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International Journal of Mechanical Sciences
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci
Computational model for determination of static load capacity of threerow roller slewing bearings with arbitrary clearances and prede ﬁ ned raceway deformations
Peter Göncz ^{a} , Rok Poto č nik ^{b} , Sre č ko Glode ž ^{a} ^{,} ^{n}
^{a} University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, SI2000 Maribor, Slovenia ^{b} Rotis d.o.o., Brodi š č e 5, SI1236, Trzin, Slovenia
article info
Article history:
Received 8 January 2013 Received in revised form 22 February 2013 Accepted 23 April 2013 Available online 7 May 2013
Keywords:
Slewing bearings
Roller bearings
Contact loading
Load capacity
abstract
A new computational model for determination of internal contact forces distribution and consequently
the determination of acceptable load curves for static load capacity in threerow roller slewing bearings
is presented in this paper. The proposed model considers some typical characteristics of large slewing
bearings (possible structural ring deformations, nonparallel ring displacements, clearances, surface quenching of the raceway raceways, etc.) and their in ﬂ uence on the bearing static capacity. For practical applicability of the model, vector approach is used for mathematical description of the bearing geometry and relative ring movements, together with the static force and moment equilibrium calculation. The model has been implemented into a computer code and it serves as a convenient engineering tool especially suitable for early stages of slewing bearings ’ design. The proposed computational model has been used to determine the static load capacity of an actual threerow roller slewing bearing, where different geometric parameters, such as different prede ﬁ ned ring deformations, rollers sizes, roller proﬁ le modi ﬁ cations and tilted contact of rollers have been additionally analyzed. Computational analyses have shown that some of the investigated parameters have a signi ﬁ cant in ﬂ uence on the static load capacity of analyzed slewing bearing. & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Slewing bearings are large rollingelement bearings used for connecting different large structural parts, transmission of exter nal loads from one part of the structure to another and for controlled relative rotation between them [1 , 2 ]. Beside the sup porting and upper structure, other main parts of the slewing bearing assembly are the rings, rolling elements and prestressed bolted joints ( Fig. 1 a). That kind of assembly can accommodate three types of loads: axial force ( F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{z} ), overturning moment ( M _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{x}_{/}_{y} ) and radial force ( F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{x}_{/}_{y} ), from which the ﬁ rst two are the main characteristic loads ( Fig. 1 b). Depending on their actual application, slewing bearings are manufactured in different sizes, types and con ﬁ gurations. However, a threerow roller slewing bearings are usually used for highest loads at given dimensions. They have three independent rows of rollers, two in axial direction and one in radial direction. In most cases (supported installation), the more heavily loaded row in the axial direction is the carrying row (larger rollers)— axial force and overturning moment, while
^{n} Corresponding author. Tel.: + 386 2 229 3752; fax: + 386 2 251 8180. Email address: srecko.glodez@unimb.si (S. Glode ž ).
00207403/$  see front matter & 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
the supporting row is usually loaded only because of the over turning moment. One of the main design aspects of the rollingelement bearings is their load carrying capacity. For smaller rollingelement bearings some wellestablished international standards are used for both static [3] and dynamic load capacity [4]. However, large slewing bearings have some particularities, which make them different if compared to the classical smaller rollingelements bearings [5]:
relatively slender ring geometry, which cannot prevent the structural deformation of bearing rings; the dominant loading type is the overturning moment, which causes a substantial nonparallel relative ring displacements; different type of connection of the bearing rings to the remaining structure; clearances, which have a signi ﬁ cant effect on the bearing operation; slewing bearing rings are usually produced by using different manufacturing technology and different materials, which sig ni ﬁ cantly in ﬂ uences their mechanical characteristics.
Several authors already addressed some of these problems in the past. Thus for example in recent publications in [6 , 7 ] an
P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
83
Nomenclature
A 
[mm] raceway deformation amplitude 
a , b 
[ – ] constants of exponential function 
c 
[mm] axial bearing clearance 
d 
[ – ] nominal roller/lamina diameter 
D 
[mm] roller track diameter 
E 
[MPa] Young ' s modulus 
F _{e}_{x}_{t} , F _{e}_{x}_{t} [N] external force — vector form/scalar form
i 
[ – ] index of the roller row; 1carrying row, 2supporting row 
j 
[ – ] index of the roller 's circumferential position 
k 
[ – ] index of the roller lamina 
L 
[mm] nominal roller length 
l _{t} 
[mm] lamina thickness 
lim 
[ – ] limiting value 
max 
[ – ] maximum value 
M _{e}_{x}_{t} , M _{e}_{x}_{t} [Nm] external moment — vector form/scalar form
n [ – ] number of roller laminas
N
P , P ′
[ – ] number of rollers [ – ] contact point on movable raceway— initial/ transformed [MPa] Hertz contact pressure
p _{H}
Q , Q 
[N] internal contact force (roller– raceway)— vector 
q , q 
form/scalar form [N] internal contact force (roller lamina – raceway)— vector form/scalar form 
r 
[ – ] position vector of point 
r 
[mm] roller end ﬁ llet 
R 
[mm] roller pro ﬁ le radius 
R _{p}_{0} , _{2} 
[MPa] yield strength 
S 
[ – ] contact point on ﬁ xed raceway 
t 
[ – ] vector parameter 
T 
[ – ] transformation matrix 
u 
[ – ] unit vector of contact line 
u , v , w [mm] translations along the coordinate axes
U _{x} , U _{y} , U _{z} [mm] displacements in FEM model
x , y , z
x ′ , y ′ , z ′ [ – ] transformed coordinate axes
[ – ] coordinate axes
α 
[rad] angle between raceways 
δ 
[mm] contact deformation of roller lamina 
ε 
[ – ] strain 
ν 
[ – ] Poisson ' s ratio 
s 
[MPa] stress 
φ 
[rad] phase shift of the sine function 
φ _{x} , φ _{y} , φ _{z} [rad] rotations around the coordinate axes
ψ [deg] angle of the roller 's circumferential position
innovative and simple calculation model for determination of the number of active rolling elements, which are participating in the external load transfer in rollingelement bearings with arbitrary radial clearance is described. However, this approach assumes a perfect bearing geometry and only radial load is addressed. In [8] an advanced calculation procedure is described, which considers the in ﬂ uence of tilted and misaligned bearing rings in rolling element bearings, which are subjected to radial loads with consideration of radial clearance. For roller bearings, a lamina model is applied to describe the misaligned rolling elements. Final expressions are presented for singlerow radial ball and roller bearings. In the papers focusing exclusively large slewing bearings, the main research topic is, besides the empirical investigations and computational analyses of the failure mechanisms, the determina tion of internal contact load distributions and determination of load carrying capacity. In general, authors are presenting two different approaches for solving these problems: an analytical approach and a numerical approach, where the ﬁ nite element method (FEM) is usually used for that purpose. Thus, in [9] an analytical calculation procedure for determination of the internal load distribution in a four contactpoint single row ball bearing in presented. The presented model takes into consideration the
bearing ' s clearance, the nonparallel ring displacements and con tact deformations. In [10] the carrying capacity and service life for the same bearing type is presented, where the in ﬂ uence of the raceway geometry parameters (crosssection clearance, curvature ratio, initial contact angles and ball diameters) is investigated. In both studies the load carrying capacity criterion is de ﬁ ned with maximum Hertz contact pressure. In [11] a calculation procedure for static capacity load curve is shown for a threerow roller slewing bearing loaded with an arbitrary combination of axial force and overturning moment. In this procedure the acceptable external load is determined by comparing the maximum internal load of the roller on the inner ring with an axial load carrying capacity of the bearing. Although the calculation model seems straightforward and fairly simple, the authors themselves point out that with this analytical approach the eventual bearing clearances, misalignments and structural ring deformations can not be taken into consideration. In [12] authors extended their model to the four contactpoint single row ball slewing bearings also including the parametric 3D FEM analyses. In the numerical analyses the actual rollers and contact problems are replaced with 1D tractiononly spring elements and rigid shell elements. A 3D FEM analyses is also used in [13] to determine the internal contact force distribution in a doublerow ball slewing bearing of an
Fig. 1. Components of a threerow roller slewing bearing assembly (a); external loads acting on a threerow roller slewing bearing assembly (b).
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P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
excavator, where two different relative rotation angles between the rings/companion structures were considered. The bearing is modeled together with the superstructure and undercarriage frame. The balls are modeled as superelements, while the bolted connections are modeled as prestressed truss elements. The FEM results are then compared to the available analytical results. Another FEM based computational approach is described in [14] , where the bearing rings are modeled as 3D solid (global) model, while the roller and contact between them and the raceway are substituted with nonlinear truss elements. The loadcontact deformation characteristics for different pro ﬁ le corrected rollers were determined with a (local) 1/8th symmetry model of a roller raceway contact, where the static limiting load was calculated according to the formulas taken from the literature. Further FEM analyses were carried out by the same authors in [15] , where the computational model was also divided into global and local models. The calculations were carried out with ideal ring and roller shapes, identical roller diameters and identical raceway hardnesses. In the FEM model, the rings were clamped to an ideally rigid surface using pretensioned bolted joints. A signi ﬁ cant in ﬂ uence of the bearing clearance and structural ring deforma tions on the internal contact load distribution are pointed out in this analysis. In the framework of our research group a computational model for determination of static and dynamic capacity of large single row four contactpoint ball bearings has been proposed [5] , where most of the main particularities of the slewing bearings have been taken into account (structural deformation of raceways, clear ances, depth dependent mechanical properties, etc.). The max imum contact force acting between balls and bearing rings is determined on the basis of static equilibrium between internal contact forces and external loads acting on the bearing assembly, where a vector approach has been used for that purpose. Further, the model has been extended to eight contactpoint double row ball bearings [16] , where the in ﬂ uence of different prede ﬁ ned structural raceway deformations and bearing clearances on the load distribution over the roller elements have been investigated. Once again, the model employs vectors and matrices for describing the bearing geometry instead of algebraic equations, which allows it's modiﬁcation to different bearing conﬁgurations and convenient implementation into computer codes. In the presented paper a new computational model for deter mination of internal contact forces distribution and consequently the determination of static capacity load curves in threerow roller slewing bearings is proposed. As the proposed model is based on the approach previously published in [5 , 16 ], it can consider most of the main particularities of large slewing bearings (structural ring deformations, nonparallel ring displacements, clearances, case hardened raceways, etc.) and their in ﬂ uence in wide extent. Additionally, the proposed model is upgraded to take into con sideration the basic geometric characteristics of threerow roller slewing bearings, such as different rollers sizes, roller pro ﬁ le modi ﬁ cations and tilted contact of rollers. Using this computa tional model, different static load capacity criterions, clearances and independent prede ﬁ ned structural ring deformations are analyzed. The model is already implemented into a computer code and it serves as a fast and convenient engineering tool in the early stages of slewing bearings ’ design.
2. Computational model
The presented computational model consists of two global parts ( Fig. 2 ). The main part is the iterative procedure for determination of static equilibrium between the external loads acting on the threerow roller slewing bearing assembly and
internal contact loads (roller– raceway). In this part, besides the number, size and pro ﬁ le corrections of rollers, arbitrary prede ﬁ ned structural raceway deformations, clearances and nonparallel ring displacement are considered. Here, a vector description of bearing geometry is used, as this enables a more general and convenient approach, which can be easily implemented into computer soft ware solutions and can also be easily extended to other types of bearings. The second part of the model is the parametric numer ical analyses for determination of static load capacity criterions of the bearing raceway, where some signi ﬁ cant in ﬂ uencing para meters as roller pro ﬁ le corrections, elastoplastic material proper ties of a raceway and tilted roller contact loading are considered.
2.1. Determination of internal contact load distribution
of a threerow roller slewing bearings
The presented computational model is based on the following assumptions:
The rings (raceways) are considered as rigid bodies; however, arbitrary structural raceway deformations can be prescribed in advance. This approach is convenient from the designer ' s and manufacturer ' s point of view as they can determine the catalog static load capacity of the bearing in advance taking into account different permissible structural ring deformations without detailed knowledge of the actual companion structures [5] . Considering this assumption the internal contact forces are determined on the basis of the local contact deformations between rollers and raceway. One of the bearing rings is considered as ﬁ xed, while the other is movable and can be loaded with external axial force F _{e}_{x}_{t} and overturning moment M _{e}_{x}_{t} ( Fig. 1 b). These external loads must be in static equilibrium with internal contact loads. Although threerow roller slewing bearings can also be loaded with some radial forces — F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{x}_{/}_{y} (see Fig. 1 b), they are usually small if compared to axial forces and overturning moments and are not considered in this paper. Furthermore, the movable ring is presumed to rotate freely around the z axis. Therefore, only z component of the external force F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{z} and x / y components of the external overturning moment M _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{x}_{/}_{y} are considered in the proposed computational model. In accordance with this the movable ring has 3 degrees of freedom (DOF): translation in z direction ( w ) and rotations about x  and y direction ( φ _{x} , φ _{y} ); see Fig. 3 a. The internal contact forces from the carrying and supporting row of the same bearing ring are opposite and are acting only in z direction.
The equilibrium of internal and external forces on the three row roller slewing bearing can be expressed as:
N
1
∑
j ¼
N
2
1 ^{Q} 1 ; j ^{þ} ^{∑} j ¼
1
Q _{2} _{;}_{j} þ F _{e}_{x}_{t} ¼ 0
ð 1 Þ
where Q _{i} _{,} _{j} are the internal contact forces between the roller and the raceway, N is the number of rollers in a treated row and F _{e}_{x}_{t} is the external force. Here, index i ¼ 1 is valid for the carrying row and index i ¼ 2 for the supporting row. To take into account the nonparallel relative ring displace ments and possible pro ﬁ le corrections of rollers, an advanced connector model was used in the computational analyses, simi larly as explained in the lamina model for small radial bearings [8] . If compared to some numerical and analytical approaches [11 , 14 , 15 ], where a single nonlinear connectors are used for simulating the contact behavior between rollers and raceway, several nonlinear connectors for each roller are used in the
P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
85
Fig. 2. Algorithm for calculating static load capacity of a large threerow roller slewing bearing with arbitrary roller types, axial clearances and prede ﬁ ned ring deformations.
Fig. 3. Coordinate system and DOFs de ﬁ nitions of the movable ring (a); angular position of rollers (b).
proposed model ( Fig. 4 ). Thus, the whole internal contact force acting on one roller Q _{i} , _{j} is the sum of all lamina contact forces q _{i} , _{j} , _{k} :
n
Q i ; j ¼ ∑
k ¼
1 ^{q} i ;j ; k
^{ð}
^{2} ^{Þ}
where i is the index of the roller row (1carrying row, 2supporting row), j is the index of the roller (Fig. 3b), k is the index of the roller lamina and n is the number of the laminas used for describing the roller (Fig. 4). As the whole bearing geometry is described in a vector format, every point P of the movable ring (raceway) with a position vector r _{P} can be translated and rotated in 3D space as follows:
r _{P} _{′} ¼ T ⋅ r _{P}
ð 3 Þ
where r _{P} is the initial position vector of given point ( P ), r _{P} _{′} is the translated and rotated position vector of that point ( P ′ ) and T is the
transformation matrix [5 , 16 ]:
T ¼
2
6
6
4 − sin φ _{y}
6
cos φ _{y}
0
0
sin φ _{x} sin φ _{y} cos φ _{x}
sin φ _{x} cos φ _{y}
0
cos φ _{x} sin φ _{y} − sin φ _{x}
cos φ _{x} cos φ _{y}
3
7
7
7
w _{5}
u
v
01
ð
4 Þ
With regard to small rotational angles ( φ _{x} and φ _{y} ) and just one
another DOF of the movable ring (translation in z direction, see
Fig. 3 a), the transformation matrix can be further simpli ﬁ ed to:
T
2
6
6
≈ 6
1
0
4 −φ _{y}
0
φ x φ y
1
φ _{x}
0
φ y
−φ _{x}
1
0
3
7
7
7
w _{5}
0
01
ð
5 Þ
To calculate the internal contact force between the raceway and the given lamina of the roller ( q _{i} , _{j} , _{k} ), the contact deformation of that given roller lamina ( δ _{i} , _{j} , _{k} ) must be known. Because only z component of the external force F _{e}_{x}_{t} is considered in the proposed model, it is presumed, that the roller lamina deforms only in z direction and the perpendicular distance (  S _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k} P ′ _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k}  , Fig. 4 ) between ﬁ xed and movable raceway must be calculated for every lamina. As the position vector of P _{i} , _{j} , _{k} is already known from the initial bearing geometry de ﬁ nition, one must calculate the position vector of P ′ _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k} using the following expression:
^{r}
^{ð} ^{6} ^{Þ}
P
′
i ; j ; k ¼ r ^{C}
_{i}_{;} _{j} þ t ⋅ u _{C} _{′} _{D}
′
′
i; j
where r _{C} _{i}_{;} _{j} is the position vector of a reference point on the
movable raceway, u _{C} _{′} _{D} _{i} _{;} _{j} is the unit vector of the contact line on
′
′
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P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
Fig. 4. Lamina model of a roller: (a) unloaded condition and (b) loaded condition.
the movable raceway and t is the vector parameter which can be calculated as:
t
¼ ^{u} ^{A}^{B} i; j ^{⋅}^{ð} ^{r} ^{S} i ; j ; k ^{−} ^{r} ^{C} ^{′} i; j ^{Þ}
u AB _{i} _{;} _{j} ⋅ u C ′ D ′ _{i} _{;} _{j}
ð
7 Þ
where u _{A}_{B} _{i}_{;} _{j} is the unit vector of the contact line on the ﬁ xed raceway, r _{S} _{i} _{;} _{j}_{;} _{k} is the position vector of the contact point of given
roller lamina on the ﬁ xed raceway and r _{C} _{′} _{i}_{;} _{j}_{;} _{k} is the position vector of a reference point on the movable raceway. Unit vectors u _{A}_{B} _{i} _{;} _{j} and u _{C} _{′} _{D} _{′} _{i} _{;} _{j} can be calculated as:
^{u} ^{A}^{B} i ; j ^{¼}
^{r} ^{A}^{B} i; j
^{r} ^{B} i; j ^{−} ^{r} ^{A} i ; j
^{∥} ^{r} AB i; j ^{∥} ^{¼}
∥ r _{B} _{i}_{;} _{j} − r _{A} _{i} _{;} _{j} ∥
^{ð}
^{8} ^{Þ}
^{u} C ′ D
′
i ; j ^{¼}
^{r} C D
i ; j ^{∥} ¼ ∥ r r D _{D}
′
i; j
′
′
i; j ^{−} ^{r} ^{C} i ; j
′
^{∥}
^{r} C ′ D
′
i; j ^{−} ^{r} ^{C} i
′
; j _{∥}
ð 9 Þ
where r _{A}_{B} _{i}_{;} _{j} , r _{B} _{i} _{;} _{j} r _{C} _{i}_{;} _{j} and r _{D} _{i}_{;} _{j} are the position vectors of reference
points on the ﬁ xed and movable raceway. Thus, the contact deformation of roller lamina ( δ _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k} ) is:
^{ð} ^{1}^{0} ^{Þ}
′
′
i ; j ;k ^{∥}
′
^{δ} i; j ;k ^{¼} ^{d} i; j ;k ^{−}^{∥} ^{S} i ;j ; k ^{P}
where d _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k} is the roller lamina diameter and  S _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k} P ′ _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k}  is the perpendicular distance between the contact points on raceways ( Fig. 4 ). If the calculated contact deformation of the given roller lamina is equal or less than zero, the contact force for that lamina is considered zero, and otherwise it is calculated according to Eq. (11) . The functional relationship between the lamina diameter and thickness, its contact deformation between two raceways and the belonging contact force was determined using 2D FEM analyses, considering the actual elastoplastic material parameters of both the roller and the raceway, including casehardened layer of the raceway:
^{δ} i ;j ; k ^{≤} ^{0}
^{}
^{q} z ; i ;j ; k ^{¼} ^{0}
2
δ _{i} _{;}_{j} _{;} _{k} 4 0  q _{z} _{;} _{i} _{;}_{j} _{;} _{k} ¼ l _{t} ⋅ð 7 : 17 d _{i}_{;} _{j} _{;}_{k} − 567 : 95 d _{i}_{;} _{j} _{;}_{k} þ 42190 Þ⋅δ
1 : 154
i ;j ; k
ð 11 Þ
where d _{i} _{,} _{j} _{,} _{k} is the diameter of the given roller lamina (considering the possible roller pro ﬁ le correction), l _{t} is the lamina thickness and q _{z} , _{i} , _{j} , _{k} is the z component of the contact force between that roller lamina and the raceway. Additionally, the contact angle α _{i} , _{j} between the ﬁ xed and movable raceway at the position of given roller is calculated as the angle between the unit vectors of ﬁ xed raceway u _{A}_{B} _{i} _{;} _{j} and the movable raceway u _{C} _{′} _{D} _{′} _{i}_{;} _{j} :
ð 12 Þ
α _{i} _{;}_{j} ¼ cos ^{−} ^{1} ð u _{A}_{B} _{i} _{;} _{j} ⋅ u _{C} _{′}_{D} _{′} _{i}_{;} _{j} Þ
The second condition for achieving static equilibrium between the external and internal loads acting on the bearing raceways is
the equilibrium between the external and internal moments:
N
1
n
1
N
2
n
2
∑
∑ 1 ð r _{S} _{1} _{;} _{j} _{;} _{k} q _{1} _{;} _{j} _{;}_{k} Þ þ ∑
∑ 1 ð r _{S} _{2} _{;} _{j}_{;} _{k} q _{2} _{;} _{j}_{;} _{k} Þ þ M _{e}_{x}_{t} ¼ 0
j ¼ 1 k ¼
j ¼ 1 k ¼
ð 13 Þ
where N is the number of rollers in the given row, n is the number of laminas for rollers in this row, r _{S} _{i} _{;} _{j} _{;} _{k} is the position vector of the contact point for given lamina of the roller, q _{i} _{;}_{j} _{;} _{k} is the internal contact force for given lamina of the roller and M _{e}_{x}_{t} is the external overturning moment acting on the movable ring. Index i ¼ 1 stands for the carrying row and index i ¼ 2 stands for the supporting row. To solve Eqs. (1) and (13), 3 nonconstrained DOFs (φ _{x} , φ _{y} and w ) of the movable ring must be calculated iteratively. The presented computational model has been implemented in a computer code written in Python programming language [17], where NumPy and SciPy extension libraries [18] have been used for the vector and matrix operations together with the multidimensional root ﬁnding methods. The output data are presented in Microsoft Excel ﬁle using the Xlwt extension library [19].
2.2. Determination of the static load criterion for the bearing
raceway
Considering the standard ISO 76 [3] , the criterion for the static load capacity of roller slewing bearings is the permanent contact deformation of rolling elements and raceways. As stated in this standard, a permanent contact deformation of 0.0001 of the rolling element diameter at the center of the most heavily loaded rolling element can be tolerated in most applications. According to the extensive testing, this permanent contact deformation occurs at the contact pressure 4000 MPa in the middle of the contact zone. However, contrary to the small and standardized rolling element bearings, different steels and manufacturing procedures are usually used for large slewing bearings. As already discussed in [5] , the rolling elements are usually made of steel 100Cr6 and the
rings are usually made of steel 42CrMo4. However, the raceways of bearing rings are thermally treated where induction hardening is usually used for that purpose. Because of that, the mechanical properties of raceway are signi ﬁ cantly different if compared to the core material. In this paper, a 3D FEM quarter symmetry model of a segment of one roller – raceway contact ( Fig. 5 ) is analyzed to determine the static capacity criterion of the bearing 's raceway. In [14] a similar FEM model was used for determination of the load – contact deformation characteristics of different types of rollers. However, in that paper the possible nonparallel (tilted) loading of the rollers was not considered. As already discussed earlier, the inﬂuence of nonparallel relative ring displacements combined with the clearances on the static load capacity has been investigated in
P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
87
Fig. 5. Quarter FEM model of the rollerraceway contact: (a) de ﬁ nition of the surface layers and (b) FEM mesh, loading and boundary conditions.
presented study. In general, the rings' material was deﬁned as linear elastic (LE) with Young's modulus E ¼ 207 GPa and Poison's ratio 0.3. However, in the regions of the highest loads the material of the raceway was modeled as elasticplastic (EP). Under the contact surface the material properties of the raceway are depth dependent and were modeled with several layers of EP materials (case, transition, core; Fig. 5a), each with the appropriate static strainstress property in accordance with the previous hardness measurements [5]. In the numerical simulations normal contact was deﬁned between the roller and the raceway interface. Both, the roller and the raceway segment were meshed with 8node brick elements with full integration. The load ( Q ) at given tilt angles ( α ) on the roller ( Fig. 5 b) was applied incrementally to determine the functional relationships between load Q , maximum contact pressure ( p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x} ) and appro priate equivalent stress in the contact area of a raceway. Three different criterions have then been investigated to determine the static load capacity of the raceway:
Tresca criterion : the static load capacity is achieved, when the maximum Tresca equivalent stress in the raceway reaches the yield strength ( R _{p} _{0}_{.}_{2} ) of the material. Misses criterion : the static load capacity is achieved, when the maximum von Misses equivalent stress in the raceway reaches the yield strength ( R _{p} _{0}_{.}_{2} ) of the material. Criterion of permanent contact deformation : as pointed out in Section 2.2 , in standardized calculation procedure for small bearings [3] the limiting criterion for the static load capacity is the combined permanent contact deformation of the rolling element and raceway contact (0.0001 d ), by which the share of permanent contact deformation is virtually equal in the rolling element and raceway [20] . However, in the case of large slewing bearings, there is a signi ﬁ cant difference between the hardness of the raceway (42CrMo4 — approximately 56 HRC) and the hardness of the rolling elements (100Cr6 – 63 HRC) [21] . According to [22] , the yield strength of 100Cr6 steel at 63 HRC is 2574 MPa, while the yield strength of 42CrMo4 at 56 HRC is
Table 1 Dimensions of the analyzed threerow roller slewing bearing.
Dimension 
_{R}_{o}_{w} 

Carrying row 
Supporting row 

Roller track diameter, D [mm] Nominal roller diameter, d [mm] Nominal roller length, L [mm] Number of rollers, N [ – ] Roller pro ﬁ le [ – ] Roller pro ﬁ le radius, R [mm] 
1504 
1496 
25 
20 

25 
20 

148 
185 

‘ ZB ’ 
‘ ZB ’ 

300 
475 
1850 MPa [21] . Taking these two material properties into account in an FEM elastoplastic contact analysis it can be shown, that in the case of large slewing bearing the permanent contact deformation of 0.0001 d is achieved exclusively by the raceway plastic contact deformation while there is no plastic deformation on the roller. On that basis, it is presumed, that the static load limit is achieved when a permanent contact deformation of that amplitude is present in the raceway.
3. Practical example
The presented computational model has been used to deter mine the static load capacity of a threerow roller slewing bearing (see Table 1 ) considering different axial clearances and different combinations of prede ﬁ ned structural raceway deformations. In the presented study, a partially crowned roller type (commonly referred to as ZB pro ﬁ le; see Fig. 6 ) was used, with a value of the pro ﬁ le deviation 0.018 mm at 83% of roller length and roller end ﬁ llet ( r ) according to [23] . In the numerical simulation different material properties for several layers of the raceway (case, transition zone, and core), previously determined using uniaxial static tensile tests [21] , have
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P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
been considered (see Fig. 7 ). The depth of the casehardened layer of the raceway ( Fig. 5 a) was considered to be 10% of the rollers diameter. This assumption is also in accordance with some practical experiences given in [21] . Although the presented computational model enables the de ﬁ nition of any prede ﬁ ned structural raceway deformation in advance, a sine shaped deformation with 2 periods around the circumference of the bearing has been applied in the presented study. This is also in accordance with the recommendation of one of the manufacturers for the allowable circumferential de ﬂ ection of the mounting structure [24] . According to this assumption, the z coordinate of the prede ﬁ ned deformed geometry of the given raceway at the position of the roller can be expressed in the
Fig. 6. Partially crowned roller geometry ( ZB proﬁ le).
Strain ε [/]
Fig. 7. Static stress – strain diagram for different layers of surface hardened raceway.
following form ( Fig. 8 a):
ð 14 Þ
where z _{i} _{,}_{0} is the nominal (nondeformed) z coordinate of the raceway, A is the amplitude of the prede ﬁ ned raceway deforma tion, ψ _{i} is the circumferential angle position of the i th roller ( Fig. 3 b), φ is the phase shift of the sine function. By different phase shift values of the sine function, relative ring rotations around the z axis are modeled ( Fig. 8 b).
z _{i} ¼ z _{i} _{;}_{0} þ j A j sin ð 2 ðψ _{i} −φÞÞ
4. 
Results and discussion 
4.1. 
Static load capacity criterions 
Fig. 9 shows the relationship between the contact force Q , the
maximum Hertz contact pressure p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x} and the maximum equivalent stresses in the contact zone between rollers and race way ( s _{T}_{r} , _{m}_{a}_{x} and s _{M}_{i}_{s} , _{m}_{a}_{x} ) for two different contact angles α . The maximum contact angle α ¼ 0.0016 rad was chosen on the basis of the typical slewing bearing geometry (track diameters, roller diameters, clearances, etc.); while the actual contact angle for every roller is calculated according to Eq. (12) . The numerically determined results (markers) are approximated with parametric exponential functions according to Eq. (15) where the particular
constants of this function are presented in Table 2 .
ð 15 Þ
Numerical analyses of the roller – raceway contact segment have shown that at current depth of surface hardening the material yielding always appears in the case layer. As it is presented in [21] the yield strength of treated steel 42CrMo4 in this layer is R _{p}_{0}_{.}_{2} ¼ 1850 MPa. Considering this value as a limiting value for the static load capacity, the maximum Hertzian contact pressure
p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x} , at which yielding occurs as a consequence of the maximum equivalent stress in the case layer ( p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x} ¼ 3330 MPa for Misses
criterions), has been
determined. As it is described in Section 3 , the static load capacity can also be determined as a contact load Q when the permanent contact deformation of the raceway reaches the critical value 0.0001 d , where d is the nominal roller diameter. The contact loads Q at such contact deformations have been iteratively determined with FEM simulations for different roller diameters d and contact angles α (see Fig. 10 a). Thus, the maximum Hertz contact pressure p _{H} _{,} _{m}_{a}_{x} ¼
criterion and p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x} ¼ 2960 MPa for Tresca
X ¼ a _{1} ⋅ Q ^{b} ^{1} ⋅ð 1 − 625 αÞ þ a _{2} ⋅ Q ^{b} ^{2} ⋅ 625 α
3640 MPa has been identi ﬁ ed. According to the presented results,
Fig. 8. Formulation of prede ﬁ ned structural raceway deformation in z direction (a) and investigated prede ﬁ ned raceway deformations (b).
P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
89
Fig. 9. Max. equivalent stresses (Tresca s _{T}_{r} , _{m}_{a}_{x} , Misses s _{M}_{i}_{s} , _{m}_{a}_{x} ) and max. Hertzian contact pressure ( p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x} ) in dependence of contact force Q and contact angle α . (a) Roller diameter D ¼ 20 mm and (b) roller diameter D ¼ 25 mm.
Table 2
Constants of the exponential parametric function.
Roller
diameter/
length
X
d ¼ L ¼ 25 mm
a
1
b 1
a 2
b 2
d ¼ L ¼ 20 mm
a
1
b 1
a 2
b 2
p _{H} , _{m}_{a}_{x}
s
s
_{T}_{r} , _{m}_{a}_{x} _{M}_{i}_{s} , _{m}_{a}_{x}
21.489 0.4426 55.686 0.3625 29.585 0.4316 66.118 0.3615 21.732 0.3975 65.864 0.3021 33.031 0.3740 80.637 0.2947 23.545 0.3811 68.715 0.2894 32.314 0.3670 78.740 0.2877
the static load capacity criterions are practically independent of the different roller diameters and contact angles. Additionally, in Fig. 10 b the Hertz contact pressure distribution ( p _{H} ) between the roller and the raceway is presented for the carrying row ( d ¼ 25 mm), according to all three load capacity criterions.
4.2. Static load capacity
The common way to present the static load capacity of large slewing bearings is in 2D graphs, where abscissa axis represents the external axial force F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{z} and ordinate axis represents the external overturning moment M _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{x}_{/}_{y} (see Figs. 11 – 14 a). In pre sented study the static load capacity has been determined for different prede ﬁ ned deformations of bearing rings. For each studied case the internal contact force distribution along the rolling elements is also presented (see Figs. 11 – 14 b) at F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{z} ¼ 0, i.e. pure overturning moment.
4.2.1. Both rings nondeformed
In this example 3 different static load capacity criterions were considered. The raceways/rings were de ﬁ ned as nondeformed and only the in ﬂ uence of different axial clearances of the bearing on the static load capacity acceptance curves were investigated. As expected, the Tresca criterion is the most conservative and the permanent raceway contact deformation criterion allows the highest external loads. The computational results in Fig. 11 a also indicate the negative in ﬂ uence of increased axial clearance on the static load capacity.
4.2.2. One ring deformed, one ring nondeformed
In these cases, the combined inﬂuence of the axial clearance (c), raceway deformation amplitude (A) and phase shift of the sine deformation–relative ring rotation (φ) was investigated. Two differ ent axial clearances (0.2 mm and 0.4 mm) were analyzed to compare the inﬂuence of the same raceway deformation amplitudes (A). From Figs. 12 and 13a it can be seen that at certain relative ring rotation (φ ¼ 3π/4) the acceptance curve shows higher load capacity at higher axial load. This phenomenon can be explained with the fact that at some combinations of relative ring rotations the supporting row (d ¼ 20 mm) is heavily loaded when the bearing is loaded only with pure overturning moment, while maximum contact force in the carrying row (d ¼ 25 mm) is considerably under the static limit (Figs. 12 and 13b). By increasing the axial load (F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{z} ), the ratio of the load level of the carrying and supporting row changes, allowing higher overturning moments. However, as a general rule the combi nation of larger clearance and larger structural ring deformation reduces the static load capacity of the bearing.
4.2.3. Both rings deformed
In this case both rings and consequently all four raceways were de ﬁ ned as deformed. Because of that the relative ring rotations φ _{1} for ﬁ xed ring and the relative ring rotations φ _{2} for movable ring with regard to the appropriate tilting moments are possible (see Fig. 14 a). When the relative ring rotations φ _{1} and φ _{2} are not known, as there is sometimes dif ﬁ cult to observe them during the bearing operation, one could consider the most unfavorable ring positions as a reference value. When the relative ring rotation is the same for both rings ( φ _{1} ¼φ _{2} ), the load acceptance curve is practically the same as in the case of two nondeformed rings at given axial clearance (see Fig. 11 a).
4.2.4. Discussion
− As shown, an axial bearing clearance (c) does not inﬂuence the static load capacity when the bearing is loaded with a predomi nantly axial load (M _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{x}  0), as only one row of rollers is loaded in this case (Fig. 11a). In the case of large overturning moments (F _{e}_{x}_{t} , _{z}  0) both roller rows take part in the internal load transmis sion. Because of that, an increased bearing clearance (c) decreases the number of active (loaded) rollers and subsequently the load
90
P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
Fig. 10. Permanent raceway deformation in y direction at permanent contact deformation criterion (a), Hertzian contact pressure distribution at different static load capacity criterions – carrying row ( d ¼ 25 mm) (b).
Fig. 11. Static load capacity (a) and internal contact force distribution (b) for the case when both rings are nondeformed (1Tresca criterion, 2Misses cri terion, 3permanent contact deformation criterion, c axial clearance).
Fig. 12. Static load capacity (a) and internal contact force distribution (b) for the case of one deformed and one nondeformed ring with axial clearance c ¼ 0.2 mm (1raceway deformation amplitude A ¼ 0.05 mm, 2raceway deformation amplitude A ¼ 0.10 mm).
P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
91
Fig. 13. Static load capacity (a) and internal contact force distribution (b) for the case of one deformed and one nondeformed ring with axial clearance c ¼ 0.4 mm (1raceway deformation amplitude A ¼ 0.05 mm, 2raceway deformation amplitude A ¼ 0.10 mm).
Fig. 14. Static load capacity (a) and internal contact force distribution (b) for the case when both rings are deformed with axial clearance c ¼ 0.2 mm (1raceway deformation amplitude A ¼ 0.025 mm, 2raceway deformation amplitude A ¼ 0.050 mm).
capacity of a bearing as a whole. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration not only at the mounting of the bearing but also later during the operation period, as an increase of the axial bearing clearance can occur during the operation.
− The maximum contact force ( Q ), which determines the load
capacity, is in ﬂ uenced by the contact angle (Eq. (15) ). Because
of that, a higher axial bearing clearance decreases the max
imum allowable contact force on the roller (see Fig. 11 b). This effect can be more in ﬂ uential at other bearing geometries and higher clearances, where the contact angles between the rollers and the raceway are even higher.
− The increase of the axial bearing clearance together with the structural deformation of at least one of the bearing rings in axial direction in general signi ﬁ cantly decreases the static load capacity of the bearing (see Figs. 12 and 13 ). In cases, when
both bearing rings are deformed, this effect is even more distinctive (see Fig. 14 ). Because of that it is critical to assure
a high structural stiffness of the companion structures to
reduce structural ring deformations. With the presented calcu lation method the manufacturers of large threerow roller slewing bearings can de ﬁ ne the allowable magnitude and shape of the structural ring deformations in advance to assure safe operation of the bearing at a given external loads. − In the presented practical example rollers with ZB pro ﬁ le correction were analyzed. Although this type of roller pro ﬁ le considerably reduces the edge effect, some other roller types, as the logarithmic, gives an even more uniform contact pressure distribution [20] . In the future, the in ﬂ uence of other roller types also should be investigated.
5. Conclusion
A new computational model for determination of the static load capacity of large threerow roller slewing bearings is presented in
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P. Göncz et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 73 (2013) 82 – 92
this paper. For the determination of the internal contact load distribution an analytical model is applied, where vector approach is used to describe the bearing geometry. Using the proposed method, the most inﬂuential parameters, such as the structural raceway/ring deformations, nonparallel ring displacements and bearing clearances can be considered. Computational analyses have shown that all of these parameters have a signiﬁcant role when determining the load capacity of large slewing bearings in general. In the future the proposed model could be extended with the following research work:
− Investigation of the in ﬂ uence of different roller pro ﬁ le correc tions together with different depths of case hardened layer of the raceway on the static load capacity – optimization of large three row roller bearings design and manufacturing.
− Experimental validation of computational results, together with a detailed validation of static load criterions.
− Extension of the presented model for other large roller slewing bearings – crossed roller bearings.
− In ﬂ uence of number and pretension level of bolted joints on the ring deformations.
− Determination of dynamic load capacity criterions for these bearings.
References
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