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Abu Dhabi Mosque Development Regulations

Interim Design Guidelines & Standards


2.0 INTERIM GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FOR Mosque. It defines some development Guidelines and Four factors are the generators of the new ADM Models:
MOSQUES Standards for all Mosques in the Emirate at both local and 1. Landuse;
urban levels. The AD Mosque Models are coded as follows: 2. Urban Scale;
2.1 ABU DHABI MOSQUE [ADM] MODELS: 3. Population and Physical Density and
1. RES [Residential] 4. Urban Fabric Pattern and Morphology.
DEFINITION & DISTRIBUTION
2.1.1 ALLOCATIONAL CRITERIA 2. MIX [Mixed Use]
The Models are defined by specific existing urban
3. B.I.C. [Business, Industrial & Commercial]
conditions and their potential corresponding development
Table [2.1] is a matrix that suggests 4 Models for the AD 4. AGR [Agricultural] and planning requirements. In essence, they reflect the

ABU DHABI MOSQUE MODELS MATRIX


URBAN CONDITIONS R E Q U I R E M E N T S
MOSQUE CAPACITY GROSS FLOOR AREA RADIUS OF CATCHMENT AREA [Meters] as a PARKING
[Worshippers] G.F.A. [Sq. Meter] function of DEVELOPMENT'S FABRIC STRUCTURE
MOSQUE MODEL

DENSITY Minimum REQUIRMENT for UNDERGROUND


OFF-STREET PARKING PARKING
*worshippers no. *Each worshipper is SPACES as PERCENTAGE of
CODE

1. RES & AGR: GENERAL


SPARSE LATTICE or

ALLOWED [A]
ADMINISTRATIVE =25% of general allocated a GFA area MOSQUE CAPACITY

REQUIRED [R]
LANDUSE TYPE POPULATION DENSITY Orthogonal/ Radial
LEVEL population assuming of [1.5-1.7] Sq.M. POLYCENTRIC TREE-
[Person/Gross Hectare]; GRID or DENSE
100% Muslim STRUCTURE
DEVELOPMENT [*Adjacent Public Parking
community DEVELOPMENT
2. MIX & BIC: HEIGHT [M] Facilities qualify to cover
*Industrial: G.F.A. will be partial parking requirements]
expanded later *refer to Figure 2.1.3A *refer to Figure 2.1.3B

LOCAL COMMUNITY Low Pop.[<70] < 500 500-800 m2 350-500 m 350-700 m 15% A
[Local Cluster or
Medium Pop. [70-200] 500-2,500 800-3,500 m2 250-500 m ≤500 m 10% R
Block Scale ] *refer to
Figures 2.1.1A &
High Pop. [>200] >2,500 3,500-6,000 m2 250-350 m ≤500 m 10% R
RES

2.1.2A
RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD [3-
8 Communities]
Low Pop.[<70] 1,500-4,000 2,000-5,000 m2 700-1,000 m ≤1,200 m 20% A

[Super Block Scale] Medium Pop. [70-200] 4,100-20,000 5,000-25,000 m2 500-700 m ≤1,000 m 15% R
*refer to Figures
2.1.1B & 2.1.2B High Pop. [>200] >20,000 >25,000 m2 500-700 m ≤700 m 15% R

LOCAL Low Height ≤30m ≤1,000 700-1,500 m2 350-500 m 700 m 15% A

[Block Scale] High Height >30m >1,000 2,000-5,000 m2 250-350 m 250-350 m 10% R
MIX

MIXED USE
URBAN Low Height ≤30m ≤3,000 5,000 m2 700-1,200 m 700-1,200 m 20% R

[Super Block Scale] High Height >30m >3,000 7,000 m2 500-700 m 500-700 m 15% R
BUSINESS, LOCAL Low Height ≤30m ≤500 500 m2 ≤350-700 m 10% A
B.I.C

*INDUSTRIAL &
COMMERCIAL [Block Scale] High Height >30m >500 1,000 m2 200-350 m 10% R

LOCAL Low Pop.[≤40] ≤500 500 m2 ≤2,000 m 20% A


AGR

AGRICULTURAL
[Block Scale] High Pop. [>41] >500 2,000 m2 350-700 m 15% A
9
Table [2.1] AD MOSQUE MODELS MATRIX: URBAN CONDITIONS AND CAPACITY, G.F.A., RADIUS OF CATCHMENT AREA AND PARKING REQUIREMENTS
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Abu Dhabi Mosque Development Regulations


Interim Design Guidelines & Standards
variation throughout the AD Emirate in: a. Worshippers’
profile and need based on his/her location [being at home, Local Street Network
office or farm for instance], expected frequency of use Main Arterial Street
[weekday vs. whole week, daily prayer vs. Fridays ] and Local Community Boundary: The
mode of transportation [commuting by foot or vehicle]; Local Block
b. Congregational size and c. Physical conditions and Zone of High Accessibility and
development scale. 1 2 3 Connectivity
Public Communal Facilities
The matrix of models is split into two parts: Urban
Public Neighborhood Facilties
Conditions and their corresponding Requirements.
The Urban conditions include 1. Landuse Type, 2. Local Community Mosque
R
Administrative Level and 3. Density. The Requirements Neighborhood Mosque
part describes the development and planning guidelines
for: 1. Estimating Mosque Capacity of worshippers, 2. Local Catchment Area of Radius R
6 5 4
Defining Gross Floor Area [building area], 3. Radius of Neighborhood Catchment Area of
Catchment Area [service area included that defines broadly FIGURE 2.1.1A PROCESS OF DISTRIBUTING A LOCAL MOSQUE TO A LOCAL COMMUNITY BASED ON GLOBAL Radius R
the range of walking or driving distance from base to the CENTRALITY & ACCESSIBILITY MEASURES AS WELL AS PROXIMITY TO PUBLIC COMMUNITY FACILITIES
closest accessible mosque both at the local scale and the
urban large scale] and finally 4. Parking Requirements.
R
Landuse is categorized into 4 types based on similarity of
use: 1. Residential; 2. Mixed Use; 3. Business, Industrial &
Commercial and 4. Agricultural. They vary in their user’s
profile, convenience and need, expected frequency of use
and commuting mode. 1 2 3 4 5

Administrative level defines the Scale of the development FIGURE 2.1.1B PROCESS OF DISTRIBUTING A MOSQUE TO A NEIGHBORHOOD COMPRISING OF 4 LOCAL COMMUNITIES STRATEGICALLY AT
THE CENTRAL COMMON FACILITIES OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD OR ON THE MAIN ARTERIAL SURROUNDING STREET
unit and the corresponding size of congregation.
Residential and Mixed use users tend to have higher needs
based on frequency of use: probably 5 prayers/day in
addition to Friday’s mass congregation. Local Community Mosque
Neighborhood Mosque
Hence, two scales of Mosques should be provided Local Community Catchment
for Residential and Mixed Use areas: 1. One at the Area
Local Community/ Block scale with close proximity Neighborhood Catchment
[“convenient” walking distance as per Estidama measures] Area
and low congregational scale [FIGURE 2.1.2A] and 2. at Public Community Facilties
the Neighborhood/Urban or super block scale [FIGURE Public Neighborhood
2.1.2B] . Both scales of mosques work as daily as well as Facilities
Friday mosques for locals; yet the larger one is expected Public Park
to provide a service for a larger catchment area: one 9 FIGURE 2.1.2A AN EMIRATI RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY FIGURE 2.1.2B AN EMIRATI RESIDENTIAL
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accommodating WITH VARIOUS POPULATION DENSITIES NEIGHBORHOOD WITH VARIOUS POPULATION DENSITIES
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Abu Dhabi Mosque Development Regulations
Interim Design Guidelines & Standards
demand as well as accommodating outsiders and passing- the built environment, complexity of street network and its model.
by worshippers. Hence, the neighborhood Mosque should accessibility and connectivity level, etc.
be located at a strategic location, i.e., highly accessible, All aforementioned factors represent the specificity of In fact, the 5 minutes walking distance is commonly
legible and close to the public transit system. Note that Abu Dhabi: its Land and People. Hence the proposed “R”s, understood as the equivalent to a circle of radius 350m
a neighborhood is considered a cluster of [3-8] local though complex, yet comes from within. As these factors which represents the pedestrian walking distance. It
communities [FIGURE 2.1.1B]. The max. 8 figure is set as interact in reality generating multiple conditions, the “T” was found that this Radial distance is theoretical and can
per the description of the modern “Fareej” mimicking the as time parameter differs accordingly and is not suppose rarely be achieved in reality within AD urban and rural
indigenous and traditional Emirati neighborhood settlement to be a priori [set as 5 minutes]. Hence the proposed “R” areas due to the structure of the network pattern that is
described in AD 2030 Framework. [radius of catchment area], which in turn is a function of predominantly either grid or of a tree-structure but not
“T”, is a variable as well with reasonable adaptive ranges. concentric or radial [CBD is an exception and the radial
A district scale mosque is not included in the matrix as it’s Based on the matrix, the range of “R” is between [250m- structure applies to the overall configuration; within
assumed that an Eid open arena satisfies such urban scale. 700m] for all models at the local level excluding AGR a local block it is a typical lattice or grid ]. A Radius of
The other two landuses : B.I.C. & AGR are similar in terms
of administrative scale needs as they don’t require large
scale congregations; one is due to the limited time frame
of presence [at B.I.C. it is limited to working hours, lunch
breaks and generally no Friday prayers ] and the other
is due to the overall sparsity of physical population in
farmland. Generally, local or block scale Mosque should be
sufficient to BIC and AGR models unless an emergent need
on ground necessitates otherwise.

Walking is the Prime Mode of Transportation that is


considered in devising guidelines for: 1. Setting acceptable
commuting distances, in addition to 2. Distribution and 1 2 3
allocation criteria of mosques and their corresponding
Figure [2.1.3A] Examples on Urban Morphology and Fabric Structure of AD: 1. Orthogonal Grid, 2. Patches of Grid, 3. Dense Structure
service area coverage at the Local level; they apply for all
the four Models in the AD Mosque matrix. It is a green
measure not only for the environment but above all for Local Community Mosque
the health and well-being of the individual as well as the Neighborhood Mosque
society. Local Community Catchment
Area

However, a slight revision to the standard “5 minutes


walking distance” as set by Estidama and AD 2030
Framework, is hereby proposed. The concept of
“Convenient Walking Distance” is rather adopted.
Convenience and comfort walking distance differ based
on multiple factors as: location, occupation, user’s
profile [age, gender, health, etc.], allowance of time 1 1 2
[as limited lunch breaks], day/ night time, frequency of
praying, walkability of pathways, nature of surroundings, 9 Figure [2.1.3B] Examples on Urban Morphology and Fabric Structure of AD: 1. Sparse Finger-shaped Suburban Development 2. PolyCentric
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environment
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Abu Dhabi Mosque Development Regulations


Interim Design Guidelines & Standards
350 meters circular catchment area is in reality for a
worshipper walking to the mosque from the middle or the
periphery ring, is equivalent to actual walking distance
of 550-850 meters [i.e. it is about 1.5-2.5 times the r R
radial distance], due to the meandering pathways the
worshipper has to follow to get to his destination. Note
that the recommended 250m in dense urban settings is
the approximate maximum equivalent distance for the ideal
5 minutes walking distance for any worshipper living on
the periphery of the catchment service area.
1 3
Density is the last important urban condition that describes
the Population and Physical Urban Qualities. RES model
Density is measured by population; whereas the other 1
three models are measured in terms of density of physical
structures and it is expressed as a function of height or t T
allowed number of storeys and/ or GFA [which applies to
Industrial zones].

Due to the importance of density as an urban condition


and its wide range of measures, population density at the
residential zones is critically classified into three levels
with corresponding range for each: Low, Medium, and
High density; as per the AD 2030 framework residential 2 4
density criteria. For the rest of the 3 landuses the scale of Figure [2.1.4] Transformation From Circular Buffer Zone Representation to Actual
physical density is gauged and set to two levels: Low and Irregular Shape of a Catchment Area Based on Equivalent Time and Street Network
High. In fact the original middle range densities as per the Configuration [its Accessibility and Walkability]; in addition to Comparison between
two different “R”s applied to the same Area and Network: 1. Circular Buffer, Small
AD 2030 framework were compressed with the high ones.
R, 2. Actual Catchment Area, Limited Equiv. Time, 3. Circular Buffer, Large R, 2.
In other words an area with allowed minimum height of Actual Catchment Area, Long Equiv. Time
equal or above 10 storeys is considered in this definition a
high level physical population density; anything below 10 Local Street Network Local Catchment Area of
Radius R 2
storeys is considered low. [*GFA study will be provided later] Main Arterial Street Figure [2.1.5] CATCHMENT AREA REPRESENTATION OF A N
NEIGHBOR
NEIGHBOR-
EIGHBOR
HOOD WITH VARIOUS SCALES OF RADIUS AND TIME: 1. CIRCULAR
Local Catchment Area of
Local Community Mosque BUFFERS WITH VARIOUS SCALES OF “R”, 2. ACTUAL CATCHMENT AREA
When developing an area or simply designing a mosque, Radius r
AND WALKING DISTANCES WITH VARIOUS “t” [Limited Time Frame]
certain planning requirements have to be met. The Local Catchment Area AND “T” [longer Time Frame]
requirements are generally classified under 4 categories:
2. Gross Floor Area assuming each worshipper is settlements which are usually predominant at urban
1. Mosque Capacity of Worshippers [Based on two designated a GFA of [1.5-1.7] sq.m.; developed centers [FIGURE 2.1.3A], b. Sparse Lattice
assumptions: a. Number of worshippers is 25% of 3. Radius of Catchment Area or the inscribed coverage or Polycentric Tree structure which are more common
general Muslim population, b. The community is of service area are function of the development at fringes: the suburbs and villages [FIGURE 2.1.3B].
100% Muslim]; different census requires percentage 9 fabric structure which is classified into two types: As explained earlier the notion of convenient walking
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adjustments; a. Orthogonal/Radial Grid structure and/or Dense distance or even driving distance are the generators
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Abu Dhabi Mosque Development Regulations
Interim Design Guidelines & Standards
and the basic formulas for setting the allowable range 4. Parking Requirements are tabulated into two
of “R” as radius of catchment area. The radius of the categories: a. Minimum requirements for Off- Street
circle does not, by any mean, specify the location of Parking Spaces and it is expressed as a percentage *2.1.3 COMPLEX DISTRIBUTION: ALLOCATIONAL AND
the mosque as being at the exact center of the circular of Mosque capacity, b. Underground Parking Status LOCATIONAL CRITERIA COMBINED: EXAMPLES AND
buffer [FIGURE 2.1.1A]. In fact, “R” is an approximate being allowed or required. The baseline percentage APPLICATIONS
device of geometry that: for Off-Street parking is 10% [as per D.o.T.], yet it
• Defines the Equivalent Walking Distance Time is adjusted for higher capacities with an increment
[FIGURE 2.1.4]. When planning a new development of 5%. However, the logic of variation in parking * 2.1.2 & 2.1.3 Sections are still in progress and will
area, the applicant should cross-check the existing percentages is based on 3 urban factors: a. Variation in be developed and presented later in the forthcoming
urban conditions on the ground and as per public radius of catchment area [i.e. convenience of walking submission.
planning documents; accordingly determine the to the closest Mosque]; b. Scale: Urban vs. Local and
equivalent required range of catchment area radius. c. Landuse types as they defer in users profile and
“R” for each Mosque Model and its subcategories is behavior.
a radial metric distance. It is then converted into “T”
Time coefficient based on human speed; however, Generally, the development requirements were set so as to
it should be further refined taking closely into meet some upper level goals which include:
account other physical variables mentioned earlier, • To satisfy the users worshipping needs and
as walkability of the environment for instance, so convenience;
as to rationalize the best-fit “R” from the available • To minimize commuting distances and dependency on
range. “T” is used thereafter to generate the Actual vehicles;
Walking Distance Irregular- Spline boundary using • To encourage congregational worshipping and
the GIS datasets and mapping tools. The generated frequency of use of Mosques, thus, attendance;
irregular shape is a realistic representation of the • To support the social sense of community and
traversed distances from all the included bases/ neighborhood and strengthening internal society
generators [as houses, offices, shops, etc.] to the relationship and affinity by supporting the frequency
target hub and destination [mosque] based on the of social and serendipitous encounters and finally
Actual Network Configuration Pattern, Walkability • To promote multi-use functions, in addition to praying
weighted measure and Time frame [FIGURE 2.1.5]. as socializing, entertainment and maybe running
Hence, catchment area coverage is revised based errands as shopping for instance, by recommending
on actual GIS mapping technologies. Note that the positive proximity to other public communal facilities.
location of the mosque within the irregular shape
is determined by other local factors as accessibility *2.1.2 LOCATIONAL CRITERIA
and connectivity and positive adjacency that are
fully explained in the forthcoming section [2.1.2]; • Local and Global Centrality Measure
• Defines the inscribed boundaries of the service • Accessibility Measure
coverage area [FIGURE 2.1.5]; hence informing the • Connectivity and Interconnectivity
Demand- Supply & Gap analysis used in the MDSS • Intelligibility Measure
tool for assessment of existing conditions and/ or • Positive Adjacency and Relationship to other Public
planning new settlements and allocating their public Facilities [FIGURE 2.1.1A, FIGURE 2.1.1B]
facilities such as mosques;
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Abu Dhabi Mosque Guidelines and Standards

LOCAL COMMUNITY MOSQUE


NEIGHBORHOOD MOSQUE

AL REEM ISLAND:
AD ISLAND: AD ISLAND: RESIDENTIAL + MEDIUM- HIGH DENSITY+ ORGANIC
MIXED USE- RETAIL + MEDIUM DENSITY+ GRID IRON MIXED USE- RETAIL+ MEDIUM DENSITY+ GRID IRON STRUCTURE
Abu Dhabi Mosque Guidelines and Standards

LOCAL COMMUNITY MOSQUE


NEIGHBORHOOD MOSQUE

AD ISLAND: AD ISLAND: AD ISLAND:


RESIDENTIAL + LOW DENSITY+ GRID IRON RESIDENTIAL + MEDIUM DENSITY+ GRID IRON PALACE + LOW DENSITY+ GRID IRON

Abu Dhabi Mosque Guidelines and Standards

LOCAL COMMUNITY MOSQUE


NEIGHBORHOOD MOSQUE

KHALIFA-A CITY: MUSAFFAH INDUSTRIAL AREA: MBZ CITY:


RESIDENTIAL + LOW DENSITY+ GRID IRON LIGHT INDUSTRIAL + LOW DENSITY+ GRID IRON RESIDENTIAL + LOW DENSITY+ DEFORMED GRID
Abu Dhabi Mosque Guidelines and Standards

LOCAL COMMUNITY MOSQUE


NEIGHBORHOOD MOSQUE

AL SHAHAMA & AL RAHBA FARMS: EAST AL SHAMKHA MASTER PLAN??: AL BAHIA:


RESIDENTIAL + LOW- MEDIUM DENSITY+ DEFORMED RESIDENTIAL + MEDIUM DENSITY+ ORGANIC STRUC- RESIDENTIAL + LOW DENSITY+ DEFORMED GRID
TURE

Abu Dhabi Mosque Guidelines and Standards

LOCAL COMMUNITY MOSQUE


NEIGHBORHOOD MOSQUE

DELMA ISLAND:
LIWA: LIWA: RESIDENTIAL / MIXED USE + LOW - MEDIUM DENSITY+
RESIDENTIAL + LOW- MEDIUM DENSITY+ ORGANIC RESIDENTIAL + LOW- MEDIUM DENSITY+ ORGANIC DEFORMED GRID
Abu Dhabi Mosque Guidelines and Standards

LOCAL COMMUNITY MOSQUE


NEIGHBORHOOD MOSQUE

AL KHAZNAH & REMAH FARMS:


AL AIN: AL AIN: RESIDENTIAL / MIXED USE + LOW - MEDIUM DENSITY+
MISCELLANEOUS + MEDIUM-HIGH DENSITY+ GRID RESIDENTIAL + LOW- MEDIUM DENSITY+ ORGANIC DEFORMED GRID