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National Security Strategy (NSS) refers to a key framework for a country to meet the basic needs and
security concerns of citizens, and address external and internal threats to the nation. In addition to
focusing on the effectiveness of security providers, many of the more recent, forward-looking NSS Commented [G1]: Inserted: nati
incorporate significant factors as a way of ensuring their relevance, public legitimacy, ownership, and Commented [G3]: Deleted:c
sustainability, as well as facilitating their implementation and improving the efficiency of how security is
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provided. This includes Human security, Oversight and accountability, Human rights, Justice,
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Gender, Monitoring, Coordination, and communications.
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Societies that take responsibility for their security are freer societies. Security, as an essential
component in defending constitutional values and achieving the ideals of justice, prosperity, and
progress, is a cornerstone of the preservation, stability and continuity of the State, as well as of
the lives and well-being of its citizens. Commented [G6]: Inserted: ,

External and systematic factors shaping the success of national security strategy

Human security
Human security involves basing the understanding of security on the needs of citizens, not just those of
the government or State. Several Options are used to enhance human security which includes; building
consensus around the country’s conceptualization of security, incorporating views gathered through
wide public consultations and submissions from groups that are representative of different sectors of
society, including specific reference in the NSS/NSP to the central importance of the security of the
people, and considering the root causes of citizen’s insecurity as part of the strategies to achieve the
NSS/NSP goals. For example, the national security strategy of Philippines in 2011-2016, emphasized that Commented [G7]: Inserted: ,
the welfare and well-being of the people are of primordial consideration. Additionally in 2017-2022 NSS
echoes the concept, affirming that the general public must be secured and protected from any harm
that could endanger their lives, properties, and ways of life. Another good example is the Liberia NSS
2008 which calls for the new security architecture to be constructed by promoting state, human and Commented [G8]: Inserted: y
societal security. Commented [G9]: Deleted:on the
Accountability and Oversight Commented [G10]: Deleted:asis of

Self-governing oversight of the security sector is widely recognized as an international norm. It

involves establishing robust checks and balances and upholding the principles of accountability
and transparency, as well as ensuring security providers are operating effectively and adequately
and by the legal and policy framework. A strong focus on oversight and accountability
contributes strongly to the legitimacy and ownership of National Security Strategy, encourages Commented [G11]: Inserted: by
the more efficient use of resources, and strengthens the integrity of institutions. However, there Commented [G16]: Deleted:,
are several ways to enhance oversight and accountability which include; promoting a
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commitment to accountability and oversight as a means of achieving the strategic goals,
outlining specific roles for civil society and mechanisms to allow them to contribute effectively Commented [G12]: Inserted: the
and incorporating and emphasizing the roles of Legislature and independent state oversight Commented [G18]: Deleted:a
institutions. For example, The 2015 United Kingdom NSS commits to consolidate the Commented [G13]: Inserted: ,
investigatory powers that the public authorities require, with robust oversight, transparency, and
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safeguards. To add on that the United State National Security Strategy includes empowering civil
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society as one of its specific values. The sixth goal of the NSS requires the establishment of a
parliamentary oversight committee on national security.

Human rights

Human rights are central to safety and security at a national, community and individual level. A strong
human rights approach also provides a framework to build partnerships with communities and develop
their resilience to help address security issues. Options to enhance the focus on human rights include;
explicit references in NSS in order to reinforce the commitment to human rights seen in overarching
documents, such as the Constitution, and maintain a human rights focus throughout implementation,
commitments to the elimination human rights violations within security sector institutions or in the
provision of security and justice services and highlighting national mechanisms that will uphold civil
rights and international human rights norms. For example, The 2009 Belize NSS recognizes that
upholding human rights is a specific political, national interest, and Goal 2 underlines the need
for the police department to respect the human rights of all citizens as they seek to reduce violent
crime and dismantle criminal networks. The 2015 Chile NSS recalls the UN definition of Commented [G19]: Inserted: ,
security, which states that security is the protection of fundamental rights. The 2011 Ecuador
NSS refers to the need for an integral or holistic approach to ensure the protection and promotion Commented [G20]: Inserted: s
of HR. Respect for human rights forms part of the vision of the 2013 Jamaica NSP, and the NSP Commented [G21]: Deleted:makes
action points include reference to human rights training for police officers.
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The justice system is a critical link in the criminal justice chain, and therefore directly
contributes to strengthening public order and safety. However, its contribution goes beyond this.
The justice system contributes to maintaining a peaceful internal environment through its role as
a mechanism for diffusing and managing conflict. Options to enhance the focus on justice
include, explicitly recognizing the relevance of justice to national security, highlighting the
relevance of state and non-state dispute resolution mechanisms, access to justice, and a focus on
judicial procedures as well as legislation in order to provide consistency in how justice is
provided to citizens; linking, if relevant, to national justice strategies; and including justice
institutions within the coordination mechanisms. For example, The 2013 Colombia NSS
underlines that security depends on access to justice to protect and promote people’s rights;
Priority 3 in the 2015 Chile NSS focuses entirely on community justice. Goal 2 of the 20112016
Philippines NSP includes contributing to strengthening the rule of law throughout the country,
ensuring the pillars of criminal justice system function effectively, and that citizens have a
functioning and reliable justice system. The 2009 Belize NSS commits to “strengthening its
judiciary, ensuring continued independence and professionalism, providing necessary resources
to investigate and prosecute all types of criminal activity, and the consistent application of the


Specific focus on gender is practiced to ensure that the needs of all groups of the population are
taken into account (both implicitly and explicitly). Specific reference to gender also helps to
meet the requirements for UN Security Council Resolution 1325, namely the equal participation
and full involvement of women in the maintenance and promotion of peace and security. Options
to enhance the focus on gender include; recognizing the different security needs of men, women,
girls and boys, emphasizing the equal right of women and men to participate in security sector
institutions and recognition of gender based violence as an internal threat to security .for
example, South Africa’s Defense Review Process and Defense White Paper (1996-1998) were
gender-responsive and highlighted the role of women as consumers and providers of security;
The 2015 United States NSS commits to preventing and responding to gender-based violence
and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons ;The 2008
Liberia NSS calls for the need to ensure “gender mainstreaming at every level of security policy
making and practices.


Setting a strong monitoring system for the National Security Strategy is a crucial step in
successful implementation, as well as ensuring that the strategy and its implementation plan
remain relevant to evolving circumstances. Options to enhance the focus on monitoring include:
underlying the need for monitoring within the NSS as well as providing an overview of the
mechanisms or combination of actors who will contribute to this, highlight the requirement for
periodic reviews of the NSS/NSP, emphasize the role of parliament, in particular with regard to
budgetary issues, establish a formal monitoring role for civil society. The 2013 Papua New
Guinea NSP and the 2013 Jamaica NSP devote whole chapters to monitoring and evaluation;
The 2013 Jamaica NSP recommends creating local councils (including representatives from the
community) with an “advisory, monitoring and evaluating role” on security and safety matters
;The Ecuador Ministry of Coordination for Security brought in women’s groups from civil
society into the process to evaluate the annual accountability reports in relation to their Security;
The 2013 Spain NSS recognizes that “the dynamism of the environment and the national
situation will require the National Security Strategy to be constantly updated and periodically
revised ‘’The 2004 Canada NSS established an advisory Cross-Cultural Roundtable on Security,
composed of members of Canada's ethno-cultural and religious communities, in order to discuss
the impact of NSS issues on the different sectors of Canadian society.


Safety and security are achieved as a result of many different agencies, institutions, and actors
working together. Poor coordination, or a failure to consider all elements contributing to national
security (especially those lying outside of the traditional security providers), can lead to
ineffectiveness, inefficiency, as well as increasing insecurity. Options to enhance the focus on Commented [G23]: Inserted: ,
coordination include: detailing specific national security coordination mechanisms, including
lead agencies for different elements of the strategy, highlighting the need for all agencies
(especially those not traditionally associated with security) to incorporate implementation of the
NSS/NSP into their sectoral plans ,and making reference to coordinated budgeting. For example Commented [G24]: Deleted:i


Developing NSS can be an intense process, particularly if adhering to the good practice of
including a wide range of public and state institution consultations. Taking such an approach
helps ensure that the resulting document is responsive to the various needs and concerns.
However, it may also raise expectations for rapid change and engender disappointment when no
immediate results are seen. Communications will provide feedback to those consulted on how
their views were taken into account, as well as clarifying the timelines and procedures for the
next steps. Communications will also maintain the momentum achieved by the development
process to build the sense that everyone involved in its formulation is also a part of its
implementation. Options to enhance the focus on communications include; committing to Commented [G26]: Deleted: in order
developing a specific communications strategy without discrimination to accompany the NSS
emphasizing the role of civil society and the media in raising awareness of the State’s various
commitments to security, and helping to communicate to citizens the accountability mechanisms
contained in the NSS and stressing the importance of internal communication within the security
providers to ensure they understand their new respective roles and the changes needed to meet
them. For example, The 2013 Jamaica NSP includes a Strategic Communications Program to Commented [G25]: Inserted: ,
support its implementation. Part of this includes developing partnerships and establishing local
bodies/councils where citizens can voice their concerns, question the police and other agencies,
and give feedback on the performance of the police and other protective agencies.

Factors contributing to the failure of the national security strategy

Coexisting in the international environment alongside risks and threats there are multiplier
factors which can generate new risks or threats or multiply and worsen their effects. Poverty,
inequality, ideological extremism, demographic imbalance, climate change and widespread
misuse of new technology are some of these factors. Therefore affecting the national security

Armed conflict

Armed conflict contributes to NSS failure since it poses a major threat to security strategies, even
though global interdependence has influenced their form and decreased the likelihood of
conventional confrontations between States. Most violent conflicts are internal. Examples are
failed States, unlawful activities performed by both State and non-State actors, inter-ethnic
conflicts, and competition for natural resources. Despite the internal nature of these conflicts,
their consequences affect the international community and, in some cases, vital and strategic
countries interests and, accordingly, National Security. These circumstances make it necessary to Commented [G27]: Inserted: ,
be aware of the nature of future conflicts to adapt the capabilities, organization and action
procedures of the Armed Forces accordingly. What is more, both cyberspace and outer space
have become domains where confrontation is possible. Commented [G28]: Deleted:in order

.Economic and Financial Instability

Economic and financial instability is currently one of the main risks and threats not only because
of the political and social unrest it causes but also because it fuels and reinforces other existing
risks. It is becoming increasingly clear that economic security is an essential requisite and
integral part of National Security owing to its repercussions on the implementation of
Government action and the well-being of citizens.
The factors which destabilize the economic and financial system are many and very
heterogeneous. Their origin lies in macroeconomic or market imbalances, illegal actions or the
functional deficiencies of supervisory bodies. In this respect, the existence of tax havens has a
destabilizing effect on the system in that it encourages money laundering activities. Commented [G29]: Inserted: ,


Espionage has adapted to the new landscape of the globalized world and currently makes use of
the possibilities provided by information and communication technologies. Aggressions by
States, groups or individuals to gain information that gives them strategic, political or economic
advantages have been a constant feature in history and continue to pose a major threat to
security. Commented [G30]: Deleted:for
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Economic espionage is of great importance in today’s competitive environment and consists of
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the illegal procurement of information, industrial property or critical technology, and even
involves attempts to exert illegal influence on political decisions of an economic nature. Its Commented [G33]: Deleted:ing
potential impact is increasing on account of its ability to harm the economic system and affect
citizens’ well-being.


Terrorism is a direct threat to the life and security of citizens; it aims to undermine our
democratic institutions and jeopardizes our vital and strategic interests, infrastructures, supplies Commented [G34]: Inserted: z
and critical services. Preventing, impeding and defeating terrorism, whatever its origin, is a Commented [G35]: Deleted:s
priority aim of the Government.