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Chapter 3

Diode Rectifiers

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Single Phase Half wave Rectifiers

3.1
3.3. Performance Parameters

The efficiency of rectifier :


Pdc

I dc
The rms value of the ac component of output voltage is:

Vac  Vrms
2
 Vdc2
The form factor
Vrms
FF 
Vdc
Subtituting eq 3.4 and 3.6, the ripple factor can be expressed as:
2
V 
RF   rms   1  FF 2  1
 Vdc 
The transformer utilization factor is defined as:
Pdc
TUF 
Vs I s
Where Vs and Is are the rms voltage and current of the transformer
respectively.

3.2
Figure 3.2:Waveform for input voltage and current

3.3
3.4
3.5
For v s  E , the diode D1 conducts,. The angle  when the diode start
conducting can be found from the condition:
Vm sin   E
which gives
E
  sin 1
Vm
3.6
Diode D1 is turn ON when vs  E at     
The charging current iL, which is shown in Figure 3.4b, can be found:
vs  E Vm sin wt  E
i0   for  wt  
R R
Single Phase Full wave Rectifier

Figure 3.5: Full wave rectifier with centre tapped transformer

The average output voltage is:

3.7
Figure 3.6: Full wave bridge Rectifier

Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier with RL Load

3.8
Figure 3.8: Full bridge rectifier with RL Load

3.9
3.10
Case 2: discontinuous load current.
This is shown in Figure 3.8d. The load current flows only during the period
E E
  wt   . Let us define x   Vs , as the load battery (emf)
Vm 2
constant, called the voltage ratio. The diode start to conduct at wt =  given
by:

3.11
Three Phase Bridge Rectifiers

If Vm is the peak value of the phase voltage, then the instantaneous phase
voltages can be described by:

3.12
Figure 3.14: Waveform and conduction times of diodes

3.13
3.14
Three Phase Bridge Rectifier with RL Load

3.15
3.16
3.10. Rectifier Circuit Design

To design of a rectifiers involves determining the rating of semiconductor


diodes. The rating of diodes are normally specified in term of

 average current,
 rms current,
 peak current,
 and peak inverse voltage.

Filter can be use to smooth the dc output voltage of the rectifier and these
are known as DC filters.

Output Voltage With LC Filter

3.17
3.18
3.19
Effects of Source and Load Inductance

Figure 3.27: Three Phase Bridge Rectifier with Source Inductances

3.20
Figure 3.28: Effect of Reverse Recovery Time on Output Voltage.

3.21