management plan.

The recommended waste management practices should be summarised in concise

documents for use at the field level. Descriptions should include only the wastes
generated by the operations in the specific area or within an operator's responsibility.
Each waste description should indicate the chosen waste management and disposal

4.5 Waste Management Audit and Review

Business and Operating Units shall carry out audits to systematically verify whether all
aspects of waste management conform to the established waste management plans.

The suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the waste management plan shall be
regularly reviewed by management at an agreed interval.

The waste audit and review shall be conducted as and when required. The findings of
the waste audit should be documented.


A successful waste handling process requires several technical decisions. These focus on
quantities of waste requiring disposal, giving priority to the prevention and minimisation of
hazardous waste materials. The objectives of this process are to:
Identify opportunities to prevent and minimise waste generation from operations and
Identify and eliminate hazards to human health and the environment;
Minimise exposure to potential liabilities at an acceptable cost.

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Key handling disposal decisions of the waste management process are shown in Figure 1, and it
incorporates the concept of a waste management hierarchy which begins with source reduction
and ends with disposal options.

Figure 1: Key waste handling, minimisation and disposal decision in the waste
management process

5.1 Characterisation of Hazardous Waste

The physical, chemical and toxicological properties of each waste should be identified.
This information may be found in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), manufacturer‟s
information, process knowledge, historic information or lab analyses. A system to
categorise waste streams according to their health and environmental hazards can then
be developed.

Listed hazardous wastes are those that have been specifically identified and listed in the
local waste regulations. The listings are based on the fact that the underlying constituents
display at least one hazardous characteristic. The waste must match the listing to be
classified as a listed waste. Waste that does not meet a listing exactly is still hazardous
waste if it displays one of four characteristic: ignitable, corrosive, reactive or toxic.

Appendix 3 shows hazardous waste characterization as explained in Malaysia

environmental regulations.

5.2 Classifications and Segregation

Waste generators shall develop and implement practical procedures and controls for
identifying and segregating hazardous waste. These must comply with local legislative
 Clinical waste, radioactive waste and sewage sludge shall be identified
under distinct categories of hazardous waste. Empty containers shall also
merit special attention.

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 Classification of other hazardous wastes shall be based on an assessment
of physico-chemical, toxicological and environmental properties and
 Hazard assessment should systematically address occupational health,
community health and environmental aspects at all stages in the waste life
cycle, including generating, handling, storing, transporting, treating and
disposing. Chemical health risk assessment shall follow the methodology
outlined in PTS 60.1502 (Chemical Management Guideline). Means of
controlling the wastes handlers‟ exposure to the wastes chemical shall be
evaluated and recommended (if necessary). Appropriate personal protective
equipment (PPE), which is the last defense, shall be worn.
 Hazard assessment should be carried out with a clear focus on prevailing
local circumstances to ensure that it is practical and realistic.

Different countries may have their own specific waste classification.

5.2.1 Special Categories of Hazardous Waste

Clinical waste, radioactive waste and sewage sludge should always be treated as
special categories of hazardous waste. 'Empty' containers such as chemical and oil
drums may also require special consideration. A brief description of these different
types of hazardous waste is found below:

Table 3: Common categories of hazardous waste

No. Hazardous Description

1 Oily sludge Oil sludge or black sludge is a solid or gel in motor oil
caused by the oil gelling or solidifying, usually at
temperatures lower than 100 degrees Celsius. Sludge can
be a major contributor to internal combustion engine
problems, and can require the engine to be replaced, if the
damage is severe. Sludge is usually caused by the presence
of water in the oil, and can accumulate with use. Ways to
minimise sludge production and accumulation includes
performing frequent oil changes and following the
manufacturer's engine maintenance routine.

2 Catalyst A substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the

reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction
without being consumed in the process

3 E-waste E-waste is a popular, informal name for electronic products

nearing the end of their "useful life." Computers, televisions,
VCRs, stereos, copiers, and fax machines are common
electronic products. Many of these products can be reused,
refurbished, or recycled.

4 Organic Organic acids and bases present the familiar health and
Acids and safety hazards of burns and associated tissue damage,
Bases which also influence disposal options. They are generally
neutralised prior to disposal. On balance, the HSE hazards
associated with acids and bases are sufficiently significant to
merit overall classification as hazardous waste.

5 Chlorofluoro Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are of insignificant toxicity to

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carbons humans. They are extremely safe in terms of mammalian
and environmental toxicity. However, at the global level they
are thought to contribute to the depletion of stratospheric
ozone and their use and disposal are increasingly regulated
at both national and international levels. CFCs should
therefore be classified as hazardous waste.

6 Blasting Grit Blasting grit may contain heavy metals, which can
contaminate soil and groundwater, and free silica, which can
present occupational health hazards. Used grits containing
these materials should be classified as hazardous waste.
Manufacturers have recently introduced grits with reduced
heavy metal contents and no free silica, which do not qualify
as hazardous waste. These are preferred to conventional
products on HSE grounds.

7 Nickel- Most OPUs use nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) or lithium batteries,

Cadmium which are classified as hazardous waste following use.
and Lithium Manufacturers are increasingly providing facilities for
Batteries returning used batteries, which are then recycled. OPUs are
encouraged to purchase materials from manufacturers and
suppliers offering this option.

Special categories of hazardous waste

1 Clinical This category is most relevant to OPUs with their own clinics.
Wastes However, medical waste can also be generated at
operational locations including platforms, and must always
be segregated carefully. Medical waste includes used
equipment, e.g. needles, used dressings, biological samples,
waste prescription drugs and all potentially pathogenic
2 Radioactive These can comprise Naturally Occurring Radioactive
Wastes Materials (NORM) from producing reservoirs in the form of
scales or liquid effluents, radioactive sources used in well
logging and tracer tests and radioactive materials from
medical facilities. Radioactive waste shall be defined in terms
of its specific activity, complying with local regulations, such
as Atomic Energy Act 1954 and PETRONAS Group

5.3 Labeling and Packaging

The storing and labeling requirement of hazardous waste shall follow host country
requirements. In the absence of such requirements, the labeling requirements stipulated
in the Third Schedule of Malaysian Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes)
Regulations 2005 shall be followed. All hazardous waste must be labeled at point of
generation and not at the temporary/ transit storage area (e.g. supply base).

Appendix 4 explains the labelling requirements according to Malaysia Environmental

Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations 2005.

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5.4 Notification and Inventory

An accurate and up-to-date inventory of hazardous waste shall be maintained by the site.
It shall contain the categories and quantities of hazardous waste being generated, treated
and disposed of as well as materials or products recovered from the waste. If required,
relevant authorities/ parties shall be notified accordingly. An accurate and up-to-date
inventory of hazardous waste shall be maintained by the site.

5.5 Waste Minimisation

Opportunities for reduction or elimination of waste, volume or toxicity, recycling and

reclaiming, or treatment should be reviewed when evaluating management options.
When a potential waste minimisation practice is identified, a pilot test may be desired for
evaluation. Revision of the waste management plan should be made to reflect any
minimisation practices implemented.

An example of waste minimization technique:

Source Reduction Recycling

Product Changes Source Control

 Product substitution
Use & Reuse Reclamation
 Change in product

Input Material Technology Change Good Operating

Change Practices
 Material purification  Process changes
  Procedural measures
Material substitution  Equipment, piping or
layout changes  Loss prevention
 Additional automation  Management practices
 Change in operational  Waste-stream segregation
setting  Material handling
 Production scheduling

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5.6 Storage

The waste owner should assess and identify a designated waste storage area within his
own compound according to the waste/ hazard classification.

The waste owner should source out appropriate containers that will not chemically react
with the waste material.
The waste should be stored in durable and compatible containers that are in good
Waste containers should be kept closed at all times unless waste is being added to or
removed from the container.
Filled and empty containers shall be segregated.
Waste containers should be inspected regularly, or as according to host country
requirements, for leaks. A proper written record of the inspection is to be kept.
The storage duration shall adhere to host country requirements. In the absence of such
requirements, the waste shall not be stored on-site for more 180 days or 20 tonnes.
The storage area should be adequately designed.
The classification and disposal of empty containers, particularly used chemical drums
should be carried out properly.
o The contents of containers should be known and classified adequately
o Classification is influenced by the volumes involved
o Rinsate from washing requires classification and may in itself be a hazardous

Appendix 5 explains storing requirements according to the Malaysian Environmental

Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations 2005.

5.7 Treatment

After source reduction, reuse, recycling and recovery opportunities have been examined,
potential treatment steps to minimise waste volumes or toxicity should be considered.

Treatment methods include biological methods (e.g. land spreading, composting, tank-
based reactors), thermal methods (e.g. thermal desorption and detoxification), chemical
methods (e.g. precipitation, extraction, neutralisation) and physical methods (e.g. gravity
separation, filtration, centrifugation).

Examples of treatment methods include biodegradation of oily wastes in a pit by tillage

and addition of nutrients (fertiliser) and stabilisation of mud pit wastes by adjusting the pH
to chemically stabilise and reduce the potential toxicity and mobility of inorganic

Some good practices for treatment are as follows:

To recover oil from tank cleaning residue using appropriate method and technology.
To contain any oil spillage and send to an oily sump system before reprocessing into
the process system.
To recover platinum from spent catalyst through expertise either in or at other

Appendix 6 provides some examples of existing treatment technologies.

5.7.1 On-site/ off-site treatment

Onsite treatment is preferable due to less exposure risk on workers. The risk of
incidents due to transportation is minimised. Adequate space should be allocated for
onsite treatment facilities. Contractors who work for onsite treatment should provide
mobile /modular equipment which are licensed by the relevant authority. It is

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advisable to lease onsite treatment equipment rather than to purchase them.

For offsite treatment, the facility should be audited to ensure the contractor has proper
license from authority. The treatment technologies should be assessed for suitability
and environmental soundness. The off-site treatment facility should be near the
waste generator site.

5.8 Transportation

Waste owner shall be responsible for making arrangement for transportation of empty
drums or containers to the Washing Bay and also transporting hazardous waste to
Hazardous Waste Storage. Waste shall be transported using approved waste
transporters by relevant authority.

In the absence of national or local requirements on hazardous waste transport, the

following best practices may be applied on the waste transport contractors:

Prior to transportation of waste the contractor shall develop a Job Hazard Analysis
Contractor shall develop a Transportation Procedure based on the JHA. This
procedure shall also include an emergency response plan in case of road accident(s)
involving waste spillage or fire.
All gazetted road rules and regulations of the country should be obeyed / observed in
any shipment of waste.

Waste is not to be transported across country borders unless such transportation is

carried out in accordance with international conventions (e.g. Basel Convention) and with
prior management approval.

A completed Waste Consignment Note should accompany all waste transported for
disposal or recycling /reclaim.

5.9 Disposal

5.9.1 Responsible disposal

Finally, after all practical source reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and treatment
options have been considered and incorporated, responsible disposal options for the
residue should be determined. The following criteria should be examined when
evaluating waste disposal options. This information will help in determining the long-
term fate of a waste and its constituents and should be applied to both on-site and off-
site disposal facilities.

General area overview - Review the relevant laws and regulations of the area
and the availability of off-site disposal facilities.

General site overview - Review the area-wide topographical and geological

features. Also, review current and potential future activities around the
disposal site.

Hydrological evaluation - Review hydro geologic data to identify the location,

size and direction of flow for existing surface water bodies and aquifers
characterised as fresh or usable.

Area rainfall or net precipitation conditions - Obtain historical rainfall

distribution data to establish moisture requirements for land spreading,

18 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
determine how quickly reserve pits will dry, predict net evaporation rates,
evaluate pit overflow potential, etc.

Soil conditions and loading considerations - Determine soil conditions prior to

making decisions on loading for land spreading and whether or not pits will
require liners. For example, in high clay content and permafrost areas, liners
may not be necessary for reserve pits. In other areas with sandy soils and
shallow usable groundwater, liners or even tanks may be more appropriate.

Drainage areas - Determine natural or existing drainage patterns and identify

drainage devices needed to control water flow into, onto, or from facility

Environmental sensitivity - Conduct a site evaluation to identify

environmentally-sensitive features such as wetlands, urban areas, historical
or archaeological sites, protected habitats, or presence of endangered

Air quality - Give consideration to potential air quality impact of waste

management facilities.

Appendix 7 provides some examples of disposal methods.


Non-hazardous wastes should be classified according to their source. Wastes which do not fall
within the hazardous waste classification are by default classified as non-hazardous waste.

6.1 Segregation

The main categories of non-hazardous waste are industrial, office and domestic waste,
but further segregation may be required to exploit opportunities for reuse and recycling.

Table 4: List of common non-hazardous wastes

No Non- Description
1 Industrial Industrial waste is defined as any non-hazardous operational
Waste waste. It includes scrap metal, wooden pallets, plastic and
cardboard packaging, etc but excludes contaminated materials,
such as tubing with NORM scales, and acid and alkaline batteries.
It also can include some categories of drilling fluid components
and wastes from offices and residential accommodation. There is
often considerable potential for reusing and/or recycling industrial
wastes. This generally requires segregation into discrete sub-
categories, e.g. scrap metal, plastics, wood, etc.
2 Office Waste Paper, used stationery, plastic, and packaging materials are some
common office wastes. Office waste generally presents good
opportunities for segregation and recycling.
3 Domestic This category includes kitchen waste from offices, operational and
Waste residential locations, and waste arising from estate management
activities including garden refuse. This can be a significant
category in OPUs with residential camps. Domestic waste is
usually organic and bio-degradable.

19 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
6.2 Inventory

The inventory for non-hazardous waste shall follow the respective host country
requirements, if any. It should at least contain information on the type and quantity of the

6.3 Waste Minimization Programme for Domestic Waste

The first step is to consider reducing the amount and composition of waste produced in
the office, followed by purchasing or using materials that can be reused.

Sorting, collecting, and processing materials to manufacture and sell them as new
products. Domestic waste should be kept and consolidated into skid bins or containers
labelled “DOMESTIC WASTE” at the workplace and strategic areas. If possible,
domestic waste shall be segregated into recycling containers in brown for glass, blue for
paper, orange for aluminium and plastic. However, it is based on the condition and type
of items. Domestic waste is categorised as follows:

Domestic waste can be recycled

Paper Glass Aluminium Plastic
All coloured and non All coloured and clear All types of aluminum All coloured and non
coloured paper, glass, including drink and steel cans like coloured plastic such
newspaper, bottles, food drink cans and food as shopping bags,
magazines, books, containers, vitamin cans are recyclable. supermarket bags,
paper scraps, bottles and cosmetic plastic drink bottles,
telephone books, jars can be recycled. plastic mineral water
catalogues, bottles, plastic food
pamphlets, calendars, containers.
cards, envelopes and
carton boxes are

Domestic waste can be recycled

Paper Glass Aluminum Plastic Others
Pizza boxes or Ceramics, Aerosol cans Any plastic Explosives
anything soiled pottery or any Solvent cans container that Business
with grease and/ porcelain Paint cans is not a bottle, maintenance
or food waste Drinking Hangers such as waste
Paper plates glasses and Medical yoghurt Empty
Facial or broken crockery wastes or containers, containers of
bathroom tissue Mirrors glass needles margarine any type
Carbon paper Light bulbs Oil filters tubs and Asbestos
Disposal Window and microwave Florescent
diapers wind screen Plastic food lights
Hardcover glass trays Household
books Heat treated Plastic bottles and industrial
Milk Cartons glass e.g. that have batteries
Plastic and wax Pyres, Corning contained Medical
paper & Vision Ware, motor oil, wastes
Frozen food ovenproof glass pesticides or Radioactive
containers White opaque other materials
Paper towels bottles hazardous
Laboratory or materials
medical glass Styrofoam

20 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
Crystal ware

Domestic wastes that cannot be recycled are strictly prohibited from the recycling
containers and shall be treated as normal garbage or hazardous waste based on its

6.4 Disposal

The disposal of waste to an approved third party facility is preferred over the use of
controlled waste management sites. However, in the absence of such facility or country
requirements, Operating Units may build/construct a controlled waste management site,
with appropriate design and approval obtained from the relevant authorities.

21 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010

1. PETRONAS Corporate Policy Statement on Health, Safety and the Environment, Feb
2. PETRONAS Group Policy Guidelines on Health, Safety and the Environment, 2004
(PTS 60.039)
3. PTS 60.0138: HSE Management System, 2004.
4. Environmental Quality Act 1974 and its amendments
5. Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulation 2005.
6. Guidelines on the Management and Disposal of Wastes in Upstream Petroleum
Industries, Department of Environment, Malaysia,1994.
7. Management of Hazardous Waste, World Health Organisation Regional Publications,
European Series No. 14, 1983.
8. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
and their Disposal, 1989.
9. Production Waste Management Handbook for the Alberta Petroleum Industry,
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, February 1993.
10. (91/689/EEC) Council Directive of 12 December 1991 on Hazardous Waste, Official
Journal of the European Communities No. L377/20, December 1991.
11. (93/259/EEC) Council Regulation of 1 February, 1993, on the Supervision and
Control of Waste Within, Into, and Out of the European Community, Official Journal
of the European Communities No. L30, February 1993.
12. (91/689/EEC) Council Decision of 22 December 1994 Establishing a List of
Hazardous Waste Pursuant to Article 1(4) of Council Directive on Hazardous Waste,
Official Journal of the European Communities No. L356/14, December 1994.
13. (93/C/212/02) Amended Proposal for a Council Directive on the Landfill of Waste.
Annex III Waste Acceptance Criteria and Procedures, Official Journal of the
European Communities No. C212/33, August 1993.
14. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act Legislation, United States Environmental
Protection Agency.
15. ISO 14001: Environmental Management System –Specifications and Guidance for
use, 1996.
16. Atomic Energy Act 1954.
17. Exploration and Production waste management guidelines, The E&P Forum, Report
2.58/196, September 1993.
18. A field guide on reduction and disposal of waste from oil refineries and marketing
installations, CONCAWE, report No.5/90, July 1990.
19. A guide for oil refineries and marketing installations on waste disposal in compliance
with EU legislation, CONCAWE, report No.95/55.
20. PTS No 60.167:The Environmental Assessment Guide(1995)
21. PTS No 60.075:The Environmental Auditing Guide (1989)
22. PTS No 60.119:Chemical Hazard: Health Risk Assessment and Exposure Evaluation
23. Oil refinery waste disposal methods, quantities and costs - 1993 survey, CONCAWE,
report No.1/95, June 1995.
24. Guidelines for the management of spent catalysts, European Catalysts
Manufacturers Association, November 1995. (CEFIC 1995 D/1995/3158/12)
25. Emergency response procedures (PTS No 60.105).
26. Report EP 93-1760, Making the Most of Drilling Waste, SIPM, September 1993.
27. Wiles, C.C., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 14, 5-21 A Review of Solidification/
Stabilisation Technology, (1987)
28. Cullinane, M.J. Jr. and Bricka, R. M., (Kostecki, P. T. and Calabrese, E.J. eds.) Lewis
Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan, 127-136, An Evaluation of Organic Materials that
Interfere with Stabilisation/Solidification Processes, in Petroleum Contaminated Soils,
Volume I, Remediation Techniques, Environmental Fate, Risk Assessment, 1989

22 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
29. API document 811-10850, API Environmental Guidance Document: Onshore Solid
Waste Management in Exploration and Production Operations, January 1989.
30. Niessen, W.R. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, New York, Combustion and
Incineration Processes: Applications in Environmental Engineering, 1978.
31. Waste, Willson, G. B., Sikora, L.J. and Parr, J.F. (Parr, J.F. Marsh, P.B. and Kla, J.M.
eds.), Noyes Data Corp. Park Ridge, N.J., Composting of Chemical Industrial Wastes
Prior to Land Application, in Land Treatment of Hazardous, 1983.
32. Report to API, Hudgins, C.M., Chemical Usage in Offshore Oil and Gas Production
Systems, 1989.
33. E&P Forum Report No. 2.56/187, Guidelines for the Planning of Downhole Injection
Programmes for Oil Based Mud Wastes and Associated Cuttings from Offshore
Wells, October 1993.
34. API document 0300-004-008, Exploration and Production Industry Associated Waste
Report, May 1988.
35. (NTIS no. PB87-116745) Cullinane, M.J. Jones, L.W. and Malone, P.G., EPA/540/2-
86/001, Handbook for Stabilisation/Solidification of Hazardous Wastes, June 1986.
36. C.R. TAB Professional and Reference Books, Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania,
Brunner, Handbook of Hazardous Waste Incineration, 1989.
37. API document 471-01-09, Oil and Gas Industry Exploration and Production Wastes,
July 1987.
38. Smith, M. E., Chemical Engineering, Solid-Waste Disposal: Deep Well Injection, 10-
112, April 9, 1979
39. Kyles, J.H., Malinowski, K.C., Leithner, J.S. and Stanczyk, T.F. in Proceedings of the
National Conference on Hazardous Wastes and Hazardous Materials, HMCRI, 15-
157, The Effect of Volatile Organic Compounds on the Ability of
Solidification/Stabilisation Technologies to Attenuate Mobile Pollutants, (1987).

23 PTS 60.3005
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annulus The space surrounding a cylindrical object within a cylinder; the

space around a pipe in a wellbore, the outer wall of which may be
the wall of either the borehole or the casing, sometimes termed the
annular space.
aquifers Rock strata which contains, and are permeable to, water. The water
may be fresh or saline, and either potable or non-potable.
biologically available Substances which are present in a form which can be taken up by
(also bio-available) plants or animals and which may be incorporated into their tissues
biocides Materials which can be added to mud or reinjected produced water
for the purpose of prevention or limitation of growth of bacteria in
the mud or in the oil-reservoir rock.
biodegradable Susceptible to breakdown, into simpler often soluble and/ or
gaseous compounds, by micro organisms in the soil, water and
atmosphere. Biodegradation often converts toxic organic
compounds into non- or less-toxic substances.
BOD (biochemical Measure of the quantity of dissolved oxygen (expressed in parts per
oxygen demand) million) used in the decomposition of organic matter by biochemical
completion fluid Chemical mixture present in the well during the placement of
production tubing and perforation of the well (may be a drilling fluid
or specialised brine).
cuttings The fragments of rock dislodged by the drilling bit and brought to the
surface in the drilling mud.
drilling fluids Specialised fluid made up of a mixture of clays, water (and
sometimes oil) and chemicals, which is pumped down a well during
drilling operations to cool and lubricate the system, remove cuttings
and control pressure.
downhole Down a well or borehole.
Environmental Impact A formal, written, technical evaluation of potential effects on the
Assessment environment (atmosphere, water, land, plants and animals) of a
particular event or activity.
effluents Liquid waste materials discharged from operations.
encapsulation The enclosure of wastes by a non-permeable substance. Waste
constituents are not chemically altered, but their transport will be
impeded by the encapsulating matrix.
exploration The search for reservoirs of oil and gas which includes aerial and
geophysical surveys, geological studies, core testing and drilling of
gas processing The separation of constituents from natural gas for the purpose of
making saleable products and also for improving the quality of the
natural gas.
H2S (hydrogen A pungent, corrosive, toxic gas occurring naturally in some oil and
sulphide) gas reservoirs (and elsewhere), generated by the metabolism of
certain types of bacteria.
injection well A well used to inject gas or water into an oil/gas reservoir rock to
maintain reservoir pressure during the secondary recovery process.
Also a well used to inject treated wastes into selected formations for
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet used by chemical suppliers to
summarise properties of products including health, safety and
environmental aspects.

24 PTS 60.3005
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NORM Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials. Low Specific Activity
(LSA) scale is one example of a NORM waste.
PAH Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon
produced water Water originating from a natural oil reservoir, that is separated from
the oil and gas in the production facility.
production The phase of petroleum operations that deals with bringing the
reservoir fluids to the surface and separating them, and with storing,
gauging, and otherwise preparing the product for the pipeline.
rig A collective term used to describe the equipment, including the
vessel or structure on which the equipment is installed, required to
drill a well, the most visible component being the mast or derrick.
solidification The addition of materials (sawdust, adsorbent polymers, etc.) to
waste to change its physical state and improve handling and weight
bearing characteristics.
stabilisation The chemical conversion or encapsulation of waste to create a
composite matrix that resists leaching.
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds.
water injection The pumping of water into the reservoir rock to maintain the
reservoir pressure.
workover A process by which a completed production well is subsequently re-
entered and any necessary cleaning, repairing and maintenance
work done.

25 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010

Waste Management regulations in Malaysia include the followings:

Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005 (Amendment) 2007
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Conveyance) (Scheduled Wastes) Order 2005
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Scheduled Wastes Treatment and
Disposal Facilities) (Amendment) Order 2006
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Scheduled Waste Treatment and Disposal
Facilities) (Amendment) Regulations 2006
Customs (Prohibition of Export) Order (Amendment)(No. 2) 1993 and
Customs (Prohibition of Import) Order (Amendment)(No. 2) 1993.

A summary of regulation titles in Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005

listed as follows:
Regulation 1 - Citation and commencement
Regulation 2 – Interpretation
(First Schedule lists all waste falling within the categories of „scheduled waste‟)
(Fourth Schedule lists scheduled wastes of potential incompatibility)
Regulation 3 – Notification of the generation of scheduled wastes
(Second Schedule shows form required to be filled for notification of scheduled wastes)
Regulation 4 – Disposal of scheduled wastes
Regulation 5 – Treatment of scheduled wastes
Regulation 6 - Recovery of material or product from scheduled wastes
Regulation 7 – Application for special management of scheduled wastes
Regulation 8 – Responsibility of waste generator
Regulation 9 – Storage of scheduled wastes
Regulation 10 – Labelling of scheduled wastes
(Third Schedule shows label for scheduled wastes accordance with the types applicable
to them)
Regulation 11 – Waste generator shall keep an inventory of scheduled wastes
(Fifth Schedule shows form for schedule waste inventories)
Regulation 12 – Information to be provided by waste generator, contractor and occupier
of premises
(Sixth Schedule shows consignment note for schedule wastes)
Regulation 13 – Scheduled wastes transported outside generator‟s premises to be
occupied by information
(Seventh Schedule lists information required to the contractor upon delivery of the
waste to him)
Regulation 14 – Spill or accidental discharge
Regulation 15 – Conduct of training
Regulation 16 – Compounding of offences
Regulation 17 - Revocation

A comprehensive set of legal provisions related to the management of toxic and hazardous
wastes were developed based on the “cradle to grave principle”; whereby toxic and hazardous
waste generators are responsible for their wastes throughout their disposal process.

The Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005 came into force since 15
August 2005, and replaced the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 1989. In
20 March 2007, the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005 was then
amended in the First Schedule, in relation to the particular appearing against code SW 104, by
inserting the word “aluminum” are “containing”.

26 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
Under these new regulations, scheduled wastes listed in the First Schedule are divided into five
categories. Waste generators should determine whether their waste is classified under scheduled
wastes. New generators of scheduled wastes are required to notify the Department of
Environment within one month from the date of generation.

Scheduled wastes can be stored, recovered and treated within the premises of the waste
generators. Such activities do not require licensing by the Department of Environment. A waste
generator may store scheduled wastes generated by him for 180 days or less after its generation
provided the quantity of scheduled wastes accumulated on site shall not exceed 20 metric
tonnes. However, waste generators may apply to the Director General in writing to store more
than 20 metric tonnes of scheduled waste.

The containers that are used to store scheduled wastes shall be clearly labeled with the date
when the scheduled waste is first generated, name, address and telephone number of the waste

Land farming, incineration, disposal and off-site facilities for recovery, storage and treatment can
only be carried out at prescribed premises licensed by the Department of Environment. However
with the signing of the concession agreement between the Government of Malaysia and Kualiti
Alam Sdn. Bhd, all off-site treatment and disposal (incineration, wastewater treatment, storage
and secure landfill) of scheduled wastes is not allowed. The agreement is from 18 December
1995 to 18 December 2010.

On-site incineration of scheduled waste is not encouraged. If it is deemed necessary, application

for the installation of such incinerators must strictly adhere to the Guidelines on the Installation of
On-site Incinerator for the Disposal of Scheduled Wastes in Malaysia” published by the
Department of Environment, including carrying out a detailed environmental impact assessment
and display of the EIA report for public comments.

Waste generators shall also keep an up to-date inventory of scheduled waste generated, treated
and disposed. Proper labeling, containers and storage areas as well as prohibition of storage of
incompatible waste are also required by law.

The transporting of waste shall conform to the consignment note system whereby the movement
of waste is monitored until it reaches the approved destination. It is the responsibility of a waste
generator to monitor and ensure that the waste transported from his factory reaches the approved
destination. The waste generator is responsible to inform the transport contractor regarding the
nature of the waste and what actions to be taken during accidents to minimise damage to human
life and the environment. Schedule wastes transporters should also be licensed by the
Department of Environment.

Every waste generator shall ensure that all his employees involved in the identification, handling,
labeling, transporting, storing and spill response of scheduled wastes, attend training

The roles and responsibilities of hazardous waste generators, contractors and treatment
operators can be summarised as below:

Waste Generator Waste Contractor Waste Treatment and

Responsibilities Responsibilities Disposal Facility
Identification and Application of license from Application of license from
classification of waste authority to transport authority to operate and
labeling waste occupy waste treatment or
Notification to authority Upkeep of transportation disposal facilities
within 30 days documents Upkeep of inventory and

27 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
Storage and on site ERP during transportation disposal records
Emergency Response Permissible routing On-site ERP
Procedure (ERP)
Upkeep of inventory and
disposal records
Provides technical
expertise and assistance
in case of spillage
Application of license from
authority to operate on-site
waste treatment facility
Application to store
hazardous waste more
than 180 days or 20

There are six types of hazardous waste operations that require written permission and a license
from the Department of Environment. The premises include:
a. Land treatment facilities such as sludge farming of oily wastes or sludge;
b. Off-site recovery facilities such as solvent recycling plant;
c. Off-site treatment facilities such as centralised physical/ chemical wastewater
treatment plant;
d. Scheduled wastes incinerators;
e. Off-site storage facilities including the premises of waste transport contractors; and
f. Secure landfills designated for the disposal of scheduled wastes.

Starting from 15 August 2005, a license is required to use prescribed conveyances as stipulated
in the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Conveyance) (Scheduled Wastes) Order 2005.
Conveyance which is categorised as prescribed conveyance are:

Any vehicle or ship of any description which is

a. propelled by a mechanism contained within itself;
b. constructed or adapted to be used on land or water; and
c. used for the movement, transfer, placement or deposit of scheduled wastes.

Offences under these Regulations can be compounded up to a maximum of RM2,000.00 or

offenders can be prosecuted in court and the maximum penalty is RM50,000.00 or imprisonment
for a period not exceeding 2 years or both and to a further fine not exceeding RM1000.00 per day
for every day the offence is continued.

The details of the local regulatory requirements need to be observed. Personnel responsible for
waste management at site should have a copy or a list of the local regulatory requirements at

Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act

It is an act to provide management of controlled solid waste and public cleansing for the purpose
of proper sanitation under National Solid Waste Management Department. This act is replaced
with the current Act 171 of Local Government Act 1974 and Act 133 of Street, Drainage and
Building Act 1974.

a. No person shall construct any prescribed solid waste management facilities unless
relevant plans or specifications which require the approval of the Director General
have first been approved in writing by Director General.
b. No person shall undertake any alteration of any prescribed solid waste management

28 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010
facilities which may:
Affect the performance of the solid waste management facilities
Cause adverse environmental impact
Impede the quality and level of solid waste management services
Adversely affect public health
Affect the overall planning of solid waste management services.
c. No person shall (unless holding a licensed granted under this act):
Undertake or provide any solid waste management services
Manage or operate any solid waste management facilities
Undertake or provide any public cleansing management services

An example of a waste management plan is as follows:

Waste Generation Storage Handling Treatment Disposal

Spent Maintenance of Drumming, Maintenance Waste oil Recycling
lube oil rotating devices stored in procedure recovery at facility
from x no of scheduled Hazardous recycling
equipment in waste yard waste handling facility
production unit procedure
Domestic Office building. Collection Domestic waste Internal reuse Recycling
waste – Estimated bin at management facility
used quantity: ground floor procedure
paper 1kg/month
Oil Waste Water Drumming Hazardous Incineration at Off-site
sludge Treatment Plant stored in waste handling off–site disposal
(WWTP). scheduled procedure disposal facility
Estimated waste yard facility
quantity: 1

29 PTS 60.3005
MARCH 2010

Basel convention. Categories of waste to be controlled: waste streams

1. Clinical waste from medical care in hospitals, medical centres and clinics
2. Waste from the production and preparation of pharmaceutical products
3. Waste pharmaceuticals, drugs and medicines
4. Wastes from the production, formulation and use of biocides and phyto- pharmaceuticals
5. Waste from the manufacture, formulation and use of wood-preserving chemicals
6. Waste from the production, formulation and use of organic solvents
7. Waste from heat treatment and tempering operations containing cyanides
8. Waste mineral oils unfit for their originally intended use
9. Waste oils/water, hydrocarbons/water mixtures, emulsions
10. Waste substances and articles containing or contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) and/or polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) and/ or polybrominated biphenyls
11. Waste tarry residues arising from refining, distillation and any pyrolytic treatment
12. Waste from production, formulation and use of inks, dyes, pigments, paints, lacquers,
13. Waste from production, formulation and use of resins, latex, plasticisers, glues/
14. Waste chemical substances arising from the research and development or teaching
activities which are not identified and/or are new and whose effects on man and/or the
environment are not known
15. Waste of an explosive nature not subject to other legislation
16. Waste from production, formulation and use of photographic chemicals and processing
17. Waste resulting from surface treatment of metals and plastics
18. Residue arising from industrial waste disposal operations

Basel convention. Categories of waste to be controlled: constituents

1. Metal carbonyls
2. Beryllium; beryllium compounds
3. Hexavalent chromium compounds
4. Copper compounds
5. Zinc compounds
6. Arsenic; arsenic compounds
7. Selenium; selenium compounds
8. Cadmium; cadmium compounds
9. Antimony; antimony compounds
10. Tellurium; tellurium compounds
11. Mercury; mercury compounds
12. Thallium; thallium compounds
13. Lead; lead compounds
14. Inorganic fluorine compounds excluding calcium fluoride
15. Inorganic cyanides
16. Acidic solutions or acids in solid form
17. Basic solutions or bases in solid form
18. Asbestos (dust and fibres)
19. Organic phosphorous compounds
20. Organic cyanides
21. Phenols; phenol compounds including chlorophenols
22. Ethers

30 PTS 60.3005
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23. Halogenated organic solvents
24. Organic solvents excluding halogenated solvents
25. Any congener of polychlorinated dibenzofuran
26. Any congener of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin
27. Organohalogen compounds other than substances referred to in this list

31 PTS 60.3005
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According to the Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulation 2005, hazardous waste
shall demonstrate one of the following characters:
i. Corrosivity
ii. Ignitability
iii. Reactivity
iv. Toxicity


A waste exhibits the characteristic of corrosivity if a representative sample of the waste has either
one of the following properties:

It has an aqueous component and has a pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or
equal to 12.5, as determined by an approved/ calibrated pH meter.

It has a liquid component and corrodes steel (SAE 1020) at a rate greater than 6.35 mm
o o
(0.025 inch) per year at a test temperature of 55 C (130 F).

Example of corrosivity waste:

Acids; bases; hydroxides; waste boiler treatment chemicals


A waste exhibits the characteristic of ignitability if a representative sample of the waste has any of
the following properties:

If it is a liquid, other than an aqueous solution containing less than 24 percent alcohol by
o o
volume, it has flash point less than 60 C (140 F), as determined by a Pensky-Martens
Closed Cup Tester or a Setaflash Closed Cup Tester.

If it is not a liquid and is capable, under standard temperature and pressure, of causing
fire through friction, absorption of moisture or spontaneous chemical changes and, when
ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard.

It is an ignitable compressed gas.

It is an oxidiser.

Examples of ignitable waste:

Alcohols, acetone, acetic acid, xylene, oil, paints, paint thinner, solvent and solvent mixtures,
gasoline, partially full aerosol cans.


A waste exhibits the characteristic of reactivity if a representative sample of the waste has any of
the following properties:

It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent changes without detonating,

It reacts violently with water.

It forms potentially explosive mixtures with water.

32 PTS 60.3005
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When mixed with water, it generates toxic gases, vapours or fumes in a quantity sufficient
to present danger to human health or the environment.

It is a cyanide or sulfide bearing waste which, when exposed to pH conditions between 2

and 12.5, can generate toxic gases, vapours or fumes in a quantity sufficient to present
danger to human health or the environment.

It is capable of detonation or explosion if subjected to a strong initiating source or if

heated under confinement.

It is readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reaction at standard

temperature and pressure.

Examples of reactive waste:

Cyanide, explosives, picric acid, ethyl ethers, sulfide-containing wastes.


A waste exhibits the characteristic of toxicity if the extract from a representative sample of the
waste has any of the contaminants listed in Table 2 and Table 3 at the concentration that is equal
to or greater than the respective value given in that table.

Table below shows the maximum concentration of contaminants for the toxicity characteristic:

Leaching Procedure (TCLP)

CW Contaminant CAS No. Maximum Level (mg/L)

C004 Arsenic 7440-38-2 5.0

C005 Barium 7440-39-3 100.0
C018 Benzene 71-43-2 0.5
C006 Cadmium 7440-43-9 1.0
C019 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 0.5
C020 Chlordane 57-74-9 0.03
C021 Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 100.0
C022 Chloroform 67-66-3 6.0
C007 Chromium 7440-47-3 5.0
C023 o-Cresol 95-48-7 200.0
C024 m-Cresol 108-39-4 200.0
C025 p-Cresol 106-44-5 200.0
C026 Cresol 200.0
C016 2,4-D 94-75-7 10.0
C027 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 7.5
C028 1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2 0.5

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C029 1,1-Dichloroethylene 75-35-4 0.7
C030 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 121-14-2 0.13
C012 Endrin 72-20-8 0.02
C031 Heptachlor (and its epoxide) 76-44-8 0.008
C032 Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 0.13
C033 Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 0.5
C034 Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 3.0
C008 Lead 7439-92-1 5.0
C013 Lindane 58-89-9 0.4
C009 Mercury 7439-97-6 0.2
C014 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 10.0
C035 Methyl ethyl ketone 78-93-3 200.0
C036 Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 2.0
C037 Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 100.0
C038 Pyridine 110-86-1 5.0
C010 Selenium 7782-49-2 1.0
C011 Silver 7440-22-4 5.0
C039 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 0.7
C015 Toxaphene 8001-35-2 0.5
C040 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 0.5
C041 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 95-95-4 400.0
C042 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 88-06-2 2.0
C017 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 93-72-1 1.0
C043 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 0.2

1 Characteristic waste number
2 Chemical abstracts service number
3 If o-, m-, and p-Cresol concentrations cannot be differentiated, the total cresol (D026)
concentration is used. The regulatory level of total cresol is 200 mg/l.

Table below shows compositional analysis (dry basis):

mg/kg mg/L
Arsenic (As) 500 5
Barium (Ba) 10000 100
Berylium (Be) 75 0.75
Cadmium (Cd) 100 1
Chromium (Cr) 2500 5
Chromium-VI (Cr-VI) 500 5
Cobalt (Co) 8000 80

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Copper (Cu) 2500 25
Lead (Pb) 1000 5
Mercury (Hg) 20 0.2
Molybdenum (Mo) 3500 350
Nickel (Ni) 2000 20
Selenium (Se) 100 1
Silver (Ag) 500 5
Thallium (Tl) 700 7
Vanadium (V) 2400 24
Zinc (Zn) 5000 250
Semivolatile Organics
Pentachlorophenol 17 1.7
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid 100 10
2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxypropionic acid 10 1
Volatile Organics
Trichloroethylene 2040 204
Pesticides and PCBs
Aldrin 1.4 0.14
Chlordane 2.5 0.25
DDT, DDE, DDD 1 0.1
Dieldrin 8 0.8
Endrin 0.2 0.02
Heptachlor 4.7 0.47
Kepone 21 2.1
Lindane 4 0.4
Methoxychlor 100 10
Mirex 21 2.1
PCBs 50 5
Toxaphene 5 0.5
Asbestos 1%
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) 0.1 0.1
Furan (2,3,7,8-TCDF) 0.1 0.1
Fluoride salts 18000 180
Organic lead 13

STLC : Soluble Threshold Limit Concentration
TTLC : Total Threshold Limit Concentration

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Labelling requirements:
1. Date of generation of scheduled waste
2. Name, address and contact number of waste generator
3. Hazardous waste code as per 1st Schedule
4. Hazard symbol as per 3rd schedule. If the waste has more than one hazard
class, the label should have all the relevant symbols.

Label Criteria
1. Dimension > 10cm x 10cm
2. Stick on, metal plates, stencilled/ printed
3. Withstand open weather exposure
4. Background is contrasting colour
5. 1 danger symbol for 1 hazard

The cleaned drums that are going to be re-used should be labeled „EMPTY DRUMS‟.

Hazard Symbol for Hazardous Waste

Symbol: Exploding bomb (black)
Exploding bomb (black) Background:
Background: Light orange
Light orange
Explosive Substance (Waste) Inflammable Liquid (Waste)

Symbol: Symbol:
flame (black) flame (black)
Background: Background:
White with vertical red Upper half white, lower
stripes half red
Inflammable Solid (Waste) Solid: Spontaneously Combustible (Waste)

Symbol: Symbol:
flame (black or white) Flame over circle (black)
Background: Background:
Blue Yellow

Solid: Dangerous When Wet (Waste) Oxidising Substances (Waste)

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Symbol: Symbol:
flame over circle (black) Skull over crossbones
Background: (Black)
Yellow Background:
Organic Peroxide (Waste) Toxic Substances (Waste)

Symbol: Symbol:
Three crescents nil
superimposed on a circle Background:
(black) White with upper half
Background: vertical black stripes

Infectious Substances (Waste) Mixture of miscellaneous

Dangerous Substances (Waste)

Liquids spilling from two glass
Three crescents
vessels and attacking a hand
superimposed on a circle
and a metal (black)
Upper half white, lower half
Corrosive Substances (Waste)

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Open top for solid waste

Bung hole for liquid waste

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Scheduled wastes storage

Waste containers should:

Be free of rust and leaks
Be compatible with waste to be stored in the container
Be made of plastic (HDPE, PP or PVC) or metal (teflon, carbon steel) as long as
the material does not react with the waste type.
Have a tight cover to prevent any spillage during transfer or off-site transportation

Waste generator should be aware of the following matters in storing scheduled wastes:
Meet storage requirements as stipulated in local regulations. Malaysia
Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulation 2005 requires the size of
storage to comply with a capacity of taking up a volume of waste generated to 20
tonnes or 180 days requirements. Waiver or permission can be obtained from
the Department of Environment for storage of more than 20 tonnes or more than
180 days.
Incompatible wastes should be segregated in separate containers
In filling up containers, take into consideration an increase in volume, gas
formation or increase in pressure during storage
Reactive waste should not have empty space in the container
Explosive waste should be stored in containers that can withstand pressure
Filled drums and containers should be inspected at least once a week
Waste containers can be re-used to store other waste if the characteristics of the
new waste is the same or compatible with the previous waste stored
If the new waste being stored is not compatible with previous waste, then the
container should be thoroughly cleaned before being re-used. After cleaning the
container should be labeled „EMPTY DRUMS‟
Damage containers should be disposed off as waste.

Filled waste drums and containers shall be stored in the following method:
Containers are stored in block system. Each block consists of 2 x 2 drums, kept
in a manner that will ease inspection of the drums.
The minimum width between the block should be 60cm for human passage and
suitable for the movement of transportation vehicle such as forklift.
Storage method should also take into consideration the stability of the stacked
drums. If the containers are metals drums, they should be stacked on pallets in
groups of four, no more than three levels high. If the drums are stacked more
than three levels high, they should be stacked on racks or shelving units with
ladders providing access to the drums.
The distance between the highest stacked drum and the roof and the distance
between the most outer drum and the wall of the storage room should be not less
than one meter.
Incompatible waste containers should be stored separately, not in one block and
not in the same storage section. They should also be stored in a manner that
prevents the mixing of the incompatible waste at the storage area in case of

Should the scheduled waste be stored in storage tanks:

The tank must have secondary containment with drains or gutters leading to a
containment ditch or collection sump.
The containment ditch should be watertight and able to hold 110% capacity of
the maximum tank volume.

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The ditch should be protected from sunlight and direct entry of rainwater.
The tanks should be arranged in a manner that when it falls, it will remain in the
containment area and will not affect other drums around it

Design requirement for scheduled waste yard or warehouse

Site Criteria
a. On-site storage:
a proper designated area in waste generator premises, about 50 m away from
the manufacturing/ processing area and area of employee activities
not subject to flooding
b. Off-site storage:
Not subject to flooding
Downstream of water intake points
Away from residential area (not less than 250m)
Site within industrial area is preferable
Compatible with surrounding land use
Good access road and other infrastructural facilities, for fire fighting and
emergency procedures

Design of warehouse building

Be designed to be spacious and suitable with the type, characteristics and

amount of waste being stored.
Floor of the building should have a strong, water-tight floor, be free of cracks with
a slope of no greater than 1% towards the collection ditch.
The perimeter of the building should have drains or gutter and the floor around
the building constructed with a slope of no greater than 1% to cause the
rainwater to flow away from warehouse area. No opening in the drain that may
allow waste to leave the site
If the building holds more than one type of waste, the warehouse should have
different compartments separated by a wall to prevent mixing in case of spillage
Be designed to protect direct or indirect entry of rainwater
Be designed without a ceiling and have a ventilation system to prevent the
accumulation of gases or vapours at the storage areas
Have lighting sufficient to operate and inspect the storage area
Equipped with lightning conductor
Signboard to set up with word DANGER, painted with a letter size of 30cm on a
bright yellow background

The warehouse building should have the following features:

Fire extinguishing system
Safety fence
Communication equipment
Spill equipment
Emergency exit

Additional special requirements for building storing flammable waste:

Fireproof partition wall made of reinforced concrete at least 15cm thick, or brick
walls at least 23cm thick, or non-reinforced concrete with minimum thickness of
Emergency exit must not be made at the fireproof wall.
Minimum distance of 20m from other building
The roof support structure must be made of material that does not easily catches

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Explosion proof lamp in warehouse.
Fire extinguishing system, fire detection and supply of water for fire system.

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Solvent extraction uses solvents to extract oil from oily solids or sludges. Solvents used for
extraction include carbon dioxide, propane, hexane, triethylamine, methylene chloride and certain
proprietary solvent mixtures. An elaborate solvent recovery system is generally employed in order
to reuse the solvent.

A properly operated solvent extraction system will recover and recycle virtually all solvent used
for extraction, and allow oil to be recovered. A closed loop system for the vapour phases
generated should ensure that there are no direct air emissions from the process. Safety will be a
consideration for systems which use high temperatures, high pressures or volatile solvents.

Disposal options for wastewater separated from the solids, and the treated solids, will depend on
the constituents of the treated streams. Extracted water may be injected or require treatment prior
to discharge. Treated solids may be heat treated to remove residual solvents prior to disposal.
Solids with significant biologically available metal contents may be stabilised to prevent migration
after disposal.


Many organic compounds present in E&P wastes may be biodegraded to carbon dioxide and
water using natural biological processes. However, natural biodegradation of contaminants tends
to be rate limited due to limitations on the biological processes. These limitations may be
overcome by optimising the biological conditions. The most important factors for control of
biological degradation of hydrocarbons are:

an adequate supply of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

availability of sufficient oxygen (and mixing) for cell metabolism
availability and balance of nutrients and micro-nutrients necessary for optimum bacterial
moisture control
temperature and pH

The concentration and type of compounds to be degraded may have a significant impact on the
biodegradation process. Some compounds may be readily degraded at low concentrations but
inhibit degradation at higher concentrations (for example, some hydrocarbon compounds may be
toxic to degrading organisms at high concentrations). Other compounds may be degraded very
slowly by biological processes, require an acclimatisation period or require co-metabolites for
degradation. In general, the composition of an organic waste should be examined to determine
the feasibility of reaching desired treatment levels. High levels of asphaltenes and/or polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a waste may make biological treatment an unlikely option for the
rapid removal of the hydrocarbon fraction. Conversely, high concentrations of alkanes in a waste
would make it a good candidate for biological treatment. In general, the biodegradability of
petroleum hydrocarbon fractions follows the relationship: saturates > aromatics > polars >

Hydrocarbon degrading microbes are ubiquitous in the environment. However, they may be
present in very low concentrations in some waste streams, environments exposed to extreme
conditions or materials contaminated by extremely high concentrations of certain compounds. If
microbial populations are low in a waste, native soils may often provide the microbial inocula
necessary for biodegradation (as described in the land farming, land spreading and composting
sections below). If for some reason soil microbes are inadequate or the waste conditions are

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particularly harsh, strains of bacteria adapted to metabolise hydrocarbons under the desired
conditions may be added. Waste biological sludges from refinery waste water treatment systems,
if available, are an excellent source of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria.

Of the biological treatments described below, land farming and land spreading may be
considered disposal options as well as treatment. Composting processes and bioreactors
generally convert the waste into a less harmful product for subsequent use or disposal. Rates of
biodegradation are highest for bioreactors and composting, and lowest for the less favourable
biological conditions generally found in land farming and land spreading.

2.1 Land Farming

Land farming systems have been used for the treatment of oily petroleum industry waste for
many years. The land farming process involves the controlled and repeated application of
waste on a soil surface in order to biodegrade hydrocarbon constituents by using micro
organisms naturally present in the soil. The land farming area is periodically tilled to provide
the necessary mixing and oxygen transfer. Active land farming may include the addition of
water, nutrients and other materials to enhance the biodegradation process in the waste/soil
mixture, and to prevent the development of conditions that might promote leaching and
mobilisation of inorganic contaminants. The conditions under which degradation takes place
are typically aerobic. Volatilisation and dilution are two other important mechanisms for
reduction of degradation products in land applications of waste. Land farming should not be
confused with land filling or burial, in which the waste is deposited in man-made or natural
excavations for an indefinite period of time. The conditions under which landfilled and buried
wastes are stored are usually anaerobic, which typically results in much slower degradation.

Care should be taken to avoid land farming of material which contains significant levels of
biologically available heavy metals, persistent toxic compounds or low specific activity (LSA)
scale. At inappropriate loadings, these may accumulate in the soil to a level that renders the
land unfit for further use. A site monitoring programme is recommended to ensure such
accumulation is not occurring.

Considerations for the application of land farming should also include the site topography and
hydrology, and the physical and chemical composition of the waste and resultant waste/soil
mixture. Waste application rates should be controlled to minimise the possibility of run-off.
When a facility is properly designed, operated, and monitored, land farming is usually a
relatively cost effective and simple technique. Land farms may require government permits or
approval and, depending on soil conditions, may require a liner and/or groundwater
monitoring wells. Moisture control to minimise dust (particulates) may also be necessary
during extended dry conditions.

2.2 Land spreading

The treatment processes involved in land spreading are similar to those in land farming.
However, land spreading refers to the one-time application of liquid or solid waste to a site.
Land spreading may be an appropriate technique to reduce the organic content of a waste.
As in land farming, inorganic compounds and metals are not only diluted into the soil, but
may be incorporated into the matrix through chelation, exchange reactions, covalent bonding
or may become less soluble through oxidation, precipitation and pH effects.

In land spreading as in land farming, aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons may be

enhanced by nutrient addition to the waste/soil mixture and by periodic tillage of the mixture
(to increase aeration). For E&P wastes, salts and hydrocarbons are most frequently the
components which limit the application rate of a waste on a site. Hydrocarbon concentrations
may be monitored after land spreading to measure progress and determine whether
biodegradation processes should be enhanced.

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In general, there is little regulatory guidance concerning land spreading practices. This is
primarily due to the fact that land spreading sites only receive a single application of waste.
This practice reduces the potential for the accumulation of waste components in the soil, as
might be the case in land farming sites that receive multiple applications of wastes.
Construction of a containment system (liners) or monitoring of leachates from the site is
seldom required for land spreading sites. However, site topography and hydrology, and the
physical and chemical composition of the waste and resultant waste/soil mixture, should still
be assessed and waste application rates controlled to minimise the possibility of run-off.

Land spreading is most effectively used as a disposal method for drilling fluids and cuttings
with low levels of hydrocarbons and salts, but it may also be useful for other E&P wastes with
these same characteristics. Characterisation of a waste, and treatability studies can be used
to determine whether land spreading may be effectively implemented.

2.3 Composting

Composting is a solid phase biological treatment technique similar to land treatment.

Biodegradation rates are enhanced by improving porosity, aeration, moisture content, and
operating temperature. It may be possible for compost mixtures with up to ten percent
hydrocarbon to be reduced to less than one percent in four to eight weeks.

Characteristics of composting are:

Waste is mixed with bulking agents (e.g. wood chips, straw, rice hulls or husks) to
provide increased porosity and aeration potential. Care should be taken to ensure the
bulking agent provides sufficient porosity to allow aeration even at high moisture

Manure or agricultural wastes may be added to increase the water holding capacity
of the waste/media mixture and to provide trace nutrients.

Nitrogen and phosphorous based fertilisers, as well as trace minerals (e.g. Fe, Cu,
Mo, Mn, Zn, B, Co, Ni) may be added to enhance microbial activity.

Mixtures of the waste, soil (to provide indigenous bacteria) and other additives, may
be placed in piles small enough (less than 3 feet deep) to be tilled for aeration, or
placed in containers or on platforms designed to allow forcing of air through the
composting mixture. Composting in closed containers allows for control of volatiles.

The compost mixture is maintained near 40-60 percent water by weight to provide
optimal moisture conditions for biodegradation.

Compost systems are characterised by elevated temperatures (30-70°C) within the

compost mixture. The elevated temperature increases microbial metabolism, but
should be closely monitored to ensure temperatures do not exceed 70°C (may cause
cell death). The temperature may be controlled by tilling the soil pile or by forced

The degradation of organic compounds using composting techniques is more efficient than
land spreading or land farming techniques. In addition, treated waste is contained within the
composting facility and its properties may be readily monitored. Composted wastes that meet
health-based criteria may be reused as soil conditioners, landfill cover, clean fill etc.

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2.4 Biological treatments in tanks

The same aerobic biological reaction that occurs during land farming or composting
processes may be accomplished at an accelerated rate using an open or closed vessel or
impoundment. The process is typically operated as a batch or semi-continuous process.
Nutrients are added to a slurry of water and waste, and oxygen (for aerobic degradation) is
provided by air sparging and/or intensive mechanical mixing of the reactor contents. The
mechanical mixing also provides a high degree of contact between micro organisms and the
waste component to be biodegraded. A source of microbes capable of degrading the organic
constituents of the waste may also be required to accelerate the start-up of the system.

Operating conditions (temperature, pH, oxygen transport and mixing, and nutrient
concentrations) may be easily monitored and controlled in tank-based bioreactor systems.
This control makes the optimisation of biological processes possible, hence ensuring the best
rate of biodegradation. Bioreactors generally require less space than land-based biological
treatment processes. A disadvantage of bioreactors is that the maintenance and capital
investment required is high relative to other forms of biological treatment.

After reaching the desired level of treatment, the disposal method for residual reactor
contents will be dictated by the concentrations of the remaining components.

Depending on the constituents, liquids may be transported to waste water treatment facilities,
either injected or discharged. After dewatering, solids may be buried, applied to soils, used as
fill, or further treated to stabilise components such as metals.

2.5 Biological treatment-package units

Another variation of the optimised aerobic biological waste treatment system is an activated
sludge process commercially available in self-contained package units for the treatment of
sanitary wastes. The system typically includes an aeration tank with an aerator system, a
clarifier tank with sludge recycle and a chlorination system for the final effluent. The process
is operated continuously with an influent loading rate set to the feeding rate of the micro
organisms to allow the biodegradation of the organic constituents. Following the
manufacturer's recommendations for operation is suggested.

Although commercially available package units are highly efficient, they must be protected
from biological upsets. Care must be taken to prevent the inadvertent dumping of cleaning
chemicals, solvents, used oils and strong acids, caustics or detergents to the sanitary sewer
collection system.


There are a variety of waste treatment techniques based upon the application of heat to waste
materials. The resulting products from these techniques will depend on the amount of heat
employed. Low temperature treatments may allow for the recovery of hydrocarbons and water
from wastes, whereas the use of high temperature technologies may destroy organic compounds
via combustion.

3.1 Incineration

Incineration uses combustion to convert wastes into less bulky materials. Incineration can
refer to the practice of open burning of wastes in pits although the degree of combustion

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achieved in commercial incinerators will be difficult to achieve in open burning. This is
because commercial incinerators can control the residence time, temperature and
turbulence within the incineration chamber to optimise combustion. These incinerators
are often equipped with air pollution control devices to remove incomplete combustion
products, remove particulate emissions, and reduce SOx and NOx emissions. There are
many types of incinerators, and many air pollution control mechanisms.

Incinerators are usually used to destroy organic wastes which pose high levels of risk to
health and the environment. As a rule, the incineration of most E&P wastes is not
necessary. However, if operations are located in a sensitive environment and other
disposal options are not available, incineration may be the best way to manage oily
wastes from E&P operations.

Because of its durability and ability to incinerate almost any waste, regardless of particle
size or composition, the type of incinerator best suited for many E&P wastes is the rotary
kiln. A rotating kiln tumbles the waste to provide extensive contact with hot burner gases.
Depending on the size and complexity of an operation, smaller incinerators can also be

Disposal of solids remaining after incineration should be managed properly. When

organic components of the waste are incinerated, metals concentrations in the remaining
solids will increase. An operator should ensure that incinerator ashes resulting from the
treatment of its wastes are properly handled and disposed. Stabilisation may be required
to prevent release of harmful leachates into the environment.

3.2 Cement kilns – fuels blending

The use of a cement kiln, when available, is usually an attractive and less expensive
alternative to incineration of E&P oily wastes. Oily waste may go into a fuel blending
programme to replace fuel otherwise needed to fire the kiln.

The retention time and temperature (typically 1,400 to 1,500°C) within a cement kiln are
adequate to achieve thermal destruction of organics. Cement kilns may also have
pollution control devices to minimise air emissions from the process. The ash from
wastes combusted in the kiln will become incorporated into the cement matrix. These
ashes may provide a desirable source of aluminium, silica, clay and other minerals that
are typically added in the cement raw material feed stream.

3.3 Open burning

Open burning is typically used to dispose of camp refuse, construction material, and
hydrocarbon containing materials with properties or in areas that make recycling,
recovery, or transport unsuitable. When these conditions exist and regulations permit
burning, burning should be conducted in approved areas during daytime hours and
should not cause a nuisance. The possible effects of emissions of particulates and
products of incomplete combustion should be considered, and combustion methods that
minimize emissions should be employed when available.

3.4 Thermal desorption systems

A thermal desorption system is a non-oxidising process using heat to desorb oil from oily
wastes. Most thermal systems burn fuel to provide heat to volatilise the oil, but there are
some systems that use electric or electromagnetic energy for heat. Thermal desorption
systems are generally of two types: low temperature systems and high temperature
systems. The working temperature of low-temperature systems is usually 250 to 350°C,
while high temperature systems may employ temperatures up to 520°C. Low temperature
systems may be sufficient to treat wastes with light oils. High temperature systems will be

46 PTS 60.3005
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able to achieve lower final oil contents for wastes containing heavier oils

Thermal desorption of waste streams will produce various secondary waste streams:
solids, water condensate, oil condensate, and possibly an air stream from the condenser.
Each of these streams may require analysis to determine its characteristics so that the
best recycle/disposal option can be chosen. This is important if the original waste had
high salts or metals levels, or if there are no wastewater treatment facilities on site, since
additional treatment may be required to reduce the potential for environmental impact
from these streams. In the case of air emissions, analysis may suggest the need for air
control measures to capture certain constituents.


Solidification, stabilisation and encapsulation are often discussed together as they may be jointly
achieved by some processes. In general, these processes produce dry solids (either as a
monolith or a dry granular solid similar to coarse soil). Waste treated by these technologies are
stored and not destroyed. However, the concentrations or mobilities of constituents of concern in
the treated waste may be different from those in the original waste.

Cement-based and pozzolanic (e.g. fly ash) processes, as well as chemical stabilisation
processes, have been applied in the oil industry to solidify and/or stabilise waste. These
processes are especially effective for stabilisation of metals in the wastes because at the high pH
of the cement mixture, most metal compounds are converted into non-biologically available
insoluble metal hydroxides. However, high concentrations of organic compounds, salts and
bentonite have been shown to interfere with the curing process and therefore limit the application
of this treatment technique. Hydrocarbons and salts do not interact with the cement matrix and
are physically rather than chemically bound within the matrix.

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Surface discharge is one disposal option for aqueous waste streams. Factors to consider
include the sensitivity and capacity of the potential receiving environment, the concentration
of potentially harmful components in the waste and the volume of the discharge stream. The
capacity of the receiving environment to naturally absorb pollutants is a function of the
dilution potential and volume of the receiving water body. In this regard, the discharge of a
high volume, saline waste stream into a small creek may not be appropriate while discharge
of the same waste stream into a large water body may be acceptable.


Injection refers to the pumping of waste fluids or slurries down a well into suitable
underground formations for disposal. Injection may refer to the one time pumping of waste
down an annulus or to specially monitored wells which may receive fluids for many years.
Disposal wells are designed to provide an avenue, or wellbore, to transport liquids into
underground reservoirs in a manner that will not adversely affect the environment. The target
formation for disposal should be geologically and mechanically isolated from usable sources
of water. This formation will not contain commercial quantities of oil and gas.

Much liquid waste may be managed using an injection well. The highest volume fluid that
may be handled by E&P disposal injection wells is produced water. Other wastes suitable for
injection may include process water, blow down liquids, cooling water, dehydration and
sweetening waste liquids and waste drilling fluids.

As a management practice, injection (other than annular injection) is an expensive process

requiring extensive planning and control. In most cases, an injection well and system will
require considerable E&P activity in a particular area to justify the investment in drilling a well
or converting an existing producing wellbore to injection service. Other considerations

The injection volume required - the volumes of produced water and other liquid or solid
wastes to be injected should be determined. This will indicate the number of wells to be
drilled and connected to the injection system.

The nature of the formation - the formation to receive the waste should have sufficient
permeability, porosity, thickness and areal extent, and low reservoir pressure in order to
handle the forecast volume and injection rate on a long-term basis. The geology of some
areas may be unsuitable for injection due to the presence of extensive geological faults
resulting in reservoirs small in areal extent, formations that seal poorly around a well,
formations that tend to fracture to the surface, or formations with insufficient permeability or
close proximity to aquifers.

The mechanism for transportation of the waste to the injection well - a gathering system and
pumping facilities may be necessary or the transport could be via tank truck or other means.

Pre-treatment(s) necessary before injection - treatments necessary before injecting produced

water into a salt water disposal well may include oil removal, coagulation and sedimentation
to remove suspended solids, filtration, aeration, oxygen exclusion and removal, and bacteria
and mineral scale treatment. Solid waste may have to be ground and slurried prior to annular

48 PTS 60.3005
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2.1 Annular injection

Annular injection is a disposal method where pumpable wastes (usually reserve pit fluids)
are injected into the surface casing or production casing annulus (or other casing or
casing annulus). This practice should be managed so that the waste do not enter
underground sources of water.

Annular injection is usually a 'one-time' option and is not suitable for continuous disposal.
The reasons for this include the mechanical inability to clean the disposal zone of
accumulated debris and the threat of corrosion of the production casing string and the
interior of the surface pipe or other casing. If the surface pipe is breached by corrosion
during long term injection service, the injected fluids may enter usable water sources.

2.2 Down hole injection

Down hole disposal of waste mud and cuttings, both oil and water based, from both
onshore and offshore wells may be suitable. The principle and practice is the same as for
annular injection, described above, except that the liquid or slurried mud waste is
pumped down hole. Due to the large particle sizes, drill cuttings cannot be injected into
the down hole directly as they will quickly plug the receiving formation. The cuttings must
be broken up into small particles and slurried with mud or water before they can be
injected. Systems typically include a 'grinding' machine, pumps, recirculation lines, tanks
and shakers or desanders to remove large solids.


Landfills are generally specially constructed and monitored facilities designed to

accommodate the burial of large volumes of wastes. However, some landfills may be little
more than open dumps. A landfill may be constructed in a manner that makes it an
appropriate disposal site for certain toxic wastes. A key consideration in the operation of a
landfill site is the need to ensure long-term containment. Design considerations for a landfill
should, therefore, include:

An impermeable lining to contain the landfill contents. Liners may be constructed of clay,
plastic sheeting and/or multi-layer linings with integrated drainage systems

Monitoring boreholes or leachate collection systems to provide a means for regular inspection
of the effectiveness of the containment

Special provisions for disposal of liquid wastes, or prohibition of liquids disposal. If disposal of
liquids is permitted, the conditions should be controlled to prevent leaching. The landfill
design should include arrangements for the collection and treatment of leachate.

The operator should keep in mind that all landfills may not be constructed to the same
standards and that industrial wastes should only be disposed of in sites with the proper
design criteria and proper monitoring and maintenance programmes. Landfilled materials
should not be capable of reacting to generate excess heat or noxious gases. Special systems
may need to be installed to collect generated methane. The operator should remember that
landfilled wastes are not destroyed, but are actually in long-term storage. Disposal sites
should be operated either by the waste generator who will maintain responsibility for its own
waste or by a properly managed disposal facility.

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3.1 Burial

Due to its simplicity, burial of wastes in small pits at drilling and production sites have
been a popular means of waste disposal in the past. However, with current awareness of
pollutant migration pathways, the risks associated with burial of wastes should be
carefully considered. In general, wastes with high oil, salt, or biologically available metal
content, industrial chemicals, and other materials with harmful components that could
migrate from the pit to contaminate usable water resources should not be buried. Burial
may be the best method of disposal for inert unrecyclable materials. If a pit's contents
contain concentrations of constituents only slightly elevated above levels regulated for
disposal, then burial provides a simple mechanism to reduce concentrations in the waste,
via dilution with soil, as it is being disposed. This may often be the case for water-based
muds and cuttings. In dilution burial, the pit contents are mixed with soils from the pit and
surrounding areas until the pit contents meet specifications for burial, then the pit is
covered and the surface graded.

Burial is a logical choice for wastes that has been stabilised, since migration of the
constituents of the waste will be retarded by the stabilisation process. However, if there is
a reason for extra caution at a particular site (either because of the constituents in the
original waste, or because of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the site) then additional
barriers to migration such as barrier walls around the pit, liners around the pit contents, or
a cap to prevent vertical migration, could also be installed. Alternatively, and if available,
the waste could be sent to a properly managed facility designed to handle that type of

Consideration of factors such as the depth to groundwater, and the type of soil
surrounding the pit should be made before waste is buried. This ensures proper
protection of soil and water resources.

When burial and/or pit closure is complete, the area should be graded to prevent water
accumulation, and covered with native species of vegetation to reduce the potential for
erosion and promote full recovery of the area's ecosystem


The use of pits, earthen or lined, is an integral part of E&P waste management operations.
Historically, on-site pits have been used for the management of drilling solids, evaporation
and storage of produced water, management of workover/completion fluids and for
emergency containment of produced fluids.

In general, pits should be as small as possible and be strategically located to prevent spillage
of waste materials onto the drilling or production site. Pits should be lined unless site
characteristics ensure that there will be no significant threat to water resources. In areas
where it may be necessary to construct pits adjacent to water bodies or on sloping terrain,
special engineering precautions should be taken to ensure the integrity of the pit. Free
hydrocarbons should be removed from pits and returned to the production process for
recovery as soon as possible, and precautions should be taken to prevent pit disposal of
chemicals, refuse, debris or any other materials which were originally not intended to be
placed in pits. These materials can alter the nature of the bulk fluids in the pit and make
disposal more difficult.

Although pits are an accepted component of E&P operations, they could represent an
environmental liability if improperly managed. Pits should be for temporary use, and should
not be used for disposal of oil. Pits should be closed as soon as practicable and their closure
should follow the required or generally accepted practices of the region

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The following pages contain descriptions of some selected waste streams and discussion of
possible waste management options for these wastes. These descriptions are not intended to be
all-inclusive but give examples of potential options.

1. Atmospheric Emissions

This covers all power plant exhausts, flares, vents and gas leaks in drilling and oil and
gas processing activities.

This can include SOx, NOx, H2S, hydrocarbons, VOCs, particulates and PAHs.

Waste management options

Reduce Design and operate oil and gas exploration and production activities and
process equipment with controls and policies to minimise atmospheric

Maintain and run all power plants under optimal fuel efficient conditions,
when possible.

Reuse Where possible flare gas should be used as a fuel. Natural gas may also
be injected for reservoir maintenance, enhanced recovery or used in
artificial lift.

Recycle/ Exploit waste heat recovery opportunities where practically possible.


Treatment/ Excess produced gas may be injected or flared. Catalytic chambers,

scrubbers or strippers can be installed on exhaust stacks

Disposal Water injection into fuel combustion chambers may reduce NOx

2. Chemical waste

This includes any surplus or contaminated chemicals used in all stages of exploration
and production activities. It includes specific items such as batteries, transformers and
other items containing or contaminated with chemical products.

The concerns will depend on the composition and the associated safety and adverse
environmental considerations. These wastes may require specific segregation and
disposal techniques.

Waste management options

Reduce Wherever possible, planning and good housekeeping practices should

be employed to minimise surplus and contamination.

Substitution with longer life products and those with lower impacts should
be considered.

Reuse Surplus chemicals may be usable in other locations or returned to

51 PTS 60.3005
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vendors, if possible.

Materials such as cement, bentonite, lime, may have alternate use in

waste treatment, road construction, landfill site construction, etc.

Recycle/ Items such as lead acid batteries and wet nickel/ cadmium batteries
should be sent to recycling facilities if available.

Recover Certain chemical wastes may contain metals such as silver or mercury
which could be recovered.

Chemical solvents may be economically recovered or used in a fuel

blending programme.

Treatment/ Encapsulation/solidification by mixing with cement, lime or other binder

Disposal may be appropriate prior to disposal

Special landfill sites may be available which can accept certain kinds of
chemical waste. The possibility of leachate problems need to be

For some organic chemical wastes, incineration may be the preferred

treatment option.

For chemicals like PCBs, high temperature incineration is required to

destroy the compounds.

3. Contaminated soil from oil/ fuel spills

This may include soil, beach or shore materials arising from the leakage or spill of
hydrocarbons or fuels.

The impact will depend on the type of hydrocarbon and the location of the spill or leak.

Waste management options

Reduce Avoid spills and leakage by improved housekeeping, maintenance and

transport procedures.

Reuse N/A

Recycle/ Depending on the extent of the contamination, recovery of free liquids

Recover may be possible.

Treatment/ Land farming, land spreading and composting may be applicable if

Disposal conditions for biological degradation are favourable. Enhancement
techniques could be considered. Incineration, landfill and burial options
may be limited by availability and the quantity/nature of the contaminated

Stabilisation techniques may be applicable prior to disposal.

4. Drilling pit waste

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Drilling pit wastes usually contain both solid and liquid components. Constituents of
environmental concern include salt, hydrocarbons, pH, drilling chemicals and biologically
available heavy metals. These constituents have the possibility of impacting soil and
water quality.

Waste management options

Reduce The volume of drilling pit wastes may be reduced by judicious use of rig
wash water, by releasing water that does not contain hydrocarbons or
high salinity from the pit, by avoiding the collection of rainwater run-off in
the pit or by reusing the water in the drilling fluid.

Drilling waste volume may be minimised by the use of a closed loop mud

Reuse Solids may be applicable for the lining or capping of landfill sites, or as a
road construction material.

Recycle/ Recovered weighting materials and drilling fluids may be recycled into
Recover the drilling fluid of the same or different well. Commercial mud plants
may take used drilling fluids for recycle.

Treatment / Options for the disposal of aqueous drilling pit wastes include surface
Disposal discharge and injection. Before the aqueous phase can be surface
discharged, it should be treated to remove hydrocarbons and excess
suspended solids and to adjust the pH to within the acceptable range.
The dissolved salt and biologically available metal content must be at a
level which will not cause an adverse impact on the receiving
environment. Liquids which cannot be treated to a standard suitable for
surface discharge may have to be injected.

The options for management of solid drilling pit wastes include burial in
the pit; land farming, land spreading or composting to reduce organic
content; thermal treatments to recover or destroy organics; injection; and
stabilisation or solidification.

5. Drums/ Containers

Metal and plastic containers are used for a wide range of lubricants and chemicals used
throughout the industry. The accumulation and disposal of these can be problematic.
Drums and containers inevitably contain variable quantities of residues. The impact
arises from both the volume and presence of residues.

Waste management options

Reduce Bulk transport and storage should be considered for high volume
consumption items.

Reuse Certain containers can be refilled from bulk storage and reused. Where
possible, non-refillable containers should be returned to the vendor for
reuse, or to a company specialising in container refurbishment. Drums
and containers can be used for the transportation of suitable wastes
provided safety considerations are not compromised.

Recycle/ Both metal and certain plastic drums and containers may be recycled if

53 PTS 60.3005
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Recover outlets are available. However, this may require that they be cleaned of
any residues beforehand.

Treatment/ Drums should be crushed prior to landfill. The nature of any residues
Disposal may restrict this option or require pre-cleaning. Incineration may be
applicable to plastic containers, but incinerators may need to be
equipped with air pollution control devices.

6. Garbage inert solid waste

This includes wood, plastics, paper, food waste, general garbage and inert construction
and maintenance materials.

The environmental impact may arise from the encouragement of vermin by food wastes,
production of gases by biodegradable materials and leachates where other site materials
such as chemical residues have been mixed in with the waste.

Waste management options

Reduce Packaging wastes such as paper and plastic can be reduced by the use
of bulk handling systems or 'big bags'.

Segregation of components such as wood, plastic and paper, for

recycling or reuse will reduce the quantity for disposal.

Reuse Where the inert waste consists totally of construction material, it may be
usable as infill.

Recycle/ Materials such as wood, paper and metals may be segregated for
Recover recycling. General garbage is frequently incinerated and some
incinerators are fitted with heat recovery.

Treatment/ Landfill is the most common disposal method employed. Local conditions
Disposal may limit this option. Burial of these wastes may be an option when a
suitable landfill is not available.

Incineration using fixed or mobile facilities will greatly reduce the waste
volume for landfill.

Techniques such as composting may be used to reduce the volume of

domestic waste through biodegradation.

7. Pit, tank and vessel bottom wastes

This waste consists of water, accumulated hydrocarbons, solids, sand and emulsions
which collect in the lower sections of slop oil tanks, crude oil stock tanks, closed water
drain tanks, open water drain tanks and other storage and separation vessels as well as
in produced water storage or emergency pits.

Constituents of these wastes that may impact on the selection of waste management and
disposal methods include hydrocarbons, salts, metals, production chemicals and
occasionally NORM. Possible environmental impacts will depend on the concentrations
of these constituents and the waste management option(s) chosen.

54 PTS 60.3005
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Waste management options

Reduce Improved housekeeping procedures may reduce the volume of solids

collected in drainage water storage tanks. The waste volume may be
reduced through evaporation or dewatering.

Reuse Suitable wastes may be mixed with absorbent material (e.g. lime) and
applied as road surfacing material, or mixed with aggregate in an asphalt
batch process.

Recycle/ Sludges containing significant oil may be reclaimed either onsite or offsite
Recover for the removal and recovery of hydrocarbons.

Treatment/ These sludges may be landfilled, if dry. These sludges may be

Disposal landspread or land farmed. Consideration will have to be made for the
biodegradability of the organics, availability of land, loading rates, and
possibility of ground or surface water contamination. These sludges may
be incinerated, with proper pollution control devices in place.

8. Process drainage waste system

The process facility drainage system wastes will include washdown water, boiler and
cooling water blow downs, leaks and spills. The hazards will depend on the nature of the
sources. As with surface water drainage, physical effects such as erosion and
temperature may be considerations.

Waste management options

Reduce A leak minimisation strategy should form an integral part of facility design
and maintenance procedures. All fuel, hydrocarbon and hazardous
chemical storage areas should be sufficiently bunded. Drip pans should
be used where needed.

Spill clean-up procedures should be developed.

Reuse Process water may be reused for activities requiring lower water quality
(e.g. rig washing or flare suppression).

Recycle/ N/A

Treatment/ See rainwater drainage


9. Produced water

Originating from oil and gas production/processing, produced water will contain variable
quantities of mineral salts, solids, suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons, and other
organic and inorganic components, and may be at high temperature. The composition
may change with time. It may require pre-treatment prior to disposal.

The environmental impact will be highly dependent on the quantities involved, the
components, the receiving environment and dispersion characteristics.

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Before significant or long-term discharge of produced water to the environment is carried
out, an environmental impact study should be conducted.

Waste management options

Reduce Water shut off treatments, re-perforation.

Reuse Re-injection for reservoir pressure maintenance or secondary recovery

of oil. The quality may allow for the use of agricultural purposes or reuse
as wash water.

Recycle/ Heat content. Desalination.


Treatment/ Surface discharge into the environment may be possible depending on

Disposal the water quality, volume and flow. Primary treatment such as de-oiling
will often be required.

Bio-treatment may be practical for low volumes.

Downhole injection to suitable formations other than the producing

formation may be possible. However, the possibility of contaminating
usable water aquifers must be taken into account.

Evaporation and subsequent disposal of salts may be possible.

10. Rainwater drainage

This will come from all areas of the site/facilities. Surface drainage will be susceptible to
contamination from spills, leakage and leaching. The environmental impact will depend
on such contamination along with physical considerations such as erosion.

Waste management options

Reduce Contamination of the surface drainage water should be avoided as this

will be considerably easier than any subsequent treatment. Thought
should be given to the segregation of drainage from liquid storage,
loading/unloading facilities, and operations areas from unimpacted areas
of the site.

Reuse Collected rainwater could be reused for agricultural purposes if quality

permits or could be used for activities requiring lower water quality such
as washing or flare suppression.

Recycle/ N/A

Treatment/ Surface disposal may be governed by contamination. The provision of a

Disposal site drainage system with an oil/solids interceptor should be considered.
Any surface disposal option should be capable of taking the drainage
volumes without causing damage by erosion or flooding, which would not
otherwise occur.

Drainage water with a high organic content may be treated in biological

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water treatment systems to remove organics prior to discharge.

11. Sanitary waste

This covers all sewage and foul drainage. The impact will be associated with the BOD,
Coliform bacteria and treatment chemicals.

In Malaysia, several regulatory requirements and guidelines for waste handling are
specified. (Ref. 4, 5,6 & 7). In other countries, PETRONAS shall apply the local
regulatory requirements or the Malaysian regulatory requirements whichever is the higher

In the Environmental Quality (Hazardous wastes) Regulations 2005 of Malaysia, specific

legal requirements relating to the hazardous wastes aspects have been described and
the key requirements are listed below:-

Notification of the generation of waste to the authorities

Disposal and treatment of hazardous wastes at licensed premises.
Responsibility of the waste generator.
Storage of hazardous wastes.
Waste generator shall keep an inventory of hazardous wastes
Information to be provided by waste generator, contractor and occupier of
prescribed premises.
Hazardous wastes transported outside waste generator‟s premises to be
accompanied by information.
Dewater process before delivery to KA

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