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Gareth Jenkins - Nebosh General Certificate in Occupational Safety and Health

Lecture one. HS(G)65 – Promote a positive safety culture.

Positive as used in the phrase means people that want to be safe and want safer practices
and culture meaning the people.
All the elements in HS(G)65 must be used to promote a positive safety culture.

Sketch of HS(G)65.

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It is important to be able to draw this sketch word perfect as there is a good chance that
there will be a question on it in the exam.

From the sketch you can see that the Auditing element communicates with all other
elements. Audit seeks non-conformance.

Overview of HS(G)65.
1).Policy. The written policy will be split into 3 parts:-
Part 1 – Intent (what). The intent would be the company’s goals and objectives i.e.
what it wants to achieve.
Part 2 – Organisation (who’s who). This would look at the roles and responsibilities of
personnel at the organisation and the organisation family tree.
Part 3 – Arrangements (how). This would depict how things get done (procedures).

2.) Organising. This would look at human factors/human reliability. Organising would be
full of software systems, software systems in safety would be communications between
people. 5C rules this system i.e. there must be:-
• Communications must be in place.
• Competence (depends on training, experience and knowledge). It is important
to keep on developing experience.
• Consultation. This is 2 way communications/discussions with actions being
taken after the consultation.
• Control. Indirect control.
• Co-operation. There must be co-operation.

3.) Planning and Implementing. Planning focuses on Risk Management which can be
split into 3 sections:-
• Risk Assessment.
• Risk Rating.
• Risk Control.

Implementing is comparable with safe systems of work (SSOW). SSOW represents a

sequence of events in order to make the task safer but must be followed to do so.

4.) Measuring Performance. Measuring performance can be split into 2 parts:-

• Reactive: Damage control. Reacting to something. Reactive monitoring is always
negative i.e. something that has already happened e.g. accidents or near miss
• Active: positive monitoring to stop occurrences happening e.g. housekeeping and
fire extinguisher checks.

5.) Reviewing Performance. Interested in modifying/reviewing if changes happen.

Changes can take the form of changes of personnel/structure, where peoples work
changes, changes of process, changes in systems of work, changes of product and new
equipment introduction. As good practice reviewing should take place on an annual basis,

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unless there are any changes. Also review should take place if there are any legislative

6.) Auditing. Auditing can be internal or external. Auditing seeks non-

conformance/compliance. Auditing is only concerned in discovering what is wrong not
what is right. An audit will not be signed off until any non-conformance has been

7.) Feedback Loop. The feedback loop is vital for employee involvement. There must
always be facilities for feedback. Feedback can come in various forms:-
• Safety Meetings.
• Safety Committees.
• Safety forums.
• Accident Forms.
• Incentives for good ideas.
• Near miss Forms.

A way to remember these elements is POPMAR.

Planning and Implementing
Measuring Performance
Reviewing Performance

HS(G)65 cannot work without feedback.

Lecture 2. The Elements of a Health and Safety Policy.

A written Health and Safety Policy is a legal requirement under section 2 of the Health
and Safety at Work Act 1974 when 5 or more people are employed. The Health and
Safety policy MUST be brought to the attention of everybody affected by the
organisations actions and MUST also be signed and dated by the Managing Director
(MD) or Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the organisation. A Health and Safety Policy
will be in three parts:-
• Part 1 – Intent (what). This part would be what the organisation’s goals and
objectives would be. This section could also be copied onto headed A4 company
paper and formed into a company Statement of Intent which could be distributed
to new employees prior to starting work with the organisation. The Statement of
Intent again MUST be signed and dated by the MD or CEO.
• Part 2 – Organisation (who’s who). This would look at the roles and
responsibilities of personnel at the organisation and would often examine the
organisation family tree.
• Part 3 – Arrangements (how). This would depict how the organisation would get
things done.

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A Safety Policy would:-
• State organisational aims to ensure the Health and Safety of those that work for or
may be affected by its activities (e.g. public, contractors etc.)
• Refer to consultation measures available for Health and Safety.
• Indicate sources of expert/specialist advice
• Means of communicating this.

The signature on the policy holds the ultimate responsibility for the policy.

A Health and Safety Policy must be:-

• In writing.
• Signed and dated by MD or CEO.
• Periodically Monitored and Reviewed.
• Re-issued as necessary.
• Refer to other documents.
• Brought to the attention of all employees.

A written Health and Safety policy would provide a certain amount of back up in court.


The first part of the Health and Safety policy would be the general intent part where the
company would state its commitment to Health and Safety and the Environment. Part 1
sets out the goals and objectives of the organisation and also sets out the aims and
objectives to achieve the goals to underpin the organisations commitment to Health,
Safety and the Environment. This section could also be copied onto headed A4 company
paper and formed into a company Statement of Intent which could be distributed to new
employees prior to starting work with the organisation. The Statement of Intent MUST be
signed and dated by the MD or CEO.

Part 2 of the Health and Safety policy brings to the attention, who would carry out the
implementation of the policy and would also bring the organisational tree to attention. It
would have a signature of a named director who would have ultimate responsibility for
the policy. It could also pay reference to others with Health and Safety responsibilities
and the responsibilities held by each member. It could also have details of Subordinate
manager’s responsibilities for preparing their area Health and Safety Policy. It would also
indicate consultation and communications routes and details of any specialised training/
support etc.

A Company Nurse, Safety reps, TUC reps, Environmental manager, Fire officer and Fire
wardens, Emergency Planning Officer, Training officer and The Maintenance Team
could all be mentioned in an organisation Health and Safety Policy.

The Arrangements section of a Health and Safety policy sets the rules and procedures

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• Existing Safe Systems of Work (SSOW) and Safe maintenance.
• Risk Assessment.
• Incident and Accident reporting and investigation.
• Control of Chemical and Hazardous Substances.
• Emergencies and Evacuation.
• Training Facilities.
• Measures for the introduction of new equipment and machinery.
• The Dissemination of information. (Dissemination meaning the translation and
• Environmental Protection and Management.
• Health Surveillance and Welfare Facilities.
• Issue and Use of PPE.
• Joint Consultation and Safety Representatives and Safety Committee Meetings.

The arrangements section may refer to other documents e.g. Safety Manuals, SSOW,
Risk Assessments, Spillage reporting, Method statements, existence of Permit-to-Work,
Frequency of Health and Safety meetings, other relevant company policies, Accident and
Near miss reporting (RIDDOR).

The effectiveness of a Health and Safety policy depends on many things. Systems must
be in place for checking that methods and procedures are viable, effective and being
complied with and modified to reflect changes. Includes Organisational restructuring or
domino effects of changes by other activities. The policy must integrate fully with Risk
Assessments, Standard operational procedures and Systems of work.

Lecture 3. Law

There are three types of Law:-

1. Criminal Law. This law is brought about by the state i.e has gone through
parliament. Criminal Law seeks the award of Sanctions e.g. Fines or
Imprisonment. Guilt is determined ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. Criminal Law is
un-insurable against.

Criminal Law

Prosecuted By State

Award of sanctions

Guilt beyond reasonable doubt.

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2. Contract Law. This type of Law will not be included in the exam.

3. Civil Law (common law). This law is brought about by the victim, where the
victim seeks compensation. This law is settled on the ‘balance of probabilities’
i.e. was it foreseeable. Civil law is insurable against.

Civil Law
Civil Law

Brought by the Victim

Victim to seek compensation

Settled on the balance of probabilities

Civil Law is often known as Law of Tort

Tort : Civil wrong

Tort is a Judge made law which depends on historical precedent from previous cases
dating as far back as the 16th century.

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA) is the act which covers all of the
topics on the course. The HASAWA is split into sections. Section 2, ‘The duties on
employers’, is also split into subsections.
The main sections related top the course are:-
• Section 2 – Employers duty to the employees.
• Section 3 – Employers duty to others (contractors, students, the general public,
• Section 6 – The duty placed on Manufacturers, Designers and Suppliers. These may
be first or third party.
• Sections 7/8 – Employee duty of care to themselves and others.

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Section 2.
Under section 2 the employer MUST provide for Safe and Healthy employees in a Safe
and Healthy Workplace. The employer MUST also provide safe access and egress and a
Safe and Healthy environment. Safe systems of work must be provided along with Safe
Handling and Storage of Hazardous Substances. Sufficient welfare facilities must be
provided. Information, training, instruction and supervision must be provided especially
for young persons. There must be means of consultation with safety reps and others.
Employers have an absolute duty to provide a Health and Safety policy which MUST be
written if there are 5 or more employees and MUST be brought to the attention of
everyone affected by the company’s actions. The company must also provide all relevant

Section 3.
This section can be described the same as above.

Section 7.
Under this section, the employee must co-operate with the employer to enable the
employer to fulfil their Health and Safety duties. Not by their (the employee) acts or
omissions should they put at risk the safety or lives of themselves or others.

Section 8.
Employees must not recklessly (unknowingly) or deliberately (knowingly) interfere with
anything provided for the Safety, Health and Welfare of themselves or others e.g.
removal of guards.

Section 9.
The company must not charge for PPE.

There are various regulations that support HASAWA some being:-


The Management of Health and Safety Regulations.

Reg 3 – Risk Assessment (Suitable and Sufficient).
Reg 4 – Principles and control – Risk control.
Reg 5 – Health and Safety Arrangements
Reg 6 – Health Surveillance – medical screening.
Reg 7 – Competent Assistance – seeking expert advice.

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Reg 8/9 – Emergency planning.
Reg 10 – Information to Employees.
Reg 14 – Duties on employees. Need to know what Reg is. Report any faults.
Reg 16/17/18 – New and Expectant mothers.
Reg 19 – Young persons.

Suitable and Sufficient.

N The term ‘Suitable and Sufficient; is important since it defines the limits to the risk
assessment process. A ‘Suitable and Sufficient’ risk assessment should:-
• Identify the significant risks and ignore the trivial ones.
• Identify and prioritize the measures required to comply with any statutory
• Remain appropriate to the nature of the work and valid over a reasonable period
of time.

The Health and Safety at Work Act is an Enabling Act which allows the Secretary Of
State to make further laws known as Regulations, without the need to pass another act of
parliament. Regulations are law and are approved by Parliament. These are usually made
under the Health and Safety at Work Act, following proposals from the HSC.
The Health and Safety at Work Act, and general duties in the Management
Regulations, aim to help employers to set goals, but leave them free to decide how to
control hazards and risks which they identify. Guidance and Approved Codes of Practice
give advice, but employers are free to take other routes to achieving their Health and
Safety goals, so long as they do what is reasonably practicable. Some hazards are so
great, or the proper control measures so expensive, that employers cannot be given
discretion in deciding what to do about them. Regulations identify these hazards and risks
and set out specific action that must be taken. Often these requirements are ‘absolute’-
employers have no choice but to follow them and there is no qualifying phrase of
‘reasonably practicable’ included.

Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP).

An ACOP is produced for most sets of regulations by the HSC and attempts to give
more details on the requirements of the regulations. It also attempts to give the level of
compliance needed to satisfy the regulations. ACOPs have a special legal status,
sometimes referred to as Quasi legal. The relationship of an ACOP to a Regulation is
that, by following an ACOP ensures compliance with the associated Regulation. If a
company is prosecuted for a breach of health and safety law and it is proved that it has
not followed the relevant provisions of the ACOP, a court can find them at fault unless
the company can show that it has complied with the law in some other way.

Guidance comes in 2 forms, legal and best practice. An ACOP if followed ensures
compliance with a regulation and guidance gives solutions based on scientific fact to
Health and safety dilemmas.

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Levels of duty.
There are three levels of statutory duty which form a hierarchy of duties. These levels
are used extensively in Health and safety statutory (criminal) law but have been defined
by judges under common law. The three levels of duty are:-
• Absolute Duty. This is the highest level of duty and normally occurs when the
risk of injury is so high that injury is inevitable unless safety precautions are
taken. No assessment of risk is required but the duty is absolute and the employer
has no choice but to undertake the duty. The verbs used in the Regulations are
‘must’ and ‘shall’.
• Practicable. This means that if the duty is technically possible or feasible then it
must be done irrespective of any difficulty, inconvenience or cost.
• Reasonably Practicable. If the risk of injury is very small compared to the cost,
time and effort required to reduce the risk then no action is necessary. It is
important to note that money, time and trouble must grossly outweigh and not
balance the risk. This duty requires a risk assessment to be undertaken with
conclusions noted. Continual monitoring is also required to ensure that the risks
do not increase.

Lecture 4. Civil Law.

Civil Law is based on previous cases where the judge has made findings. Civil Law cases
are Foreseeable i.e. have happened before or could happen again.
• Civil Law can also be known as Common Law or Law of Tort.
• Civil Law is a judge made law.
• Previous cases have influence and the decision is based on historical precedence.
• Legal Discussions often take place before the case starts and often deals are made.

Law of Tort : Civil Wrong.

Definition of Law of Tort (Civil Wrong ): Everybody owes a duty to everyone else, to
take reasonable care not to cause a foreseeable injury.

Explanation of Law of Tort ( Civil Wrong ): Everybody owes a duty to everyone else, to
take reasonable care not to cause a foreseeable injury. A civil wrong is based on
precedent, where the victim seeks compensation for loss, injury or damage.

These could be possible exam questions.

Negligence is governed by a duty of care. For negligence to exist, it must be proved that a
duty of care exists, that there was a breach of that duty of care and that as a result of the
breach, loss injury or damage was sustained. The breach must also be foreseeable.

Possible question.
Q) What are the three standards to be met to satisfy common law.

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A) In order to satisfy a duty of care, 3 standards must be met. It must be established that a
duty of care existed. Was that duty of care actually breached? As a result of the breach,
was there any loss, injury or damage sustained by the victim as the victim will seek
compensation. It is important as to whether it was foreseeable as it may well affect the
outcome of the case.

An employer must prove that due diligence was exercised.

Due Diligence definition: did everything that was humanly possible, given the latest
technology and state of the art thought and must be reasonably practicable.

Defence in Contravention.
Defence in contravention is to prove that all reasonable precautions were taken and
that due diligence was exercised.


• A voluntary assumption of risk.
• The person knowingly took the risk.

Possible exam question.

Vicarious Liability.
Vicarious liability is when the employee is liable for the actions of the employee
even when the employer is not there, providing the employee adhered to company
policies and procedures.
Possible exam question.

Contributory Negligence.
Contributory negligence is where the employer and operative are both liable. This
often occurs when on a folly (doing something they should not be doing e.g. using a
company vehicle for personal business when it is not permitted.)

Lecture 5. HASAWA 1974.

• Set by the HSC.
• Does not have full legal status. Considered as Quasi legal i.e. has not passed
through parliament. Could be used in a court of law to show non-compliance with
• Gives details of regulations.
• Gives the level of compliance required to satisfy regulations.
• A judge would look for the degree of deviation from the acop in order to make a
judgement on sanctions. The more deviation the more the penalty. The judge
would use the acop as a standard.
• An acop would be simply put.

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• If we have done as good as or better than the acop then we may mitigate or
certainly fight the case successfully.

• Comes in two forms, legal or best practice.
• Provides scientific fact.
• Deals with the technical aspects of a regulation.
• Issued by HSC or HSE
• Looks at systems.
• Often cross references to acop or regulation.

Sources of information.

• Legislation.
• Expert consultants.
• Acop.
• Guidance notes.
• Manuals.
• Internet.
• Audit.
• Regulations.
• Trade unions.
• HSE.
• Environment Agency.
• European Directives.
• International Labour Organisation (ILO).
• World Health Organisation (WHO)

• H & S Policy.
• Risk Assessments.
• Method Statements.
• Accident Forms.
• Near miss forms.
• Safety Committee Meeting minutes.
• Permits to work.
• Health and Safety advisor.
• Internal audits and inspections.
• Induction/In house training.

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• Maintenance manuals.
• Emergency Plans.
• Experience.
• Employee feedback.
• Ppm records.
• Safety reviews.
• Toolbox talks.
• Transport Emergency Cards (TREM).
• Safety Signs.

An audit seeks non-conformance. Within the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
Regulations 1992, important regulations are within regulation 8 (lighting). Hazards
caused by poor lighting include slips, trips and falls and accidents due to shadows/glare.
Suitable precautions would be to first clean the lights and then carry out a light survey
using a photometer measuring LUX readings and recording all data. This data could
enable you to ascertain whether additional lighting be it permanent or temporary be
brought in. It would be important to carryout another light survey to establish whether
improvements have been made. Accidents should be monitored with less accidents and a
general downward trend witnessed. Regulation 25 states that a fridge must be provided
for nursing mothers for milk.

For any exam question concerning the physical environment:

1. The Health, Safety and Welfare regulations would concern them.
2. In construction, the use of these regs, concerns their hostile environment. This
requires additional concern for high winds, transport, scaffold and excavation.

Lecture 7. Lighting.

Hazards of poor lighting.

• Slips, trips and falls due to insufficient light.
• Glare from too much light.
• Shadows from too little light.
• Stroboscopic effects from fluorescent lights.
• Excessive heat from too many lights in a small space.
• Accidents from poor lighting at night.
• Poor adjustment of tower lights.
• Inadequate natural lighting.
• Worn anti glare window film causing sun infiltration.
• Sudden loss of lights.
• Blocked windows.

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• Clean lights
• Carry out a light survey using a photometer. Record findings. Act on the findings
i.e. bring in more lighting (could be permanent or temporary) and carry out a
further survey to determine effect of additional lighting.
• Regular testing of emergency lighting.
• Fit window blinds.
• Clean windows regularly.
• Tinted windows.
• Introduction of temporary lighting.
• Screens
• Using correct wattage bulbs.
• Use of light diffuser.
• Emergency lighting.
• Natural light if possible.
• Ensure correct design of outside lighting.
• Correct angles of external lights.
• Provide resource for additional lighting.
• Ensure an adequate stock of spare bulbs.

In relation to the Safety Representative and Safety Committee Regulations 1977,
1) The rights and functions of trade union representatives. (6)
2) The facilities to be provided for representatives. (2)

1) Provide training for its members. Provide guidance and advice to its members and
to represent the employees in consultation with the employer. The representative
will also investigate potential hazards and dangerous occurrences and also causes
of accidents. Investigation of health and safety complaints and health and safety
inspections will be carried out by the representative. The representative would
also provide workforce representation at safety committee meetings and during
consultation with enforcing inspectors.
2) There must be provision for independent investigation and private discussion with
employees. This provision would include a meeting room, telephone, fax and
computer access.

Explain with examples, under what circumstances a HSE inspector could serve:
1) An improvement notice.
2) A prohibition notice.
State the effect of appealing against each type of notice.

1) A HSE inspector would serve an improvement notice when there is a

contravention of law which could be repeated. A date would be specified by the

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inspector for remedial action to be taken by. An example would be lack of
Manual Handling Assessments.
2) A HSE inspector would serve a prohibition notice to halt an activity which the
inspector feels could cause serious injury, removal of fixed machine guarding for
example. The notice will identify which legal requirement is being contravened.
Notice would take effect as soon as its issued.

An appeal to an improvement notice must be made to an employment tribunal within 21

working days during which the notice would be suspended. An appeal to a prohibition
notice must again be made to an employment tribunal within 21 days, during which the
notice would still stand.

Precautions against workplace related stress.

As a way of preventing work related stress, the workload must be scheduled in line
with the workers’ capabilities and resources available to them. The design of tasks should
be made to provide meaning, stimulation and opportunities for the workers to fully utilise
their skills. A fully developed training matrix would enable job rotation amongst workers
to give breaks from menial tasks and jobs. Clearly defined roles and responsibilities with
opportunities for the workers to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs
gives the workers a feeling of being part of a team. Improved communications regarding
career development and future prospects would give the workers a vision of future
promotions. It is also very important that work schedules are established that fully co-
operate with the workers demands and responsibilities outside of the workplace. The
opportunity of social interaction amongst workers is a way of alleviating stressful
situations. Regular performance appraisals offer the opportunity for managers and
supervisors to have one-to-one discussions with employees, in which the manager can
explore whether the individual is experiencing excessive or insufficient pressure in the
course of their work. ‘Return to Work’ interviews can provide an important opportunity
to find out if the sickness was caused by problems at work and, if so, what can be done to
prevent a reoccurrence of the problem. Ensure the physical environment and layout is
adequate for the jobs. Factors such as good ventilation, comfortable working
temperatures, adequate seating, comfort and size of work station, noise adequate lighting
and adequate welfare facilities all help to alleviate workplace stress.

Precautions for new and expectant mothers.

To comply with the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 employers can call upon
various precautions to aid the health and safety of new and expectant mothers. When an
employee confirms in writing that she is pregnant, a risk assessment to identify risk
factors and control measures should be carried out. As a combat to the effects of morning
sickness, shifts for expectant mothers could be re-arranged to avoid early shift work with
no change of wage. Suitable and sufficient seating arrangements, re-organised work and
workplace facilities and frequent rotation of work duties are all control measures of the
effects of poor posture on expectant mothers. All moving and manual handling activities

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carried out by the pregnant woman should be correctly assessed and controlled as a
control measure against the effects of hormonal changes, body changes as the pregnancy
progresses and backache. Bladder weakness could be controlled be controlled by
reorganising the work activity to allow frequent trips to the toilet where necessary
especially when the employee works in an area where the work is difficult to leave, e.g.
production lines and areas where there is a difficult access to toilets. The effects of
reduced balance from bodily changes can be controlled by the provision and use of
appropriate anti-slip matting, ppm schedules to maintain good flooring and the re-
organisation of work activities to avoid slippery places and work at height. The effects of
stillborn, disabled and abortion of babies along with the effects of post natal depression
must also have control measures in place. There must be provision for leave to attend
counselling sessions, work tasks must be assessed and re-organised to fit in with the
employee capabilities. Work known to cause or exacerbate distress must be avoided. A
rehabilitation plan for the gradual resumption of work activities must be agreed with the
employee, doctor and occupational health advisor. If the control measures have still not
alleviated the risk fully, the employee could be suspended with full pay until such a time
as the risk has subsided.

Precautions against violence at work.

Employers have, under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, a general duty so
far as is reasonably practicable to ensure the health, safety and welfare of its employees.
This includes protecting them from the risk of violence. Primarily the avoidance of lone
working where practical and team working where suspected aggressors may be involved
could be considered best practice. Within a retail environment, promoting the use of
cashless payments helps in keeping the amount of money kept on the premises to a
minimum. Changing the work environment can reduce the degree of risk resulting from
aggressive or violent behaviour. The layout of the premises, lighting, ambience,
background music and clean and comfortable furnishings may all have calming effects.
Sufficient queue control to stop the problem of queue jumping can help to reduce the
potential for conflict. Proper security can also aid in reducing violent incidents.
Employing security guards, fitting CCTV cameras in areas of high risk and the use of an
alarm system could also aid an employee’s safety. Alarms could come in the form of
intruder alarms, panic alarms or even in extremely high risk areas the use of personal
alarms could be promoted. The setting up of support services such as debriefing,
providing legal representation, allowing time off work to recover and also providing
counselling by experts all aid rehabilitation after violent incidences. Staff could be
trained to recognise potentially aggressive or violent situations. Recognising the signs
and reacting to the causes at an early point will usually stop an incident getting worse. It
is best practice for an organisation to investigate ALL incidences of workplace violence
and to act on their findings. Good and confidential methods of communication are
required for the reporting of general bullying and sexual harassment as it is very
important in removing the general taboo of reporting these incidents. Above all else it is
vitally important to establish a culture of respect for new workers, young workers and
workers from minority groups. Creating this culture can be by creating codes of conduct
that forbid initiation rites and teasing, directions to both supervisors and established

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workers to act to prevent aggressive behaviour without waiting for an incident to take
place and to establish clear procedures for complaints and grievances from vulnerable
staff. It is vitally important that a company grievance procedure be developed so that an
employee could report any type of violent behaviour, be it verbal, sexual or physical.
This grievance could against the employer or a fellow employee.

Lecture 8. Enforcement.

Enforcement officers could come from a variety of agencies. For the NEBOSH course we
are only concerned with the HSE but enforcement agencies could come from areas such
as, The Environment Agency, Local Authority environmental health officers, Local
Authority building inspectors, fire brigade, police and customs and excise.

The HSE have a right to exist under HASAWA1974.

Duties of the HSE Inspector.

• Take no action.
• Give verbal advice.
• Give written advice.
• Serve an improvement notice.
• Serve a prohibition notice.
• Prosecute.

Powers of the HSE inspector.

• To take another authorised person or any necessary equipment with them
including the police if affray is suspected.
• To examine and investigate.
• To require premises or any equipment in them to remain undisturbed for purposes
of examination or investigation.
• Take photographs, measurements and recordings.
• Cause an article or substance to be dismantled or subjected to any test.
• Take possession of or retain anything for examination or legal proceedings. If any
documentation or equipment is taken a receipt must be given by the inspector.
• Take samples as long as a comparable sample is left for the organisation to get
independent sampling.
• Require any person who can give information to answer questions and sign a
statement. Evidence given under this act cannot be used against that person or
their spouse.
• Require information, facilities, records or assistance.
• Do anything else necessary to enable them to carry out their duties.
• Issue an improvement notice.
• Issue a prohibition notice.
• Initiate prosecutions
• Seize, destroy or render harmless any article or substance which is a source of
imminent danger.

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In an exam question common questions about inspector duties would be 2 mark questions
and questions relating to powers would more often be 6 or 8 mark questions.

Improvement notice.
A HSE inspector would serve an improvement notice when there is a
contravention of law which could be repeated. A date would be specified by the
inspector for remedial action to be taken by. An example would be lack of Manual
Handling Assessments. An appeal to an improvement notice must be made to an
employment tribunal within 21 working days during which the notice would be
Prohibition notice.
A HSE inspector would serve a prohibition notice to halt an activity which the
inspector feels could cause serious injury, removal of fixed machine guarding for
example. The notice will identify which legal requirement is being contravened. Notice
would take effect as soon as it’s issued. An appeal to a prohibition notice must again be
made to an employment tribunal within 21 days, during which the notice would still

Safety Reps Safety Committee Regs 1977.

Trade union reps have a right to exist and gain their powers from these regulations.
Non union reps gain their powers from the Health and Safety (Consultation with
Employees) Regs 1996. Trade union Reps have more powers than non-union

An employer must form a safety committee if he has been requested IN WRITING by

TWO TRADE UNION REPS and must comply within 3 MONTHS.

Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regs 1996.

Informing is the passing of information one way.

Consulting is the listening to employees views and taking into account of what they
say before any decision is made.

ROE – Representative of Employees.

Non Disclosure of information. Information must not be disclosed if:-

• It would endanger national security.
• If it violates legal prohibition.
• If it relates to a person without their consent.
• If it hurts the employers undertaking or infringes on commercial security.
• If it was obtained in connection with legal proceedings.

An ROE could complain to an industrial tribunal if:-

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• The employer does not permit time off for training or candidature.
• The employer fails to pay them for time off.

A TUC safety Rep could complain to an industrial tribunal if:-

• The employer does not permit time off for training or candidature.
• The employer fails to pay them for time off.
• If the employer frustrates them by trying to stop them representing and not
providing facilities.

Functions of a Safety Rep under SRSC Regs 1977.

From the Reg we can establish that the rep involved would be a TUC appointed
Rep since a ROE has no powers under the mentioned Regs. Their functions include:-
• Representing employees in consultation with the employer.
• Investigating potential hazards and dangerous occurrences.
• Investigating the causes of accidents.
• Investigate employee complaints relating to health, safety and welfare.
• Making representations to the employer on health, safety and welfare matters.
• Carry out inspections.
• Represent employees at the workplace in consultation with enforcing
• Receiving information.
• Attending safety committee meetings.

Lecture 9. Risk Management.

Risk management can be split into 3 sections:

1. Risk Assessment.
2. Risk Rating.
3. Risk Control.

Defn. Hazard – A hazard is the potential of a substance, activity or process to cause


Defn. Risk – Risk is the likelihood of a substance, activity or process to cause harm.

Risk Assessment.
Risk Assessment has five steps that must be followed:-
1. Identify the hazard.
2. Identify who will be affected (so far as is reasonably practicable).
3. Evaluate the risk. Are the current precautions adequate?
4. Record findings.
5. Monitor and review. Modify if required.

Risk Rating.
Risk Rating can be calculated using a risk rating grid or matrix.
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Example of risk rating grid.

Likelihood Severity
Rating Guide words Rating Guide words
0 Almost impossible 0 No harm
1 Extremely unlikely 1 Minor harm
2 Unlikely 2 Moderate harm
3 Likely 3 Serious harm
4 Extremely likely 4 Major harm
5 Almost certain 5 Catastrophic

The risk rating can be calculated by multiplying the value given against the likelihood
of a hazard causing harm and the severity of the harm caused. From the example grid
above, the maximum risk rating that can be obtained is 25 i.e. a likelihood rating of 5
and a severity rating of 5. Often this rating value can be translated into a High,
Medium and Low risk form.

Risk Control.
Risk controls are steps that could be introduced to reduce the risk rating. Risk
control follows a risk control hierarchy with 8 issues but also has a further 2 issues
which are not part of the hierarchy but could be integrated into all points. The points
in the hierarchal value are:-
1. Eliminate the hazard at source.
2. Substitute the hazard at source.
3. Reduce the hazard at source.
4. Remove the people from the hazard (remote cleaning). This could be done by
mechanical means or by restricting access.
5. Introduce engineering controls (scientific). An example of engineering control
would be guarding/containment by enclosure. Human maintenance would be
required however.
6. Reduce the person’s exposure as much as is humanly practicable.
7. Provide a safe system of work (e.g. permit to work, electrical isolation
• Provide personal protective equipment. This comes at the bottom of the
hierarchy due to the following reasons. Environmental factors such as
temperature could make the wearing of ppe uncomfortable, ppe only protects
the wearer, lack of maintenance of the ppe could cause a lack of effectiveness
of the ppe, certain types of ppe could become out of date or out of calibration,
they could become dirty and less effective, they could also become
unknowingly breached i.e. torn. PPE cannot be trusted and rely on the human
so is bottom of the hierarchy.
8. Information, Training, Instruction and Supervision must be available at every
stage of the hierarchy.

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9. Health and Welfare. Health Surveillance and Welfare facilities must be
provided and these could be integrated into all hierarchal controls.

Engineering controls.
• Guarding. Isolation Extraction
• Dilution Insulation Ventilation
• Filtration Neutralisation
• Segregation Silencing Damping down.

Scenario Question
You have a factory which operates a 24hr, 3 shift system with 300 employees per
shift. 3 security staff are employed on a 12hr shift system. The factory is based on the
side of a main road. There are more industrial units on either side of the factory which is
surrounded by a perimeter fence. People are constantly breaking into the site as it backs
onto fields. At the opposite side of the main road is a car park where the staff park their
cars. The factory has a main gate which has shared access with vehicles and pedestrians.
At the back of the factory there is a bank with a drop of 2.5m into a ditch filled with
rubble. At 3AM someone noticed a large pothole appearing at the entrance gate. It does
not stretch the full width of the gate but leaves about 1m of steady ground for people to
walk on. A further 2 pot holes have been reported at the top of the bank at the back of the
site. Carry out a risk assessment for access to the site via entrance and effects of the
potholes at the back of the site first without controls, then introduce controls and carry
out a second risk assessment. Use the following risk rating grid to assess risk rating.

Likelihood Severity
Not likely 1 No injury 1
Unlikely 2 First aid 2
Likely 3 <3day injury 3
Very Likely 4 >3day injury 4
most probable 5 Death/multiple 5

Assessment 1.
Front gate - Likelihood Rating 4, Severity rating 3
Risk Rating 12

Back of site - Likelihood rating 3, Severity rating 5

Risk Rating 15

Introduction of control measures.

• Signs telling of hazard.
• Barriers around potholes.
• Perimeter lighting.
• Setting up designated walkways
• Employ more security guards.
• Place a plate over the pot hole.

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• Introduce traffic management.
• Introduce CCTV to monitor perimeter.
• More frequent perimeter patrols.
• Introduce Tog Bags to the ditch at back of the site.

Assessment 2
After control introduction.
Front gate - Likelihood rating 2, Severity rating 2
Risk Rating 4

Back of Site - Likelihood rating 2, Severity rating 5

Risk rating 10.

An example of a risk matrix.


L First Aid only <3 Day injury >3 day injury

Unlikely 1-6mth.
1 2 3
Likely 1wk-1mth
2 4 6
D Very Likely over 1 wkly
3 6 9
Low Rating
Medium Rating
High Rating

Lecture 10. Accidents.

Defn. An accident can be defined as an unplanned, unwanted event that has caused
loss of some kind to people, property and workplace.
Defn. An incident (near miss) can be defined as an unplanned, unwanted event that
could have caused loss of some kind to people, property and workplace.

Causes of accidents concern direct or indirect issues. Indirect issues are known as
Root or Underlying Causes. Root causes are system based causes that enable direct

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causes to surface. Examples of root causes could be a lack of resources, penalty
clauses, productivity and inventory loss.

Accident causes.

Direct Indirect
Removal of guarding Productivity deadlines
Did not follow isolation procedures Penalty clauses
Did not follow SSOW Resources ( lack of )
Negligence Training
Workplace conditions Poor risk assessments
Competence No method statements
Over confidence Poor design
Poor training Poor staff selections
Ergonomics Poor maintenance systems
Inadequate guarding Lack of materials
Not concentrating Performance targets
Bad Habits Competitiveness
Personal problems at home causing

Accident costs.

Direct Indirect
Claims on employers Business loss
Public liability insurance Product or process liability
Damage to buildings, equipment or
vehicles Loss of goodwill
Fines Overtime payments
Sick pay Accident investigation time
Product damage Production delays
Equipment or process damage

Uninsurable costs.
• Product and material damage.
• Legal costs.
• Emergency supplies.
• Cleaning up site.
• Production delays.
• Temporary labour.
• Lost orders.
• Investigation time.
• Fines.
• Loss of expertise.
• Loss of goodwill.
• Overtime payments.

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Lecture 11. Accident Investigation / First Aid.

Accident investigation could be carried out by internal staff or external bodies.

External Investigation bodies could include:-
• Hse
• Environment Agency.
• Insurance Companies.
• Local Authority.
• Fire Brigade.
• Police.
• Specialists.

Internal Investigations can be carried out by:-

• EHS Manager.
• Union representative.
• Area manager.
• Supervisor.
• Specialists.

It is a legal requirement to report ALL accidents, however not all accidents must be
reported to the HSE as the HSE are only interested by severity. The HSE have a selected
range of injuries that must be reported to them. The severest injury must be reported by
the quickest means. Reporting to the HSE could be by phone, fax or on-line. Reporting
should be followed up by them submission of a form (F2508) for a major injury. This
regime is known as RIDDOR. This form must be sent within 10 days. The form is also
used for the reporting of dangerous occurrences. Reportable major injuries are as
• Fracture, other than to fingers, thumbs and toes;
• Amputation;
• Dislocation of the shoulder, hip, knee or spine;
• Loss of sight (temporary or permanent);
• Chemical or hot metal burn to the eye or any penetrating injury to the eye;
• Injury resulting from an electric shock or electrical burn leading to
unconsciousness, or requiring resuscitation or admittance to hospital for more
than 24 hours;
• Any other injury: leading to hypothermia, heat-induced illness or
unconsciousness; or requiring resuscitation; or requiring admittance to hospital
for more than 24 hours;
• Unconsciousness caused by asphyxia or exposure to harmful substance or
biological agent;
• Acute illness requiring medical treatment, or loss of consciousness arising from
absorption of any substance by inhalation, ingestion or through the skin;
• Acute illness requiring medical treatment where there is reason to believe that this
resulted from exposure to a biological agent or its toxins or infected material.

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Reportable dangerous occurrences are as follows:-
• Collapse, overturning or failure of load-bearing parts of lifts and lifting
• Explosion, collapse or bursting of any closed vessel or associated pipework;
• Failure of any freight container in any of its load-bearing parts;
• Plant or equipment coming into contact with overhead power lines;
• Electrical short circuit or overload causing fire or explosion;
• Any unintentional explosion, misfire, failure of demolition to cause the intended
collapse, projection of material beyond a site boundary, injury caused by an
explosion; Accidental release of a biological agent likely to cause severe human
• Failure of industrial radiography or irradiation equipment to de-energise or return
to its safe position after the intended exposure period;
• Malfunction of breathing apparatus while in use or during testing immediately
before use;
• Failure or endangering of diving equipment, the trapping of a diver, an explosion
near a diver, or an uncontrolled ascent;
• Collapse or partial collapse of a scaffold over five metres high, or erected near
water where there could be a risk of drowning after a fall;
• Unintended collision of a train with any vehicle;
• Dangerous occurrence at a well (other than a water well);
• Dangerous occurrence at a pipeline;
• Failure of any load-bearing fairground equipment, or derailment or unintended
collision of cars or trains;
• A road tanker carrying a dangerous substance overturns, suffers serious damage,
catches fire or the substance is released;
• A dangerous substance being conveyed by road is involved in a fire or released;
• The following dangerous occurrences are reportable except in relation to offshore
workplaces: unintended collapse of: any building or structure under construction,
alteration or demolition where over five tonnes of material falls; a wall or floor in
a place of work; any false-work;
• Explosion or fire causing suspension of normal work for over 24 hours;
• Sudden, uncontrolled release in a building of: 100 kg or more of flammable
liquid; 10 kg of flammable liquid above its boiling point; 10 kg or more of
flammable gas; or of 500 kg of these substances if the release is in the open air;
• Accidental release of any substance which may damage health.

Diseases must also be reported under RIDDOR (F2508A) within 10 days of the
certificate of diagnosis. If death takes place within 1 year of injury/disease it must be
reported under RIDDOR. Diseases reportable under RIDDOR include:-
• Certain poisonings;
• Some skin diseases such as occupational dermatitis, skin cancer, chrome ulcer, oil
• Lung diseases including: occupational asthma, farmer's lung, pneumoconiosis,
asbestosis, mesothelioma;
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• Infections such as: leptospirosis; hepatitis; tuberculosis; anthrax; legionellosis and
• Other conditions such as: occupational cancer; certain musculoskeletal disorders;
decompression illness and hand-arm vibration syndrome.
You must report to RIDDOR if anyone is off work for 3+ days following injury.
Again F2508 must be used, filled in and sent to the HSE, an example would be a back
injury. Other cases which must be reported under RIDDOR include an injury to visitors,
pedestrians and customers and any injury to a member of staff and they are detained in

First Aid

Principles of first aid can be established using the 3P system. Protect Life, Prevent
deterioration and Promote recovery.

Protect Life.
• Prevent more casualties.
• Make area safe.
• Send for help

Prevent Deterioration.
• Until competent assistance arrives (doctor, paramedic). This does NOT mean

Promote Recovery.
• Reassure and send to the appropriate center (hospital, clinic)

ABC of first aid.

• Airway Clear.
• Breathing Restarted.
• Circulation Maintained.

Where several companies share workshop/office space first aiders may be shared
between all companies involved. Shared arrangements for the provision of first aid
• Arrangements to be made between all companies involved.
• Arrangements must be in writing.
• Everyone must be informed of the provision and kept informed.
• Assessments must be made with regards to the number of staff to number of first
aiders ratio.
• Monitor any changes in occupancy etc.

Contents of a First Aid Box.

• A leaflet giving general guidance on first aid e.g. HSE leaflet ‘Basic Advice on
First Aid at Work’.

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• Medical adhesive plasters.
• Sterile eye pads.
• Individually wrapped triangular bandages.
• Safety Pins.
• Foil Blankets
• Individually wrapped, medium sterile unmedicated wound dressings.
• Individually wrapped, large sterile unmedicated wound dressings.
• Individually wrapped wipes.
• Paramedic shears.
• Latex gloves.
• Sterile eyewash.

Lecture 16-01-08. Occupational Health.

DEFN. Occupational Health considers the effect of health on work and work on health. It
promotes well being.

Occupational Health can be split into 4 areas (PCBS)

Physical – Ergonomic.
- Environmental.
Chemical – Toxic.
- Carcenogenic.(could produce cancer)
- Corrosive.
- Harmful.
- Irritant.
Biological – Spores.
- Viruses.
- Micro organisms.
- Bacteria.
Stress – Physiological.
- Psychological.

All these represent a hazard classification in occupational health.

Relevant legislation concerned with occupational health include:-

• Asbestos, Lead, Ionising Radiation
• Manual Handling

Examples of a virus: HIV, Hepatitis B

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Examples of Bacteria: E-Coli, Salmonella, Weils disease.
Biological effects will always have a route of entry into the body. The four possible
routes of entry into the system are as follows:-
• Inhalation.
• Ingestion.
• Injection.
• Absorption.

Possible Question:
Explain and give an example of an ill health compromise.
An example of a bacterial disease could be Salmonella, which could be caught from
uncooked chicken. The route of entry would be Ingestion via the alimentary tract
(swallowed and travels through the stomach to the bowels) with the resulting effects
being vomiting and diarrhoea. Food handlers are at a major risk with this infectious
disease (could be passed on to others). Salmonella could break down the body defences
by causing dehydration (caused by vomiting and diarrhoea), which could lead to
convulsions and in extreme cases death. Investigations would have to come under the
Environmental Health Officer of the Local Authority. Specimen stools would be taken
along with possible samples from family members to try to ascertain the primary carrier
of the highly contagious disease. Health surveillance questions would need to be asked
such as, Have you eaten out anywhere recently? Food handlers would have to be
segregated from food handling areas.

The form of substances can come in various forms:-

• Solid.
• Liquid.
• Gas.
• Vapour.
• Fumes.
• Mist.
• Dust
• Fibres.

Target Organs and Systems.

DEFN. A target organ is an organ that has the affinity to attract chemicals and hazardous
substances. An example is alcohol affects the brain (drunkenness, hangover) with a
secondary effect of a hardened drinker being chronic liver problems.

There are 8 target organs and systems:

1. Genito Urinary - Kidney, bladder.
2. Cardio vascular - Heart, its vessels and circulation.
3. Gastro Intestinal - Salmonella.
4. Liver.
5. Neurological (CNS & Peripheral nerves) - Central nervous system (brain, spinal

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6. Skin - Dermatitis.
7. Respiratory – Lungs, nasal passage, voice box, larynx.
8. Reproductive – sterilility, hereditary effects.

Genito Urinary System.

An example would be Renal failure. This could be caused by over exposure to certain

Cardio Vascular System.

An example would be raised blood pressure due to stress, deep vein thrombosis in
long distance lorry drivers and vibration white finger.

Gastro Intestinal System.

An example would be Salmonella.

The liver has an affinity for dangerous substances, toxic in nature (alcohol and
paracetamol for example). The liver will store anything biological (hepatitis and weils
disease for example). Weils disease can be caused by exposure to the urine from female
rodents. People at high risk would be sewer workers.

Neurological System.
This could affect the Central Nervous System or the Peripheral Nerves. Exposure to
solvents, glues and even mercury poisoning can all affect the central nervous system.
Symptoms are obscure and often start as migraines and headaches. Peripheral nerves
come in two forms, motor nerves (involved with movement) and sensorary nerves
(feeling). An example of sensorary nerve damage is a severe burn that has no associated
pain which would indicate permanent sensorary nerve damage.

An example would be dermatitis (inflammation of the skin). It could be either Primary
contact dermatitis which is always localised e.g. sweat rash and could be caused by
detergents etc. The second form could be Allergic sensitising dermatitis. This form of
dermatitis could cause anaphylactic shock. An example of this type of dermatitis could be
caused by a doctor having an allergy to latex (latex gloves), a nut allergy or an allergic
reaction to an insect bite. A sensitised condition is one that as soon as there is exposure to
an allergy there would be no cure, hence further exposure to even a small amount would
cause the symptoms to reappear.

Respiratory System.
An example would be asbestosis caused by unguarded exposure to asbestos.

Reproductive System.
An example could be infertility caused by exposure to radiation. Radiographers would
be at high risk. The effect of the Chernobyl incident is a good example. Male sterility and

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the effects on future generations (birth defects) could be caused. If a pregnant woman is
exposed to radiation it could result in a still born birth. Children could be affected with
the result being that a girl could grow up and marry a man from outside the contaminated
zone and still give birth to children with birth defects. The reproductive could react to a
chemical such as Formaldehyde which could cause children to be born with severely
deformed limbs. Biorhythms could also affect your reproductive system with night and
shift workers at risk.

Possible Questions.
What happens when you breathe?
When you breathe in you suck in air which passes through your nose and throat. Hairs in
your nose filter out dust and bacteria carried in the air. The air is also moistened in your
nose. The moistened, warm air then passes down your trachea (windpipe) and into two
tubes called bronchi. The bronchi divide into small branches (bronchioli) that end in a
mass of air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs. On arrival at the alveoli, there is a diffusion of
oxygen into the bloodstream through blood capillaries and an effusion of carbon dioxide
from the bloodstream. This carbon dioxide is excreted when you breathe out. When you
breathe out the air is pushed out of the alveoli and passes through the bronchioli, through
the trachea and out through the nose and mouth.

Describe the Respiratory Defence Mechanisms?

The lungs have several mechanisms to protect themselves from contamination by
particles and infectious agents. The fine hairs in the nose provide the front-line barrier by
filtering out large dust particles and other materials. These dust particles are then usually
expelled from the nose by what we call sneezing. However, when individuals exercise or
work hard, they need to breathe through their mouths to get enough air, and the nasal
filtering system is bypassed. The cough reflex clears foreign material from the trachea
and main bronchi. Whenever irritating materials touch the walls of these airways, the
chest and lungs quickly contract. As a result, air is rapidly forced out of the lungs, which
usually expels the irritant. The trachea, bronchi, and larger bronchioles are lined with
fine, hair-like ciliary cells. These are covered with a thin layer of mucous that catches
foreign material. The cilia rhythmically beat and move the mucous-trapped material
(phlegm) up to the throat where it can be swallowed or spit out, and thus eliminated from
the body. This process is called the mucociliary escalator.

Lecture 23-01-08 Occupational Health (cont).

Farmers Lung.
This is caught from spores which arise from mouldy hay. The spores are inhaled and
infect the lungs. It is here that the infection multiplies. The infection starts with flu like
symptoms. The lung passages swell up leading to chest conditions which could become

Airborne contaminants.

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The following definitions are all relative to airborne contaminants:-
Dry fine particles which are airborne but could settle under gravity. Found in a variety of
industries, Construction, Carpentry and coal industry. Method of entry would be
inhalation with the target organs being the respiratory system.
Substances which are close to their boiling point and are in a gaseous state. Method of
entry could be inhalation/ absorption with the target organs being the central nervous
Substances which are above their boiling point. They have no definite volume or shape
and expand to fill any container it is introduced to.
Caused by the heating of metals. They are small metallic particles which have condensed
from the gaseous state.
Mists are suspended droplets formed by condensation from a gaseous state or the break-
up of liquids in air. It exists at or near boiling temperature but are close to a liquid. Mists
are often produced through spraying. Method of entry is inhalation.
Airborne contaminants can be found in Ferret pages 185/186.

Airborne contaminants can be removed by:-

✓ LEV – Local Exhaust Ventilation.
✓ Dilution Ventilation.

Local Exhaust Ventilation.

Local exhaust ventilation removes the hazardous gas, vapour or fume at its source
before it can contaminate the surrounding atmosphere and harm people working in the
vicinity. Such systems are commonly used for the extraction of welding fumes and dust
from woodworking machines. All exhaust ventilation systems have the following five
basic components:-

1. A collection hood and intake.

2. Ventilation ducting.
3. A filter or other air cleaning device.
4. A fan.
5. An exhaust duct.

The COSHH regulations require that such ventilation systems must be inspected at
least every 14 months by a competent person to ensure they are still working effectively.
The effectiveness of a ventilation system will be reduced by damaged ducting,
blocked or defective filters and poor fan performance. More common problems include
the unauthorised extension of the system, poor initial design, poor maintenance, incorrect
adjustments and a lack of inspection or testing. Routine maintenance should include
repair of any damaged ducting, checking filters, examination of the fan blades to ensure

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that there has been no dust accumulation, tightening all drive belts and a general
lubrication of moving parts.

A typical local exhaust and ventilation system.

This sketch maybe asked in a question so must be able to draw and label it.

Possible questions:-
Explain the Statutory Requirements of a LEV system? (2)
The system would need to be inspected and tested at least every 14 months by
specialists. A record would be given which could be used as evidence or by
inspection by the HSE.
What are the inspection requirements?
There should be a visual inspection, any reported problems investigated and
remedied, ppm’s carried out as per supplier demands.
Dust has been observed on surfaces where it is not expected. What would you expect
to be the problem and how would these problems present themselves?
• Poor fan performance.
• Poor initial design.
• Unauthorised alterations to the LEV system.

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• Blocked filters.
• Damaged ducting.
• Incomplete ppm’s
• No statutory inspections carried out.
• Visible dust particles.
• Burning smell.
• Coughing.
• Sneezing.
• Bringing up of phlegm.
• Increased absence.
• Sore throat/eyes.
• Itching.
• Reduced lung function found during health surveillance.

Dilution Ventilation.
Dilution ventilation is a term used to describe a method of extracting airborne
contaminants from a particular area. It creates a flow of air using an extraction fan often
backed up by an inlet fan. Opening a window could also be considered however, this may
be uncertain as it could be hampered by wind direction or weather conditions.

Possible question.
Outline the circumstances in which Dilution ventilation might be appropriate?
Dilution Ventilation could take place where LEV is not practical i.e. where you do not
require an exchange of air. It is usually used where there is low toxicity. It could be used
in certain circumstances in the construction industry, where vapours could lay in low
level excavations, to replace contaminated air. The area must be tested and monitored
regularly to ensure recontamination has occurred. It is important to note that
contamination could come from several sources not just one. If just one source is
identified then isolation at source could occur.

Environmental monitoring,
Results from environmental monitoring would need analysing and machinery must be
calibrated by competent personnel as required in the manufacturers and suppliers
Environmental monitoring could be a direct read or indirect read. A direct read means
that the user or team can read it. An indirect read means that the sample would need to be
submitted for laboratory analysis. A breathalyser is an example of a direct read. And
blood tests sent by a doctor is an example of an indirect read.

Advantages of a direct read.

• Speed of results are very quick.
• Quick results means quick remedial action.
• Samples are not prone to contamination.
• More versatility.

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Disadvantages of a direct read.
• Mis-interpretation of results due to a colour blind operator.
• Can only detect what the eye can see.
• Testing carried out by non-professionals.
• Readings often only give basic data.
• There is no recall system.
• Tests carried out in a non-controlled environment.
• Test meters could become damaged.
• Readings are prone to human error.

Advantages of an indirect read.

• Reliant on a machine which is often in a controlled environment.
• More in depth findings.
• Carried out by professional personnel.
• Reports are usually more in depth.
• There is often a recall system in case of laboratory error.

Disadvantages of indirect read.

• Slow speed of results.
• Slow results means a slow remedial action.
• Sample prone to contamination during transit.
• The specimen could react with the fixative if not researched.

Lecture 30-01-08

Stain Detector Tube.

Stain detector tubes use direct reading glass indicator tubes filled with chemical
crystals which change colour when a particular hazardous substance passes through them.
The method of operation is very similar to the breathalyser used by the police to check
alcohol levels in motorists. The glass tube is opened at each end and fitted into a pumping
device (either hand or electrically operated). A specific quantity of contaminated air,
containing the hazardous substance, is drawn through the tube and the crystals in the tube
change colour in the direction of the air flow. The tube is calibrated such that the extent
of the colour change along the tube indicates the concentration of the hazardous
substance within the air sample.
This method can only be effective if there are no leakages within the instrument and
the correct volume of air is used. The instrument should be held within 30 cm of the nose
of the person whose atmosphere is being tested. A large range of tubes are available. This
technique of sampling is known as grab or spot sampling since it is taken at one point.
The advantages of the technique are that it is quick, relatively simple to use and
inexpensive. There are, however, several disadvantages:
• The instrument cannot be used to measure concentrations of dust or fume.
• The accuracy of the reading is approximately +/-25%.
• It will yield a false reading if other contaminants present react with the crystals.

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• It can only give an instantaneous reading not an average reading over the working
period (TWA).
• The tubes are very fragile with a limited shelf life.

The stain detector tube would contain a filter and each packet would be accompanied by
a manufacturer’s data sheet.

Sampling could be either spot/grab sampling or continuous sampling of which some
could be long term. A breathalyser and a blood test are examples of spot sampling.
Sampling in confined spaces could use both sampling types. A drop test would give you
spot testing as it would give a test at that exact time. If people were to enter, meters could
be used to monitor oxygen levels etc. Limits could be set with an alarm sounding should
these limits be exceeded. This could tell the operators that an evacuation could be
required. This type of metering would be a continuous sample which would be on for the
duration that the operatives are in the environment. Thermometers fixed to a wall in a
cold room would be long term continuous sampling. Ph meters in a water treatment plant
provide long term continuous sampling.
Continuous monitoring could be for a period of time that is static. For example when
cleaning a tank, a monitoring device is used to constantly give readouts over any length
of time. These would be recorded, plotted and could be used as evidence. It often
contains alarm monitors which will trigger to warn of danger, enabling escape.
Continuous sampling could often be long term. Long term often uses a static unit which
will require ppm. It could be computerised, sometimes giving printouts. An example of
long term sampling would be pH monitoring in a water treatment plant.

Sampling Equipment.
Noise Meter: is a meter that is used to sample noise levels. It is used to measure dB or
Audiometer: is a meter that is used to detect hearing levels.
Photometer: is a meter used to sample levels of light. It gives a value in LUX.
Hygrometer: is a meter used to measure humidity. It is used anywhere where a humid
area is required.

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Protective Equipment.
Respiratory Protective Equipment. Any type of ppe including Respiratory Protective
Equipment (RPE) is problematic since its integrity could be breached (rips in plastic
gloves etc). It must fit properly if not it would leak, therefore it must be assembled
correctly and never modified. It shall be well fitting, it must be tested (testing of the seal).
It is not always suitable for people with beards. It should be fitted for people with eye
sight problems either with spectacle rests or with prescription lenses. It must be cleaned
correctly after use, stored correctly and must be used for its intended purpose. It should
never be picked up by it’s straps and must be used for the correct purpose. If filters are
used they must not be damaged and must be kept dry and changed as per manufacturers
instructions. Users are to be trained and certificated. Certificates must be current and the
trainers must have up to date training. PPE is the last form in risk control hierarchy.
People may not want to use it i.e. take it off. With gloves as ppe, manual dexterity would
be compromised. Goggles could mist up. It is hard to understand people whilst wearing
RPE. There must be correct waste disposal arrangements for disposable ppe. All
equipment must have a kite mark (CE) and conform to international standards. If there is
a change in process, product or environment then ppe must be reviewed as part of the
review of the risk assessment or SSOW. All ppe must be classified as suitable i.e. goggles
must be of the correct rating when working with lasers. Always adhere to manufacturers
instructions. Wearing RPE would require a permit-to-work to be issued.

Lecture 06-02-08 COSHH – Hazardous substances.

Hazardous substances can be classed as substances that could do harm, they could
be in a variety of forms (physical properties). The physical properties relate to the form
the substance presents itself (e.g. solid, liquid, gas) and the harmful effects it could have.
The harmful effects include irritant, harmful and toxic.

Relevant legislation with regards to hazardous substances includes:

• HASAWA 1974
• Ionising Radiation Regs
• Asbestos at Work Regs
• Lead at Work Regs

Note that the Ionising Radiation Regs, Asbestos at Work Regs, Lead at Work Regs are
not covered by COSHH because they are classed as that dangerous they are considered to
have earned their own regulations.

The HSE have produced various Approved Codes of Practice to cover hazardous
substances they include:
• Toxic practices
• Carcinogenic
• Biological practices

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Hse guidance is also produced and often looks at diseases and systems.
Changes under the 2002 COSHH regulations.
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 came
into force on 21 November 2002, and replaced the 1999 Regulations. The new
regulations implement the health requirements of the European Unions Chemical Agents
Directive (CAD). The Directive is designed to protect the health and safety of workers
from the risks from chemical agents, and largely follows the well-accepted principles
already present in UK legislation.
Most of the changes to the Regulations simply make explicit what was previously
implicit in the 1999 regulations and Approved Codes of Practice. But the Regulations do
• A new requirement for employers, in certain circumstances, to draw up detailed
procedures for dealing with accidents, incidents and emergencies that involve
hazardous substances (Reg 13).
• A number of changes to make clear that the Regulations apply to Biological
agents as well as to chemicals.
• Extensively revised ACoP to support the new COSHH Regulations. The new
COSHH ACoP also includes an appendix providing guidance on the @control of
substances that cause occupational asthma’.
• New and revised definitions provided in regulation 2.

Substantial Extensions to COSHH 2002 include:

• A substantial extension of Regulation 6 concerning risk assessments.
• A substantial extension of Regulation 7 concerning prevention and control
• New requirements regarding monitoring in Regulation 10.
• Further requirements regarding health surveillance in Regulation 11.
• Extensions of Regulation 12 on information, instruction and training.

Reg 6.
Concerning risk assessments must be more in depth and must take into consideration
people around them.

Reg 7.
There is a risk control hierarchy when dealing with COSHH.
The risk control hierarchy is as follows:
• Elimination at source.
• Substitution.
• Provision of Engineering controls.
• Provision of Supervisory (people) controls.
• Provision of Personal Protective Equipment.

Reg 10.
New requirements for items used whilst monitoring, they must be:
• Fit for purpose.

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• Calibrated by trained people and keeping in-line with manufacturers

Reg 11.
Surveillance must be suitable and sufficient for the workplace.

• Increased information for substances held or released.
• Recorded training for people working with hazardous substances.
• Instruction must be given to operators on how to safely use and mix the
substances. Would also include disposal.
• Supervision for people working with hazardous substances, there must be
relevant supervision levels.

HSE COSHH Essentials: Easy steps to control chemicals.

• Provides advice on controlling the use of chemicals for a range of tasks
• Guides through steps and asks information about the tasks and chemicals.
• Requires the provision of certain basic information about the substances in use.

COSHH Action Plan.

1. Appoint a COSHH Co-ordinator who will appoint a team under guidance. The
team must represent all area, including maintenance, first aid and stores. Cleaning
contractors should also be represented on the team.
2. Review existing circumstances – Audit to see what is currently being used.
3. Gather information i.e. if chemicals are being not used or are damaged they must
be disposed of safely.
4. Gather information on the remaining viable substances. You would need to know
the form, make of substances and whether or not a data sheet is held. An
alphabetical list should be produced. Check the dates on the data sheets and
ensure they are the current edition. If the data sheets are not the current issue then
the current copy must be requested from the supplier. These data sheets must be
copied and circulated as the HSE could question people about the chemicals being

Sources of COSHH Information.

• The product label.
• TREM cards (the TREM card should only be for the load being carried).
• EH40.

Contents of a MSDS.
• Product Name.
• Date.
• Manufacturer name.
• Composition.

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• Fire precautions.
• Storage.
• First aid procedures.
• Risk/safety phrases.
• Exposure levels (short term/long term/WEL).
• Transportation.
• Disposal methods.
• Properties.
• Nature of hazards.
• Handling.
• CHIP symbols.
• Reactability.
• Stability.
• Dilution
• Emergency procedures.
• Contact details.
• Environmental Considerations.

EH40 contains an A – Z of substances and it is published annually. It only focuses on
substances that could be inhaled, however it will list a secondary effect to skin and if it is
cancerous. It will give a WEL relative to the substance. Whilst having a WEL it will also
give a TWA (Time Weighted Average). A TWA is a level of time. TWA is divided into
different categories, STEL, LTEL. A long term exposure limit under WEL is measured
over 8 hrs. A STEL is based over 15 minutes. The STEL would be higher than the LTEL.
EH40 is suitable for large volumes but it must not contain any other substance. EH40 is
not suitable for an open environment. All tanks must be surrounded by a bund which
must be able to contain 110% of the contents if spilled. The integrity of the bund must be
intact. It must not get filled with rainwater if outside. It must be inspected for any rubbish
and debris. It must not be cracked or broken and must not be used for 2 tanks.

New Legislation.
DSEAR – Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmosphere Regs replace HFL and LPG

Need to look up CHIP3

Idiots guide to CHIP3
Employers guide to COSHH Regs.

Lecture 20-02-08. – Noise/Vibration.

DEFN. Noise can be defined as an unwanted sound. It could have a negative effect on
humans. Sound is energy and noise dissipates (spreads out then disappears, similar to the

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ripple effect on water when a stone is thrown in to it.). Noise wants to dissipate and will
rebound off solid objects (echo). Noise has various frequencies (pitches) not all of which
are audible to the human ear. The measurement of noise is taken in decibels which is the
equivalent to 1/10th of a bel.

• Damage to your hearing caused by noise is permanent.

• Almost any power tool will make noise above the danger level in the correct
• In construction, measurements may be taken in pascals due to pressure problems.

Relevant Legislation.
• Noise at Work Regulations 1989
• As a result of The Physical Agents Directive:
Noise At Work Regulations 2005
Guidance for employers HSE

You must reduce noise to the lowest possible. You must provide Information, Training,
Instruction and Supervision especially for young employees. Noise action levels were
reduced based on the knowledge that every time you reduce the decibel level by 3, you
halve the ill effect to the human ear. Because of this PPE would be classed as the last
resort. If the HSE inspected they would expect to see evidence of a risk control hierarchy,
that is substitute for equipment, quieter by design. PPM would need to be closely
monitored due to noises from machine wear (defective bearings for example). At any
level a risk assessment should be carried out.

Noise Exposure.(based on certain action values)

A noise monitor would be used to measure noise and to measure the daily equivalent
and weekly equivalent.
LEPD is the level of exposure to a person over an 8 hour day.
LEPW would be the level of exposure to a person over a working week. (this length
could be variable depending upon how many days of the week the person would be

Maximum Levels.
Maximum noise (peak sound pressure) during a working day
LEQ would be a level equivalent.
The limit value is 87dB and would be against the law to exceed this value.

Action Level Values.

• Lower exposure action values.
• Daily or weekly 80dB – 85dB.
• Peak sound pressure 135dB.

• Upper exposure action values.

• Daily or weekly 87dB.
• Peak sound pressure 137dB.

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Readings must be taken by a competent person, over 24hrs if shift working, over the total
number of days that would be worked. After analysing the results a dedicated hearing
protection zone must be set up. Signs should be put up and only certain people would be
authorised to enter. If they enter PPE must be worn and health surveillance must be

Employer Duties.
• It is the employers’ duty to assess risks to the employees.
• The employer must take action to reduce noise sources.
• The employer must provide hearing protection but only as a last resort if all other
controls within the risk control hierarchy have been followed.
• It is the employers’ duty to ensure legal limits are not exceeded.
• The employer must provide Information on noise sources and the effects, Training
to employees in SSOW including how to use and maintain their PPE, Instruction
on the methods of work and provide adequate Supervision to employees
especially the young.(ITIS).
• The employer must introduce a health surveillance regime to continually monitor
their employees health levels.

It would be the employees duty to inform/report anything affecting their health.

This drawing does not need to be drawn and is for information purposes only.

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Ill Health Effects.
• Acute.
❖ Blast deafness (could also affect balance).
❖ Acute Tinnitus. (Ringing in ears).
❖ Temporary Threshold Shift.

• Chronic.
❖ Permanent Tinnitus.
❖ Permanent Threshold Shift.
❖ NIHL – Noise Induced Hearing Loss (this would be reportable under RIDDOR).

Control Measures.
• Relocation – Could the equipment be moved?
• Orientation – Know where the noise is in order to avoid the area.
• Screen – Screen the area off.
• Absorption – could the noise be absorbed. Insulation to a music room for
• Silencers – Exhausts.
• Isolation – Put the equipment into isolation.
• Lagging – wrap material around.
• Damping – muffling noise.
• Enclosure – enclosures for noise must be complete to prevent noise escape.

The main control methods concerned with the course are Absorption, Silencing and
enclosures. Absorption walls could be used effectively in areas where the sound is
reflected from walls. The walls of rooms housing noisy equipment would be lined with
sound absorbent material such as foam. A music room/studio is an example. Silencers are
normally fitted to engines which are exhausting gases to atmosphere. Silencers consist of
absorbent material or baffles. Car exhaust systems are prime examples of silencers in
everyday use. Using enclosures as a method of control is by surrounding the equipment
with a good sound insulating material which could reduce the sound levels by up to 30
dB(A). Care would needed to be taken to ensure that the machine does not become
overheated. An example would be the enclosing of noisy machinery.

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Depends on Frequency, force and Duration.

HAV – Hand Arm Vibration.

WBV – Whole Body Vibration.

WBV affects the nervous system and circulation.

Hand Arm Vibration.

Hand arm vibration (HAVS) describes a group of diseases caused by the exposure of
the hand and arm to external vibration. The best known disease is vibration white finger
in which the circulation of the blood, particularly in the hands, is adversely affected by
the vibrations. The early symptoms are tingling and numbness felt in the fingers, usually
some time after the end of the working shift. As exposure continues, the tips of the
fingers go white and then the whole hand may be affected. This results in a loss of grip
strength and manual dexterity. Attacks could be triggered by damp and/or cold conditions
and, on warming, ‘pins and needles’ are experienced. If the condition is allowed to
persist, more serious symptoms become apparent including discoloration and
enlargement of the fingers. In very advanced cases, gangrene can develop leading to the
amputation of the affected hand or finger. The risk of developing HAVS depends on the
frequency of vibration and length of exposure.

Whole Body Vibration.

Whole body vibration (WBV) is caused by the vibrations from machinery passing
through into the body, either through the feet of standing workers or the buttocks of
sitting workers. The most common ill-health effect is severe back pain which, in severe
cases, may result in permanent injury. The two most common occupations which are
affected by WBV, are pneumatic drillers and agricultural or horticultural machinery
operatives. Control measures include the proper use of the equipment, including correct
adjustments of air or hydraulic pressures, seating and, in the cases of vehicles, correct
suspension, tyre pressures and appropriate speeds to suit the terrain. Other control
measures include the selection of suitable equipment with low vibration characteristics,
work/job rotation, good maintenance and fault reporting procedures.

Exposure limits/Action values.

The Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005 introduced for both hand-arm
and whole body vibrations, a daily exposure limit and action values. These values are as
Hand Arm Vibration
a) the daily exposure limit value normalized to an 8hr reference period is 5m/s2.
b) the daily exposure action value normalized to an 8hr reference period is 2.5m/s2
Whole Body Vibration.
a) the daily exposure limit value normalized to an 8hr reference period is 1.15m/s2.
b) the daily exposure action value normalized to an 8hr reference period is 0.5m/s2

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An exposure limit value must not be exceeded. If an action value is exceeded, then
action must be taken to reduce the value.
A risk assessment is required to measure the value and identify the measures that
need to be taken to meet the requirement of the regulations.

Precautions against Vibration.

• Keep warm and dry.
• Ensure that any PPE being worn is not breached.
• Ensure that the correct form of wet weather equipment is being worn in adverse
weather conditions.
• Ensure that personnel have Information on Hand Arm Vibration.
• Ensure that personnel have Training on how to spot Hand Arm Vibration.
• Ensure that employees have Instruction on equipment accessories and on how to hold
the equipment correctly. They must be able to read manufacturers instructions.
• Employees must have Supervision with regards to fluid, adequate breaks, hand
checks, questionnaires, toolbox talks, PPM, PAT testing, regular inspections and
• Must have adequate welfare facilities especially in cold/wet winter months.
• PPE should be appropriate for vibration impact, therefore it would need to conform to
set standards.
• If HAV is spotted, job rotation or redeployment should take place. You should advise
the person to stop smoking (to aid circulation). Reporting of the condition should be

Lecture 27-02-08 Radiation.

Radiation is a ray often with particles in it. There are 2 types of radiation, Ionising
Radiation and Non-ionising Radiation.

Ionising Radiation similar to that emitted during the Chernobyl Incident is governed by
The Ionising Radiation Regulations due to the fact that it so dangerous. Non-Ionising
Radiation (LASERS etc) are governed by COSHH Regulations

Possible Question
What is Ionisation?
When atoms decay they become unstable and when they do so they release energy which
contains radiation (Alpha particles, Beta particles and Gamma rays). This is known as
ionisation. For the atom to remain stable, it does not want energy.

Forms of Radiation.

• Alpha Particles: consist of two protons and two neutrons and have a positive
charge. They have little power to penetrate the skin and can be stopped using
flimsy materials such as paper. Their main route into the body is by ingestion.

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• Beta Particles: are high speed electrons whose power of penetration depends on
their speed, but penetration is usually restricted to 2 cm of skin and tissue. They
can be stopped using Aluminium Foil. There are normally two routes of entry into
the body – inhalation and ingestion.
• Gamma Rays: which are similar to X-rays, are electromagnetic radiations and
have far greater penetrating power than alpha or beta particles. They are produced
from nuclear reactions and can pass through the body.
• Neutrons: not required for exam.
• X-Rays: Radiation in a man made form.

In addition Ionising Radiation will affect all cell matter in the body. It has a Fatal
Attraction to DNA. Radiation affects the reproductive systems (Male and Female).
Chernobyl is an example.

Units of Measurements.
Measured in Grays or Sieverts. (A realistic measurement would be taken in mili-
A unit of Radioactivity = Becquerel (Bq). A Becquerel represents a unit of
disintegration (decay) per second.

Routes of Entry.
• Inhalation.
• Ingestion.
• Injection.
• Absorption.

• Medical – X-Rays.
• Military – Weapons.
• Manufacturing – Test Instruments, Contaminated Waste Disposal (spillage,
leaking etc).

Health Effects.

• Acute.:
❖ Reddening of the skin (erythema). Blistering and Ulceration.

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❖ Cataracts.
❖ Radiation Sickness i.e. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea.

• Chronic:
❖ Hair loss
❖ Cell damage (genetic mutation)
❖ Sterility
❖ Leukaemia (white blood cells count abnormal)
❖ Carcinoma, Convulsions, Death.


Time Shielding

Radiological Protection Triangle.

Radiation is governed by inverse square law. Inverse square law tells us that if we
increase the distance from, time of exposure and level of shielding from radiation then
you will greatly reduce the ill effect from radiation.

Protection against Ionising Radiation.

• Isolation.
• Segregation.
• PPE.
• Shielding.
• Reduced exposure time.
• Monitoring.

• UVA or Sun
• Microwaves.
• Sunbeds.
• Welding.
• Infra red for foundry workers

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• Lasers.

If asked in the exam to discuss two forms pick Sun and Infra red for foundry workers
since the others are either too complex or has not enough info linked to them. Sun
protection would include sun block, regular fluid intake, shade, IT IS on protection
methods, keeping things covered and hats. Foundry workers protection includes fluids,
ppe, ppm, SSOW and health surveillance.

Health effects of Non-ionising Radiation.

• Ultra violet – eyes & skin burns, cataracts, erythema (redness) of the skin e.g.
sunburn, skin cancer and premature ageing.
• Welding arcs – photokerititis (arc eye).
• Infra red – eyes, circulation, skin burns etc

Control Methods.
• Segregate, Enclosure, Shielding.
• Skin protection, sun blocks and cover up.
• PPE, gloves in furnaces etc.
• Glasses marked suitable for the type and degree of radiation.
• Timing mechanisms to alarm and notify of exposure to duration.

Lasers (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation).

• In the visible spectrum.
• Does not follow inverse square law.
• The Higher Frequency the greater the power potential.
• Exposure to main beam could damage eyes.
• Wavelength if in UV/IR regions radiation.
• Reflects off surfaces (bounces).
• Lasers could be Continuous Wave (CW), Pulsed or series Pulsed.

Hazardous waste regs.

• Teratogenic: an agent that interrupts or alters the normal development of a foetus,
with results that are evident at birth, e.g. a chemical, virus, or ionizing radiation
and involves serious acute or chronic health risks.
• Mutagenic: an external agent that increases the rate of mutation of cells or
organisms, e.g. radiation or some chemicals or viruses. May induce hereditary
genetic defects or increase their incidence. Lays dormant and may also miss a
generation, prevalent in the male species.

Lecture 05-03-08 Machine Hazards.

The provision and Use of Work Regulations 1992 (PUWER) affects all machinery
There are a variety of hazards associated with machinery:-
• Traps.
• Impact.

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• Contact.
• Entanglement.
• Ejections.

Traps – Shear nearly friction, in running nips, drawing in (sucked in)

Impact – from a pendulum of a robot or a fly press handle could impact on you. You
could be hit by a piece of work on a lathe, machine being placed too close to a walkway,
with the operator not having enough room to work in could cause an impact injury.
Contact – Cuts or abrasions e.g. bumped up against a sanding belt.
Entanglement – anything to entangle must revolve e.g. a pillar drill.
Ejection – something to come out of a machine e.g. abrasive wheel not being dressed
correctly may explode. They should be fitted and dressed correctly by a competent
person. Bits will also fly through the air e.g. swarf (metal scrap from a cutting machine)
and eye protection should always be worn.

Non mechanical hazards.

• Noise and vibration.
• Access slips, trips and falls, falling and moving objects, obstructions and
• Electricity (including static), shock and burns.
• Fire and explosion.
• Pressure and vacuum.
• High/low temperature.
• Inhalation of dust/fume/mist.
• Suffocation.
• Radiation both ionising and non-ionising.
• Biological, viral and bacterial from humidity growth of bacteria due to a build up
of spores and stagnant fluids.
• Psycho-physiological effects (mental overload/underload).
• Physiological effects (musculo-skeletal disorders).
• Human errors.
• Hazards from the environment (elements).

In many cases it will be practicable to install safeguards which protect the operator from
mechanical and non-mechanical hazards. For example, a guard may prevent access to hot
or electrically live parts as well as to moving ones. The use of guards which reduce noise
levels at the same time are also common. As a matter of policy, machinery hazards
should be dealt with in this integrated way instead of dealing with each hazard in

Machinery purchased after 1993 has stringent specifications and any machinery
purchased prior to 1993 do not have these measures. If after 1993 any machinery had
been sold it then becomes a new piece of machinery and these control measures would
then have to be put in place.

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Design of machinery.
To eliminate and reduce danger and reduce the need to approach must be included in the
design criteria. You must make it difficult to access using fixed guards where
appropriate. Suitable protective equipment including trip devices through pressure mats
must be provided. Sufficient IT IS should be provided, the machine should be well
maintained and all manuals should be in the correct language.

Design features and controls.

• Correct type and user friendly.
• Type most suitable.
• Unlikely to be confusing.
• Easily distinguished by shape, size and texture (emergency button switches,
dashes etc).
• Directly linked to operation.
• Design feature.
• Good maintenance procedures.
• Guards in place if other methods fail to make machine safe.
• Safety interlocks (natural defence system to prevent operation).
• Locking isolators (immobilising).
• Safety by position.
• Keep dangerous parts out of reach.
• Layout – keep machines far enough apart to allow safe movement around the
machine (paper press).

Guards must be designed with the people/operator in mind. For strength and durability,
effect on machine reliability, you must be able to see the operation (mesh or transparent
panel), effect on other hazards e.g. vibration and extra noise.
• The perfect operator.
• The sloppy worker.
• The careless worker.

Good maintenance procedures must be provided, ppm to monitor and in some cases

Hierarchy of Guarding.
• Fixed guarding.
• Interlock built into machinery.
• Adjustable.
• Trips and devices.

• Fixed guards are always bolted.
• Physical barrier to prevent access.
• No moving parts, robust, withstands process and environmental conditions.

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• Removable only with a special tool e.g. spanner:- increased reliability.

• Maintenance difficulties and repairs.
• No protection when removed – open to injury.
• Deliberate removal – special tool for access.

The features are that deliberate removal of a fixed guard is an offence: it is a breach of
liability and duty. If it is removed for maintenance purposes, it must be replaced
immediately afterwards.
• Not suitable for all machinery e.g. direct feed this would then have an interlock
• Mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatics linked to machine controls when
interlock is used.
• When closed the machine would operate.
• Open when machine is at rest.
• Open guard ensure safe machine.
• Maintenance costs are higher.
• Need to design out failure to harm on breakdown etc.

Opening and closing of guard will not allow machine to operate.

Circumventing is when guards are jammed and tampered with to continue productivity.

Adjustable Guards.
• Unavoidable exposure to dangerous parts when machine is in use.
• Prevents access only when a danger exists (a fixed guard with adjustable
• Design – machine non operational with open guard. Only operable with guard

A guard relies on:-

• Correct adjustment and maintenance.
• Adequate IT IS.

Trip devices.
Trip devises operate when a person approaches the danger area
• Triggers automatic stoppage or reverse prior to danger point.
• Sensitive trip mechanisms.
• Fast stoppage.
• Brake assisted sometimes.
• Trip wires, photoelectric beams, pressure mats can be used to prevent entry, these
will also be designed with birds in mind.
• Over ride maintenance.
• Software systems failure or electrical failure.

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Two handed control device.
The advantages are:-
• It is simple.
• Easy to maintain and repair.
• Gives you space and good visibility.
• Both hands must be on the controls.
The disadvantages are:-
• It requires strength and character.
• Easily over ridden.

Lecture 12-03-08 Electricity.

P.A.T Testing. The following is a checklist for user checks:-

• Is there a recent P.A.T test label attached to the equipment.
• Are there any bare wires visible?
• Is the cable covering undamaged and free from cuts and abrasions (apart from
light scuffing).
• Is the cable too long or too short? (Does it present a trip hazard).
• Is the plug in good condition, for example, the casing is not cracked and the pins
are not bent.
• Are there any taped or non-standard joints in the cable?
• Is the outer covering (sheath) of the cable gripped where it enters the plug or the
equipment. (The coloured insulation of the internal wires should not be visible).
• Is the outer case of the equipment damaged or loose and are all screws in place.
• Are there any overheating or burn marks on the plug, cable, sockets or the
• Are the trip devices (RCDs) working effectively (test by pressing the test button).
• Is the polarity correct?
• Are the cables and cores effectively terminated?
• Is the equipment suitable for the environment?

Electrical Fires/Explosion.
Causes include:-
• Malfunction.
• Lack of maintenance.
• Incorrect use of installations and equipment.
• Ignition – Heat, Light, Electric motors.
• Short circuits – overheating cables.
• Flammable gases and vapours.
• Static electrical discharges.

Short Circuits.
Causes include:-
• Faulty Insulation.

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• Unintended flow of current between two conductors or between one conductor
and earth.
• Twisted or bent cables.
• Depends on voltage, distance and condition of insulating materials.
• Near to water, due to leaks.

Fault Development.
• Current increases, surrounding area heats up.
• If the fuse fails to operate the wrong fuse rating could be used.
• Excess current jeopardises the fuse.

Combustible Materials.
• Should be kept away from heated wires.
• Could be ignited by hot sparks.

Protection Devices.
• Fuse – Protects the equipment rather than the person.
• RCD – Protects the person from the electricity supply.
• RV – reduces the severity of electrical system by reduced voltage e.g. 110V in a
transformer with centre tapped to earth.
• Double Insulation – Used with modern equipment.

• Must use the correct Amp rating.
• Gives equipment protection.
• Action is given in an over current situation.
• Limitation: usage of incorrect size fuses and slow response times.

• Senses leakage. 30mA current to earth and breaks the circuit within 30 msecs.
• Rapid response affords some protection against shock not like a fuse.
• Sensitive and reliable.
• Simple and safe testing for non-electrical personnel.

Reduced Voltage:-
• Use of voltage below supply level for ancillary services.
• To protect operators.
• Down to 50 volts.
• Less current to cause injury.

Double Insulation:-
• The provision of two separate layers of insulation between live parts and the part
being handled.
• Do not need to have an earth connection.
• Must not be damaged.

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Electrical Hazards.
Electrical hazards can be remembered by using the acronym BSAFE, with the hazards
• Burns.
• Shock.
• Arcing.
• Fire.
• Explosion (static).

Effects of shock.
The initial effect of an electrical shock would be pain, with possible electrical burns.
The current flowing through the body would cause the muscles to contract often
causing the victim to grip tighter on the live conductor. In severe cases this would be
followed by unconsciousness and convulsions. Severe cases could lead to breathing
stopping and possibly death. There may be entrance and exit wound evidence and
evidence where the electricity has tracked under the skin.

Should a shock occur to a work colleague the first action would be to eliminate the
supply in a safe manner to prevent anyone else receiving a shock. You should send
for help and ensure the area is safe. You must ensure that any first aiders do not
receive an electric shock. Place the victim into s safe position ideally the recovery
position. With the victim in a safe position it is then possible to search for
entrance/exit wounds. The incident must be reported to RIDDOR by the quickest
practicable means and with the use of form F2508.
Permits & Controls.
• General entry point permits. This would only permit access to enter the area
only it does not cover electrical isolation.
• Electrical Isolation Certificate. This has its own status covers the electrical
• Controls would include:

The electricity supply company has one of its conductors solidly connected to the earth
and every circuit supplied by the company must have one of its conductors connected to
earth. This means that if there is a fault, such as a break in the circuit, the current, known
as the earth fault current will return directly to earth, which forms the circuit of least
resistance, thus maintaining the supply circuit. This process is known as Earthing.

Where other potential metallic conductors exist near to electrical conductors in a
building, they must be connected to the main earth terminal to ensure equipotential
bonding of all conductors to earth. This applies to gas, water and central heating pipes
and other devices such as lighting protection systems. Supplementary bonding is required

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in bathrooms and kitchens where, for example, metal sinks and other metallic equipment
surfaces are present. This involves the connection of a conductor from the sink to a water
supply pipe which has been earthed by equipotential bonding. There have been several
fatalities due to electric shocks from ‘live’ service pipes or kitchen sinks.

Lecture 19-03-08 Fire.

Classes of fire.
How fire spreads.
Principles of combustion.
Heat transfer.

Fire prevention and fire precautions are both linked by Fire risk assessment and controls.

The appropriate legislation would be The Regulatory Reforms Fire Safety Order.

The Fire Triangle.

The fire triangle is based on the principles of combustion (burning).

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Flammable Gases
Flammable liquids / solids

The Fire

Always present in air SOURCE
Additional sources from Hot Surfaces
Oxidising substances. Electrical Equipment
Static Electricity
Smoking/Naked flame

Must be able to draw and label in an exam.

Principles of Combustion.
• Oxygen, fuel and an ignition source all need to be present for fire. The strategy in
the event of a fire is to remove some or all of the items and therefore interfere
with the combustion process.
Examples would be:-
• To remove Heat – Cool.
• To remove Oxygen – Smother.
• To remove Fuel – Starve.

Methods of Extinguishing.
• Starvation (Removal of Fuel).
• Smother (Removal of Oxygen).
• Cooling (Interfering chemically with the combustion process).

Sources of Ignition.
• Naked flames.
• External sparks.
• Internal sparks.
• Hot surfaces.

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• Static electricity.

External Sparks: Grinding metals, welding, impact tools, electrical switchgear.

Naked Flames: Smoking materials, heating and cooking.
Internal Sparks: Electrical (faulty & normal) machinery, lighting.
Hot Surfaces: Lighting, cooking, heating appliances, process equipment, poor ventilation,
faulty or badly lubricated equipment, hot bearings/drive belts etc.

There would also be an Arson potential. The remedy to limit the arson potential would be
to employ security etc and to improve management controls.

• Warning Signs.
• Hot Work Permits.
• Earth Bonding.
• Prohibit Smoking.
• Safe Systems of Work.
• Authorised Competent operatives.

Sources of Fuel.
• Solids: Wood, paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, foam, textiles, wall paper,
• Liquids: Paints, varnishes, thinners, adhesives, petrol, white spirits, paraffin,
acetone, vapours.
• Gases: Vapours usually heavier than air (fall to lower levels) and catch fire in the
correct concentration with air. This is called flash flame.
• Gases: Flammable include LPG (liquid petroleum gas) in cylinders usually
Butane, Propane, Acetylene (used for welding), hydrogen.

An explosion can occur if the air/gas mixture is within the explosive range.

Oxygen in Air.
Oxygen in air is enhanced by:-
• Natural or powered ventilation systems.
• Cylinders providing oxygen.
• Nitrates, chlorates, Chromates and Peroxides release oxygen as they burn i.e. they
are oxidising.

It is worth noting that Rust depletes oxygen.

Static Electricity.
Static electricity is a potential source of ignition and comes in a variety of forms.
Lightening is a natural form of static electricity. High voltage static sparks can be emitted
from materials separation:-
• Unwinding plastic.

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• Pouring highly flammable liquids, walking across insulated floors, Removing
synthetic materials such as overalls could all produce static.
• Static is also prone to develop in dry atmospheres such as flour silos etc.

Fire Terminology.
The following terminology must be known for the exam:

Flash Point – A vapour or gas capable of being ignited momentarily by an outside source
but will go out as there is insufficient vapour or gas being evolved to continue.
Fire Point - Further heat is applied when more vapour/gas evolves and enough to sustain
a flame when ignited.
Auto Ignition – further heat is applied and fuel will now ignite without external source,
this is known as self ignition. (an example would be spontaneous combustion of hay).
Upper and Lower Flammable Limits – These are the richest and weakest concentrations
of flammable gas or vapours which when mixed with air are capable of ignition and
flame propagation.

Flammable Range.
• Between upper & lower flammable limits increases as the temperature increases.
• Within this range, no flame is required as the fuel could auto ignite.

Principles of heat transfer (spread of fire)

• Convection (Hot air rises, roof voids etc.)
• Conduction (Transmission through materials)
• Radiation (Transmission by heat waves)
• Direct Burning (Contact – direct flame)

Direct burning is a combination of convection, conduction and radiation.

Smoke Spread Within Buildings.

Smoke will get trapped within spaces between structures.
• The smoke will spread horizontally until spaces are filled.
• Smoke will pass through holes, gaps – ceilings, floors and walls etc.
• Smoke will rapidly rise up staircases and lift wells to all areas left open.
• The temperature will rapidly rise.
• Toxic smoke and gases may be released during the route.

Classes of Fire.
• A, B, C, D and Electrical sources.
• There are extinguishing agents for each class of fire.
Additionally therefore you must consider:-
• Dry powder and foam for gases or liquefied gases.
• Dry sand and special powders (graphite or soda ash) for metal fires.
• F-class fires are concerned with fat frying. F-class extinguishers are denoted by a
yellow patch on the extinguisher.

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• Class F – high temperatures, cooking oils, fats (catering, restaurants) was not a
British standard.
• Electrical fires have no class. It is important to remember that with electrical fires,
equipment can store lethal voltages following isolation hence specialised
extinguishers such as Carbon Dioxide (black patch) or dry powders (blue patch)
are used.

Class A – fires which involve solid materials such as wood, paper, cardboard, textiles,
furniture and plastics where there are normally glowing embers during combustion. Such
fires are extinguished by cooling which is achieved using water.
Class B – fires which involve liquids or liquefied solids such as paints, oils or fats. These
can be further subdivided into:
Class B1 – fires which involve liquids that are soluble in water such as methanol. They
can be extinguished by Carbon Dioxide, dry powder, water spray, light water and
vaporizing liquids.
Class B2 – fires which involve liquids not soluble in water such as petrol and oil. They
can be extinguished by using foam, carbon dioxide, dry powder, light water and
vaporizing liquid.
Class C – fires which involve gases such as natural gas or liquefied gases such as butane
or propane. They can be extinguished using foam or dry powder in conjunction with
water to cool any containers involved or nearby.
Class D – Fires which involve metals such as aluminium or magnesium. Special dry
powder extinguishers are required to extinguish these fires which may contain powdered
graphite or talc.
Class F – fires which involve high temperature cooking oils or fats in large catering
establishments or restaurants.
Electrical fires – fires involving electrical equipment or circuitry do not constitute a fire
class of their own, as electricity is a source of ignition that will feed a fire until switched
off or isolated. But there are some pieces of equipment that can store, within capacitors,
lethal voltages even when isolated. Extinguishers specifically designed for electrical use,
like carbon dioxide or dry powder should always be used for this type of fire hazard.

Types of extinguisher.
It is important not to mis-interpret types of extinguisher with classes of extinguisher.
Class of extinguisher would include water, powder, CO2 etc. The following are types of
extinguisher of which there are two forms, fixed and portable.
Fixed include:-
• Inert Gases.
• Sprinkler Systems.
• Fire Curtains.
• Atrium Systems.
Portable include:-
• Fire Blankets.
• Hose Reels.
• Hand Held Extinguishers.
• Fire Buckets (sand).

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• Dousing Helicopters.
• Fire Boats.
• Fire engines.
• Fire Beaters.

Fire Risk Assessments.

The 5 steps to risk assessment must be followed, also:-
• Assess fire risks.
• Check detection methods.
• People must be able to escape safely (including disabled persons).
• There must be a provision of fire fighting equipment.
• Provisions must be made to be able to make people aware there is a fire.
• Equipment checks and maintenance must be up to date.

Main Hazards.
• Oxygen depletion.

• Flames and heat.

• Smoke.
• Gaseous combustion products.
• Structural failure or buildings failure (collapsing following fire damage).

Potential harms to people.

• Burns (radiation or inhalation burns.)
• Inhalation of toxic fumes.
• Respiratory difficulty due to the effects of smoke.
• Depleted oxygen supply.
• Crush or impact injuries due to people trying to escape.
• Psychological post traumatic stress (particularly in old persons, disabled and
mentally disabled people).

Fire Drills.
Fire drills are often held as they satisfy a legal requirement and also form part of Fire
certification specification compliance procedures. They are vital in assessing an
organisations effectiveness of Emergency Evacuation procedures. A fire drill will also
assist with employee familiarisation of fire alarm procedures, escape routes and assembly
points. Fire wardens will also benefit from regular fire drills as they get a chance to
practice their duties to enable them to hone their skills prior to a real emergency.
Provisions must be made during fire drills for disabled persons and visitors on site during
the drill.
Possible Question:
What precautions should be taken for the safety of disabled persons should fire break
• Integral to escape procedure.

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• Identify the persons who would need help.
• Allocate mentorship to those who would require help.
• Consider escape routes for the disabled people.
• Enable the safe use of lifts.
• Consider emergency help summoning arrangements.
• Train staff to be able to help.
• Create safe havens with the use of fire walls.

Visually impaired persons:

Vision – familiar with escape routes
Sensory – specialist group advice, lights, vibration, test system as part of fire drill.
Mobility – Specialist Advice.
Lifts are not appropriate unless designed for use by disabled persons in a fire situation.
Mental Handicapped people would require re-assurance and close supervision.

Fire Precautions.

Fire detection & warning systems

You must have a suitable fire detection and warning system. This can range from a
shouted warning to a comprehensive electrical detection and warning system.

Whatever system you have it must be able to adequately warn people in all

A means for fighting a small fire

Multipurpose fire extinguishers with a guaranteed shelf life may be acceptable.

As a rule of thumb you should have one extinguisher for every 200m2 of floor space with
a minimum of one per floor.

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Safe routes for people to leave the premises
• The ideal situation is when there are alternative
escape routes from all parts of the premises,
although this is not always possible.
• Where only one route is available other compensatory
features may be necessary e.g. making escape routes
fire resisting or installing automatic fire detection.
• The stairway and area near the exit should be kept
clear of combustibles and obstructions.
• The escape route should lead to a final exit.
• Where the stairway is not fire resisting, the final exit
should be visible and accessible from the discharge
point of the stairway at ground floor level.High-risk
rooms do not generally open directly into a fire-
resisting stairway.
• If your fire risk assessment shows that people using
any floor would be unaware of a fire you may require
additional fire-protection measures, e.g. an automatic
fire-detection and warning system.
• Corridoor widths should be appropriate for wheelchair
• Close all doors/windows to delay the spread of fire.

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Suitable fire exit doors
Fire exit doors and any doors on the escape routes should be operable without a key and
without any specialist knowledge.

In public buildings push (panic) bars or push pads may be required.

Other matters to consider

• Adequate lighting (you may have to consider
emergency lighting).
• Suitable fire safety signs in all but the smallest
• Fitting of fire doors (and frames).
• Training for your staff or anyone else you may
reasonably expect to help in the event of a fire.
• A management system to ensure that fire safety
systems are maintained.
• Reduce the amount of flammable materials in the
• Ensure that dangerous substances are stored

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Some very small and simple premises may be able to satisfy all these steps without
difficulty but you should still be able to demonstrate that an appropriate process has been
carried out.

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