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Metric_1801-1886 3/1/06 10:29 Page 1814

’Technical Data»
Excerpt from JIS B 2704(1999)
Spring Calculations

1. Calculations 1.3.3 Stress Correction Factor Fig. 3: Initial Stress:τ i (Spring formed from steel coil, not low-temperature annealed)
1.1 Quantities Used in Spring Design Formulae 1.2 Basic Formulae for Designing Springs The stress correction factor relative to the spring index (c) can be
determined using the following formula or based on Fig. 1. 200 (20)
Symbols used in Spring design formulae are shown in Table 1. 1.2.1 Compression springs, and tension springs without initial tension 4 c -1 0.615 (18)
◊= + EEEEEEEEEEEE( 9 ) 180
8N a D3P 4 c -4 c 160 (16)
Table 1. Meaning of Symbols Î= EEEE( 1 ) Í = ◊Í0 EEEEEEEE( 5 )

τ i Initial Stress
Gd 4 140 (14)
Fig. 1: Stress Correction Factor:◊ 120 (12) τi
Symbol Meaning of Symbols Unit P Gd 4 8 DP 8 ◊DP (10) (kgf/mm 2 )
k = = EEE( 2 ) d =3 =3 EE( 6 ) 1.6 100
Î 8N a D3 QÍ0 QÍ 80 ( 8)
d Diameter of Material mm (6)
8 DP Gd 4Î Gd 4 1.5 60

◊Stress Correction Factor

Í0= EEEEE( 3 ) N a= = EEEE( 7 ) 40 (4)
D1 Inner Diameter of a Coil mm Qd3 8D 3 P 8D 3 k N/ mm2 (2)
1.4 20
GdÎ PÎ kÎ 2 0 (0)
D2 Outer Diameter of a Coil mm Í0= EEEE( 4 ) U = = EEEEE( 8 ) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
QN a D 2 2 2 1.3
D1+D2 D
D Coil Mean Diameter=
mm Spring Index c =
1.2.2 Tension Springs with Initial Tension (P>Pi) 1.2 d
Nt Total Number of Coils - (1) When using stainless steel wire, decrease the initial stress value for steel wire by 15%.
8N a D 3 ( P-P i ) 1.1
Î= E( 1V
) Í = ◊Í0 EEEEEEEE( 5V
) (2) If the spring is low-temperature annealed after being formed, decrease the value by 20-35%
Na Number of Active Coils - Gd 4 for springs made of piano wire, hard steel wire, or other steel wires, and by 15-25% for
P-P i Gd 4 8DP 8◊DP 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 springs made of stainless steel wire.
L Free Height(Length) mm k = = E( 2V
) d =3 =3 EE( 6V
Î 8N a D 3 QÍ0 QÍ Spring Index c =
d Note: In place of Figure 3, the following empirical formula can be used to
Hs Solid Length mm 8DP Gd 4 Gd 4 Î establish the initial stress for springs before low-temperature annealing.
) N a= = E( 7V
1.3.4 Solid Height
Qd 3 8 D3 k 8D 3 ( P-P i ) G
p Pitch mm The solid height of a spring can normally be obtained using the following simplified formula. τ i=
GdÎ ( P+P i ) Î 100 c
Í0= + Íi EE( 4V
) U = EEEEE( 8V ) Generally, the purchaser of a compression spring does not specify the solid height of the spring.
Pi Initial Tension N{kgf} QN a D 2 2
Shown below are examples of applications of this formula to obtain the initial tension.
D H s=( N t -1) d +( t 1+t 2 )EEEEEEEEEEEEE(10) (1) Piano Wire / Hard Steel Wire ’G=78M10 3N/mm2 {8M10 3 kgf/mm2 }»
c Spring Index c= -
d where(t1 + t2)is the sum of the thicknesses of the coil ends. G
Initial Stress τ i= M0.75(0.75 by 25% reduction by low-temperature annealing.)
G Shear Modulus of Elasticity N/mm 2 {kgf/mm 2 } 1.3 Points to Note When Designing Springs 100 c
As for those compression springs, both ends of which are shaped as shown πd3 Gd 4 229 d 4 24 d 4
1.3.1 Shear Modulus of Elasticity Shear moduli of elasticity (G) listed in Table 2 are in (b), (c), (e) or (f) of Figure 2 and for which the solid height needs to be Initial Tension P i= τ i= M0.75 = 2
P Load on Spring N{kgf} 8D 255 D 2 D D2
recommended for the designing of springs. established, the following formula can be used to obtain the maximum solid (2) Stainless Steel Wire ’G=69M10 3 N/mm2 {7M10 3 kgf/mm2 }»
Spring Deflection mm height. However, the actual maximum solid height can be greater than the
Table 2. Shear modulus of elasticity(G) G
value thus calculated depending on the shape of the spring in question. Initial Stress τ i= M0.8(0.8 by 20% reduction by low-temperature annealing.)
100 c
k Spring Constant N/mm{kgf/mm} Material G Value N/E(kgf/E) Code H s=N t Md max EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE(11) πd3 Gd 4 216 d 4 22 d 4
where d max is the material diameter with the maximum tolerance. Initial Tension P i= τ i= M0.8 = 2
τ Torsional Stress N/mm 2 {kgf/mm 2 } 8D 255 D 2 D D2
Spring Steel SUP6, 7, 9, 9A, 10,
78M10 3 {8M10 3 }
τ Corrected Torsional Stress N/mm 2 {kgf/mm 2 } 11A, 12, 13 1.3.6 Surging
τ i Initial Stress N/mm 2 {kgf/mm 2 } Hard Steel Wire 78M10 3 {8M10 3 } SW-B, SW-C Fig. 2: Coil End Shape In order to prevent surging, the spring selected should be such that its natural frequency
does not resonate with any of the external frequencies that may act upon the spring.The
Piano Wire 78M10 3 {8M10 3 } SWP (a) (Non-Ground)
Closed End (b) (Ground)
Closed End natural frequency of a spring can be obtained using the following formula.
Stress Correction Factor -

f Frequency Hz SWO, SWO-V, SWOC-V, f =a

70 d G
Oil Tempered Steel Wire 78M10 3 {8M10 3 } W π N aD 2 ω
U Spring-Retained NCmm{kgfCmm} when both spring ends are either free or fixed: a=
SUS 302 Stainless Steel (c) (Tapered) 2
Closed End (d) Open End(Non-Ground)
N/mm 3 {kgf/mm 3 } 2 i-1
Per Unit Volume Material Weight a= :when one spring end is fixed while the other end is free i=1,2,3 E
304 Stainless Steel 304 Stainless Steel 4
W Weight of Moving Parts N{kgf} 69M10 3 {7M10 3 } On steel wire:
Stainless Steel Wire S30451 S30451 G = 78M103N/mm2 {8M103kgf/mm2},
g Gravitational Acceleration (1) mm/s 2 (e) (Ground)
Open End (f) (Tapered)
Open End w= 76.93M10-6N/mm3 {7.85M10-6kgf/mm3}
316 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel If both spring ends are either free or fixed, the natural primary frequency of
Note:(1)In spring calculations, a gravitational acceleration of 9806.65 mm/s is used. a spring can be obtained as follows.
631 Stainless Steel 74M10 3 {7.5M10 3 } 631 Stainless Steel
(g) (h) Tangent Tail End(Non-Ground)
Open End with a 3/4 Turn(Non-Ground) N aD 2
1.3.2 Number of Active Coils The number of active spring coils
can be determined as follows.
(1) Compression Springs 1.3.7 Other Points to Note

In spring design calculations, the following points should also be taken into account.
N a=N t-(X 1+X 2)
Where X1 and X2 are the number of turns at each end of the coil. (i) (Non-Ground)
Pig Tail End (1) Spring Index Excessive local stress can result from too small a spring index.
d P D1 (a)When only the end of the coil is in contact with the next free coil Processibility is compromised if the spring index is too great or small. The spring index
should be selected from the range of 4 - 15 when hot forming, and from the range of 4 -
L D ’corresponding to (a) - (c) in Fig. 2»
22 when cold forming.
X1=X2= 1
Note:L=NaCP+1.5d therefore N a=N t-2 (2) Slenderness Ratio In order to ensure the correct number of active coils, the slenderness ratio
(b)When the end of the coil is not in contact with the next coil, and the
1.3.5 Initial Tension of Tension Springs for a compression spring (ratio of free height to coil mean diameter) should be 0.8 or greater. Furthermore, it is
L spring end has 4 of a turn ’corresponding to (e) and (f) in Fig. 2»
3 Cold-formed solid-coiled tension springs are subjected to initial tension(Pi), generally recommended that the slenderness ratio be selected from the range of 0.8 - 4 to prevent buckling.
which can be obtained using the following formula.
X1=X 2=0.75 (3) Number of Active Coils The number of active coils should be 3 or more
therefore N a=N t-1.5 π d3 in order to stabilize spring characteristics.

(2) Tension Springs the number of active coils can be determined as follows. (4) Pitch Generally, when the pitch exceeds 5D, the spring deflection (load) increases to the
On solid-coiled piano wire, hard steel wire, and other steel wires that are not
Hooks are ignored. extent that the coil diameter changes. This requires correction of the deflection and torsional stress
low-temperature annealed, the initial stress Íi occurs within the hatched range
values obtained by the basic formulae. Therefore, the pitch should be 0.5D or smaller. The pitch can
d D1 N a=N t shown in Figure 3. However, if materials other than steel wire are used, or the
generally be estimated using the following simplified formula.
D wire in question is low-temperature annealed, the initial stress taken from
Note:L=NaCd+2(D2-2d) L-H s
within the hatched range in Figure 3 should be corrected as follows. p= +d EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE(14)

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