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One of the most significant trends in Indonesian society in the 1970s and 1980s was
urbanization. Although cities in Indonesia were not a new phenomenon, from 1971 to
1990 the percentage of the population living in urban areas rose from 17 percent to
nearly 31 percent nationally. Surveys showed that the movement toward urban areas,
particularly to West Java, and to southeastern Sulawesi, Kalimantan, and other
islands, stemmed not from the innate lure of the cities but from the lack of
employment in the countryside. Migrants seemed to view the pollution, crime,
anonymity, and grinding poverty of the city as short-term discomforts that would
eventually give way to a better life. For high-school and college graduates with no
prospects for employment in the rural areas, this may in fact have been a correct
assumption. But for those migrants without capital or qualifications, the main hope
for employment was in the so-called "informal sector": street vending, scavenging,
and short-term day labor. Many migrants also cultivated tiny but nutritionally
important gardens.

Most urban growth was in cities of more than 1 million in size. Jakarta's population-
-11.5 million in 1990--was projected to rise to 16.9 million by 2000, which would
make it the eleventh largest city in the world. Although the capital enjoyed a
disproportionate amount of the nation's resources--with 30 percent of all telephones
in the country, 25 percent of all cars, and 30 percent of all physicians--
anthropologist P.D. Milone observed in the mid-1960s that "Jakarta has never been a
true 'primate' city in terms of being the only center for economic, political,
administrative, higher education, and technical functions" in the way that, for
example, Bangkok has been for Thailand. Surabaya has always been a major import-
export center and a major naval station, and Bandung has been a center for
transportation, higher education, and industry. Nonetheless, in terms of population
growth and as a symbol of the centralization of power in the nation, Jakarta has
steadily grown in importance.


Auroras, often called Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis) and Southern Lights (Aurora
Australis), are spectacular light displays most commonly viewed in the polar regions.
Auroras occur because of interactions between Earth’s magnetic field and solar winds.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles emitted from the sun’s corona that
travels far into space at speeds of up to 400 miles per second. Charged particles
within the solar winds collide with atmospheric atoms and molecules when they reach
Earth’s magnetic field. The collisions cause quantum leaps, which means the kinetic
energy within the electrons of the particles are converted to light. The collisions
of different particles result in different colored lights. Atomic oxygen produces red
and green lights, nitrogen produces pink, blue, or violet light, helium produces
purple lights and neon produces rippled orange light. Auroras come in a vast array of
shapes and forms such as arcs, swirls, “curtains” and glowing shapes. They often
appear to be moving.

Auroras often occur as a result of a geomagnetic storm. A geomagnetic storm is the

temporary disturbance of the Earth’s magnetic field as a result of an event in space
such as a solar flare or coronal mass ejection (the ejection of charged particles
form the sun’s corona). In noteworthy geomagnetic storms, Auroras can be seen well
south (or north) of where they usually occur. The famous Great Geomagnetic Storms of
1859 produced what witnesses call the most spectacular auroras ever seen. Such
auroras were seen throughout the United States, Japan, and Australia. The event
lasted for almost a week.

1. Which of the following could be an EFFECT of a geomagnetic storm? (D. An aurora)

2. If the answer to a question is "the Geomagnetic Storms of 1859," what could be the
question? (B.What was an example of a noteworthy geomagnetic storm?)
3. Which is NOT true about Auroras? (B.A geomagnetic storm is a permanent disturbance
in Earth's magnetic field.)
4. Where would I MOST likely view the Aurora Borealis? (D.North Pole)
5. What could be an antonym of the word "commonly" in the sentence below?

Auroras, often called Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis) and Southern Lights (Aurora
Australis), are spectacular light displays most commonly viewed in the polar regions.
6. What is the best definition of the word "emitted" as used in the sentence below?

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles emitted from the sun’s corona that
travels far into space at speeds of up to 400 miles per second. (D.released)
7. Quantum Leaps are caused by ..... (C.the collision of solar winds with atoms and
particles within Earth's magnetic fields.)
8. Which of the following questions about auroras is NOT answered in the passage?
(B.How many auroras normally occur in a year?)
9. The collision of neon particles produces ________ light. (C.orange)
10. If you were to make a "recipe" for an aurora, which of the following
"ingredients" would be unnecessary? (C.people)

In 1917, Alexander Graham Bell advocated ethanol from corn, wheat and other foods as
an alternative to coal and oil, stating that the world was in measurable distance of
depleting these fuels. For Bell, the problem requiring an alternative was lack of
renewability of orthodox energy sources. Since the 1970s, Brazil has had an ethanol
fuel program which has allowed the country to become the world's second largest
producer of ethanol (after the United States) and the world's largest exporter.
Brazil’s ethanol fuel program uses modern equipment and cheap sugar cane as feedstock,
and the residual cane-waste (bagasse) is used to process heat and power. There are
no longer light vehicles in Brazil running on pure gasoline. By the end of 2008 there
were 35,000 filling stations throughout Brazil with at least one ethanol pump.

Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, and involves
the use of the whole crop. This new approach should increase yields and reduce the
carbon footprint because the amount of energy-intensive fertilizers and fungicides
will remain the same, for a higher output of usable material. As of 2008, there are
nine commercial cellulosic ethanol plants which are either operating, or under
construction, in the United States.

Second-generation biofuels technologies are able to manufacture biofuels from

inedible biomass and could hence prevent conversion of food into fuel." As of July
2010, there is one commercial second-generation (2G) ethanol plant Inbicon Biomass
Refinery, which is operating in Denmark.

Coal gasification is an alternative to petroleum In the 1970s, President Jimmy

Carter's administration advocated coal gasification as an alternative to expensive
imported oil. The program, including the Synthetic Fuels Corporation was scrapped
when petroleum prices plummeted in the 1980s. The carbon footprint and environmental
impact of coal gasification are both very high.

Common types of alternative energy

Solar energy is the use of sunlight. Light can be changed into thermal (heat) energy
and electric energy.
Wind energy is the generation of electricity from the wind.
Geothermal energy is the use of the earth's internal heat to boil water for heating
buildings or generating electricity.
Biofuel and Ethanol are plant-derived gasoline substitutes for powering vehicles.
Nuclear energy uses nuclear fission to release energy.
Hydrogen can serve as a means of delivering energy produced by various technologies.


Since water is the basis of life, composing the greater part of the tissues of all
living things, the crucial problem of desert animals is to survive in a world where
sources of flowing water are rare. And since man’s inexorable necessity is to absorb
large quantities of water at frequent intervals, he can scarcely comprehend that many
creatures of the desert pass their entire lives without a single drop.

Uncompromising as it is, the desert has not eliminated life but only those forms
unable to withstand its desiccating effects. No moist- skinned, water-loving animals
can exist there. Few large animals are found. The giants of the North American desert
are the deer, the coyote, and the bobcat. Since desert country is open, it holds more
swift-footed running and leaping creatures than the tangled forest. Its population is
largely nocturnal, silent, filled with reticence, and ruled by stealth. Yet they are
not emaciated.

Having adapted to their austere environment, they are as healthy as animals anywhere
else in the word. The secret of their adjustment lies in the combination of behavior
and physiology. None could survive if, like mad dogs and Englishmen, they went out in
the midday sun; many would die in a matter of minutes. So most of them pass the
burning hours asleep in cool, humid burrows underneath the ground, emerging to hunt
only by night. The surface of the sun-baked desert averages around 150
degrees, but 18 inches down the temperature is only 60 degrees.

Câu 19: The title for this passage could be .

A. “Animal Life in a Desert Environment”

B. “Desert Plants”

C. “Man’s Life in a Desert Environment”

D. “Life Underground”

Câu 20: The word “tissues” in the passage mostly means .

A. “the smallest units of living matter that can exist on their own”

B. “the simplest forms of life that exist in air, water, living and dead creatures
and plants”

C. “collections of cells that form the different parts of humans, animals and plants”

D. “very small living things that cause infectious disease in people, animals and

Câu 21: Man can hardly understand why many animals live their whole life in the
desert, as .

A. water is an essential part of his existence

B. water composes the greater part of the tissues of living things

C. very few lager animals are found in the desert

D. sources of flowing water are rare in a desert

Câu 22: The phrase “those forms” in the passage refers to all of the following

A. many large animals

B. water-loving animals

C. moist-skinned animals

D. the coyote and the bobcat

Câu 23: According to the passage, creatures in the desert .

A. are more active during the day than those in the tangled forest

B. are not as healthy as those anywhere else in the world

C. run and leap more slowly than those in the tangled forest

D. run and leap faster than those in the tangled forest

Câu 24: The author mentions all the following as examples of the behavior of desert
animals EXCEPT .

A. they dig home underground

B. they sleep during the day

C. they are watchful and quiet

D. they are noisy and aggressive

Câu 25: The word “emaciated” in the passage mostly means .

A. “living or growing in natural conditions, not kept in a house or on a farm”

B. “large and strong, difficult to control or deal with”

C. “thin and weak because of lack of food and water”

D. “able to get what one wants in a clever way, especially by tricking or cheating”

Câu 26: According to the passage, one characteristic of animals living in the desert
is that
A. they are smaller and fleeter than forest animals

B. they can hunt in temperature of 150 degrees

C. they live in an accommodating environment

D. they are less healthy than animals living in other places

Câu 27: The word “burrows” in the passage mostly means .

A. “places where a particular type of animal or plant is normally found”

B. “holes or tunnels in the ground made by animals for them to live in”

C. “places where insects or other small creatures live and produce their young”

D. “structures made of metal bars in which animals or birds are kept”

Câu 28: We can infer from the passage that .

A. desert life is colorful and diverse

B. living things adjust to their environment

C. healthy animals live longer lives

D. water is the basis of desert life


Airlangga (also spelled Erlangga), regnal name Rakai Halu Sri Lokeswara Dharmawangsa
Airlangga Anantawikramottunggadewa (born 991 in Bali, Indonesia – died 1049 in Java),
was the only raja of the Kingdom of Kahuripan. The Kingdom was built from the
territory of the Kingdom of Medang after Medang was sacked by king Wurawari of Lwaram.
He gradually gained support, won back the kingdom once ruled by his uncle, and went
on to become one of Java's most notable kings.[1] Airlangga literally means "jumping
water", thus his name means "he who crossed the water", described his life story;
born in the court of Bali and during his youth crossed the Bali Strait to stay in
Java and later ruled the kingdom in East Java. He belongs to both Isyana and
Warmadewa lineages.

Early life
Airlangga was born from dynastic marriage between Isyana of Java and Warmadewa of
Bali. His mother, queen Mahendradatta, was a princess of the Isyana Dynasty, the
sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang, while his father, king Udayana Warmadewa of
Bali, was a king of the Balinese Warmadewa Dynasty.[2]:129–130 Bali in 11th century
probably was an ally or vassal of Java, the marriage of Airlangga's parents was
probably meant as political means to seal Bali as part of Medang's realm. Airlangga
has two younger brothers, Marakata (later become king of Bali after the death of
their father) and Anak Wungçu (ascend to Balinese throne after the death of Marakata).
Later, in various inscriptions created by Airlangga, he claimed to be the descendant
of Mpu Sindok of Isyana dynasty.

However, there is a speculation suggesting that Airlangga was not the biological son
of king Udayana, Mahendradatta was probably conceived Airlangga from her previous
union to an unknown man, that after her separation (either because of death or
divorce) Mahendradatta was bethroted to Balinese king, thus she took the baby
Airlangga to Bali. Historical sources seems to be silenced on Mahendradatta's
suspected earlier marriage, that it might be a scandal or not even took place. This
suspicion was because although Airlangga was the eldest son of Mahendradatta,
curiously he is not chosen as the crown prince of Bali, his younger brother Marakata
and later Anak Wungçu rose to Balinese throne instead. Moreover, Mahendradatta sent
Airlangga back to Java during his teenage. Mahendradatta was known to be promoting
the cult of Durga in Bali, and curiously later associated with Balinese legend of
evil witch Rangda, which translates to "widow".
Airlangga was born and grew up in Bali, groomed by his mother, queen Mahendradatta,
to be a proper future ruler. In his teenage years his mother sent him back to her
parents home in Java to be educated further in Watugaluh court, Medang, East Java,
under the patronage of his uncle, king Dharmawangsa. Airlangga was bethroted to his
cousin, one of Dharmawangsa's daughter, thus arranged marriage was in place. At that
time, Medang had become a powerful kingdom, allied or probably subjugated Bali, and
had established a colony in West Kalimantan. Dharmawangsa aspired to ascend Medang as
regional power by challenging Srivijaya Empire domination. In 990 he launched naval
invasion against Srivijaya and unsuccessfully tried to capture Palembang. Srivijaya
resiliently succeed on repelling Javanese Medang invaders.

The Calcutta Stone inscription (dated from 1041 CE), describes a terrible calamity
which befell the East Javanese kingdom of Isyana dynasty in the early years of the
11th century. In 1006, a rebellion incited by a vassal king Wurawari from Lwaram
resulted in the destruction of the capital of Watugaluh. The reigning king,
Dharmawangsa, successor to Sri Makutawangsawardhana, was murdered along with his
entire family and many of his subjects. Only the young Airlangga, who was aged about
16 at the time, managed to escape unharmed.[3] According to tradition the calamity,
dubbed as Pralaya (the death) of Medang, took place during Airlangga's wedding
ceremony in Dharmawangsa palace.

Today historians strongly suggested that the invasion was actually a Srivijayan
retaliation against Medang for the attacks upon the empire. After the failed
Dharmawangsa's naval campaign against Palembang back in 990, Sri Culamanivarmadeva
the Maharaja of Srivijaya saw Javanese Medang as a dangerous threat, thus arranged a
stratagem to destroy Medang by inciting a revolt. King Wurawari of Lwaram was
probably an ally of Srivijaya in Java and also the vassal of Medang. With Srivijaya's
assistance Wurawari managed to sack and burn Watugaluh Palace during Medang's most
unexpected time; the Airlangga's royal wedding. Airlangga, accompanied by his guard
Narottama, escaped westward into the jungle and retreated as a hermit in Vanagiri
(today Wonogiri, Central Java).

Struggle and establishment of Kahuripan Kingdom

In 1019, after several years in self-imposed exile in a Mount Vanagiri hermitage,
Airlangga rallied supports from officials and regents that are loyal to the former
Isyana dynasty and began to unite the areas that had formerly been ruled by Medang
kingdom, which had disintegrated after Dharmawangsa's death. He consolidated his
authority, established a new kingdom and made peace with Srivijaya. The new kingdom
was called the Kingdom of Kahuripan, the location of his capital,[2]:145–147 and
stretched from Pasuruan in the east to Madiun in the west. In 1025, Airlangga
increased the power and influence of Kahuripan as the Srivijaya Empire began to
decline. Airlangga was known for his religious tolerance, and was a patron of both
the Hindu and Buddhist religions.
In 1035 Airlangga constructed a Buddhist monastery named Srivijayasrama dedicated for
his queen consort Dharmaprasadottungadewi. The monastery bearing the name of
Srivijaya suggests that his queen consort was probably a Srivijayan princess, a close
relative, probably daughter, of the Srivijayan king Sangramavijayattungavarman. She
had taken refuge in East Java after her father was taken prisoner and her kingdom was
raided through series of Indian Chola raids. The king seems to be sympathetic to the
poor fate of the Srivijayan princess, having lost her family and her kingdom, and
probably genuinely fell in love and devoted to her, thus promoting her as prameswari
(the queen consort). Airlangga went further, naming his daughter from queen
Dharmaprasadottungadewi as heiress, the future queen regnant of Kahuripan. The
decline of Srivijaya due to the Chola invasion gave Airlangga opportunity to
consolidate his kingdom without foreign interference. Later, he extended his kingdom
to Central Java and Bali. The north coast of Java, particularly Surabaya and Tuban,
for the first time became important centres of trade.

Although there are few surviving archaeological remains dating from his time,
Airlangga is known to have been a keen patron of the arts, notably literature. In
1035, the court poet Mpu Kanwa composed the Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, which was adapted
from the Mahabharata epic. This text told the story of Arjuna, an incarnation of
Indra, but was also an allegory for Airlangga's own life. The tale of Airlangga's
life was illustrated in the Belahan Temple on the flanks of Mount Penanggungan, where
he was portrayed in stone as Vishnu on Garuda.[3]

In 1037 the capital was moved from Watan Mas to Kahuripan, the king also reported to
bestows titles for his loyal followers, such as Narottama promoted as Rakryan
Kanuruhan (prime minister) and Niti as Rakryan Kuningan.[4] According to Kelagen
inscription (dated 1037 CE) Airlangga also took a keen interest on agriculture
development. He embarked on grand irrigation project by constructing the Wringin
Sapta dam (located in today Jombang regency). By building a dam on Brantas river, he
provides irrigation to surrounding paddy fields and maintaining hydraulic system in
the area.[4]

Abdication and death

Towards the end of his life, Airlangga was faced with the problem of succession. His
heiress, the crown princess Sanggramawijaya, decided to become a Bhikkuni Buddhist
hermit rather than succeed Airlangga as queen regnant. Sangramawijaya is the daughter
of the queen consort Dharmaprasadottunggadewi. The story of a crown princess who
renounced the throne to become a hermit is linked with the popular legend of Dewi
Kilisuci that resides in the Selomangleng Cave beneath Mount Klothok, 5 kilometres to
the west of the city of Kediri. Because the crown princess Sangramawijaya had
renounced the throne, two of her younger half brothers were next in line of
succession. Both are equally rightful as the heirs and both contesting the throne.

In 1045, Airlangga divided Kahuripan into two kingdoms which were inherited by his
two sons; Janggala and Kediri. Airlangga himself abdicated the throne in 1045,
returned to the hermit life by assuming a new name as Resi Gentayu, bestowed by Mpu
Bharada, a famous hermit. The reasons behind the partition of a kingdom that
Airlangga himself did painstakingly unite during his younger years remain as a puzzle
for historians. Some suggested that it was meant to avoid civil war since both of
Airlangga sons are equally rightful to the throne. A local legend, mixed with
fantastic fiction, mentioned about the partition of the kingdom. It was said that Mpu
Bharada was the one that conduct the partition; with his extraordinary skill he flew
and pouring water from a jar that the water traces magically transformed into a river
marking the boundary of the two new kingdoms. Accidentally he stuck on a kamal
(tamarind) tree, feeling upset he cursed the kamal tree to be forever short, thus
become the name of the village where this event took place; kamal pandak ("the short
tamarind tree").

Airlangga died in 1049, and his ashes were probably scattered in Belahan tirtha
(sacred bathing pool), on eastern slopes of Mount Penanggungan, where in one of
waterspout statues he was portrayed as Vishnu riding Garuda,[2]:146 flanked by
statues of two goddesses; Shri and Lakshmi portrayed the two queen consorts of

After the death of Airlangga, a civil war broke out between Janggala and Panjalu that
continued until 1052. In that year King Mapanji Alanjung Ahyes of Panjalu succeed on
conquering Janggala. However, in 1059 another king named Samarotsaha ascended the
throne of Janggala, he was the son-in-law of Airlangga.