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18th APRIL 2018

1. PROBLEM BACKGROUND ....................................................................... 2

1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 2

1.2 Problem Statement ........................................................................... 3

1.3 Problem Analysis .............................................................................. 4

2. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................. 5

2.1 Misconception of Energy Conservation Law ..................................... 5

2.2 Innovation in Teaching and Learning ................................................ 7

3. METHODOLOGY....................................................................................... 8

3.1 Project development Model/Methods ................................................ 8

3.1.1 Project Stages ........................................................................ 8

3.1.2 Project Milestone .................................................................. 13

4. ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 14

4.1 Function Analysis ............................................................................ 14

4.1.1 Approaches .......................................................................... 14

4.1.2 Possible solutions ................................................................. 15

4.2 Market survey ................................................................................. 15

5. DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTION ......................................................... 18

5.1 Issues of existing products .............................................................. 18

5.2 Best Solution ................................................................................... 18

6. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................... 19

7. REFERENCE ........................................................................................... 19

8. APPENDIX ............................................................................................... 22



1.1 Introduction
Physics is an interesting subject that consists of theories, rules and
principles that explains the phenomena in life. This field have huge
contributions in developing better environment. The understanding about our
nature through physics had improved the system such that the study about
energy helps us to find alternative solution to consume more energy by using
wave, wind and solar rather than using fossil fuel that will soon become extinct.
Even the creation and motion of airplane can be best described by Physics.
There is more function of physics that can be explored in achieving better life.
All these contributions prove how important it is for us to learn Physics.
In Malaysia, Physics subject can be learned in formal class starting from
the age of 16 years old until higher education. Physics subject is compulsory to
secondary school students in science stream. This assists the students to
master the fundamental science. Form four students who are taking Physics
subject are beneficiaries as they are taught the fundamental of Physics which is
the basic knowledge that will help the students to master the basics in Physics.
Inability to comprehend this subject will lead to failure to understand next level
of Physics study. This will also become an obstacle to students that have
passion in Physics to pursue their study in higher level. Saleh (2014) did a
research study on the motivation of Form Four Physics students. Based on the
research, he found that Physics students have less interest in Physics due to its
learning activities. This explains the phenomenon that leads to the question of
why students are avoiding Physics courses in higher education. The study also
found that Physics education system is still lacking and less effective.
In this 21st century, lots of intervention had been made to improve
educational system. Teaching and learning process has become more effective
by developing higher order thinking skills among students and providing lifelong
learning. This is to fulfil the National Education Philosophy that wants to
develop the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner
(MOE, 2018). From this, the elements of innovations play a significant role in

improving teaching and learning process. A Lot of innovations product had
been produced to provide better understanding.

1.2 Problem Statement

Based on a research by Kapucu (2016), the result shows that students do
not like Physics subject due to the difficulty in solving Physics problems, past
learning experience and the high level of the subject in some topics. These are
also factors that affect students’ failure to master the fundamental of Physics.
As had been stated before, form four students is the first stage to study Physics
in formal class. This phase is important to ensure the understanding of Physics’
fundamental. This is a crucial stage as it determines the understanding of the
students about fundamental of Physics.
In form four Physics subject, there are five topics that are taught which
include Introductory Physics, Force and Motion, Force and Pressure, Heat and
Light (MOE, 2005). Through some literatures, it is stated that students are
facing problems in understanding the Energy Conversion and Energy
Conservation Law. This is proved in the researches done by Daane et al.,
(2014); Dalakliouglu, Demirci &Sekercioglu (2015); Park and Liu (2016). Energy
Conversion and Energy Conservation Law is the 10th subtopic in Force and
Motion. It is necessary to counter this problem, as this fundamental is important
for students to understand more about Energy Conversion and Energy
Conservation Law in higher education.
To improve teaching and learning process, variety of solutions can be
chosen. As a rapid growth research on effectiveness of innovation in teaching
and learning, we refer to the Journal of Innovating Education and Educating for
Innovation (2016). It is stated that innovations in education can enhance better
learning outcomes and ensure the quality of education provision. The changes
in the educational system or in teaching methods can help customize the
educational process.
The specified problem based on literatures is that students are having
problem in conducting activity to demonstrate the Law of Conservation of
Energy due to misconception about the whole concept of the law. This is
based on the previous research findings. To counter this problem, we are

proposing to solve the problem through innovation product. Reason has been
that, evidence has proved the effectiveness of innovation in improving teaching
and learning process.

1.3 Problem Analysis

As mentioned earlier, the problem that needs to be countered is the
students’ difficulty to conduct activity to demonstrate the Law of Conservation of
Energy. The Law of Energy Conservation states that energy cannot be
developed or destroyed; it will only be transferred from one object to another or
convert from one form to another. Going deeper into literatures, three main
causes that lead to the problems are found. The three causes include: the
difficulty to understand how the conversion of energy happen (from potential
energy to kinetic energy), misconception of converting energy from one form to
another with the law, and students do not master the application of the formula
for both kinetic energy and potential energy. In this part, the analyses for each
of the causes are explained.
The problem in understanding the energy might arise because of the
wobble knowledge about the terms that define the energy. The understanding
of energy conservation emerges from the principle of relationship and transfer
of energy between different type of energy and the conversion (Quinn, 2014).
This includes the transfer of energy from potential energy to kinetic energy that
portray different characteristic. The ability to acknowledge the conversion of
energy from one form to another form is valuable for the students’
understanding of energy. In vice versa, students who do not master the term for
each type of energy (specifically potential and kinetic energy) and its
conversion will face problem of comprehending the knowledge of Energy
Misconception is often related to the Physics subject as proven in a
research done by Halim, Yong & Meerah, 2014; Daud et al., 2015; Kuczmann,
2017. The second problem that had been analysed is the misconception of
Energy Conversion with the Energy Conservation Law. This has affected
students’ understanding of the Law of Energy Conservation as it has been
misunderstood with Energy Conversion. The research that shows the

misconception between energy conversion and energy conservation law is
proven by Bezen, Bayrak & Aykutlu (2016). Rachniyom, Toedtanya &
Wuttiprom (2017) stated that students had misconception and cannot imagine
the change of potential energy, kinetic energy and the law of conservation of
energy. The arising question is how to help students distinguish these two
terms. In order to make vivid comparative between these two, the proposed
product aim to clarify the difference between both terms to solve the
misconception among the students.
Mathematical technique is another problem that is found to affect
Physics students. The reason behind this is because the understanding of
Physics concept required students to do some calculations. It also aids the
explanation of the Physics theory. The applications of calculations enhance the
higher order thinking skills among Physics students to apply their Physics
knowledge and skills. A research conducted by Pinsky and Galili (2014) found
that mathematics skills positively correlate with students’ performance in
physics class and exams. In the subtopic energy, the students do not master
the application of the calculation for both kinetic energy and potential energy.
This is due to the complexity face by students to comprehend energy has been
discussed in the first problem.
During conversion (transformation) of energy, example from potential
energy to kinetic energy, the equivalent involved in calculating total energy is
mgh = ½mv2; where m = mass, g = gravitational force, h = height, and v =
velocity (displacement/time). While during transfer of energy (kinetic energy to
kinetic energy), the equivalent is ½ mv2 = ½ mv2. To make these clear, students
that have difficulty in understanding kinetic energy and potential energy are
unable to master the application of the calculation in kinetic and potential


2.1 Misconception of Energy Conservation Law

The problem of students’ misconception of energy conversion and law of
conservation of energy in the basic science and physics subjects has been a
thing of concerns to physics teachers and science educators. This is because,

students’ perceptions generally indicates physics to be a hard subject. Science
practice skills are the basis for scientific review which provides the most
effective methods for helping students to understand science concepts.
Dalaklioğu, S., Demirci, N. & Şekercioğlu, A (2015), stated that students
have many problems with applying or connecting relationship between the
conservation of energy and momentum in any given situation. The findings
showed that students have failed to recognize the importance of energy and
momentum and they have difficulties in qualitatively interpreting the basic
principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical
Identification of concepts about energy may take the forms of
misconceptions, alternative concepts, or previous knowledge, hence quick
assessment by teachers is required. If not, students may have
misunderstandings of the phenomena of physics which may affect teaching and
learning in the area in future (Dalaklioğu, S., Demirci, N. & Şekercioğlu, A.,
2015). Physics education researchers agree that using lectures or traditional
teaching only for instruction does not correct majority of students’
misconceptions. The instructional pattern considered to inspire students in
physics and correct misconceptions is Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD)
Interactive lesson demonstration involves students in activities that challenge
their previous understanding of a core concept. The activities may be a
classroom experiment, a survey, a simulation, or fieldtrip. This instruction
provides interaction between students and teacher and student and student.
The demonstration instruction can predict the outcome; students can explain to
themselves a set of possible outcomes and experience the demonstration.
Rachniyom, S. et al., 2017 used simple experimental activities to develop
work and energy concept. Hence, the participants’ misconception about the
change of potential energy, kinetic energy and the law of conservation of
energy was cleared. The use of ILD in the research stimulated the students’
understanding of the concept and their reasoning skills were enhanced.
Consequently, the students were able to describe the relationship between
gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. The findings indicated the
change of energy from one form to another. The learning was meaningful and
the knowledge easy to retain and remember, because the students performed
their own experiments, and they were able to visualize the changes in the forms
of energy.
Energy concepts are highly abstract and often counterintuitive,
misconceptions about energy can be particularly persistent and difficult to test.
The study analysed how students’ misconceptions are identify and how Rasch
modelling and option probability curves can be used to generate full visual
representations of changes in students’ thinking (Herrmann-Abell & DeBoer,
2016). It was revealed by Ergin and Sarı (2013) that students would be more
motivated when classes are conducted with different teaching methods and to
have more meaningful learning.
Teachers understood constructivist learning approach to be appropriate
for teaching energy since energy can be connected to daily life, experiments
can be conducted, simulations can be used, and field trips can be planned with
the approach (Bezen, et al. 2016)

2.2 Innovation in Teaching and Learning

Learning can be said to be more efficient if the same result is achieved
with less time and with less expenditure. Productivity is determined by
approximating the outcomes attained with the invested effort so as to achieve
the result. Therefore, productivity increases if we can achieve more with less
effort. Hence, innovations in education increase both productivity of learning
and learning efficiency (Serdyukov, P. 2017). Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi a
psychologist writes, “human well-being hinges on two factors: the ability to
increase creativity and the ability to develop ways to evaluate the impact of new
creative ideas” (Csikszentmihalyi, 2013, p. 322).
The ability to make innovations centred on thinking skills and profound
understanding of the nature of science is a requirement to the 21st century
education system. This ability is used to face the economic, social,
environmental, and humanity concerns on national and international scale
(OECD, 2015). Contextual teaching and learning (CTL) is an alternative to
create meaningful learning through different active learning approaches to
involve a lesson with real world situations.

Curriculum Development Council and Hong Kong Examination and
Assessment Authority (2015) stated that “Teaching as inquiry” is one of the
approaches to learning, supported by many educators who see that knowledge
is best shaped through the effort and activity of learner which is more of
student-centred approach. It supports the use of learning activities which
include simple problem-solving tasks that need various cognitive abilities and
inquiry-based experiments which include testing of hypotheses, work
procedures design, data collection, calculations and conclusions.


3.1 Project development Model/Methods

In our presentation, we choose the Agile model for our project
development, but when searching more details while preparing for this
proposal, we realized that Agile Model are suitable with the project that is
based on software product (Agarwal, Garg and Jain 2014). Since we are
proposing a tangible product, we have to change the methods.
We are currently using emerging methodology in education system which
integrates the concept of design and research approaches to produce a better
solution in teaching and learning setting known as Design Based Research
(DBR). These kind of methods purposely provide an innovative educational
solution to enhance educational environment, especially the mastery of
knowledge dynamically (Kelly A. E. et al, 2014).
Matthew W. Easterday, Daniel Rees Lewis and Elizabeth M. Gerber,
(2014) stated that DBR is important because it clearly shows how theory and
interventions are dependently on each other compared to classical model of
research and development.

3.1.1 Project Stages

We implemented the 6 phases of DBR defined by Easterday et al, 2014 in
our development of EC Model. Figure 1 below illustrated all the phases:

Figure 1: The 6 Phases in DBR

Phase 1: Focus
In this stage, we brainstorm the targeted audience, topic and scope of the
project. From our discussion, we have outlined these main problems (Figure 2)
in current Malaysian school setting:

Audience Topic Problem

Teacher Assessment Skill Difficulties in determining a

good/bad question for testing
Student Physics Law/Concept Unable to understand and apply
the concept in solving problems
Student Mathematics Lack of motivation because of
negative belief on the subject
Student Classroom Activities conducted are teacher
Management centred
Teacher Relief Teacher No guidelines and materials
program provided to conduct the program
Figure 2: Authentic Problems Currently In Malaysian School

We conducted an observation through our own experiences as teachers

to search all these authentic problems. We also conducted a simple interview
among teachers to collect information on what is the current difficulties they are
facing in the learning and teaching process. We decided to zoom into physics
law based on crucial issues that have been highlighted in the problem
statement. The scope of the project is focusing on finding a best solution to
solve the problem of student’s misconception on conservation of energy law,
subtopic on Forces and Motion in Form 4 Physics as stated in the syllabus
(refer Appendix).

Phase 2: Understanding
In this stage, we investigated the problems using empirical methods such
as market survey and secondary sources (literature review) to determine the
domains, contexts and existing solutions available. We conducted a function
analysis to have a good picture of possible approaches to solve the problem.
Then we drew out the possible solution for the three main causes explained
earlier. After that, we listed out all the available products in the market and
analysed the strengths and weaknesses of the product from the aspect of the
main problem. We also discussed on the feasibility of the solution so that the
targeted product that we are proposing will have the practical characteristics in
terms of economically and usability because the uniqueness of the products will
determine the success in the marketplace. The propose product should provide
excellent value of money spent and well operation (Anil Mital, 2014). The result
from this survey will be explained in details during the analysis part.
Our main domains for the project is developing a teaching and learning
aid to promote effective learning activity. In the first place we designed the
solution for the teachers’ use purpose only, but after presenting our draft, we
got the idea to make it more flexible usability. So our propose product will have
two functions which is teaching aid and learning apparatus. Teacher can make
suit the function with the cognitive level of the students.

Phase 3: Define
In the define phase, we set goals of our projects by firstly outlined the
Gantt Chart Table as illustrated in Figure 3 so that we can always keep track
on our project progress to meet the dateline stated. After going through all the
development process roughly, we allocate the main task in order to make sure
all the due date are being followed and monitored thoroughly. We divided the
task into two main tasks which are the theoretical and technical task. Anis will
be in charge of detailing the literature to support the problems and solution
being discussed. While Rebecca will be in charge of the quality control for both
theoretical and technical such as ensuring product test to align between both
sections are being monitored. Sarah will be in charge of the technical part of
the product including design and appropriate materials to be used. The
allocation of task can be illustrated as in Figure 4.
We also determined the name for our proposed product which is
EC Model. The EC represent energy conservation. We do hope with this
catchy name, it will be marketable.

EC Model

Theoretical Technical

Anis Rebecca Rebecca Sarah

(main) (QC) (QC) (main)

Figure 4: Allocation of Task between Lestari Group Member’s in

EC Model Development

Phase 4: Conceive
In the conceive phase, firstly we sketched out the first draft of proposed
product (Figure 5) to be presented during the proposal presentation. The EC
Model consists of two main part; Part 1: the energy conversion/transformation
and Part 2: the energy transfer. In Part 1, the water tank will act as the source
of providing forces to the potential energy. The water will go through only one
water outlet at a time (3 different heights are provided to apply the manipulation
of the potential energy formula). The water drops will hit the turbine; hence the
potential energy coming from the water will then be transformed into kinetic
energy through the movement of the turbine blade. This rotation will be
changed to electrical energy by the dynamo attached on the turbine and then
light up the LED. The brightness of the LED will depends on the speed of
turbine rotation. This function is additional to the topic.
Currently we are in this stage; we are planning to use morphological chart
as a tool to determine the best design of each part in the EC Model.

Figure 5: Original Draft of EC Model

Phase 5: Build
In the build phase, we implement the sketch into real product. We are
planning to build a prototype first so that we can test the appropriate size
needed for our EC Model. Theoretically we can assume, but we do have to test
in order to get the best in practical. Before we start developing the product,
firstly we have to determine the suitable material proposed during the conceive
phase. Then we make a little survey on the price of the material so that we can
roughly calculate the cost of developing EC Model. We are also planning
together with the other group to book the lab on the same date. In order to
make it more realistic, we are conducting this phase simultaneously with the
technical test so that the error can be reduced in the exact time.

Phase 6: Test
This phase consist of two main part; the first part will be the technical test
which include evaluation of the efficacy of the targeted design, such as, we are
assuming the amount of water in the water tank will be enough to supply
energy to light up the LED, so if this test fails, we have to recalculate the

needed amount of water. A list of technical test will be described in detail during
these phases. The second parts will be the educational objective test. We are
planning to take physic teacher/physic training teacher (undergraduate student)
to be our respondent to conduct a formative test to evaluate our EC Model.

3.1.2 Project Milestone

The timeline for our project began in the first week of the Semester 2
Session 2017/2018 which start on 11th February 2018 and end on 10th June
2018. We divided the task in terms of week as illustrated below:

STAGES : TASK \ WEEK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Phase 1: Focus
Identifying problems

Problem Analysis

Phase 2: Understand
function analysis

literature review

market survey

Phase 3: Define

project progress

Phase 4: Conceive
morphological chart

Phase 5: Build
material search

STAGES : TASK \ WEEK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Phase 6: Test

formative assessment

# Notes: targeted; actual

Figure 3: Gantt Chart of EC Model Development


4.1 Function Analysis

4.1.1 Approaches

We have conducted a function analysis to determine the appropriate

approaches that can be used to solve all the three root cause explained earlier
in the problem analysis chapter. For the first root problem, which is student are
having difficulty to understand how the conversion of energy happen (potential
energy to kinetic energy). So we will solve this issue by conducting a
demonstration through a model so that the student can see clearly how the
process of energy conversion happens in a real time. Besides using a model,
an interactive explanation also can be used such as through a video, interactive
whiteboard or other media. For students that have higher cognitive level, the
use of calculation also can show how the energy happens.
For the root problem which is misconception of the Conservation of
Energy Law, teacher have to creatively conduct an activity so that the student
can investigate the law as it relate to the energy transfer from one object to
another and energy conversion from one form to another. Through this
investigation, student will construct a right concept of the law.
Lastly, for the third root problem, student do not master the application of
the calculation can be solved through demonstration using appropriate

calculation formula. Teacher can conduct a problem based learning in order to
achieve the students mastery. For example, students can be asked to examine
the effect of the height in the total potential energy.

4.1.2 Possible solutions

From the described approaches being detailed up before, we arrived at
some solution that can be used in order to resolve all the issues regarding to
Energy Conservation Law.

Difficulty to understand how Misconception of

Do not master the
the conversion of energy converting energy from
application of the
happens (potential energy to one form to another with
formula for calculation
kinetic energy). the law.

Computer Simulation Energy Model Software

Manipulate the unit of

Turbine Computer Simulation
measurement involve

Interactive video/ Multimedia Industrial Field trip Energy Model

Figure 6: Suggested Possible Solution

Figure 6 summarizes all the possible solutions for our three main root
problem due to the student difficulty in conducting an activity to demonstrate
conservation of energy law. The suggested solutions are based from the
constructivist learning approach that was said to be the appropriate method for
teaching energy since energy can be connected to daily life, experiments can
be conducted, simulations can be used, and field trips can be planned with the
approach (Bezen, et al. 2016).

4.2 Market survey

Market survey on existing product in similar theme was conducted through
online web based:
 www.suria.com.my: is a website of Suria Pembekal Umum Sdn. Bhd.
which is a major suppliers of scientific and laboratory apparatus for

educational sciences in Malaysia base in Kuala Lumpur. They have
supply more than 2000 teaching aid item for physics, chemistry and
biology in universities, colleges and schools since 1973.

 https://mylabsupplier.my: is a website of My Lab Supplier which

mainly focused on supplying research materials (chemical,
laboratory apparatus/equipment etc.) to facilitate researches
especially from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and Universiti Tun
Hussien Onn Malaysia for more than five years.
 https://www.lazada.com.my: is a website of Lazada Malaysia which
is a part of Lazada Group in South-east Asia. This website offered a
platform for online shopping including hundreds of thousands
products including educational purposes.

 https://patents.google.com: is a search engine that provides facilities

for searching full text of patents, technical documents and books
including 87 million patents published from 17 countries around the

The features of existing products from our survey stated as below:

Product Features Weakness

 made of clear Perspex The price is expensive.

Students cannot apply the
 using dc motor with low
voltage formula of kinetic energy
 show how electric energy which is =
change to kinetic energy
 cost: RM298.00 ½ mv2
Kinetic Theory Model Kit  produce locally
source: www.suria.com.my

 Made of pump inhaler, This product has high

turbine and a unit of motor. costing. Student can only
 show how kinetic energy see the concept of energy
produce by movement of conversion without having
air change can be used to effective interaction with the
transform into electrical model. There is no
energy measurement function
 price: RM339.20
Energy Conversion Kit  produce locally

Product Features Weakness

 Made of metal balls Does not cover the whole

attached together in a concept of Conservation of
closed system to show Energy Law, which will
how energy will be transfer cause misconception among
to each metal ball. students due to limited
 Small in size function offered.
 Price: RM25.00
Bumping Ball Model

 Show how the potential Does not have information

energy affected the kinetic on the prices. Use only by
energy teachers to demonstrate the
 Made of a bracket conversion of potential to
mounted on a rotating kinetic energy. Does not
shaft (act as turbine), a offer much interactive activity
water bottle also attached among students.
on the bracket act as the
Hydraulic Turbine potential energy. The
water will fall directly on
the shaft producing the
shaft to rotate (kinetic
 Produce in China
 Simple structure and low Only cover half of the
cost complete field concept of Energy
experiment Conservation Law. Did not
 Show the conversion of cover the part of transferring
potential energy into energy from one object to
kinetic energy and elastic another object without
potential energy changing the form of energy

Potential Energy into Kinetic  The mass of the ball can

be manipulated since they
Energy Demonstrator provided 3 different sizes
source:https://patents.google.com of ball


5.1 Issues of existing products

Based on the conducted market research, there were no single model
produce clearly applying both concepts in the law of conservation of energy.
The current products preferred to focus on either converting the energy or
transferring the energy separately, thus lead to misconception in understanding
the law. The current products also did not apply the problem solving that
involves the application of calculation; they focused more on the demonstration
done by teacher and there were no much student centred activity involved.

5.2 Best Solution

To overcome these issues, we decide on developing a teaching and
learning apparatus to apply the law of the Energy Conservation known as EC
Model. Student can be able to conduct the activity/simple experiment to
demonstrate the Law of Energy Conservation through the EC Model that clearly
shows how the energy is being converted and transferred in the same built
system. Research done by Rachniyom, S. et al., 2017 has shown, using simple
experimental activities can develop work and energy concept clearly and
resolve the misconception problems. Figure 7 summarized the selection of EC
Model as the best solution due to our main root problem.
Additional feature that will make EC Model more unique is the application
of calculation. The measurement element will add up in the model so that
teacher can give a task (problem based) to the student to manipulate variables
involved and relate this topic to earlier topic on basic quantity and derived
quantity. This will lead to a constructivist learning approach suggested by
Bezen, 2016.

Misconception Application
Conservation of of
Energy Law calculation


Figure 7: The Best Solution Proposed


In order to develop a successful educational innovation based product, the

educational objective must be equipped through the design of the product so that it
will be a more meaningful product. We believe this EC Model can achieve the
targeted objective being described earlier hence applying the marketable
characteristics in terms of feasibility and economically.


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