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Role of Pharmacist

The fundamental role of pharmacists is to distribute drugs that have been prescribed by a
healthcare practitioner to patients. In more modern times pharmacists advise patients and health
care providers on the selection, dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications.
Pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients to ensure the safe and effective use of
medication. In some cases, pharmacists may practice compounding (mixing ingredients to form
medications); however, most medicines are produced by pharmaceutical companies in a
standard dosage and drug delivery form. In some jurisdictions, pharmacists have prescriptive
authority to either independently prescribe under their own authority or in collaboration with a
primary care physician through an agreed upon protocol.

One of the most important roles that pharmacists are currently taking on is one of pharmaceutical
care [5]. Pharmaceutical care involves taking direct responsibility for patients and their disease
states, medications, and the management of each in order to improve the outcome for each
individual patient. Pharmaceutical care has many benefits that include but are not limited to:

• Decreased medication errors


• Increased patient compliance in medication regimen
• Better chronic disease state management
• Strong pharmacist-patient relationship
• Decreased long-term costs of medical care

Pharmacists are often the first point-of-contact for patients with health inquiries. This means that
pharmacists have large roles in the assessing medication management in patients, and in
referring patients to physicians. These roles may include, but are not limited to:

• clinical medication management


• the assessment of patients with undiagnosed or diagnosed conditions and for decisions
about the clinical medication management required.
• specialized monitoring of disease states
• reviewing medication regimens
• monitoring of treatment regimens
• delegating work
• general health monitoring
• compounding medicines
• general health advice
• providing specific education to patients about disease states and medications
• oversight of dispensing medicines on prescription
• provision of non-prescription medicines
• counseling and advice on optimal use of medicines
• advice and treatment of common ailments
• referrals to other health professionals if necessary
• dosing drugs in renal and hepatic failure
• pharmacokinetic evaluation
• education of physicians and other health care providers on medications and their proper
use
• limited prescribing of medications only in collaboration with other health care
professionals
• providing pharmaceutical information
• promoting public health by administering immunizations
Health promotion entities and projects by country

Worldwide, government agencies (such as health departments) and non-governmental


organizations have substantial efforts in the area of health promotion. Some of these entities and
projects are:

International and multinational

The WHO and its Regional Offices such as the Pan American Health Organization are influential
in health promotion around the world[26]. The International Union for Health Promotion and
Education, based in France, holds international, regional, and national conferences[27][28].

Australia

The Australian Health Promotion Association, a professional body, was incorporated in 1988[29]. In
November 2008, the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission released a paper
recommending a national health promotion agency[30]. ACT Health of the Australian Capital
Territory supports health promotion with funding and information dissemination[31]. The Victorian
Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth) from the state of Victoria is "the world’s first health
promotion foundation to be funded by a tax on tobacco. "[32].

Canada

The province of Ontario appointed a health promotion minister to lead its Ministry of Health
Promotion in 2005[33].

The Ministry’s vision is to enable Ontarians to lead healthy, active lives and make the province a
healthy, prosperous place to live, work, play, learn and visit. Ministry of Health Promotion sees
that its fundamental goals are to promote and encourage Ontarians to make healthier choices at
all ages and stages of life, to create healthy and supportive environments, lead the development
of healthy public policy, and assist with embedding behaviours that promote health.[34].

The Canadian Health Network was a "reliable, non-commercial source of online information about
how to stay healthy and prevent disease" that was discontinued in 2007[35].

The BC Coalition for Health Promotion is "a grassroots, voluntary non-profit society dedicated to
the advancement of health promotion in British Columbia"[36].

New Zealand

The Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand is the national umbrella organization of over 150
organisations committed to improving health[37][38].

United Kingdom

In October 2008, the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (also known as the Royal Society
of Health or RSH) merged with the Royal Institute of Public Health (RIPH) to form the [Royal
Society for Public Health]. Earlier, July 2005 saw the publication by the Department of Health and
Welsh Assembly Government of Shaping the Future of Public Health: Promoting Health in the
NHS. Following discussions with the Department of Health and Welsh Assembly Government
officials, the Royal Society for Public Health and three national public health bodies agreed, in
2006, to work together to take forward the report's recommendations, working in partnership with
other organisations. Accordingly: (1) the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH) leads and hosts
the collaboration, and focuses on advocacy for health promotion and its workforce; (2) The
Institute of Health Promotion and Education (IHPE) works with the RSPH [Royal Society for
Public Health] to give a voice to the workforce, (3) the Faculty of Public Health (FPH) focuses on
professional standards, education and training; and (4) the UK Public Health Register (UKPHR) is
responsible for regulation of the workforce. In [Northern Ireland], the government's Health
Promotion Agency for Northern Ireland "provide[s] leadership, strategic direction and support,
where possible, to all those involved in promoting health in Northern Ireland"[39].

United States

Government agencies in the U.S. concerned with health promotion include:

• The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a Coordinating Center for Health
Promotion who mission is "Prevent disease, improve health, and enhance human
potential through evidence based interventions and research in maternal and child health,
chronic disease, disabilities, genomics, and hereditary disorders"[40][41].
• The United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine "provide[s]
worldwide technical support for implementing preventive medicine, public health, and
health promotion/wellness services into all aspects of America's Army and the Army
Community"[42].

Nongovernmental organizations in the U.S. concerned with health promotion include:

• The Public Health Education and Health Promotion Section is an active component of the
American Public Health Association[43].
• The Wellness Council of America is an industry trade group that supports workplace
health promotion programs[44][45].
• URAC accredits comprehensive wellness programs "that focus on health promotion,
chronic disease prevention and health risk reduction"[46].
Health Promotion Programs

The Health Promotion Programs Unit consists of several Program areas, each of which is
described briefly, below.

Diabetes
Home and Community Care
Addictions & Mental Health Strategy
Prairie Northern Pacific FAS Partnership (PNPFASP)
Nunavut Tobacco Program

Diabetes:

The Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative is a component of the Canadian Diabetes Strategy. The
Canadian Diabetes Strategy is a five-year program, which will likely be converted to an on-going
program, like the Home and Community Care Program.

Our best and current information sources tell us that there is not a high rate of diabetes in
Nunavut, (that is, in comparison to the rate of diabetes in the other provinces and territories within
Canada) but that we are a population at significant risk. Nunavut has the opportunity to make
sure that diabetes does not get the same foothold here that it has in many other aboriginal
societies.

The current priorities for the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative in Nunavut are:
• Determining who is most at risk
• Developing effective awareness and prevention programs
• Provision of specialized training for caregivers

Home & Community Care:

In the fiscal year 1999-2000, Health Canada introduced the First Nations and Inuit Home and
Community Care Program to Nunavut. The program was to be implemented over a three-year
period starting in 1999-2000 with full implementation by 2001-2002.

The Home and Community Care Program will provide basic home and community care services
that are comprehensive, culturally sensitive, accessible and effective to the people of Nunavut. It
is a coordinated system of home-based health-related services to enable people with disabilities,
chronic or acute illnesses and the elderly to receive the care they need in their communities.

Staffing at the community and regional level and the required resources will see the program
implemented in most communities in 2002-2003.

Addictions & Mental Health Strategy:

The Nunavut Government has recently approved the “Addictions & Mental Health Strategy”. This
Strategy will see the Nunavut Government, in partnership and collaboration with non-government
organizations and other government departments and agencies, implement a wide range of new
and enhanced programs and services. The Department of Health & Social Services has started
the implementation priorities and the accountabilities.
Regional Health & Social Services carry out the delivery of addictions and mental health
programs and services with local staff. These programs and services include, but are not limited
to:
• Counseling clients
• Group healing sessions
• Community wellness workshops
• Screening and referring A&D clients to treatment programs
• Case-management
• Crisis management

Nunavut residents may request to be referred to a residential treatment center outside of


Nunavut, as there are no centers in Nunavut. This request can be made to a Wellness
Counselor/Addiction Worker or if this kind of resource does not exist within the respective
community, through the local Health Centre.

Prairie Northern Pacific FAS Partnership (PNPFASP):

Nunavut is a member of the PNPFASP, a health-related initiative where the western provinces
and the territories jointly collaborate to address Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its Effects (FAS/E), a
preventable disease caused by drinking alcohol while pregnant. While each of the member
provinces and territories (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest
Territories, and Nunavut) are responsible for their respective FAS/E programs and services,
members benefit from sharing resources, research and information on successful intervention
and prevention programs.

With assistance from the Partnership and through its own initiatives, Nunavut has started the
initial stages of an FAS/E Program. This program will cover the education/awareness and
prevention, as well as the care and support for those individuals and family members affected by
this preventable disease.

Nunavut Tobacco Program:

The Government of Nunavut is committed to reducing tobacco use in Nunavut. The Department
of Health and Social Services announced the introduction of its Tobacco Reduction Campaign in
December of 2001. This media campaign is part of its evolving Tobacco Strategy and some of the
programs and initiatives in it are:
• Television & Radio Public Service Announcements
• Posters
• Poster contest held across Nunavut schools with 12 winning entries selected and these will be
used to produce a calendar, based on the school year
• Training of local people, in partnership with Pauktuutit, in cessation programs

Under the Non-Insured Health Benefits, tobacco cessation aids, i.e. Zyban, Nicotine patch,
Nicotine gum, are available to Inuit beneficiaries.

The Department of Health and Social Services has started the process for a legislative proposal
for a Nunavut Tobacco Control Act. After all the required consultations are complete and the Act
is enacted, Nunavut should legislate on Advertising, Products, Involuntary Exposure, Sales and
Enforcement.
Philippines
Health Programs Date Promotion Materials
Breastfeeding Awareness Month August 1-7 Streamer, Poster, Design T-shirt
Brochure, Poster, Flipchart, Wallchart,
Family Planning
Backdrop, Streamer
HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Materials
Natural Family Planning Month May 2010 Streamer
Advocacy Materials 1, Advocacy
April 12-16
Materials 2, Materials 3, Materials 4,
Garantisadong Pambata October 11-15,
Garantisadong Pambata Bulilitin, Streamer,
2010
Poster
World Health Day April 7, 2010 Streamer
HL to the Max Poster
El Niño Phenomenon Poster
Community Poster, School Poster,
Kontra Paputok January 1, 2010
Streamer
Child Injury Prevention Program June 14-20, 2009 Streamer, T-shirt
Cervical Cancer Awareness
May 2009 Streamer
Month