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# Statistics & Probability | cris naz

REVIEW:
Properties of the Sampling Distribution of Sample Mean
If all possible samples of size n are drawn from a population of size N with mean µ and variance σ2, then the sampling
distribution of the sample means has the following properties:
1. The mean of the sampling distribution of the sample means is equal to the population mean µ. That is, 𝜇𝑋 = 𝜇
2. The variance of the sampling distribution of the sample means σ is given by:
𝜎2 𝑁−𝑛
 𝜎 2𝑋 = ∗ for finite population; and
𝑛 𝑁−1
𝜎2
 𝜎 2𝑋 = for infinite population
𝑛
3. The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample means is given by:
𝜎2 𝑁−𝑛 𝑁−𝑛
 𝜎𝑋 = ∗ √ 𝑁−1 for finite population where √ is the finite population correction factor
√𝑛 𝑁−1
𝜎2
 𝜎𝑋 = for infinite population
√𝑛

DESCRIBING THE SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE MEANS FROM AN INFINITE POPULATION
Example:
A population has a mean of 60 and a standard deviation of 5. A random sample of 16 measurements is drawn
from this population. Describe the sampling distribution of the sample means by computing its mean and standard
deviation.

## We shall assume that the population is infinite.

STEPS SOLUTION
1. Identify the given information 𝜇 = 60; 𝜎 = 5; 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑛 = 16
2. Find the mean of the sampling 𝜇X = 60
distribution. Use the property that
𝜇𝑋 = 𝜇
3. Find the standard deviation of the 5 5
sampling distribution. Use the property σX = = = 1.25
√16 4
𝜎
that 𝜎𝑋 =
√𝑛

## SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE MEANS

Example #1:
The average time it takes a group of college students to complete a certain examination is 46.2 minutes. The
standard deviation is 8 minutes. Assume that the variable is normally distributed.
a. What is the probability that a randomly selected college student will complete the examination in less than
43 minutes?
b. If randomly selected college students take the examination, what is the probability that the mean time it takes
the group to complete the test will be less than 43 minutes?
c. Does it seem reasonable that a college student would finish the examination in less than 43 minutes?
d. Does it seem reasonable that the mean of the 50 college students could be less than 43 minutes?

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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

SOLUTION for a:
STEPS SOLUTION
1. Identify the given information 𝜇 = 46.2; 𝜎 = 8; 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑋 = 43
2. Identify what is asked for 𝑃(𝑥 < 43)
3. Identify the formula to be used. Here, we are dealing with an individual data obtained from the
population. So, we will use the formula
X−μ
𝑧=
𝜎
to standardize 43
4. Solve the problem 43 − 46.2 −3.2
𝑧= = = −0.40
8 8

We shall find 𝑃(𝑋 < 43) by getting the area under the normal
curve.
𝑃(𝑋 < 43) = 𝑃(𝑧 < −0.40)
= 0.5000 − 0.1554
= 0.3446
5. State the final answer So, the probability that a randomly selected college student will
complete the examination in less than 43 minutes is 0.3446 or
34.46%

SOLUTION for b:
STEPS SOLUTION
1. Identify the given information 𝜇 = 46.2; 𝜎 = 8; 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑋 = 43
2. Identify what is asked for 𝑃(< 43)
3. Identify the formula to be used. Here, we are dealing with data about the sample means. So, we will
use the formula
X−μ
𝑧= 𝜎
√𝑛
to standardize 43
4. Solve the problem 43 − 46.2 −3.2
𝑧= = = −2.83
8 8
√50 7.07

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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

We shall find 𝑃(< 43) by getting the area under the normal curve.

## 𝑃(< 43) = 𝑃(𝑧 < −2.83)

= 0.5000 − 0.4977
= 0.0023
5. State the final answer So, the probability that 50 randomly selected college students will
complete the examination in less than 43 minutes is 0.0023 or 0.23%

## ANSWER for d: No, it is very unlikely

QUIZ #2:
The average number of milligram (mg) of cholesterol in a cup of a certain brand of ice cream is 660 mg, and the standard
deviation is 35 mg. assume the variable is normally distributed.

a. If a cup of ice cream is selected, what is the probability that the cholesterol content will be more than 670 mg?
STEPS SOLUTION
1. Identify the given information 𝜇 = 660; 𝜎 = 35; 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑋 = 670
2. Identify what is asked for 𝑃(𝑥 > 670)
3. Identify the formula to be used. Here, we are dealing with an individual data obtained from the
population. So, we will use the formula
X−μ
𝑧=
𝜎
to standardize 670
4. Solve the problem 670 − 660 10
𝑧= = = 0.29
35 35

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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

We shall find 𝑃(𝑋 > 670) by getting the area under the normal
curve.
𝑃(𝑋 > 670) = 𝑃(𝑧 > 0.29)
= 0.5000 − 0.1141
= 0.3859
5. State the final answer So, the probability that the cholesterol content will be more than 670
mg is 0.3859 or 38.59%

b. If a sample of 10 cups of ice cream is selected, what is the probability that the mean of the sample will be larger
than 670 mg?
STEPS SOLUTION
1. Identify the given information 𝜇 = 660; 𝜎 = 35; 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑋 = 670; 𝑛 = 10
2. Identify what is asked for 𝑃(𝑋 > 670)
3. Identify the formula to be used. Here, we are dealing with data about the sample means. So, we will
use the formula
X−μ
𝑧= 𝜎
√𝑛
to standardize 670
4. Solve the problem 670 − 660 10
𝑧= = = 0.90
35 35
√10 3.162

We shall find 𝑃(𝑋 > 670) by getting the area under the normal
curve.

## 𝑃(𝑋 > 670) = 𝑃(𝑧 > 0.90)

= 0.5000 − 0.3159
= 0.1841
5. State the final answer So, the probability that the mean cholesterol content of 10 randomly
selected cups of ice cream will be more than 670 mg is 0.1841 or
18.41%

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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

## c. Why is the probability in part A larger than part B?

ANS: Individual values are more variable than sample means.

## THINK OF THIS: When do you use these formulae?

X−μ
𝑧= ANS: If we are dealing with an individual data obtained from the population.
𝜎
X−μ
𝑧= 𝜎 ANS: If we are dealing with data about the sample means.
√𝑛

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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

Long Quiz:
1. In a job fair, 3000 applicants applied for a job. Their mean age was found to be 28 with a standard deviation of 4
years.
a. Draw a normal curve distribution showing the z-scores and the raw scores.
b. How many applicants are below 20 years old?
c. How many applicants are above 32 years old?
d. How many have ages between 24 and 32 years?
e. Find the age such that 75% is below it.
2. The average number of milligram (mg) of cholesterol in a cup of a certain brand of ice cream is 660 mg, and the
standard deviation is 35 mg. assume the variable is normally distributed.
a. If a cup of ice cream is selected, what is the probability that the cholesterol content will be more than 670
mg?
b. If a sample of 10 cups of ice cream is selected, what is the probability that the mean of the sample will
be larger than 670 mg?
c. Why is the probability in part A larger than part B?

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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

LIST OF TOPICS

1. Introduction
 Probability
 Random Experiments
 Sample Space
 Events
2. Random Variables and Probability Distributions
 Exploring random variable
 Two Types of Random Variable
 Constructing the Mean of a Discrete Probability
 Computing the mean of a discrete probability distribution
 Computing the variance of a discrete probability distribution
3. Population and Sample
 Parameter vs Statistics
 Descriptive versus Inferential Statistics
 Variables and Measurement
 Classification of Data or Variables
 Raw Data versus Array Data
 Independent and Dependent Variables
 Levels of measurements
 Methods of collection of data
 Determining sample size
 Frequency distribution table
4. Measure of central tendency
 Mean, median, mode
5. Measure of central tendency
 Quartiles, Deciles, Percentiles
6. Relative dispersion, skewness, and kurtosis
 Coefficient of Variation (CV)
 Skewness (SK)
 Kurtosis (Ku)
7. Normal distribution or normal curve
 Understanding the Normal Distribution Curve
 Normal distribution
 Properties of the Normal Probability Distribution
 Understanding the z – scores
 Finding the Areas under the Normal Curve Given a z – Value.
 Learning the Probability Notations under the Normal Curve
 Steps in Determining Areas under the Normal Curve
 Locating the Percentiles under the Normal Curve
 Applying the Normal Curve Concepts in Problem Solving
 Using probabilities to determine frequencies
8. Sampling and sampling distribution
 Sampling Distribution of Sample Means
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Statistics & Probability | cris naz

##  Steps in Constructing the Sampling Distribution of the Means

 Finding the Mean and Variance of the Sampling Distribution of Sample Means
 Properties of the Sampling Distribution of Sample Mean
 Describing the sampling distribution of the sample means from an infinite population
 Solving problems involving sampling distribution of the sample means
9. Inferential Statistics
 Parameters
 Hypothesis
 Understanding Hypothesis Testing
 Formulating Hypotheses
 Applying Hypothesis Testing
 Sketches of Directional and Non-directional Tests
 Exploring the More Elements of Hypothesis Testing
 Understanding the Decision Grid
 Understanding Errors
 Determining the Critical Values
 Finding the Critical Values
 Locating Z – values
 Conducting hypothesis test using the traditional method
 Steps in Hypothesis testing
 Steps in the traditional method of hypothesis testing
 Large – sample test concerning the mean of a population
 Applying testing in problem solving
 Stating hypotheses
 Conducting small – sample tests about a population mean
 Understanding the language of hypothesis testing
 Locating computed values in the normal curve
 Conducting Significance tests using the probability value approach
 Steps in the p – value approach of hypothesis testing
 Applying the p – value method
 Testing for significant difference
 Testing hypothesis involving population proportions

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