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Workshop manual

VOLVO

Diesel engine

TAD1241GE
TAD1242GE

7741112 – 7741102
33525056801_1_1
7741302 - 7741312
Workshop Manual
Technical Data

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE
Technical data

Engine

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE

Contents

Safety information ............................................... 2


Introduction ......................................................... 2
Important ............................................................ 2
General information ............................................ 5
About the Service Manual ................................... 5
Spare parts ......................................................... 5
Certificated engines ............................................ 5
Technical data ...................................................... 6
References to Service Bulletins ......................... 31
Group 20

Safety information

The Service Manual contains technical data, If work is carried out near an engine that is run-
descriptions and repair instructions relating to the ning, an incautious movement or a dropped tool
Volvo Penta products or product versions included in could in the worst case lead to bodily harm. Be
the list of contents. Make sure you use the right mindful of hot surfaces (exhaust pipes, the
workshop literature. turbocharger, charge air pipes, starter elements,
Read the safety information, “General etc.) and hot liquids in lines and hoses on an
information” and “Repair instructions” carefully engine that is running or has just been stopped.
before starting any service work. Before starting the engine, refit all guards and
protective elements that were removed in the
course of carrying out service work.

Important
The following special warning symbols occur in the Make sure that the warning and/or information
Service Manual and on the product. decals affixed to the product are always in plain
sight. Replace decals that are damaged or have
WARNING! Warns of the risk of injury and been painted over.
extensive damage to the product or property,
or that serious functional faults could arise if
the instructions are not followed.
Never start the engine unless the air filter is
IMPORTANT! Used to draw attention to any-
fitted. The rotating impeller in the turbo could
thing that could cause damage to the product or
cause serious injuries. Foreign objects in the in-
property or functional disorders in the same.
let line could additionally cause machinery dam-
age.
NOTE: Used to draw attention to important information
for facilitating work operations or handling.

To provide an overview of the risks you should always


be aware of and the precautionary measures that Never use a starter spray or the like to help start
should always be adopted, we have listed them here. the engine. It could cause an explosion in the in-
let manifold. Danger of injury.

Make it impossible for the engine to start. Turn


off the current by means of the main switch (or
switches) and lock it (them) in the OFF position Start the engine in well-ventilated premises only.
before starting service work. Affix a warning If the engine is run in a confined space, exhaust
sign in the driver’s area. gases and crankcase gases should be conduc-
ted away from the engine bay or workshop area.
As a rule, all service work should be carried out
when the engine is stationary. Some work,
including certain adjustments, nonetheless
requires the engine to be running. Approaching
an engine that is running could be dangerous.
Bear in mind that loose-fitting clothes or long Avoid opening the coolant filler cap when the
hair may get caught in rotating parts and cause engine is still hot. Steam or hot coolant could
serious injury. squirt out while the built-up pressure will be lost.
If necessary, open the filler cap slowly and re-
lease the pressure in the cooling system. Be
extremely careful if a cock, plug or coolant line
has to be removed while the engine is still hot.
Steam or hot coolant could squirt out in an un-
expected direction.
Group 20 General instructions

Hot oil can cause burns, Avoid getting hot oil on WARNING! Under no circumstances should
your skin. Make sure that the lubricating system the engine’s pressure pipes be bent or
is depressurized before starting any work on it. reshaped. Damaged pipes must be changed.
Never start or run the engine with the oil filler
cap removed as oil under pressure could then
escape.
All fuels and many chemicals are flammable.
Stop the engine before doing any work on the Make sure that they cannot be ignited by a
cooling system. naked flame or spark. Petrol, certain diluents
and hydrogen from batteries, when mixed with
air in the right proportions, are highly flammable
and explosive. No smoking! Arrange for ad-
Always use protective goggles when carrying equate ventilation and take the necessary safety
out work where splinters, grinding sparks and measures prior to the start of welding or grind-
splashes of acid or other chemicals could occur. ing work in the vicinity. Always keep a fire ex-
The eyes are especially sensitive and an injury tinguisher easily accessible at the workplace.
could result in loss of sight.

Ensure that rags saturated with oil and fuel, as


Avoid getting oil on your skin. Prolonged or re- well as used fuel and oil filters, are kept in a
curring contact with oil can remove the skin’s safe place prior to their disposal. Under certain
natural moisture with irritation, dehydration, ec- conditions, spontaneous combustion can occur
zema and other skin disorders as a result. From in oil-ingrained rags. Used fuel and oil filters
a hygienic point of view, used oil is more harm- comprise environmentally hazardous waste and,
ful than fresh oil. Wear protective gloves and together with used lubricating oil, contaminated
avoid clothes and rags ingrained with oil. Wash fuel, residual paint, solvents, degreasants and
residual detergents, should be taken to a suit-
yourself regularly, particularly before mealtimes.
able plant for destruction.
Use skin lotion intended for this purpose to
avoid dehydration and to facilitate cleansing of
the skin.

Batteries should never be exposed to naked


flames or electric sparks. Never smoke near the
batteries. When the batteries are being charged
Most chemicals intended for the product (such
they give off hydrogen which, when mixed with
as engine and transmission oils, glycol, petrol
air, forms oxyhydrogen gas. This gas is highly
and diesel oil) or chemicals for workshop use
flammable and extremely explosive. A spark,
(such as degreasants, paints and solvents) are
which can occur if the batteries are connected
injurious to the health. Carefully read the ins-
incorrectly, could cause a battery to explode
tructions on the package. Always follow the with injury and damage as a result. Do not dis-
prescribed safety rules (such as the use of res- turb the connections when attempting to start
pirators, protective goggles, gloves, etc.). Make (risk of sparks) and do not lean over any of the
sure that other personnel are not exposed with- batteries.
out their knowledge to substances that are in-
jurous to health, such as through the air they
breathe. Make provision for good ventilation.
Deal with used and surplus chemicals in the pre-
Never mistake the positive and negative ter-
scribed manner.
minals for each other when installing the bat-
teries. If this happens it could cause serious
damage to the electrical equipment. Compare
with the wiring diagram.
Exercise great care when detecting leaks in the
fuel system and testing fuel nozzles. Wear pro-
tective goggles. The jets from a fuel nozzle are
under very high pressure and have great pen- Always wear protective goggles when charging
etrative power; the fuel can penetrate deep into and handling batteries. The battery electrolyte
body tissues and cause serious injury. Risk of contains highly corrosive sulphuric acid. If it
blood poisoning. gets on your skin, wash the affected area with
soap and plenty of water. If the electrolyte gets
in your eyes, rinse them at once with plenty of
water and see a doctor as soon as possible.
General instructions Group 20

Stop the engine and cut off the current with the WARNING! Electrical system and fuel system
main switch (or switches) before starting to work components on Volvo Penta products are de-
on the electrical system. signed and manufactured to minimize the risk of
explosion and fire. The engine must not be run
The clutch should be adjusted with the engine in environments where they will be surrounded
switched off. by explosive media.

Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine


when lifting it. Always check that all lifting Always use fuel recommended by Volvo Penta.
equipment is in good condition and that it has See the Owner’s Manual. The use of a poorer
the right capacity for the job (engine weight plus grade of fuel could damage the engine. On a
reversing gear and extra equipment, if any). To diesel engine, a poor grade of fuel could lead to
ensure safe handling and to avoid damaging binding of the control rod and overrevving of the
components mounted on the top of the engine, engine with a consequent risk of injury and dam-
it should be lifted using an adjustable lifting age. Poor fuel can also give rise to higher main-
beam or one suitably adapted to the engine. All tenance costs.
chains or cables should run parallel to each
other and as perpendicular as possible to the
top of the engine.
If other equipment that has been connected to Bear in mind the following when cleaning with
the engine changes its centre of gravity, special high-pressure equipment: never direct the jet of
lifting devices may be needed to obtain the right water on seals, rubber hoses or electrical com-
balance and ensure safe handling. ponents. Never use the high-pressure function
Never carry out any work on an engine that is when cleaning the engine.
suspended solely from a lifting device (hoist, etc.).

Never work alone when heavy components are


to be removed, not even when a safe lifting dev-
ice like a lockable block and tackle is used.
Even when a lifting device is used two people
will generally be required, one to handle the lif-
ting device and the other to make sure that the
components go clear and are not damaged when
lifted away.
Always make sure in advance that there is suf-
ficient space for dismantling to be carried out in
the area with no danger of it causing injury or
material damage.

4
Group 20

General information

About the Service Manual Certificated engines


This Service Manual contains technical data for the For engines that are certificated in compliance with
standard versions of the TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, national and regional environmental legislation the
TA1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE engines. manufacturer undertakes to ensure that the environ-
All references from the service manuals containing mental requirements are fulfilled both in new engines
repair instructions for the TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE, and those already in use. The product must corres-
TAD1242GE and TWD1240VE engines will be found pond to the specimen product that was approved for
in the “Technical data” Service Manual. certification. For Volvo Penta as the manufacturer to
be answerable for ensuring that engines in use meet
The Service Manual is primarily produced for Volvo the stipulated environmental requirements, the follow-
Penta’s service workshops and their qualified person- ing requirements in regard to service and spare parts
nel. It is therefore assumed that persons using the must be fulfilled:
manual have the necessary basic knowledge and can
carry out work of a mechanical/electrical nature that
forms part of their occupational duties. • The service intervals and maintenance measures
Volvo Penta is continuously developing its products recommended by Volvo Penta must be followed.
and we therefore reserve the right to introduce • Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended
changes and modifications. All the information in this for the certificated engine version may be used.
manual is based on product data available up to the • Service embracing injection pumps, pump set-
time of going to press. Any changes of vital import- tings and injectors must always be carried out by
ance that have been introduced in product or service an authorized Volvo Penta workshop.
methods after that date will be announced in the form
of Service Bulletins. • The engine must not be rebuilt or modified in any
way, except for the accessories and service kits
that Volvo Penta has developed for the engine in
Spare parts question.
Spare parts for the electrical and fuel systems are • Installation changes to exhaust pipes and supply
subject to different national safety requirements. Volvo air ducts for the engine bay (ventilation ducts)
Penta Original Spare Parts meet these require-ments. must not be made indiscriminately as this could
All types of damage occurring as a result of using affect exhaust emission levels.
non-original Volvo Penta spare parts for the pro-duct • Security seals, if any, must not be broken by non-
in question will not be covered under the terms of authorized personnel.
warranty as undertaken by Volvo Penta.
In other respects the general instructions for driving,
operation and maintenance given in the Owner’s Man-
ual are applicable.

IMPORTANT! When spare parts are required,


use only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts.

If non-original spare parts are used, AB Volvo


Penta will no longer be responsible for ensur-
ing that the engine corresponds to the cer-
tificated version.
All types of injury, damage and/or costs arising
due to the use of non-original Volvo Penta Original
Spare Parts for the product in question will not be
covered under the terms of warranty as under-
taken by Volvo Penta.

5
Group 20

Technical data

General
Type designation ................................................... TAD1240GE TAD1241/42GE TWD1240VE TAD1241/42VE
Number of cylinders .............................................. 6
Cylinder bore ......................................................... 131 mm (5.16")
Stroke .................................................................... 150 mm (5.91")
Swept volume ........................................................ 12.13 dm3 (740.20 inch3)
Number of valves .................................................. 24
Direction of rotation (viewed from front) ................. Clockwise
Compression ratio ................................................. 18.5:1 17.5:1 18.5:1 17.5:1
Firing order ............................................................ 1-5-3-6-2-4
Slow idling speed (rpm) ......................................... 600-1200 600-1200 600-900 600-900
Fast idling speed (rpm) .......................................... 1500-1620 1500-1620 2100 1000
/1800-1920 /1800-1920
Highest full-load engine speed (rpm) ..................... 1500/1800 1500/1800 2100 1800
Dry weight (kg) ..................................................... 1230* 1230* 1270 1230
(2706 lbs) (2706 lbs) (2794 lbs) (2706 lbs)

Weight TAD engines without radiator assembly and air filter

Engine block
Cylinder head
Type ..................................................................... One cylinder head for all cylinders with single overhead camshaft
Length ................................................................... 1078 mm (42.44")
Width ..................................................................... 397 mm (15.63")
Height .................................................................... 135 mm (5.32")
Max. surface unevenness (bottom surface) .......... 0.1 mm (0.004")

Cylinder head bolts


Number of bolts per cylinder head ......................... 38
Thread size ........................................................... M16
Length ................................................................... 200 mm (7.87")

6
Group 20 Technical data

Cylinder liners
Type ...................................................................... Wet, replaceable
Sealing surface height above block surface .......... 0.15–0.20 mm (0.006–0.0079")
Number of sealing rings per cylinder liner .............. 4

Pistons
Height above cylinder block surface ....................... 0.05-0.45 mm (0.002–0.018")
Diameter, combustion chamber .............................. 89 mm (3.5")
Depth, piston bowl ................................................. 18.55 mm (0.73") (E=17.5:1) 17.14 (E=18.5:1)
Number of ring grooves ......................................... 3
Front marking ........................................................ Arrow pointing forwards
Gudgeon pin diameter ........................................... 55 mm (2.17")

Piston rings
Compression rings
Number .................................................................. 2
Piston ring clearance in groove:
upper compression ring ....................................... Trapezoidal section, no clearance
lower compression ring, vertical .......................... 0.05-0.08 mm (0.002–0.0031")
Piston ring gap:
upper compression ring ....................................... 0.425-0.575 mm (0.0167–0.0226")
wear tolerance .................................................. 1 mm (0.04")
lower compression ring ....................................... 0.8 mm (0.032")
wear tolerance .................................................. 1.3 mm (0.051")

Oil control ring


Number .................................................................. 1
Width, incl. spring .................................................. 4.3 mm (0.17")
Piston ring clearance, vertical ................................ 0.03-0.08 mm (0.0012–0.0031")
Piston ring gap ....................................................... 0.35-0.75 mm (0.014–0.03")

7
Technical data Group 20

Valve mechanism
Valves
Valve head diameter
Inlet .................................................................... 40 mm (1.58")
Exhaust .............................................................. 40 mm (1.58")
Stem diameter
Inlet .................................................................... 7.960–7.975 mm (0.3134–0.3140")
Exhaust .............................................................. 7.947–7.962 mm (0.3129–0.3135")
Valve face angle
Inlet .................................................................... 29.5°
Exhaust .............................................................. 44.5°
Valve head face, (see illustration below)
Inlet (new valve) .................................................. Min.1.8 mm (0.07")
wear tolerance ..................................................... 1.4 mm (0.055")
Exhaust (new valve) ........................................... Min.1.6 mm (0.063")
wear tolerance ..................................................... 1.2 mm (0.0472")
Seat angle in cylinder head
Inlet .................................................................... 30°
Exhaust .............................................................. 45°
The valve seat should be ground down until
the distance from the valve head (new valve)
to the cylinder head surface is:
Inlet ...................................................................... 0.9–1.4 mm (0.035–0.055")
wear tolerance ..................................................... Max. 1.5 mm (0.06")

Exhaust .............................................................. 1.2–1.7 mm (0.047–0.067")


wear tolerance ..................................................... Max. 1.8 mm (0.071")
If the distance is greater the valve seats
must be changed.

Valve clearances, cold engine, setting value


Inlet .................................................................... 0.2 mm (0.008")
Exhaust .............................................................. 0.5 mm (0.020")
Valve clearance, cold engine, check value
Inlet .................................................................... 0.15–0.25 mm (0.006–0.010")
Exhaust .............................................................. 0.45–0.55 mm (0.018–0.022")

8
Group 20 Technical data

Valve seats
Outer diameter (dimension A) Standard:
Inlet .................................................................... 43.1 mm (1.697")
Exhaust .............................................................. 43.1 mm (1.697")
Oversize:
Inlet .................................................................... 43.3 mm (1.710")
Exhaust .............................................................. 43.3 mm (1.710")
Height (dimension B):
Inlet .................................................................... 8.4-8.6 mm (0.331–0.339")
Exhaust .............................................................. 7.9-8.1 mm (0.311–0.319")

Valve face seat


Diameter (dimension C) standard:
Inlet .................................................................... 43 mm (1.69")
Exhaust .............................................................. 43 mm (1.69")
Diameter (dimension C) oversize:
Inlet .................................................................... 43.200–43.225 mm (1.701–1.702")
Exhaust .............................................................. 43.200–43.225 mm (1.701–1.702")
Depth (dimension D):
Inlet .................................................................... 11.2±0.1 mm (0.441±0.004")
Exhaust .............................................................. 11.2±0.1 mm (0.441±0.004")
Seat bottom radius (dimension R):
Inlet. max. .......................................................... 0.8 mm (0.032")
Exhaust, max. .................................................... 0.8 mm (0.032")
Dimension between valve head and
cylinder head surface:
Inlet .................................................................... 0.9–1.4 mm (0.035–0.055")
Exhaust .............................................................. 1.2–1.7 mm (0.047–0.067")

Valve guides
Length:
Inlet .................................................................... 83.2–83.5 mm (3.28–3.29")
Exhaust .............................................................. 83.2–83.5 mm (3.28–3.29")
Inner diameter:
Inlet .................................................................... 8.0 mm (0.032")
Exhaust .............................................................. 8.0 mm (0.032")
Height above cylinder head spring plane:
Inlet .................................................................... 26.5±0.4 mm (1.04±0.016")
Exhaust .............................................................. 18.5±0.4 mm (0.73±0.016")
Clearance, valve stem - guide:
Inlet .................................................................... 0.03–0.05 mm (0.001–0.002")
Wear tolerance ................................................... 0.2 mm (0.008")1
Exhaust .............................................................. 0.04-0.07 mm (0.002–0.003")
Wear tolerance ................................................... 0.3 mm (0.012")1
1
Max. permissible clearance between valve stem and valve guide:
(according to the method described in ”Service Manual Engine block D12CA: valve guides, inspection”)

9
Technical data Group 20

Valve springs
Valve springs, exhaust/inlet
Valve springs:
Length without load ............................................. 72-73 mm (2.8-2.9")
With 600 N (61.2 kgfm (134.6 lbs)) load .............. 56 mm (2.2")
With 1076 N (109.7 kgfm (241.3 lbs)) load ........... 43 mm (1.7")
Rigid length max. ................................................ 41 mm (1.6")
Inner valve spring (exhaust):
Length without load ............................................. 67-68 mm (2.6-2.7")
With 243 N (24.8 kgfm (54.6 lbs)) load ................ 52 mm (2.1")
With 447 N (45.6 kgfm (100.3 lbs)) load .............. 39 mm (1.5")
Rigid length max. ................................................ 36 mm (1.4")

Timing

1. Drive, camshaft (z=76)


2. Drive, compressor (z=29)
3. Idler (z=83)
4. Drive, coolant pump (z=27)
5. Drive, crankshaft (z=38)
6. Drive, lubricating oil pump (z=23)
7. Idler (z=44)
8. Drive, hydraulic pump (z=39)
9. Idler (z=71)
10. Drive to belt and fuel pump (z=27)
11. Drive, servo pump (z=23)
12. Spray nozzle, drive lubrication
13. Idler, adjustable (z=97)

Flank clearance, adjustable intermediate gear (13) . 0.05–0.17 mm (0.0020–0.0067")


Intermediate gear shaft journal, diameter ............... 99.99±0.01 mm (3.937±0.0004")
Intermediate gear bush, diameter .......................... 100.04±0.01 mm (3.939±0.0004")
Radial clearance for intermediate, max. diameter .. 0.03–0.07 mm (0.0012–0.0028")
Axial clearance for intermediate gear ..................... 0.07–0.17 mm (0.0028–0.0067")

10
Group 20 Technical data

Camshaft
Checking camshaft setting. The engine should be cold and the No. 1 cylinder valves should be adjusted to a
clearance of 0. At a flywheel position of 6° ATDC the No. 1 cylinder inlet valve should have opened 1.6±0.3 mm
(0.063±0.012").
When checking this the timing mechanism must be rotated in the right direction (clockwise viewed from the front)
to take up any backlash.

NOTE: Do not forget to adjust the valve clearance back to the correct value after the test.

Drive ...................................................................... Gears


Number of bearings ................................................ 7
Diameter of journals, standard ................................ 70 mm (2.76 ")
Diameter of journals, undersize:
0.25 .................................................................... 69.720–69.780 mm (2.7449–2.7472")
0.50 .................................................................... 69.470–69.530 mm (2.7350–2.7374")
0.75 .................................................................... 69.220–69.280 mm (2.7252–2.7276")
Wear tolerances
Axial clearance, max. ............................................ 0.35 mm (0.0014")
Radial clearance, max. ........................................... 0.01 mm (0.0004")
Valve lift:
Inlet .................................................................... 13.1 mm (0.516")
Exhaust .............................................................. 13.1 mm (0.516")
Unit injector (stroke) ............................................... 17 mm (0.669")

Camshaft bearings
Camshaft bearing thickness, standard: .................. 1.9 mm (0.075")
Oversize:
0.25 .................................................................... 2.0 mm (0.079")
0.50 .................................................................... 2.2 mm (0.087")
0.75 .................................................................... 2.3 mm (0.091")
Diameter, camshaft bearing housings:
Bearings 1-7 ........................................................ 73.9 mm (2.91")

11
Technical data Group 20

Crank movement

Crankshaft
Length .................................................................... 1203 mm (47.36")
Crankshaft axial clearance1 .................................... 0.10–0.40 mm (0.0039–0.0157")
Main bearing radial clearance1 ................................ 0.01–0.15 mm (0.0004–0.0059")
Max. permissible ovality
of main bearing journals and crankpins .................. 0.08 mm (0.003")
Max. permissible conicity
of main bearing journals and crankpins .................. 0.05 mm (0.002")
Max. runout of centre bearing ................................. 0.15 mm (0.006")
1
The dimensions apply to oiled parts

Main bearing journals


Diameter (Ø) for machining, standard .................... 108.0 mm (4.25")
Undersize:
0.25 mm (0.010") ................................................ 107.73–107.75 mm (4.2413–4.2421")
0.50 mm (0.020") ................................................ 107.48–107.50 mm (4.2315–4.2323")
0.75 mm (0.030") ................................................ 107.23–107.25 mm (4.2216–4.2224")
1.00 mm (0.040") ................................................ 106.98–107.0 mm (4.2118–4.2126")
1.25 mm (0.050") ................................................ 106.73–106.75 mm (4.2020–4.2027")
Surface finish, main bearing journal ....................... Ra 0.25
Surface finish, radius ............................................. Ra 0.4
Width, thrust bearing journal (A) standard ............. 47.0 mm (1.85")
Oversize:
0.2 mm (0.008") (thrust bearing 0.1) ................... 47.175–47.225 mm (1.8573–1.8592")
0.4 mm (0.016") (thrust bearing 0.2) ................... 47.375–47.425 mm (1.8652–1.8651")
0.6 mm (0.024") (thrust bearing 0.3) ................... 47.575–47.625 mm (1.8730–1.8750")
Fillet radius (R) ...................................................... 3.75–4.00 mm (0.148–0.158")

Thrust washers (thrust bearing)


Width (B) standard ................................................ 3.1–3.2 mm (0.122–0.126")
Oversize:
0.1 mm (0.004") .................................................. 3.2–3.3 mm (0.126–0.130")
0.2 mm (0.008") .................................................. 3.3–3.4 mm (0.130–0.134")
0.3 mm (0.012") .................................................. 3.4–3.5 mm (0.134–0.138")

12
Group 20 Technical data

Main bearing shells


Type ...................................................................... replaceable
Outer diameter (C) ................................................. 113.0 mm (4.45")
Thickness (D) standard ......................................... 2.5 mm (0.098")
Oversize:
0.25 mm (0.010") ................................................ 2.6–2.7 mm (0.102–0.106")
0.50 mm (0.020") ................................................ 2.7–2.8 mm (0.106–0.110")
0.75 mm (0.030") ................................................ 2.8–2.9 mm (0.110–0.114")
1.00 mm (0.040") ................................................ 2.9–3.0 mm (0.114–0.118")
1.25 mm (0.050") ................................................ 3.1–3.2 mm (0.122–0.126")
Crankpins
Diameter (Ø) for machining, standard .................... 92.0 mm (3.62")
Undersize:
0.25 mm (0.010") ................................................ 91.73–91.75 mm (3.6114–3.612")
0.50 mm (0.020") ................................................ 91.48–91.50 mm (3.6016–3.6024")
0.75 mm (0.030") ................................................ 91.23–91.25 mm (3.5917–3.5925")
1.00 mm (0.040") ................................................ 90.98–91.00 mm (3.5819–3.5827")
1.25 mm (0.050") ................................................ 90.73–90.75 mm (3.5720–3.5728")
Surface finish, crankpin ......................................... Ra 0.25
Surface finish, radius ............................................. Ra 0.4
Width (A) thrust bearing journal ............................. 56.9–57.0 mm (2.240–2.244")
Fillet radius (R) (5.25–5.5) ..................................... 3.75–4.00 mm (0.148–0.158")

Big-end bearing shells


Outside diameter (B) ............................................. 96.85 mm (3.8130")
Thickness (C) standard ......................................... 2.39–2.40 mm (0.0941–0.0945")
Oversize:
0.25 mm (0.010") ................................................ 2.51–2.52 mm (0.0988–0.0992")
0.50 mm (0.020") ................................................ 2.64–2.65 mm (0.1039–0.1043")
0.75 mm (0.030") ................................................ 2.76–2.77 mm (0.1087–0.1091")
1.00 mm (0.040") ................................................ 2.89–2.90 mm (0.1138–0.1142")
1.25 mm (0.050") ................................................ 3.01–3.02 mm (0.1185–0.1189")
Diameter, bearing shell seat (D) ............................ 96.84–96.85 mm (3.8126–3.8130")

13
Technical data Group 20

Connecting rod
Length, centre-to-centre (E) .................................. 260 mm (10.236")
Marking:
Connecting rod and cap1 ....................................... 1 to 6
”FRONT” on the shank to face .............................. Forwards
Connecting rod bush inside diameter (G) .............. 55 mm (2.165")
Axial clearance, big-end - crankshaft, max.2 ......... 0.35 mm (0.014")
Big-end bearing, radial clearance, max.2 ................ 0.10 mm (0.004")
Straightness, max. deviation per 100 mm (3.94")
measured length .................................................... 0.06 mm (0.002")
Warping, max. deviation per 100 mm (3.94")
measured length .................................................... 0.15 mm (0.006")
1
Marking on same side
2
The measurements apply to oiled parts

Flywheel. fitted
Max. permissible axial runout,
test radius 150 mm (5.91") ...................................... 0.20 mm (0.008")
Number of teeth on starter ring ............................... 153
Sensor grooves on flywheel ................................... 3 x 18

14
Group 20 Technical data

Lubricating system

Oil grade Fuel sulphur content in per cent by weight


up to 0.5 % 0.5 - 1.0 % more than 1.0 %
Oil change interval: in operation whichever reached first
VDS-3 600 hours or 12 months 300 hours or 12 months 150 thours or 12 months
VDS-2 and ACEA: E7 2)
VDS-2 and ACEA: E5 2)
VDS-2 and Global DHD-1 2)
VDS-2 and API: CI-4 2)
VDS-2 and API: CH-4 2)
VDS and ACEA: E3 2) 400 hours or 12 months 200 hours or 12 months 100 hours or 12 months
ACEA: E7, E5, E4 200 hours or 12 months 100 hours or 12 months 50 hours or 12 months
API: CI-4, CH-4, CG-4

NOTE! Mineral based oil, either fully or semi-synthetic, can be used on condition that it complies with the quality
requirements above.

NOTE! For 6 and 7-liter engines equipped with low profile type oil pans, the oil change interval must be halved.
1)
If the sulfur content is > 1.0% by weight, use oil with TBN > 15
2)
The engine oil must fullfil both requirements. For markets outside Europe, API: CG-4 and CH-4 can be used instead of
ACEA: E3.

VDS = Volvo Drain Specification


ACEA = Association des Constructeurs Européenne d’Automobiles
API = American Petroleum Institute
Global DHD = Global Diesel Heavy Duty
TBN = Total Base Number

Viscosity
The viscosity should be selected from the adjacent
table. Note: the temperatures refer to constant outside
air temperature.
* Refers to synthetic or synthetic-based oil.

Oil
Change volume including changing three filters:
For horizontal installation ....................................... 35 litres (9.2 US gal)
Oil pressure
Operating engine speed 1100 rpm or higher ........... 400–550 kPa (58–80 psi)
Idling speed, minimum ........................................... 175 kPa (25 psi)
Oil filters
Number .................................................................. 3
Full-flow filter (tightened 1/2–3/4 turn after fitting) ... 2
Bypass filter (tightened 3/4–1 turn after fitting) ....... 1
Oil pump
Type ...................................................................... Gear driven

15
Technical data Group 20

Oil valves

1. Safety valve
Marking .................................................................. Yellow
Safety valve opening pressure ............................... 700 kPa (101 psi)

2. Delivery valve, oil cooler


Marking .................................................................. 124
Delivery valve, oil cooler, opening pressure ........... 300 kPa (43 psi)

3, 5. Overflow valve, oil filter, full-flow/by-pass


Marking on spring ................................................... Blue/yellow
Overflow valve, oil filter, opening pressure ............. 110 kPa (16 psi)
Free length ............................................................. 68.8 mm (2.71")
Loaded with 25–29 N (2.5–2.9 kgf (5.5–6.4 lbs)) ..... 40.0 mm (1.58")

4. Piston cooling valve


Marking .................................................................. Orange
Piston cooling valve, opening pressure .................. 200 kPa (29 psi)

6. Pressure reducing valve


Marking .................................................................. Blue
Pressure reducing valve, opening pressure ............ 480 kPa (70 psi)

16
Group 20 Technical data

Fuel system

Injection order
Injection order ........................................................ 1-5-3-6-2-4

Feed pump
Feed pressure after fuel filter at 1000 rpm, min. ..... 350 kPa (51 psi)
Feed pressure after fuel filter at full load, min. ....... 350 kPa (51 psi)

Overflow valve
Opening pressure ................................................... 400–450 kPa
(58–65 psi)

Sensor spacing
Camshaft ............................................................... 0.3–1.0 mm (0.012–0.040")
Flywheel ................................................................ 0.75–2.1 mm (0.030–0.083")

Unit injectors
Prestress (setting with gauge) ................................ 68.9±0.1 mm (2.712±0.004")

17
Technical data Group 20

Inlet and exhaust system


Engine ................................................................... TAD1240GE TAD1241GE/VE
TWD1240VE TAD1242GE/VE
Turbocharger
Manufacturer and type ........................................... 3K/Warner K31 3971 QXAKB K31 3971 QXAKB
24.21 DCAYD 27.21 DCAYD

Lubrication system ................................................ Force-feed lubrication


Max. permissible axial clearance ........................... 0.16 mm (0.0063")
Max. permissible radial clearance
(turbocharger side) ................................................ 0.45 mm (0.0177")

Pressure drop indicator


Air filter TAD1240-42GE TAD1241-42VE
TWD1240VE
Level for indication (vacuum) ................................. 500 mm (19.7") w.g.

Exhaust back pressure


Exhaust back pressure, max. ................................ 10 kPa 15 kPa
(1.5 psi) (2,2 psi)

Cooling system
General
Type ...................................................................... Overpressure, closed
Pressure cap valve opens at ................................. 75 kPa (11 psi)
Capacity (engine) .................................................. 20 litres (5.3 US gal)
Capacity (engine + radiator and hoses) ................. 44 litres (11.6 US gal)

Thermostat TAD1240-42GE TWD1240VE


TAD1241-42VE
Type ...................................................................... Piston thermostat
Number .................................................................. 1
Opening temperature ............................................. 82° C 75° C
(187°F) (167°F)
Coolant filter
Number .................................................................. 1

Coolant pump
Type ...................................................................... Geared centrifugal pump

18
Group 20 Technical data

Coolant
Type ...................................................................... Volvo Penta Coolant
Consisting of .......................................................... Ethylene glycol + corrosion inhibiting additives
Colour .................................................................... Blue-green
Mixed with .............................................................. Pure water

IMPORTANT! Coolant must be mixed with pure water, use distilled - de-ionized water. The water must ful-
fill the requirements specified by Volvo Penta, see “Water quality”.

IMPORTANT! Coolant must be used all year round. This applies even if there is never any risk for frost , to
ensure that the engine has an adequate protection against corrosion. Using anti-corrosion aditive exclusively
is not permitted in Volvo Penta’s engines. Never use water by itself as coolant.
Future warranty claims on the engine and additional equipment may be rejected if an unsuitable coolant has
been used or if the instructions concerning coolant mixing have not been followed.

Water quality

ASTM D4985:
Total solid particles ...................................... < 340 ppm
Total hardness: ............................................ < 9.5° dH
Chloride ......................................................... < 40 ppm
Sulfate ........................................................... < 100 ppm
pH value ........................................................ 5,5– 9
Silica (acc. ASTM D859) .............................. < 20 mg SiO2/l
Iron (acc. ASTM D1068) .............................. < 0.10 ppm
Manganese (acc. ASTM D858) ................... < 0.05 ppm
Conductivity (acc. ASTM D1125) ................ < 500 µS/cm
Organic content, CODMn (acc. ISO8467) .... < 15 mg KMnO4/l

19
Technical data Group 20

Tightening torques
General tightening torques Nm (kgfm)
M6 standard bolt 8.8 .............................................. 10±1.5 (1.0±0.15)
M8 standard bolt 8.8 .............................................. 24±4 (2.4±0.4)
M10 standard bolt 8.8 ............................................ 48±8 (4.8±0.8)
M12 standard bolt 8.8 ............................................ 85±15 (8.5±1.5)
M14 standard bolt 8.8 ............................................ 140±25 (14.0±2.5)

Special tightening torques Nm (kgfm) Angle tightening


Group 21
Front engine mounting, crossmember (M14) .......... 180±15 (18.0±1.5)
Front engine mounting (M16) .................................. 220±35 (22.0±3.5)
Rear engine mounting, flywheel housing (M16) ....... 220±35 (22.0±3.5)
Main bearings
Stage 1 .................................................................. 150±20 (15.0±2.0)
Stage 2 .................................................................. 120°±5°
Big-end cap ............................................................ 275±12 (27.5±1.2)
Flywheel
-0 -0
(see tightening diagram ”Flywheel” page 22) ........... 245 +25 +24.5 +2,5
Flywheel housing ................................................... 140±14 (14.0±1.4)
Vibration damper, inner (2 socket cap screws)
Stage 1 .................................................................. 60±5 (6.0±0.5)
Stage 2 .................................................................. 90°±5°
Vibration damper outer or Pulley
(10 bolts, see tightening diagram
”Outer vibration damper” page 24)
Stage 1 .................................................................. 60±5 (6.0±0.5)
Stage 2 .................................................................. 90°±5°
Rocker cover (see tightening diagram
”Rocker cover” page 22) ......................................... 20±2 (2.0±0.2)
Stud, rocker cover ................................................. 40±3 (4.0±0.3)
Cylinder head (see tightening diagram
”Cylinder head” page 23)
Stage 1 .................................................................. 60±10 (6.0±1.0)
Stage 2 (check tightening) ..................................... 60±10 (6.0±1.0)
Stage 3 .................................................................. 90°±5°
Stage 4 .................................................................. 90°±5°
Clean-out plugs, cylinder head ............................... 60±10 (6.0±1.0)
Lock nut, valve adjustment bolt ............................. 38±4 (3.8±0.4)

20
Group 20 Technical data

Special tightening torques

Bolts for camshaft bearing caps should be tightened in 5 stages, see tightening diagram “Bearing caps, camshaft/
rocker arm shaft” page 23.
Timing cover, upper (see tightening diagram ”Timing cover, upper” page 25)
Timing gear incl. toothed wheel (see tightening diagram ”Timing gear” page 25)

Nm (kgfm) Angle tightening

Timing plate (see ”Timing plate” page 24) ............. 34±4 (3.4±0.4)

Group 22
Oil nozzle in timing gear
(see ”Timing gear” page 25) .................................... 34±4 (3.4±0.4)
Oil cooler, retaining bolts ........................................ 27±4 (2.7±0.4)
Cover, oil cooler (see tightening diagram
”Cover, oil cooler” page 27) ................................... 24±4
Delivery oil pipe (see ”Delivery oil pipe” page 26) .. 180° new pipe 60° used pipe
Bolt, piston cooling nozzle
(see Piston cooling nozzle” page 26) ...................... 24±4 (2.4±0.4)
Drain plug, oil sump ............................................... 60±10 (6.0±1.0)

Group 23
Bolt, retaining yoke, unit injector
(new copper sleeve)
First tightening
Stage 1 .................................................................. 20±5 (2.0±0.5)
Stage 2 .................................................................. 180°±5°
Undo the bolt for the unit injector retaining yoke
before the second tightening
Second tightening
Stage 1 .................................................................. 20±5 (2.0±0.5)
Stage 2 .................................................................. 60°±5°
Bolt, retaining yoke, unit injector
(old copper sleeve)
Stage 1 .................................................................. 20±5 (2.0±0.5)
Stage 2 .................................................................. 60°±5°
Lock nut for adjusting screw, unit injector .............. 52±4 (5.2±0.4)
Nut, connection, unit injector .................................. 1.5±0.5 (0.15±0.05)
Clamping and tightening torques for fuel lines
(see ”Fuel lines” page 28).

IMPORTANT! Pay attention and do NOT tighten the nut for the electrical
connections (on the unit injector) to a higher torque than specified above.

21
Technical data Group 20

Tightening diagram

Flywheel

Rocker cover

22
Group 20 Technical data

Cylinder head

Bearing caps, camshaft/rocker arm shaft

NOTE: Tightening in stage 2 should be carried out gradually to ensure that the rocker arm shaft bottoms against
the bearing housings without bending.

NOTE: In stage 4 undo the marked bolts before continuing to stage 5. If the rocker arm shaft has been loosened
or removed, only the bolts retaining the shaft should be tightened according to the diagram on refitting.

23
Technical data Group 20

Timing plate

Centre the plate using tool 9998267. No special tightening sequence for marked bolts.

Outer vibration damper

24
Group 20 Technical data

Timing cover, upper

Timing

25
Technical data Group 20

Piston cooling nozzle


NOTE: The piston cooling nozzle retaining bolt has a
friction coating and can be used only once.

IMPORTANT! Incorrect piston cooling always


leads to seizing of the piston or pistons. If it is
suspected that the piston cooling nozzle could
be damaged or deformed it must be changed.
This applies to new nozzles also. Always check
that the piston cooling nozzle is correctly loca-
ted in the hole in the cylinder block and that the
retaining plate lies flat against the cylinder block.
If the piston cooling nozzle is not correctly fit-
ted, engine breakdown when under load will be
the immediate result.

Delivery oil pipe


Tighten to ”0 clearance” and then angle tighten 60º for
a used delivery oil pipe and 180º for a new delivery oil
pipe.

26
Group 20 Technical data

Cover, oil cooler

Always use locating pins when positioning the cover on the engine.

1 Insert screws A and B to align the cover.


2 Tighten screws C and D.
3 Insert all screws, tighten the screws in numerical order from the center outwards, in accordance with the
diagram (1 - 4).
4 Check screws C and D for tightness.

27
Technical data Group 20

Fuel lines TAD

A. Banjo bolt 34±4 Nm (25±3 lbf. ft)


B. Nipple 14±3 Nm (10±2.2 lbf. ft)
C. Overflow valve 55±5 Nm (41±3.7 lbf. ft)
D. Banjo bolt 35±4 Nm (26±3 lbf. ft)
E. Nut 65±5 Nm (48±3.7 lbf. ft)
F. Nut 65±5 Nm (48±3.7 lbf. ft)
G. Banjo bolt 15±2.5 Nm (11±1.8 lbf. ft)
1 H. Bolt 55±5 Nm (41±3.7 lbf. ft)

28
Group 20 Technical data

Fuel lines TWD

A. Overflow valve 55±5 Nm (41±3.7 lbf ft)


B. Banjo bolt 35±5 Nm (26±3.7 lbf ft)
C. Nut 65±5 Nm (48±3.7 lbf ft)
D. Nut 65±5 Nm (48±3.7 lbf ft)
E. Banjo bolt 15±2 Nm (11±1.5 lbf ft)
1 F. Banjo bolt 34±4 Nm (25±3 lbf ft)
2 G. Hose connection 55±5 Nm (41±3.7 lbf ft)

29
Group 20

Exhaust manifold

Stage 1. Tighten bolts 1 to 10 Nm (0.7 to 7.4 lbf.ft) (max.)


Stage 2. Tighten bolts 2 to 10 Nm (1.5 to 7.4 lbf.ft) (max.) Stage 5. Tighten bolts 4 to 52 ±4 Nm (3.0 to 38 ±3 lbf.ft)
Stage 3. Tighten bolts 3 to 52 ±4 Nm (2.2 to 38 ±3 lbf.ft) Stage 6. Tighten bolts 1 to 52 ±4 Nm (0.7 to 38 ±3 lbf.ft)
Stage 4. Tighten bolts 2 to 52 ±4 Nm (1.5 to 38 ±3 lbf.ft)

Intercooler (TWD)

Tightening diagram

Tightening is done in two stages, in accordance with the tightening diagram.

Stage 1. Insert all of the screws; screw them down until they touch the surface.
Stage 2. Tighten the screws in accordance with the tightening diagram, to a torque of 20 ±2 Nm (14.7 ±1.5 lb. ft.).

30
Group 20

References to Service Bulletins


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Group 20

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Group 20

34
Report form

Do you have any complaints or other comments about this manual. Please
make a copy of this page, write your comments down and send them to us. The
address is at the bottom. We would prefer you to write in English or Swedish.

From: ............................................................................

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Refers to publication: .............................................................................................................................................

Publication No.: ............................................................. Date of issue: .................................................................

Proposal/motivation: ..............................................................................................................................................

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Date: ................................................................

Signed: .............................................................

AB Volvo Penta
Technical Information
Dept. 42200
SE-405 08 Göteborg
Sweden
7741112 English 07–2005
Workshop Manual
(Group 21)

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE
Workshop Manual

Industrial Engines

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE

Contents

Safety information ................................................ 2 Valve guides, inspecting ..................................... 55


Valve guides, changing ...................................... 56
General information ............................................. 5 Valve seat, changing .......................................... 57
Valve seat, grinding ............................................ 58
Repair instructions ............................................... 6 Valves, grinding .................................................. 59
Rocker arm mechanism, changing ..................... 59
Special tools ........................................................ 9
Valves and unit injectors, adjusting..................... 60
Cylinder liners and pistons, removing ................. 64
Design and Operation
Cylinder liners and pistons, inspecting ............... 65
Engine ................................................................ 13
Cylinder liner seat, reconditioning ....................... 66
Cylinder head ...................................................... 14
Cylinder liners, fitting .......................................... 67
Cylinder block/cylinder liners ............................... 15
Connecting rod small-end bush, checking
Pistons ............................................................... 15
measurements .................................................... 69
Crankshaft .......................................................... 16
Piston, changing ................................................. 70
Camshaft ............................................................ 16
Timing gears, changing ...................................... 72
Timing drive ........................................................ 17
Bearing housing for camshaft, changing ............. 84
Instructions for running the starter motor ............. 18
Camshaft, changing ............................................ 84
Camshaft, inspecting and reconditioning ............ 98
Repair instructions
Crankshaft, inspecting and reconditioning .......... 98
When work involves chemicals, fuel
Big-end bearings, changing all ............................ 99
and lubricating oil ................................................ 19
Before/after lifting the engine .............................. 19 Main bearings, changing all ................................ 100
Flywheel, changing ............................................. 103
Engine jig, attaching ........................................... 20
Flywheel bearings, changing .............................. 105
Compression test ................................................ 20
Cylinder head, removing ...................................... 21 Flywheel, marking .............................................. 106
Ring gear, changing ............................................ 107
Cylinder head, fitting/removing
jig 885316 ........................................................... 35 Crankshaft seal, rear, changing .......................... 108
Cylinder head, fitting ........................................... 37
Cylinder head, leakage check ............................. 49 Index ..................................................................... 109
Cylinder head, valves removing/fitting ................. 53

1
Group 21 Engine Safety information

Safety information

Introduction
This Service Manual contains descriptions and repair If work is performed near a running engine, an
instructions for the Volvo Penta products or product incautious movement or dropped tool could in
versions listed in the table of contents. This manual the worst case lead to bodily harm. Be mindful
should be used together with the Service Manual of hot surfaces (exhaust pipes, the turbochar-
Technical data for the relevant engine. Be sure to ger, charge air pipes, starter elements, etc.) and
use the correct service literature. hot liquids in lines and hoses on an engine that
Carefully read the safety information and General in- is running or has just been stopped. Before star-
formation and Repair instructions in the Service ting the engine, refit all guards and protective
Manual before starting service work. elements that were removed in the course of
performing service work.

Make sure that the warning and/or information


Important decals affixed to the product are always in plain
sight. Replace any decals that have been dama-
This following special warning symbols are found in ged or painted over.
the Service Manual and on the product.
Never start the engine unless the air filter is fit-
WARNING! Warns for the risk of injury, damage ted. The rotating impeller in the turbocharger
to the product or property or that serious mal- could cause serious injuries. Foreign objects in
functions could arise if the instructions are not the inlet line could also cause machinery dama-
followed. ge.

Never use starter spray or the like to help start


IMPORTANT! Used to draw attention to anyth- the engine. It could cause an explosion in the
ing that could cause injury or the malfunction of inlet manifold. Danger of injury.
a product or property.
Start the engine in well-ventilated areas only. If
NOTE: Used to draw attention to important information the engine is running in a confined space, ex-
to facilitate work operations or handling. haust gases and crankcase gases should be
conducted away from the engine compartment
To provide an overview of the dangers of which you or workshop area.
should always be aware and the precautionary measu-
res that should always be taken, we have listed them Avoid opening the coolant filler cap when the
here. engine is still hot. Steam or hot coolant could
squirt out while the built-up pressure is lost. If
necessary, open the filler cap slowly and relea-
Make it impossible for the engine to start. Turn se pressure in the cooling system. Be extremely
off the current by means of the main switch (or careful if a cock, plug or coolant line must be
switches) and lock it (them) in the off position removed while the engine is still hot. Steam or
before starting service work. Affix a warning hot coolant could squirt out in an unexpected di-
sign in the driver’s area. rection.

As a rule, all service work should be performed Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid getting hot oil on
when the engine is switched off. However, some your skin. Make sure that the lubricating system
work, such as certain adjustments, requires the is depressurized before starting any work on it.
engine to be running. Approaching a running Never start or run the engine with the oil filler
engine could be dangerous. Bear in mind that cap removed as oil under pressure could then
loose-fitting clothes or long hair could get caught escape.
in rotating parts and cause serious injury.
Stop the engine before doing any work on the
cooling system.

2
Group 21 Engine Safety information

If other equipment connected to the engine Most chemicals intended for the product (such
changes its center of gravity, special lifting devi- as engine and transmission oils, glycol, gasoline
ces may be needed to obtain the right balance and diesel oil) or chemicals for workshop use
and ensure safe handling. (such as degreasers, paints and solvents) are
injurious to health. Read the instructions on the
Never perform any work on an engine that is package carefully. Always follow prescribed sa-
suspended solely from a lifting device. fety rules (such as the use of respirators, pro-
tective goggles, gloves, etc.). Make sure that
Never work alone when heavy components are other personnel are not unknowingly exposed to
to be removed, even if a safe lifting device such substances that are injurious to health such as
as a lockable block and tackle is used. Even if through the air they breathe. Make provision for
a lifting device is used, two people are generally good ventilation. Deal with used and surplus
required; one to handle the lifting device and the chemicals in the prescribed manner.
other to make sure that the components go cle-
ar and are not damaged when lifting. Exercise great care when detecting leaks in the
fuel system and testing fuel nozzles. Wear pro-
Always ensure in advance that there is suffi- tective goggles. The jets from a fuel nozzle are
cient space for dismantling to be done without under very high pressure and have great pene-
risk of injury or material damage. trative power; the fuel can penetrate deep into
body tissues and cause serious injury. Risk of
WARNING! Electrical system and fuel system blood poisoning.
components of Volvo Penta products are desig-
ned and manufactured to minimize the risk of WARNING! The engine’s pressure pipes should
explosion and fire. The engine must not be run not be bent or reshaped under any circumstanc-
in environments in which they will be surrounded es. Damaged pipes must be replaced.
by explosive media.
All fuels and many chemicals are flammable.
Always use fuel recommended by Volvo Penta. Make sure that they cannot be ignited by an
See the Owner’s Manual. Use of a lower grade open flame or spark. Gasoline, certain dilutants
fuel could damage the engine. On a diesel engi- and hydrogen from batteries, when mixed with
ne, a poor grade of fuel could lead to binding of air in the right proportions, are highly flammable
the control rod and overrevving of the engine, and explosive. No smoking! Provide for adequa-
causing risk of injury and damage. Poor fuel can te ventilation and take the necessary safety me-
also give rise to higher maintenance costs. asures prior to the start of welding or grinding
work in the vicinity. Always keep a fire ext-
Bear in mind the following when cleaning with inguisher easily accessible at the workplace.
high-pressure equipment: never direct the jet of
water on seals, rubber hoses, electrical compo- Ensure that rags saturated with oil and fuel,
nents or the radiator. Never use the high-pressu- used fuel and oil filters are kept in a safe place
re function when cleaning the engine. prior to their disposal. Under certain conditions,
spontaneous combustion can occur in oil-ingrai-
Always use protective goggles when performing ned rags. Used fuel and oil filters are environme-
work in which splinters, grinding sparks and ntally hazardous waste and, together with used
splashes of acid or other chemicals could occur. lubricating oil, contaminated fuel, residual paint,
The eyes are especially sensitive and an injury solvents, degreasers and residual detergents,
could result in loss of sight. should be taken to a suitable plant for destruc-
tion.
Avoid getting oil on your skin. Prolonged or re-
curring contact with oil can remove the skin’s Batteries should never be exposed to open fla-
natural moisture, resulting in irritation, dehydra- mes or electric sparks. Never smoke near the
tion, eczema and other skin disorders. From a batteries. When the batteries are being charged,
hygienic point of view, used oil is more harmful they give off hydrogen which, when mixed with
than fresh oil. Wear protective gloves and avoid air, forms oxyhydrogen gas. This gas is highly
clothes and rags ingrained with oil. Wash regu- flammable and very explosive. A spark, which
larly, particularly before mealtimes. Use skin lo- can occur if the batteries are connected incor-
tion intended for this purpose to avoid dehydra- rectly, could cause a battery to explode, resul-
tion and facilitate cleansing of the skin. ting in injury and damage. Do not disturb the
connections when attempting to start (risk of
sparks) and do not lean over any of the batte-
ries.

3
Group 21 Engine Safety information

Never mistake the positive and negative termin- Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine
als for each other when installing the batteries. when lifting it. Always check that all lifting
This could cause serious damage to the electri- equipment is in good condition and that it has
cal equipment. Compare with the wiring dia- the right capacity for the job (engine weight plus
gram. transmission and extra equipment, if any).

Always wear protective goggles when charging To ensure safe handling and avoid damaging
and handling batteries. The battery electrolyte components mounted on the top of the engine,
contains highly corrosive sulfuric acid. If it gets it should be lifted using an adjustable lifting
on your skin, wash the area with soap and beam or one adapted to the engine. All chains
plenty of water. If the electrolyte gets in your or cables should run parallel to each other and
eyes, rinse them at once with plenty of water as perpendicular as possible to the top of the
and seek medical attention immediately. engine.

Stop the engine and cut off the current with the
main switch (or switches) before starting work
on the electrical system.

The clutch should be adjusted with the engine


switched off.

4
Group 21 Engine General

General information

About the Service Manual Certified engines


This Service Manual contains descriptions and repair For engines certified for nation and regional environ-
instructions for the standard versions of the mental legislation, the manufacturer undertakes to en-
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and sure that the environmental requirements are fulfilled
TWD1240VE engines. both in new engines and those already in use. The pro-
The Service Manual may show work operations per- duct must correspond to the specimen product that
formed on any of the engines listed above. Conse- was approved for certification. For Volvo Penta as the
quently, the illustrations and photographs showing manufacturer to be answerable for ensuring that engi-
certain details may not be completely accurate in a nes in use meet the stipulated environmental require-
number of cases. The repair methods, however, are ments, the following requirements as regards service
in all essentials the same. The engine designation and spare parts must be fulfilled:
and number are given on the type plate (see The service intervals and maintenance measures
“Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, recommended by Volvo Penta must be followed.
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”).
Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended
The engine designation and number should always be
for the certified engine version may be used.
quoted in all correspondence concerning any of the
engines. Service involving injection pumps, pump settings
or unit injectors must always be performed by an
The Service Manual is primarily produced for Volvo
authorized Volvo Penta workshop.
Penta’s service workshops and their qualified person-
nel. It is therefore assumed that persons using the The engine must not be rebuilt or modified in any
manual have the necessary basic knowledge and can way, except for the accessories and service kits
perform work of a mechanical/electrical nature that oc- that Volvo Penta has developed for the engine in
curs in their profession. question.
Volvo Penta is continuously developing its products Installation changes to exhaust pipes and supply
and we therefore reserve the right to introduce chan- air ducts for the engine compartment (ventilation
ges and modifications. All the information in this ma- ducts) must not be made indiscriminately as this
nual is based on product data available up to the time could affect exhaust emissions. Any security se-
of printing. Any vitally important changes to the pro- als must not be broken by non-authorized person-
duct or service methods that are introduced after that nel.
date are announced in the form of Service Bulletins.
IMPORTANT! When spare parts are required,
use only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts.

If non-original spare parts are used, AB Volvo


Penta will no longer be responsible for ensuring
Spare parts that the engine corresponds to the certified ver-
Spare parts for the electrical and fuel systems are sion.
subject to different national safety requirements. Vol-
vo Penta Original Spare Parts meet these require- All types of injury, damage or costs arising due
ments. All types of damage occurring as a result of to the use of non-original Volvo Penta spare
using non-original Volvo Penta spare parts for the pro- parts for the product in question will not be cove-
duct in question will not be covered under the terms of red under the terms of warranty as undertaken
the warranty as undertaken by Volvo Penta. by Volvo Penta.

5
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Repair instructions

The work methods described in the Service Manual


apply to a workshop environment. The engine is there-
Our common responsibility
fore lifted out of place and mounted on an engine Every engine consists of numerous interacting sys-
stand. Unless otherwise stated, reconditioning work tems and components. The deviation of a component
that does not require the engine to be removed can be from its technical specification could dramatically in-
performed in situ using the same work methods. crease the environmental impact of an otherwise good
The warning symbols found in this Service Manual engine. It is therefore extremely important for speci-
(see Safety information for their meaning) fied wear tolerances to be maintained, for systems
with facilities for adjustment to be correctly set and for
WARNING! Volvo Penta Original engine spare parts to be used.
The intervals in the engine maintenance schedule
must be followed.
IMPORTANT! Certain systems, such as fuel system components,
may require special competence and special testing
Note: equipment. For environmental and other reasons, cer-
tain components are sealed at the factory. Work on
are by no means all embracing as we cannot of cour-
these components must not be performed by persons
se foresee everything that could happen as service
not authorized for such work.
work is performed under the most widely varying con-
ditions. So we can only point out the risks we feel Bear in mind that the majority of chemical products, if
could arise as a result of incorrect handling when wor- incorrectly used, are hazardous to the environment.
king in a well-equipped workshop using methods and Volvo Penta recommends the use of biologically de-
tools that have been tested by us. gradable degreasers for all cleaning of engine compo-
nents unless otherwise expressly stated in the Servi-
All work operations for which there are Volvo Penta
ce Manual. Take care to ensure that oils and residual
special tools are described in the Service Manual
detergent, etc. are dispatched for destruction and do
using these tools. Special tools have been developed
not inadvertently end up in the environment.
to ensure as safe and efficient methods of working as
possible. It is therefore the obligation of anyone using
tools or work methods other than those recommended
by us to ensure that there is no risk of injury or materi- Tightening torques
al damage and that such use does not result in mal- Tightening torques for vital bolted joints that should be
function. tightened using a torque wrench are listed in ”Techni-
In a number of cases, there may be special safety ru- cal Data: Tightening torques” and are also given in the
les and user instructions for the tools and chemicals Service Manual’s work descriptions. All tightening tor-
mentioned in the Service Manual. Such rules and ins- ques refer to cleaned threads, bolt heads and contact
tructions must always be followed and there are no surfaces as well as lightly oiled or dry threads. If lubri-
special instructions for them in the Service Manual. cants, thread locking compounds or sealants are re-
quired for bolted joints, the type concerned is stated in
The majority of risks can be avoided by taking certain
the work description and in “Tightening torques”. The
elementary precautions and using common sense. A
general tightening torques in the table below are appli-
clean workplace and a clean engine eliminate many
cable to bolted joints for which no special tightening
risks of injury and faulty operation.
torque is specified. The tightening torque is a guiding
It is extremely important, especially in connection with value and the joint need not in such case be tightened
work on fuel systems, lubrication systems, inlet sys- using a torque wrench.
tems, turbochargers, bearings and seals, to keep out
dirt and foreign particles of other kinds. If this is not
done, malfunction or a shorter repair life could be the Size Tightening torque
result. Nm lbf.ft.
M5 6 4.4
M6 10 7.4
M8 25 18.4
M10 50 36.9
M12 80 59.0
M14 140 103.3

6
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Torque-angle tightening Sealants


In torque-angle tightening the bolted joint is tightened Several different types of sealants and locking fluids
to a specified torque and then additionally tightened are used on the engine. Their properties differ and
through a predetermined angle. Example: at 90° angle they are intended for joints of different strengths, tem-
tightening the joint is tightened an additional 1/4 turn perature ranges, resistance to oil and other chemi-
after the specified tightening torque has been reached, cals, and for the various materials and clearances in
all in the same operation. the engine.
For service work to be fully satisfactory it is important
that the right types of sealants and locking fluids are
used on the joints where such are required.
Lock nuts In the appropriate sections of the Service Manual, we
Lock nuts that have been removed must not be reu- have indicated the agents used in the production of
sed. New ones must be fitted instead as the locking our engines.
characteristics of the old nuts deteriorate or are lost if Similar agents or agents with corresponding proper-
used several times. For lock nuts with a plastic insert, ties but from a different manufacturer should be used
e.g. Nylock®, the tightening torques in the table should in connection with service work.
be reduced if the Nylock® nut has the same height or
When using sealing agents and locking fluids, it is im-
thickness as a standard all-metallic hex nut. Reduce
portant for the surfaces concerned to be free from oil,
the tightening torque by 25% for 8 mm or larger bolt
grease, paint and rust inhibitor. They must also be
sizes. For higher or thicker Nylock® nuts, where the
dry. Always follow the directions of the manufacturer
all-metallic thread is as high as that of a standard hex
regarding temperature, hardening time and other ins-
nut, the tightening torques in the table are applicable.
tructions relating to the product.
Two different basic types of agent are used on the
engine. These are characterized by:
Strength classes RTV agent (Room Temperature Vulcanizing). Used
mostly on gaskets, e.g. sealing gasket joints or coa-
Nuts and bolts are divided into different strength clas- ted on gaskets. RTV agent is perfectly visible when
ses; the strength class is marked on the bolt head. A the component has been dismantled and old RTV
higher number indicates a stronger material. For ex- agent must be removed before the joint is sealed
ample, a bolt marked 10-9 is stronger than one mar- afresh.
ked 8-8. When undoing bolted joints, it is therefore im-
portant to make sure that the bolts are refitted in their The following agents are of RTV type: Loctite® 574,
original places. When fitting new bolts, check the spa- Volvo Penta 8408791, Permatex® No. 3, Volvo Penta
re parts catalogue to ensure that the correct type is 11610995, Permatex® No. 77. In all cases, old sea-
used. lant can be removed with denatured alcohol.
Anaerobic agents. These harden in the absence of
air. They are used when two solid parts like cast com-
ponents are fitted together without a gasket. They are
also commonly used to secure and seal plugs, the th-
reads of studs, cocks, oil pressure monitors, etc.
Hardened anaerobic agents are glass-like; they are
therefore colored to make them more visible. Harde-
ned anaerobic agents are highly resistant to solvents
and old agent cannot be removed. When refitting a
component, thorough degreasing is required followed
by application of fresh sealant.
The following agents are anaerobic: Loctite® 572
(white), Loctite® 241 (blue).

Note Loctite® is a registered trademark of the Loctite Corpora-


tion; Permatex® is a registered trademark of the Permatex Cor-
poration.

7
Group 21 Engine General

Group 21 Engine

8
Group 21 Engine Tools

Tools

Special tools

884994 885316 9991801 9991821 9992000 9992013 9992269

9992479 9992564 9992584 9992671 9992955 9993590 9996159

9996161 9996222 9996315 9996394 9996395 9996626 9996645 9996662

884994 Puller for polygon hub, vibration damper 9996159 Pin for hydraulic cylinder 9996161
885316 Tool for tilting of cylinder head 9996161 Hydraulic cylinder for changing cylin-
9991801 Drift for removing piston pin der liner, timing gear and valve gui-
des
9991821 Drift for removing flywheel bearing
9996222 Foot pump
9992000 Handle for drift 9998238
9996315 Spindle for fitting polygon hub and
9992013 Drift for removing and fitting piston pin
crankshaft gear
9992269 Drift for fitting flywheel bearing
9996394 Spacer for removing cylinder liner
9996395 Spacer for removing cylinder liner
9992479 Holder for dial indicator
9992564 Drift for fitting flywheel bearing
9996626 Adapter for hydraulic cylinder
9992584 Adapter for hydraulic cylinder 9992671 9992671
9996645 Puller for cylinder liner
9992671 Hydraulic cylinder
9996662 Pressure gauge
9992955 Plate for removing cylinder liner
9993590 Turning tool

9
Group 21 Engine Tools

9996965 9996966 9998238 9998246 9998248 9998249 9998251

9998255 9998258

9998260

9998261 9998262 9998263 9998264

9996965 Adapter for fitting polygon hub 9998258 Tool for securing cylinder head in engine
9996966 Press tool for cylinder liner stand
9998238 Drift for changing crankshaft seal
9998260 Press tool for removing and fitting valve
springs and valve guides
9998246 Tool for removing and fitting valve spring
9998261 Drift for fitting valve guide
9998248 Adapter
9998262 Drift for fitting valve guide
9998249 Protective sleeve for unit injector

9998263 Drift for removing valve guide


9998251 Protective plug for cylinder head
9998264 Lifting yoke for camshaft
9998255 Lifting tool for rocker arm bridge

10
Group 21 Engine Tools

9998266 9998267 9998272 9998335 9998487

9998506 9998511 9998531 9998583 9998599 9998601

9998602 9998619 9998624 9998628 9998629 9998648

9998266 Sealing washer for leakage check 9998599 Cleaning kit for unit injector
9998267 Guide pins for timing plate 9998601 Securing tool for cylinder head
9998272 Milling tool for cylinder liner seat 9998602 Press tool

9998335 Guide sleeve for valve stem seal 9998619 Drift for sealing ring
9998487 Puller for oil filter 9998624 Securing tool for cylinder head
9998506 Tool for removing and fitting valve spring 9998628 Press tool

9998511 Crowbar 9998629 Lifting eye


9998531 Piston ring guide 9998648 Engine jig
9998583 Gauge for setting unit injector prestress

11
Group 21 Engine Tools

Other special equipment

9986485 9988539 9989876 9999683 9999696

980 9696 980 9697 980 9698 980 9699 980 9700 980 9701

9986485 Engine stand 9998668 Connection washers, kits: 980 9698,


9988539 Compression tester 980 9700, 980 9701
9989876 Dial indicator 9999683 Lever type dial gauge
9999696 Magnetic stand
9998666 Sealing washers, kits: 980 9696,
980 9697, 980 9699

12
Group 21 Engine Design and operation

Design and operation

Engine
The TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE The unit injectors are located in the center above the
andTWD1240VE are 12-liter engines with cast iron cy- pistons and are run by the control module. The control
linder blocks and wet cylinder liners. The one-piece module EDC III (Electronic Diesel Control) is located
cylinder head has a single overhead camshaft and a on the left-hand side of the cylinder block.
unit injector for each cylinder.

13
Group 21 Engine Design and operation

Cylinder head
The cylinder head, which covers all cylinders, has a
single overhead camshaft.
The cylinder head is held in place with 38 bolts spa-
ced evenly round the cylinders.
The cylinder head has separate inlet and exhaust
ports arranged for crossflow in each cylinder. The val-
ve guides are of alloyed cast iron; the steel valve se-
ats are replaceable. All valve guides have oil seals.
The unit injectors are centrally positioned and sur-
rounded by four valves per cylinder, which ensures
uniform combustion chamber geometry. The lower
part of the injectoris placed in a copper sleeve and
the fuel passage for the injectors is machined directly
in the cylinder head.

Top: Injectors
Center: Exhaust valves with double springs
Bottom: Inlet valves

14
Group 21 Engine Design and operation

Cylinder block/cylinder liners


The TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE
and TWD1240VE engines have a cylinder block with
wet (replaceable) cylinder liners.
The coolant space (water jacket) round the
cylinder liners is sealed against the lower part of the
cylinder block by means of three sealing rings.

Pistons
The pistons are of aluminum and are cooled by lubri-
cating oil sprayed from below by piston cooling nozz-
les and in the oil passage.

15
Group 21 Engine Design and operation

Crankshaft
The 7-bearing crankshaft is drop forged and induction
hardened on bearing surfaces and fillets. The
crankshaft has front and rear sealing rings and is usu-
ally equipped with double vibration dampers (depen-
ding on the engine variant).

Camshaft
The engine has a single overhead camshaft carried in
seven bearing housings bolted to the cylinder head.
There are two bearing housing versions, a production
housing and a spare part housing.
The bearing housings are numbered from the factory
and should not be mixed up if the engine is reconditio-
ned.
Also note that bearing housings and bearing caps are
machined together. This applies both to production
versions and spare parts versions.
The camshaft has three cams per cylinder: one for the
inlet valves, one for the exhaust valves and one for
the unit injectors.

16
Group 21 Engine Design and operation

Timing drive
The timing drive on the TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, Between the cylinder block and cylinder head is an
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE engines is located adjustable intermediate gear (13). This gear must be
at the front of the engine on a 10 mm thick steel plate. adjusted after every service measure that affects the
All gears are helical. The intermediate gears (3, 7, 9, timing. It is important that the correct flank clearance
13) are carried in bushes and pressure lubricated. Oth- is obtained between the upper and lower gears that
er lubrication is done via a nozzle (12). mesh with the adjustable intermediate gear.

1. Gear, camshaft (z=76) 8. Gear, hydraulic pump (z=39)


2. Gear, compressor (z=29) 9. Intermediate gear (z=71)
3. Intermediate gear (z=83) 10. Gear for drive belt and fuel pump (z=27)
4. Gear, coolant pump (z=27) 11. Gear, servo pump (z=23)
5. Gear, crankshaft (z=38) 12. Spray nozzle, gear lubrication
6. Gear, oil pump (z=23) 13. Intermediate gear, adjustable (z=97)
7. Intermediate gear (z=44)

17
Group 21 Engine Design and operation

Instructions for running the


starter motor
IMPORTANT! Make sure that the engine cannot
start when it is turned over with the starter mo-
tor.

1
Make sure that the ignition switch is in the “0” posi-
tion. If the ignition key is not used to start the engine,
ensure that the switch supplying the engine with the
start signal is in the “OFF” position.
2

Connect a switch between the ground terminal and the


starter relay (see illustration).

NOTE: Do not run the starter motor for longer than 15


seconds at a time. Allow the batteries and starter mo-
tor to rest for 1 minute before trying to start the engine
again.

3
Disconnect and remove the switch once you have
finished running the starter motor.

18
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Repair instructions
When work involves After lifting the engine
chemicals, fuel and lubricating
1
oil Clean the engine.

Important! Apply barrier cream to your hands and


always use protective gloves when work involves WARNING! Observe the following when using
oil, fuel and the like. high-pressure equipment to clean the engine:
Take great care to ensure that water does not
Continuous skin contact with engine oil dries out enter engine components. When the high-pres-
the skin and could be harmful. sure function is engaged, never direct the water
at sealing arrangements like shaft seals, joints
with gaskets, rubber hoses, etc. nor at electrical
Before lifting the engine components.

1 2
Turn off the battery current, remove the starter motor Pump out the engine oil (as needed).
connections.
2
Unplug the engine wiring connectors.
3
Remove the exhaust pipe.
4
Close the fuel cocks.
5
Detach the fuel connections.
6
Disconnect the cables from the engine.
7
Undo the engine mounts and lift out the engine.

19
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Engine jig, attaching Compression test


Special tool: 9998648 Unit injectors removed and fuel drained
Other special equipment: 9986485

Compression test can be performed two different ways,


1 either using the diagnostics tool or manually employing
the method described below. To perform a manual
compression test, first drain the fuel system and then
remove the rocker arm bridge and unit injectors.

NOTE: Fit protective sleeve 9998249 on the unit in-


jectors so that they will not be exposed to impurities
or damage.

When performing a manual compression test on the


engine, use 6 adapters (9998248) to avoid repeated
removal and refitting of the rocker arm bridge and unit
injectors as well as valve adjustment.

IMPORTANT! Make sure that the area around


the unit injectors is clean before removing them.

Special tools: 9998248, 9998249


Other special equipment: 9988539

Use engine jig 9998648 to secure the engine in engine


stand 9986485.
2
The jig can be bolted to the left-hand side of the engi-
ne as shown in the above illustration.

NOTE: It is important to use the number of bolts indi-


cated to ensure that the engine is fastened securely in
position.

Use the bolts supplied with the jig.

Fit all 6 adapters 9998248 in the cylinder head.

20
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

2
Cylinder head, removing
Oil the valve yokes, camshaft cams and rocker arm
bridge.
IMPORTANT! Strict cleanliness must be
3 observed when working on the cylinder head.
Tighten the rocker arm bridge bolts successively so that
Dirt particles in the fuel passages could cause
the bridge does not bend or twist, see tightening diagram
breakdown or malfunction of the unit injectors.
”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”. Then tighten the
bolt until it fits against the camshaft cams. Then tighten Special tools: 9993590, 9996966, 9998249, 9998251,
according to the tightening diagram. 9998255, 9998264, 9998511, 9998629
4 Prior conditions:
Check that the valve clearance of all valves is to spe- Fuel and coolant drained. See instructions in the Ser-
cification. vice Manual.
5 1
Connect a switch to the starter motor. See ”Instruc- Turn off the power by means of the main switch (swit-
tions for running the starter motor”. ches) and check that no current is supplied to the
6 engine.
2

Connect compression tester 9988539 to the first cylin-


der and perform the test using the switch.
7
Turn the engine over by means of the switch until the Undo the clamp at the turbocharger and remove the air
compression tester needle stops. Note the reading. cleaner from the bracket.
8 3 (TAD)
Perform the same test on the other cylinders.
9
If the results of the compression test are OK, refit the
unit injectors and rocker arm bridge. Adjust the valve
clearances and unit injectors.
10
Perform leakage and functionality checks.

Remove the lower charge air pipe by the turbocharger.

21
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3 (TWD) 5

Remove the charge air pipe from between the turbo- Remove the turbocharger.
charger and the charge air cooler. 6
4

Remove the rear protective plate and front heat shield


from the cylinder head.

Remove the oil pipes from the turbocharger.

NOTE: Exercise care so that dirt particles do not en-


ter the connections to the turbocharger.

22
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

7 9

Remove the exhaust manifold.


8

Remove the thermostat housing and take out the ther-


mostat.

10 (TAD)

Remove the water pipe between the thermostat hous-


ing and coolant pump.

Remove the overflow valve and fuel connection.

23
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

10 (TWD) 11 (TWD)

Remove the charge air temperature sensor/charge


Remove the overflow valve.
pressure sensor from the inlet manifold.

11 (TAD)

Remove the strap and remove the charge air tempera-


ture sensor/charge pressure sensor from the inlet ma-
nifold.

24
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

12 (TAD) 14

Remove the charge air pipe between the inlet manifold Remove the intermediate bracket.
and charge air cooler. 15

13

Remove the cover from the wiring box. Remove the fuel connection and temperature sensor.

25
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

16 (TAD) 18
Remove the protective plates round the drive belts.
19

Remove the inlet manifold.

NOTE: The inlet manifold may be difficult to remove


because the sealing compound may have hardened.
3 (TWD)
16 (TWD) Remove the radiator fan (six studs) and the drive belt.
See "Group 26, Drive belts, changing".

Remove the inlet manifold. Remove the spacer and pulley.

17

Remove the radiator assembly, see “Group 26, Radia-


tor element, changing”.

26
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

21 23
Undo the clamps and pull away the hose between the
pipes to the crankcase breather.
24

Remove the clamps and camshaft position sensor (1). Detach the water pipe from the coolant pump and radi-
22 ator hose connection.

Remove the radiator fan drive.

27
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

25 27

Remove the upper radiator hose connection from the


cylinder head.
26
Remove the valve cover.

NOTE: Do not use air-assisted tools when removing


the valve cover as this could damage the unit injector
wiring harness.

28

Remove the front engine lifting bracket.


Fit turning tool 9993590
in the flywheel housing.

NOTE: Do not forget to remove turning tool 9993590


from the flywheel housing and refit the cover.

28
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

29 31

Rotate the flywheel until the piston in cylinder 1 is at Remove the toothed wheel.
top dead center 0 ° on the flywheel and the camshaft 32
marking (TDC) is between the marks on the bearing
cap.
30

Remove the camshaft gear (1). Use a puller if neces-


sary.

Remove the upper timing cover.

NOTE: One of the upper timing cover retaining bolts


also secures the radiator fan drive.

29
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

33 35
Check that the camshaft bearing caps are factory
marked 1-7 against the relevant bearing bracket. Loo-
sen the camshaft bearing caps by tapping them care-
fully with a plastic mallet.

NOTE: The camshaft bearing caps are held in place


with guide pins.

36

Remove the supply of lubricating oil for the rocker arm


bridge.
34

Lift the camshaft away using lifting tool 9998264.

WARNING! Bear in mind that the camshaft


cams are extremely sharp.

IMPORTANT! To avoid injury and material da-


mage the camshaft should be lifted away by at
least two persons if no lifting device is available.
The camshaft weighs about 35 kg (77 lbs).

Undo the rocker arm bridge retaining bolts evenly over


the entire bridge to avoid uneven stress.
Lift away the rocker arm bridge using lifting tool
9998255.

IMPORTANT! To avoid injury and material dama-


ge, the rocker arm bridge should be lifted away
by two persons if no lifting device is available.
The rocker arm bridge weighs about 27 kg (60
lbs).

30
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

37 40

Take out the lower bearing halves by tapping the bea-


ring brackets carefully with a plastic mallet.
Remove the bearing brackets and place them in the Remove the wiring bracket on the cylinder head and
right order together with their respective camshaft be- carefully withdraw the unit injector wiring harness.
aring caps, bearing halves and bolts.
NOTE! The wiring harness cannot be taken apart at
NOTE: The camshaft bearing brackets are held in pla- the wiring bracket but must be carefully withdrawn as
ce with guide pins. a complete unit.

38
Lift away the valve yokes between the inlet valves
and exhaust valves for all cylinders. Place them in the
right order for the respective cylinder.
39

Detach the electrical connections from the unit injec-


tors and cut the straps on the wiring.

IMPORTANT! Exercise care when handling the


unit injectors as they can easily sustain damage
if the nuts are cross-threaded or tightened too
hard.

31
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

41 42

Remove all studs.


Remove the retaining yoke bolts on all unit injectors.
43

Remove the unit injectors one at a time using tool


9998511. Carefully prise under the unit injector until it
loosens. Fit protective sleeve 9998249 on the unit in-
jectors.

IMPORTANT! Do NOT remove all unit injectors


at the same time but remove them one by one
as each protective plug is fitted in place.

Place the unit injectors where they cannot be dama-


ged.

32
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

44 46
Wipe up the engine oil that has collected in the
“bowls” under the camshaft. The oil could otherwise
run down into the coolant passages when the cylinder
head is lifted away.
47

Fit protective plug 9998251 in the hole for the unit in-
jector in the cylinder head.

IMPORTANT! Utmost cleanliness is demanded.

45
Remove all cylinder head bolts.
Fit four lifting eyes 9998629 and attach lifting straps.
Carefully lift away the cylinder head.

WARNING! At least four persons should careful-


ly lift it away if no lifting device is available. The
cylinder head weighs about 130 kg (287 lbs).

33
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

48

Fit press tool 9996966 on the cylinder liners so that


they are not dislodged from their positions if the
crankshaft is rotated.
49
Remove the seals.
Thoroughly clean the contact surface on the cylinder
block.

IMPORTANT! Make sure that no residual sea-


lant or dirt particles can enter the coolant and oil
passages.

34
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Cylinder head, fitting/removing
jig 885316
When work does not include servicing of the cylinder
head or cylinder block, jig 885316 can be used when
replacing valves, pistons, cylinder head gaskets, etc.
When performing this work, the inlet manifold and
camshaft can remain in place.

Special tools: 885316, 9998629


1
Remove the engine components necessary to be able
to fit the jig.
See ”Cylinder head, removing” for instructions.
2
Secure the bottom of jig 885316 on the oil cooler co-
ver (5). Secure the top of jig 885316 to the exhaust
ports on cylinders 2 and 4.
4

Remove the five bolts on the cover of the


oil cooler.

Fit the bolts and brackets on both sides of the jig.


NOTE: The brackets work as a stop, so it is important
that they are fitted correctly.

35
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

6 8
Pull back the catch on the jig and carefully lower the
cylinder head.
9
Remove jig 885316 and lifting eye 9998629 from the
cylinder head. Refit all removed engine components in
reverse order. See instructions ”Cylinder head, fitting”.

Fit lifting eye 9998629 to the center of the cylinder


head.
7

Put a crowbar or the like in lifting eye 9998629. Use


the crowbar as a lever to carefully lift up the cylinder
head.

WARNING! Risk of getting pinched. Carefully


check that the safety catch works so the cylin-
der head cannot fall back. The cylinder head
weighs about 130 kg (287 lbs).

36
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

2
Cylinder head, fitting

Remove press tool 9996966 for the cylinder liners.


3

Dirt particles and water should be sucked out of the


fuel passages after cleaning.

IMPORTANT! The cylinder head must be tho-


roughly cleaned inside and out before it is fitted
back in place. Dirt particles in the fuel passages
could cause a breakdown or malfunction of the
unit injectors.

Special tools: 9993590, 9998251, 9998255, 9998601


9998602, 9998624, 9998264, 9998599, 9998628,
9998629, 9996966, 9999683, 9999696
1
Fit new seals and a new cylinder gasket.
Change the timing plate gasket.

NOTE: Carefully check that all sealing rings are pro-


perly fitted and not skewed or out of position.

If necessary, clean the copper sleeves of the unit in-


jectors using cleaning kit 9998599 (the tools in the il-
lustration are included in the cleaning kit) before lifting
the cylinder head into position on the cylinder block.
See ”Group 23, Unit injectors, changing”.

37
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

4 5

Fit four lifting eyes 9998629 and attach lifting straps.


Carefully lift the cylinder head into place.

WARNING! If no lifting device is available, at


least four persons should carefully lift it and one
person guide it into the correct position. The cy-
linder head weighs about 130 kg (287 lbs).

Fit the securing tools as shown in the illustration.

IMPORTANT! Before fitting the tools:


Check the flatness of the tools by placing them
on a flat surface. If the tools do not lie flat
against the cylinder head and cylinder block, the
cylinder head mounting will be faulty, resulting in
the risk of serious engine damage. Clean off all
paint and silicone from the contact surfaces of
the tools.

38
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

6 7

Insert an M10x50 mm bolt in the upper hole of the se-


Check that the gasket between the cylinder head and curing tool at the timing plate to ensure that the cylin-
timing plate is correctly positioned. der head abuts the tool.
Lower the cylinder head until the guide pins for the cy- 8
linder head gasket in the block guide the cylinder head
straight down. Do not lower the cylinder head all the
way down but leave it suspended a few inches above
the surface of the block.
Press the cylinder head diagonally forward by hand so
that it is fixed in place by the securing tools. Lower
the cylinder head onto the block.

NOTE: Be careful when moving the cylinder head so


that gaskets/seals are not damaged.

Check that a 0.10 mm feeler gauge cannot be inserted


between the securing tool and the cylinder head.

39
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

9 13
Remove the lifting tools. Take protective plugs 9998251 out of the unit injector
10 holes.
Dip the cylinder head bolts in corrosion inhibitor, part IMPORTANT! Do NOTE remove all protective
no. 282036. Place them in a net or the like so that plugs at the same time but remove them one by
surplus corrosion inhibitor can run off. one as each unit injector is fitted in place.
11
14
Fit the cylinder head bolts.
Fit new sealing rings on the unit injectors. Lubricate
Tighten according to the tightening diagram. the sealing rings with engine oil. Fit the unit injectors
and press them down forcefully until they reach the
bottom; center them so that they do not touch the val-
ve springs.
Tighten the unit injectors to the specified torque. See
”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”.

Note: Unit injector tightening torques are different de-


pending on whether or not the copper sleeve is new.

15

Stage 1 60±10 Nm (6.0±1.0)


Stage 2 (control tightening) 60±10 Nm (6.0±1.0)
Stage 3 angle tightening 90°±5°
Stage 4 angle tightening 90°±5°

Instructions are also available in ”Technical data


TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
TWD1240VE”.

NOTE: A useful tip is to write the order of tightening


on the cylinder head with a marker pen.

12
Carefully pull the wiring for the unit injectors into the Connect the electric leads to the unit injectors.
cylinder head. Tighten the wiring bracket on the cylin- NOTE: Tighten the nuts to a torque of max. 1.5 Nm.
der head.
IMPORTANT! Exercise great care when hand-
ling the unit injectors as they can easily sustain
damage if the nuts are cross-threaded or tighte-
ned too hard. If the bolts break, the entire unit
injector will have to be replaced.

40
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

16 19

NOTE: See the location of the bearing cap bolts at


far right. Fit the remaining bolts as on the bearing cap
NOTE: If a new cylinder head is fitted, the bearing to the left (see illustration).
brackets supplied with it must be used.
Fit the bearing caps on the respective bearing brack-
Fit new camshaft bearing shells in the bearing brack- ets. Screw in the bolts but do not tighten them.
ets and caps as necessary. Make sure that bearings
of the correct size are used and that they are fitted
correctly in their seats.
17
Lubricate the bearing surfaces with engine oil.
18

Carefully lift the camshaft into position using lifting


tool 9998264.

WARNING! Bear in mind that the camshaft


cams are extremely sharp.

IMPORTANT! To avoid injury and material da-


mage, the camshaft should be lifted away by at
least two persons if no lifting device is available.
The camshaft weighs about 35 kg (77 lbs).

41
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

20 22

Insert 7 bolts (M10 x 90 mm) in the holes for the rock- Fit the camshaft gear (1).
er arm bridge having no guide sleeves. 23
Tighten to M10 standard torque. Check and adjust the flank clearance, see “Timing
21 gear, changing”.
24

Tighten as per stage 1.

NOTE: Tighten one bearing cap at a time, checking


that the camshaft can rotate freely. If it offers resis-
tance, check the bearing cap that was last tightened.

Fit the valve yokes between the inlet valves and ex-
haust valves for all cylinders.

42
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

25 NOTE: In stage 4, the marked bolts are removed be-


fore stage 5 is performed. If the rocker arm shaft has
been loosened or removed, only the bolts holding the
shaft should be tightened as in the diagram when refit-
ting.

Remove the extra bolts that were fitted instead of the


rocker arm bridge bolts.
Oil the valve yokes and camshaft cams with engine
oil.
Lift the rocker arm bridge into place using lifting tool
9998255. Check that the valve yokes and rocker arms
are correctly positioned relative to each other.

IMPORTANT! To avoid injury and material da-


mage, the rocker arm bridge should be lifted
away by at least two persons if no lifting device
is available. The rocker arm bridge weighs about
27 kg (60 lbs).

26

27

NOTE: Remove all adjusting screws for the valves


and unit injector before fitting the rocker arm bridge.

Tighten the rocker arm bridge bolts by hand.


Tighten the retaining bolts for the rocker arm bridge
and camshaft bearing caps to the torque specified in Mount the oil pipe for the rocker arm shaft. Wipe all oil
the tightening diagram. off the oil pipe; making sure it is completely dry. Oil
the hole in the rocker arm bridge.
NOTE: The tightening in stage 2 must be done gradu- Use a 1/2" short extension bar and a 12 mm socket.
ally to ensure that the rocker arm shaft bottoms Insert the pipe in the socket and fit a new seal on the
against the bearing housing without the shaft bending. other end of the pipe. Press the pipe into the rocker
arm bridge. Check that the sealing ring is correctly po-
sitioned.

43
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

28 32
Adjust the valves and unit injectors. See ”Valves and
unit injectors, adjusting”.
29

Fit the toothed wheel and tighten according to the


tightening diagram above.

IMPORTANT! If the toothed wheel or any of its


teeth are damaged or deformed, the toothed
wheel must be replaced. The same applies if
any of the holes for the toothed wheel retaining
bolts are damaged.

30

Apply a 2 mm thick bead (see illustration) of sealant,


part no. 1161231–4, to the timing cover and in the cor-
ners between the lower timing cover and the timing
plate.
Clean the lower timing cover and apply sealant, part
no. 1161231–4. Fit the lower timing cover in place. NOTE: The timing cover must be fitted within 20
minutes of applying the sealant.
NOTE: The timing cover must be fitted within 20
minutes of applying the sealant.

31
Clean the upper timing cover and the contact surfa-
ces.

44
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

33 34

A = clearance mm
B = shim
C = toothed wheel
D = camshaft position sensor

Rotate the flywheel until a tooth on the camshaft’s


toothed wheel is opposite the sensor’s hole in the ti-
ming cover. Fit the camshaft position sensor and me-
asure the distance A using a feeler gauge between
the sensor’s tip and the toothed wheel. Permissible
clearance A: 0.6 ± 0.4 mm. To obtain a correct signal
from the camshaft position sensor the clearance bet-
ween sensor and toothed wheel must lie within these
Fit the upper timing cover in place. limits. Adjust the sensor by means of shims in accor-
dance with the table below.
Insert the bolts in the slotted holes in the cover.
Screw the bolts down but do not tighten them. Fit
press tools 9998602 and 9998628. Screw the tools A B
down so that the sealing surface of the valve cover Measured clearance Shim
against the timing cover is level with the sealing surfa-
ce on the cylinder head. Fit the other bolts and tighten Quantity Part no.
to the specified torque. 0.2–1.0 mm – –

NOTE: Leave the press tools in place. Allow the sea- –0.3 till 0.3 mm 1 1677894
lant to solidify for about 30 minutes. Do not forget that –0.6 till –0.3 mm 2 1677894
one of the bolts also secures the radiator fan drive.

NOTE: Do not forget to fit the two clamps on the


camshaft position sensor wiring.

35
Clean the threaded holes for the studs in the cylinder
head. Clean the studs, coat them with
Volvo Penta locking fluid, part no. 161053–2, and tigh-
ten them to 40±3 Nm.
Attach the wiring to the unit injectors by means of
straps round the studs.

NOTE: Meticulously wipe off all surplus locking fluid


after tightening the studs.

45
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

36 38
Apply a 2 mm thick bead of sealant, part no.
1161231–4, in the joint between the upper timing co-
ver and the cylinder block.

NOTE: The valve cover must be fitted within 20 minu-


tes of applying the sealant.

39

Fit the valve cover and tighten the bolts to 20±2 Nm


according to the tightening diagram.
Fit the front engine lifting bracket. NOTE: It is important that the valve cover bolts are
37 tightened to the torque specified in the diagram to pre-
vent cracks in the cover and loosening of the studs.

If any of the valve cover studs loosened from the cy-


linder head when the bolts were removed, the wiring
harness to the unit injectors must be checked. The
wire holder on the stud may have followed in the rota-
tion and damaged the wiring harness.

Attach the temperature sensor and fuel connections to


the cylinder head with new gaskets. Tighten the fuel
lines to 55±5 Nm.

46
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

40 43
Fit the hose between the crankcase breather pipes in
place and tighten the clamps.
41

Fit the upper radiator hose connection on the cylinder


head with new seals.
42 Fit the radiator fan drive.

NOTE: The upper bolt also secures the upper timing


cover.

44

Attach the water pipe to the coolant pump and radiator


hose connection.
Fit the pulley and spacer.

NOTE: Center the holes for the studs with the pulley
and spacer.

45
Fit the drive belt, see “Group 26, Drive belts, chang-
ing”.

47
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

46 50

Fit the coolant pipe between the thermostat housing


Fit the radiator fan (six studs). and coolant pump.
47 51
Fit the protective plates round the drive belts. Fit the exhaust manifold and turbocharger. See “Group
48 25, Gasket, exhaust manifold, changing”.
Fit the radiator assembly, see “Radiator element, 512(TAD)
changing”.
Fit the lower charge air pipe on the turbo-
49 charger.
53
Fit the inlet manifold, se “Group 25, Inlet manifold,
changing”.
54
Fill up with the requisite quantities of oil and coolant.
55
Bleed the fuel system. See “Group 23, Fuel system,
bleeding”.
56
Start the engine and perform functionality and integrity
checks.

Fit the thermostat and thermostat housing with new


seals. Tighten by hand. Fit a bolt (M8 x 20) with nut,
washer and spacer sleeve between the lug on the ex-
haust manifold and the machined surface on the ther-
mostat housing. Tighten the bolt so that the sleeve
presses the thermostat housing against the piston
thermostat seal. Secure the thermostat housing ac-
cording to the tightening diagram (see illustration).
Remove the tensioning screw.

48
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

8
Cylinder head, leakage check
Prior conditions: Cylinder head removed
Special tools: 9996662, 9998258, 9998266, 9998511,
9998619, 9998666, 9998668, 9996485 Other special
equipment: 946173, 945408, 955894, 949873 (Inclu-
ded in 9998666 and 9998668: 980 9696, 980 9697,
980 9698, 980 9699, 980 9700, 980 9701)

Clean the contact surfaces of the cylinder head.


Fit sealing washers 9998266 and 980 9696 on the cy-
linder head with cylinder head bolts (13 bolts and 13
M16 nuts).
Fit sealing washer 980 9697 with plug 980 9701 in pla-
ce of the thermostat housing.
Fit the cylinder head in an engine stand.
Fit sealing washer 980 9699 in the hole for the tempe-
2 rature sensor (at the back edge of the cylinder head).
Remove the valve yoke. If the area in which the thermostat sits is to be check-
NOTE: Mark the yoke so that it can be refitted at the ed for leakage, fit sealing washer 980 9698 and clamp
same place. 980 9700.
Remove the pipe connections on the cylinder head
3 and fit plugs A and B in the holes (see illustration).
Remove the exhaust manifold. See “Group 25, Gas-
ket, exhaust manifold, changing”.
4
Remove the thermostat housing and piston thermo-
stat. See ”Group 26, Piston thermostat, changing”
5
Remove the cylinder head from the engine stand.
6
Thoroughly wash and clean the cylinder head.
7
Fit the cylinder head in the engine stand.

49
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Checking test equipment Leakage check


9 11

Check that the cock on the reducing valve (A) is Check that the knob on the reducing valve (A) is
unscrewed and attach leakage check tool 9996662 to unscrewed.
the pneumatic system. Open the cock (A) and set the 12
reducing valve so that a pressure of 100 kPa shows
on the pressure gauge. Fit the hose from the pressure gauge onto the connec-
tion nipple (980 9697).
OBS! The knob on the reducing valve can be locked 13
by turning the snap ring axially.
Remove the cylinder head from the engine stand.
NOTE: Always follow applicable safety regulations. 14

10 Lower the cylinder head into a water bath (70° C/158°


F).
15
Connect the leakage check equipment to the pneuma-
tic system.
16

Close the cock (B). For the test equipment to be con-


sidered reliable, the pressure must not sink for two
minutes.

Open the pneumatic system and set the reducing val-


ve (A) so that a pressure of 50 kPa shows on the
pressure gauge. Maintain the pressure for 1 minute.

50
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

17 23
Raise the pressure to 150 kPa. Lock the reducing val- Remove all sealing washers.
ve knob with the snap ring. Close the cock of the 24
pneumatic system.
Remove the plugs for the thermostat housing and fit
After one or two minutes, check that the air pressure the pipe connections on the cylinder head.
does not sink and that no air bubbles come from the
cylinder head. 25
18 Fit the exhaust manifold, see ”Group 25, Gasket, ex-
haust manifold, changing”.
26

Release the air pressure from the cylinder head by


unscrewing the reducing valve (A).
Remove the seal for the piston thermostat in the cylin-
19 der head. Use a suitable drift.
27

Clean all seal surfaces and fit a new seal on drift


Move the test equipment to the connection nipple on 9998619.
the thermostat housing.
NOTE: Turn the sealing rind with the broad edge
Perform a leakage check following steps 16 and 17. against the shoulder of drift 9998619.
20
Press drift 9998619 into the cylinder head with crowbar
Remove the cylinder head from the water bath. 9998511until drift 9998619 bottoms against the cylin-
21 der head.
Fit the cylinder head in the engine stand. Remove the drift and check that the seal sits correctly.
22
Dry the cylinder head with compressed air. Be especi-
ally careful to ensure that the fuel passages are clean
and dry.

NOTE: Dirt or foreign particles in the fuel passages


could damage the unit injectors.

51
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

28 32
Check the seal on the piston thermostat. Replace as Fit the last two bolts on the exhaust manifold.
necessary. See ”Group 26, Piston thermostat, chang- 33
ing”.
Oil the handles of the valve yokes and fit them.
29
34
Fit the new piston thermostat in the cylinder housing.
Fit the cylinder head, see ”Cylinder head, fitting”.
30

Fit the thermostat housing with new seals. Tighten the


bolts by hand.
31

Fit a bolt (M8 x 20) with nut, washer and spacer


sleeve between the lug on the exhaust manifold and
the machined surface on the thermostat housing.
Tighten the bolt so that the sleeve presses the ther-
mostat housing against the piston thermostat seal.
Secure the thermostat housing according to the tight-
ening diagram (see illustration). Remove the tensio-
ning screw.

52
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Removing valves
Cylinder head, valves
Special tools: 9996159, 9996161, 9996222, 9998246,
removing/fitting 9998258, 9998260, 9998335, 9998506
There are two methods of removing/fitting valves.

Fastening the cylinder head in an engine


stand 1

Work on the cylinder head will be facilitated if it is fas-


tened in an engine stand. In order to fasten tool
9998258 to the cylinder head it will first be necessary
to remove the inlet manifold. Also remove the exhaust
manifold if the cylinder head is to be removed. Bolt tool
9998258 to the cylinder head using 4 M8x50 bolts.

NOTE: It is extremely important to observe the strict- ● Fit press tool 9998260 together with the valves’
est cleanliness when working on the cylinder head. counterstay.
● Fit hydraulic cylinder 9996161 in press tool
Dirt particles in the fuel passages could cause a
9998260 and connect foot pump 9996222.
breakdown or malfunction of the unit injectors.
● Insert pin 9996159 in the hydraulic cylinder.
Depress the valve disc using tool 9998246.
Remove the valve collets.
● Remove the valve disc, the springs, the valve
yoke guide pins and the valves.
● Place the valves and springs in a marked stand
so that they can be refitted in the same cylinder
head places.
● Remove the remaining valves the same way
using the press tool.
● Remove the oil seals from the valve guides.

53
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Alternative removal 5

● Fit tool 9998335 and press the new oil seals down
over the valve guides.
NOTE: Make sure that the oil seals are firmly
pressed down into place.
Alternatively, tool 9998506 can be used instead of the ● Fit the spring or springs.
hydraulic cylinder. NOTE: The exhaust valves have double springs.
● Fit the valve disc using the same tool as for dis-
NOTE: Place the cylinder head on a clean, level sur-
mantling. Carefully depress the spring (springs)
face.
and fit the valve collets.
NOTE: Make sure that the cylinder head is not scrat- Alternative fitting
ched when the valves are removed.
6

Valves, fitting

3
Oil the valve stems and fit the valves.
4
Fit the valve yoke guide pins.

Alternatively, tool 9998506 can be used instead of the


hydraulic cylinder.

NOTE: Place the cylinder head on a clean, level sur-


face.

NOTE: Make sure that the cylinder head is not scrat-


ched when the valves are fitted.

54
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

4
Valve guides, inspecting
Cylinder head removed

Other special equipment: 9989876, 9999696


1
Remove the oil seal from the valve guide.
2
Place the cylinder head horizontally in the stand.
Turn the cylinder head so that the valve heads face
upwards.

IMPORTANT! Do not lay the cylinder head in


such a way that it rests on the valve guides
(see illustration, point 4).
Place dial indicator 9989876 with magnetic stand
3 9999696 so that the tip of the dial indicator lies
Place a new valve in the valve guide so that the end against the edge of the valve head.
of the valve stem is level with the edge of the guide.
Use a suitable counterstay for the valve stem. Move the valve laterally in the direction of the inlet
and exhaust port. Note the reading on the dial indica-
tor.
5
Check all valve guides. If the reading values exceed
those given in the specifications, the valve guide
must be replaced.

Clearance valve handle - guide:


Inlet 0.03–0.05 mm
Wear tolerance 0.2 mm1
Exhaust 0.04–0.07 mm
Wear tolerance 0.3 mm1

1
Max. permissible clearance between valve handle
and valve guide.

55
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Valve guides, changing Fitting


4
Special tools: 9996159, 9996161, 9996222, 9998260,
9998261, 9998262, 9998263 Oil the outside of the valve guides with engine oil be-
fore fitting them in place.
Removing 5
1

Fit press tool 9998260 in the holes for the cylinder Press in the valve guide for the inlet valve using tool
head retaining bolts. 9998261. Press in the exhaust valve guide using tool
NOTE: Place washers between the nuts and the cylin- 9998262.
der head surface. NOTE! Tool 9998261 is marked Inl. Tool 9998262 is
Tighten the nuts on the tool. marked Ex.

2 Keep pressing until the tool bottoms against the surfa-


Fit pin 9996159 in the hydraulic cylinder. ce of the cylinder head.

3 IMPORTANT! After changing the valve guides,


Fit hydraulic cylinder 9996161 in tool 9998260 and the cylinder head should be cleaned to prevent
press out the valve guide using drift 9998263 and foot particles from entering the fuel chamber or oil
pump 9996222. passages. Dirt particles in the fuel passages
Press out the other valve guides in the same manner. could cause a breakdown or malfunction of the
unit injectors.

56
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Valve seat, changing Tap out the valve seat.
Special tool: 9992479
NOTE! Be careful not to damage the cylinder head.
Other special equipment: 9989876
4
Clean the valve seat meticulously and examine the
1
cylinder head for cracks.
5

Measure the diameter of the valve seat posi-


tion. Ascertain whether a seat of standard size
or oversize is to be used. Machine the seat po-
sition if necessary.

Outer size (measurement A) Standard:


The valve seats should be changed when the
distance ”A” measured with a new valve ex- Inlet 43.1 mm
ceeds the value specified below. Exhaust 43.1 mm
Oversize:
Height (measurement A):
Inlet 43.3 mm
Inlet 8.4–8.6 mm
Exhaust 43.3 mm
Exhaust 7.9–8.1 mm
Height (measurement B):
2 Inlet 8.4–8.6 mm
Exhaust 7.9–8.1 mm
Inlet (D12D) 7.15–7.35 mm

6
Chill the seat in dry ice to between –60°C and –70°C
(-76°F and -94°F) and heat the cylinder head with hot
water from a hose or in some other way. Press the
valve seat into place using a drift.

NOTE: Turn the seat so that the seat angle faces the
tool.

7
Grind down the head of an old valve so that it comes Machine the seat to the correct angle and width.
about 1–3 mm further down in the seat.
Weld the old valve to the valve seat with four spot
welds (MAG welding).

IMPORTANT! Carefully cover other parts of the


cylinder head so that welding spatter cannot ad-
here to it.

57
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Valve seat, grinding


1
Before grinding the valve seats, check the valve
guides and replace them if wear tolerances are
exceeded.
2
When grinding the valves seats, do not take away too
much material unnecessarily. Take away just enough
to give the valve seat the correct form and the valve
head a good contact surface.

Exhaust valve

The new valve seat is grinded down so that the mea-


surement (A) between the cylinder head surface and
the valve head surface, measured with a new valve,
meets specifications. See ”Valve seat, changing”.
4
The valve seat angle is checked with a valve seat
gauge after a thin layer of marking paint is applied to
the seat’s contact surface.
Inlet valve

58
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Valves, grinding Rocker arm mechanism,


Valves’ sealing angles changing
Inlet 29.5°
Exhaust 44.5° The following components are replaceable: rocker arm
1 bridge, expansion plugs, complete rocker arms and
Grind the seal face as little as possible, but enough to adjusting screws.
grind away all damage. 1
Remove the rocker arms from the rocker arm bridge.
Mark the rocker arms so that they can be refitted in
the right order.
2
Clean the parts. Pay particular attention to the oil pas-
sage in the bearing housing and the oil holes in the
rocker arm bridge and rocker arms.
3
Check the rocker arm bridge and ball studs for wear.
2 The threads on ball studs and lock nuts should be un-
Check the measurement (A) of the valve damaged. If the bush of any rocker arm is worn oval,
head’s edge. If the measurement is less the entire rocker arm should be changed.
than the wear tolerance below, the valve 4
must be replaced. Oil the rocker arm bridge and refit the rocker arms in
Inlet (new valve) Min 1.8 mm the right order.
Wear limit 1.4 mm
IMPORTANT! It is extremely important that the
Exhaust (new valve) Min 1.6 mm rocker arms and rocker arm bridge are thorough-
Wear limit 1.2 mm ly cleaned and lubricated with engine oil before
the rocker arms and shafts are assembled.
Always replace valves with crooked valve stems.
3
Check the integrity of the valves with marking paint.
If there is leakage, grind the valve seat again, but not
the valve. Then perform another check.

59
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Valves and unit injectors, Setting mark, bearing cap

adjusting 2
Special tools: 9993590, 9998583, 9999696
Other special equipment: 9989876

Setting marks

Adjusting, general

3
The instructions cover adjustment of valves and unit
injectors in the following order:
Exhaust valves
Inlet valves
Unit injectors

NOTE: Exhaust valves, inlet valves and unit injectors


Setting marks for valves and unit are to be adjusted at the same time for each cylinder.
injectors
Valves and unit injectors should be adjusted in the or-
der as marked on the camshaft when the engine is
The engine is marked with numbers (1–6) for valves turned over in the direction of rotation.
and unit injectors (cylinder no. 6 is nearest the fly-
By following this order, the crankshaft need not be ro-
wheel). Each number applies to the adjustment of inlet
tated more than two revolutions for the adjustment of
valves, exhaust valves and unit injectors for the re-
all valves and unit injectors.
spective cylinders.
A colored pencil can be used to mark the rocker arms
NOTE: When adjusting, it is important to ensure that that have been checked or adjusted.
the line marked on the camshaft is midway between
the marks on the bearing cap.

60
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

4 Valve yoke, adjusting exhaust valves

Mount turning tool 9993590.


5
Adjust the valve yoke by slackening the adjusting
screw until it is clear of the valve stem.
7

Check that the line marked on the camshaft is mid-


way between the marks on the bearing cap. The num- Screw in the adjusting screw until it reaches the valve
bers indicate the cylinder for which the valves can be stem and then an additional hexagon side (60°).
adjusted. Tighten the lock nut to 38±4 Nm.

IMPORTANT! When screwing down the adjus-


ting screw the valve yoke must be pressed
down at the same time so that it reaches the
valve stems. It is extremely important that
pressure is applied as close as possible to the
adjusting screw, see arrow in illustration. Incor-
rect adjustment of the valve yoke could lead to
a breakdown.

61
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Setting valve clearances 11


8

Mount gauge 9998583 on dial indicator 9989876 with


magnetic stand 9999696.
Adjust the valve clearances correctly and tighten the Position the dial indicator so that the flange of the
lock nut to 38±4 Nm. gauge rests against the unit injector’s spring disc and
Check the valve clearance. the tip points towards the plane between the spring
seat and the fuel valve.

9
Adjust the inlet valves the same way as the exhaust
valves but with a different clearance.

Unit injectors, adjusting prestress


10

Check that the line marked on the camshaft for adjus-


ting the inlet valves and unit injectors is midway bet-
ween the marks on the bearing cap. The numbers indi-
cate which unit injector can be adjusted.

62
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

12 Functionality check
13
Perform a functionality check by starting the engine
and running it until normal operating temperature is
attained.
Then run the engine another 4–10 minutes at idling
speed. Once idling speed is steady the cylinder balan-
cing system will have set the correct amount of fuel
for the unit injectors.
13

NOTE: Do not forget to remove turning tool 9993590


from the flywheel housing and refit the cover.

Prestress the dial indicator 2–3 mm.


Prestress the unit injector by screwing down the ad-
justing screw until the gauge bottoms against the pla-
ne surface and the dial indicator’s pointer stops.
Tighten the lock nut to 52±4 Nm.

NOTE: If adjustment is incorrect the unit injector


could bottom, resulting in damage to the camshaft
and unit injectors.

63
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Cylinder liners and pistons,
removing
Special tools: 9992955, 9993590, 9996394, 9996395,
9996645, 9996966

Fit press tool 9996966 on the cylinder liners that are


not to be removed.
2

Remove the piston cooling nozzle (1).


Remove the connecting rod big-end cap and bearing
shells (2).
Press the piston up until the piston rings come above
the edge of the cylinder liner.
(Use the handle of a hammer or other wooden object.)
Lift out the piston and connecting rod.

WARNING! Incorrect piston cooling leads to pis-


ton shearing.
If you believe the piston cooling nozzle could be
damaged or deformed, it must be replaced. This
also applies to new nozzles. Always check that
Mount turning tool 9993590 and rotate the flywheel un- the piston cooling nozzle sits correctly in the
til the connecting rod that is to be removed comes hole on the cylinder block and that the anchor
into position. plate lies flat against the cylinder block.
NOTE: Do not forget to remove turning tool 9993590
from the flywheel housing and refit the cover. If the piston cooling nozzle is not correctly fit-
ted, there is a risk that the engine will break
down immediately upon start.

64
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

4 2

Mark the position of the cylinder liner in the block.


Mount the tools on the cylinder head, see illustration.
Withdraw the cylinder liner.
5
Remove all sealing rings (3) from the cylinder block.

Measure the wear of the cylinder liner with a cylinder


Cylinder liners and pistons, indicator. To get as precise a wear measurement as
inspecting possible, the cylinder indicator should first be set with
a gauge ring or micrometer. Use the original diameter
of the cylinder liner as the base value.
Cylinder liners and pistons must be thoroughly clea- 3
ned before inspection and measurement.
Measure the cylinder liner from both the top and bot-
Cylinder liner wear can be measured with the liner tom and several places vertically.
mounted in the cylinder block.
At each measurement spot, the measurement must
NOTE: To thoroughly check for cracks, the cylinder be taken both along the engine and across it.
liner must be removed from the cylinder block.
4
Mark the position of the cylinder liner with a felt-tip
If wear is greater than 0.45–0.50 mm a new complete
pen before removing it so that it can be refitting in the
liner kit must be used (piston, liner, piston rings, pis-
correct position.
ton pin and seals).
Oil consumption is also of importance for when cylin-
Cylinder liners der liners should be replaced.
1 NOTE: Cylinder liners and pistons are classed to-
Check for cracks, being especially thorough when gether. This means that pistons and liners must not
checking the liner flange. The magnaflux method can be mixed together.
be used when checking for cracks.
Pistons and cylinder liners are delivered as spare
parts only in complete units.

Pistons
1
Pistons must be replaced if there are deep scratches
in the casing surface, piston ring stops are damaged
or cracked, piston ring grooves are worn or snap ring
grooves are damaged.

65
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Cylinder liner seat, 4


Remove the cylinder liner and roughen the cylinder li-
reconditioning ner surface with an emery cloth.
A damaged cylinder liner seat is repaired by milling 5
the liner shoulder. Compensation is made for the ma-
terial removed through milling by using shims, which
are found in varying thickness.

Special tools: 9992479, 9996966, 9998272


Other special equipment: 9989876

1
Clean the liner seat and determine the extent of the
damage.
2

Secure milling tool 9998272 on the cylinder block and


make sure that the feed sleeve does not press on the
miller.
6
Once the milling tool is secured, tighten the feed bolt
until it presses lightly against the miller and reset dial
Mount the cylinder liner without sealing rings and se- indicator 9989876.
cure the liner with press tool 9996966.
3

Mount tools as shown in the illustration. Measure the


height of the cylinder liner at four different points and
calculate the thickness of the shims. Endeavor to use
as few shims as possible.
NOTE: Ensure that the measurements are always ta-
ken at the highest point of the seal face.
The height of the seal face must be 0.15–0.20 mm.

66
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

7
Cylinder liners, fitting
Rotate the miller with even movements while rotating
the feed sleeve. Special tools: 9992479, 9996966
Other special equipment: 9989876
NOTE: Use a ratchet wrench and sleeve to rotate the
miller.
1
8 Make sure that the old sealing rings in the cylinder
When the correct height has been reached, disconti- block have been removed and that the seal faces
nue the feed and rotate the miller a few revolutions. are thoroughly cleaned. Use a brass wire brush and
cleaning fluid, part no. 11614401. Scraping tools
9
must not be used.
Remove the milling tool and clean the liner seat tho-
2
roughly.

Fit the cylinder liner without sealing rings and secure it


by means of two clamps 9996966.

67
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3 5

Mount tools 9992479 and 9999876 as shown in the il-


lustration. Measure the height of the cylinder liner at Lubricate the sealing rings with the lubricant supplied
four different points and calculate the thickness of the in the ring packaging.
shims. Endeavor to use as few shims as possible. NOTE: The violet ring should be fitted in the lowest
NOTE: Ensure that the measurements are always ta- groove in the cylinder block.
ken at the highest point of the seal face. 6
Regarding the height of the seal face, see “Technical
data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE
and TWD1240VE”. Mark the position of the liner rela-
tive to the cylinder block so that it will be correctly po-
sitioned on assembly.
4

If shims are used, the bead of sealant should be app-


lied to the liner shoulder in the cylinder block.
NOTE: Apply no sealant between the shim and liner
flange. Apply a thin, even bead of sealant, part
no. 11612314.
NOTE: The bead of sealant should be max. 0.8 mm.

Remove the cylinder liner and make sure that it and


any shims are kept together.

68
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

7
Connecting rod small-end
The cylinder liner must be fitted within 20 minutes of
applying the sealant. bush, checking measurements
8 Before the connecting rod small-end bush is changed,
the connecting rod should be checked for cracks,
straightness and warping.
A cracked, bent or warped connecting rod must be
scrapped.
When changing connecting rod small-end bushes on
connecting rods with trapezoidal piston pin ends,
the bush must be machined.
The bush should be reamed. In a correct fit, an oiled
piston pin should slowly slide through the bush by its
own weight.

IMPORTANT! Concerning the maximum permis-


sible deviation in respect of straightness and
Carefully press the cylinder liner down into the cylin- warping, see “Technical data TAD1240GE,
der block. Fit press tool 9996966 to secure the cylin- TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
der liner in the block. TWD1240VE”.
NOTE: Always fit press tool 9996966 on the cylinder 1
liners to ensure that the sealant hardens in the right
position.

Use a new piston pin and measure the straightness of


the connecting rod in a jig.

69
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

2
Piston, changing
Special tools: 9991801, 9992013

Measure the degree of warping of the connecting rod.

1
Remove the snap rings from the old piston and tap out
the piston pin using tools 9991801 and 9992013. Rem-
ove the connecting rod.
2
Remove one of the snap rings from the new piston.

70
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3 7

Oil the piston pin, the piston bosses and the connec-
ting rod small-end bearing with engine oil.
4

Always use piston ring pliers when fitting/removing the


piston rings.

NOTE: The two upper piston rings are marked with


letters or dots. The marking should face upwards.

NOTE: New cylinder liners are delivered complete with


Fit the connecting rod so that the piston’s arrow and pistons and piston rings.
the connecting rod’s “Front” marking face the same di-
rection. Press the piston pin in place using drift
9992013 and handle 9991801. WARNING! Incorrect piston cooling leads to pis-
ton shearing.
NOTE: It should be easy to press the piston pin in If you believe the piston cooling nozzle could be
place. It must not be driven in by force. damaged or deformed, it must be replaced. This
also applies to new nozzles. Always check that
5 the piston cooling nozzle sits correctly in the
Fit the other snap ring. hole on the cylinder block and that the anchor
6 plate lies flat against the cylinder block.
Check that the top and bottom of the piston can move
easily in relation to each other and that the piston pin If the piston cooling nozzle is not correctly fit-
is not a tight fit in the connecting rod small-end bush. ted, there is a risk that the engine will break
down immediately upon start.

71
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Timing gears, changing Remove the drive take-off, the generator and the fuel
Prior conditions: pump.
Oil sump removed, front engine mountings removed, 4
valve cover removed, upper timing cover removed and
coolant pump removed

Remove the seal and the two socket cap screws


from the driver. Use tool 884994 with two M12x60
bolts.
5
Remove the lower timing cover.

WARNING! The timing cover is heavy and calls


for two persons to handle it.

1. Gear, camshaft 6
2. Gear, compressor
3. Intermediate gear
4. Gear, coolant pump
5. Gear, crankshaft
6. Gear, lubricating oil pump
7. Intermediate gear
8. Gear, hydraulic pump
9. Intermediate gear
10. Gear for drive belt and fuel pump
11. Gear, servo pump
12. Nozzle, gear lubrication
13. Intermediate gear, adjustable

IMPORTANT! Never rotate the crankshaft or


camshaft when the timing gear has been remo-
ved. Pistons and valves could then strike each
other and sustain damage.

Remove the inner vibration damper. Use tool 884994


Special tools: 884994, 9992584, 9992671, 9993590, with two M12x60 bolts.
9996222, 9996315, 9996626, 9996965, 9998511,
9999683, 9999696

Removing gears and wheels


1
Remove the outer vibration damper.
2
Remove the dust excluders and holder for the
crankshaft sealing ring.

72
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

7 9
Use turning tool 9993590 with a ratchet wrench to stop
flywheel rotation. Secure the ratchet wrench to the
engine block.
10

Mount turning tool 9993590.


8

Remove the polygon hub using puller 884994 and 2


M12x60 mm.
11

Rotate the flywheel until the piston in cylinder No. 1 is


at top dead center 0 ° on the flywheel and the cams-
haft marking (TDC) is between the marks on the bea-
ring cap.

Remove the toothed wheel.

73
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

12 14

Remove the crankshaft gear (5) with a suitable puller.


Remove the camshaft gear (1) using a puller. 15
Remove the intermediate gear (7).
16

Make a punch mark in the center of an M12x20 mm


bolt as a guide for the puller. Then place it in the shaft
for the oil pump gear (6). Pull the gear off with a puller.

The numbering of the gears in the illustration


refers to the text.
13
Remove the intermediate gears (3) and (9) from the ti-
ming plate and the cylinder head’s intermediate gear
(13).

74
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Cleaning, checking Timing plate, removing/fitting


17 Fitting/removing the timing plate on an existing engine
block is described in Alternative 1.
NOTE: The timing plate should not be removed unless
absolutely necessary.

New engine blocks supplied as a spare part are ship-


ped without a timing plate. The method in Alternative
2 describes mounting of the timing plate on a new
engine block.

ALT. 1
20

Clean the timing plate and the front of the cylinder


head.

NOTE: The timing plate should not be removed unless


absolutely necessary.

18

Mount two guide pins 9998267 so that they are secu-


red in the engine block through the timing plate. Rem-
ove the timing plate. The guide pins should remain in
place.

Remove the oil nozzle from the timing plate and


check that the holes are not clogged. Refit the oil
nozzle.
19
Check that the keyway in the crankshaft is undama-
ged. Make sure that the key is correctly positioned in
the groove.

75
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

21 ALT. 2
23
Fit the timing plate loosely on the new engine block.
Adjust the timing plate so that it is level with the bot-
tom of the engine block.

NOTE: Do not apply sealant at this stage.

24
Fit the two (fixed) intermediate gears on the timing
plate.
25
Adjust the timing plate laterally so that the backlash
to the crankshaft gear is the same for both intermedia-
te gears. Fit dial indicator 9999683 in magnetic stand
9999696. Adjust and check until the backlash is
the same for both intermediate gears.
26

The sealant should be applied 4 mm from the edge of the engine


block. Where no hole radius is specified, the sealant should be
applied with a radius of 8 mm from the center.

Apply a 1 mm thick bead of sealant, part no. 1161231-


4, at (1) on the engine block. Apply a 2 mm thick bead
of sealant all round the engine block (2) and at the
hole (3).

NOTE: The timing plate must be fitted within 20 minu-


tes as the sealant will then harden.

22

Secure the timing plate with a few bolts. Insert two


guide pins 9998267 so that they are secured in the
engine block through the timing plate.
27
Remove the timing plate.

Fit the timing plate, which is guided into position by


the previously fitted guide pins 9998267. Tighten to
34±4 Nm.

76
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

28 29

Fit the timing plate, which is guided into position by


the previously fitted guide pins 9998267. Tighten to
34±4 Nm.

The sealant should be applied 4 mm from the edge of the engine


block. Where no hole radius is specified, the sealant should be
applied with a radius of 8 mm from the center.

Apply a 1 mm thick bead of sealant, part no. 1161231-4,


at (1) on the engine block. Apply a 2 mm thick bead of
sealant all round the engine block (2) and at the hole (3).

NOTE: The timing plate must be fitted within 20


minutes as the sealant will harden.

77
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Fitting the timing gears 32


30

NOTE: Heat the crankshaft gear to approx. 100°C


(212°F).

Place the new heated crankshaft gear (5) on the spin-


dle. Fit adapters 9992584 and 9996626. Fit hydraulic
cylinder 9992671. Fit the nut on the spindle and tight-
en it. Connect foot pump 9996222 to the hydraulic cyl-
inder and press on the heated crankshaft gear.
33

The numbering of the gears in the illustration re-


fers to the text.
31

Fit adapter 9996965 and spindle 9996315 in the


crankshaft journal.

Heat the oil pump gear to approx. 180°C (356°F) and


tap it onto the oil pump using a plastic mallet.

78
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

34 38
Oil the plain bearing, fit the intermediate gear (7) and
tighten to 34±4 Nm.
Oil the plain bearings for intermediate gears (3) and
(9). Fit and tighten to 15±3 Nm. Then angle tighten to
120° ±5°.
NOTE: Use new bolts when refitting the intermediate
gears.
35
Fit the cylinder head’s adjustable intermediate gears
(13). Tighten the bolts by hand until they bottom
against the bearing bracket.

Check that the 0° mark on the flywheel is opposite the


arrow on the flywheel housing.
39

36
Place the heated polygon hub on spindle 9996315. Fit
adapter 9996626 and hydraulic cylinder 9992671. Fit
the nut on the spindle and connect foot pump 9996222
to the hydraulic cylinder. Press on the polygon hub.
Make sure that the camshaft marking for top dead cen-
NOTE: Heat the polygon hub to approx. 100°C
ter (TDC) is between the markings on the bearing cap.
(212°F).
40
37
Secure turning tool 9993590 to the engine block with a
ratchet wrench. Fit the crankshaft bolt together with
the washer and tighten to 645±25 Nm.

NOTE: Allow the parts to cool to room temperature


before tightening.

Fit the camshaft gear without the vibration damper.


Use suitable sockets (see illustration) so that the
bolts can be tightened down hard.

79
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

41

The illustration shows checking on a removed timing


Check that the camshaft gear is correctly mounted by cover.
inserting a 7 mm dowel in the hole (see illustration).
Make sure that the dowel is between the two marks
on the camshaft gear.
42

Check the adjustable intermediate gear’s flank clea-


rance in mesh with the two gears A and B. See “Tech-
nical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, Checking with the lower timing cover fitted is done th-
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”. Use two feeler rough the inspection hole.
gauges to check the flank clearance.

80
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

43 45

Checking method with lever type dial indicator.


Place lever type dial indicator 9999683 in magnetic
stand 9999696 and bring the tip of the indicator up
against a tooth on the adjustable intermediate gear.
NOTE: The tip of the lever type dial indicator should
Adjust the flank clearance as follows: Undo the adjus- be at right angles to the tooth.
table intermediate gear bolts. 46
Insert two 0.10 mm feeler gauges in positions A and
B and rotate the camshaft in the direction of the ar-
row.
44
Tighten the bolts on the adjustable intermediate gear
lightly and check that both feeler gauges meet with
the same resistance. Then remove the feeler gauges.
Tighten the adjustable gear to the specified torque ac-
cording to the tightening diagram. See “Technical data
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
TWD1240VE”.

Turn the adjustable intermediate gear clockwise. Check


the flank clearance of the intermediate gear by turning
the lower gear back and forth. Note the reading.

81
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

47 48

Remove bolts and sleeves from the camshaft gear.


Fit the toothed wheel on the camshaft gear. Tighten
Transfer the lever type dial indicator to the camshaft the vibration damper to 35±3 Nm and then angle tigh-
gear. Secure the adjustable intermediate gear by me- ten to 90° ±5°.
ans of a screwdriver. Check the clearance to the ad-
justable gear by turning the camshaft gear back and IMPORTANT! If the toothed wheel or any of its
forth. Compare the flank clearances with those given teeth are damaged or deformed, it must be
in the specification. See “Technical data changed. The same applies if any of the holes
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and for the toothed wheel retaining bolts are dam-
TWD1240VE”. aged.

49
Fit the inner vibration damper, the O-ring on the hub
and the driver. Tighten the two socket cap screws to
60±5 Nm and then angle tighten to 90° ±5°.
50
Fit the dust excluders and holder for the crankshaft
sealing ring.

82
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

51 52
Fit the drive take-off, generator and fuel pump.
53

Apply an even bead (2 mm) of sealant, part


no. 11612777 in the marked area (see illustration).
The lower timing cover must be fitted within 20 min-
utes as the sealant will harden.

WARNING! The lower timing cover is heavy.


Two persons will be necessary to fit it in place.

Fit the outer vibration damper. Tighten to 60±5 Nm


and then angle tighten to 90° ±5° as specified in the
tightening diagram.
54

NOTE: Do not forget to remove turning tool 9993590


from the flywheel housing and refit the cover.

83
Group 21 Engine See Cylinder head, fitting/removing Repair instructions

Bearing housing for camshaft, Camshaft, changing


changing Special tools: 9993590, 9998255, 9998264, 9998602,
9998628
Prior conditions:
Radiator assembly removed. See “Radiator element,
changing”.

1
Turn off the power by means of the main switch (swit-
ches) and check that no current is supplied to the
engine.
2
Remove the protective plates round the drive belts.
4

The production-fitted bearing housings are machined


together with the cylinder head and therefore cannot
be transferred from one cylinder head to another.
If a bearing housing is damaged, an exchange hous-
ing can be fitted in its place. All bearing housings
should then be changed to ensure that the bearing
housing seats can be aligned.
The holes for the guide sleeves in the exchange bea-
ring housings are oval so that the center bearing hous-
ing can be adjusted radially and the front and rear hou-
sings axially.
If the cylinder head is already fitted with exchange
housings, a damaged bearing housing can be changed
without changing the other housings. Remove the radiator fan (six studs) and remove the
drive belt. See “Drive belts, changing”.

The exchange housings are recognizable by their oval


holes for the guide sleeves.
If exchange housings are fitted, mark them with num-
bers so that they can be refitted in the same place if
they have been removed.

84
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

5 7
Undo the clamps on the hose between the pipes to
the crankcase breather and pull the hose to the left.
8

Remove the spacer and pulley.


6

Detach the water pipe from the coolant pump and radi-
ator hose connection.

Remove the radiator fan drive.

85
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

9 12

Remove the upper radiator hose connection from the Remove the exhaust pipe at the turbocharger.
cylinder head. 13
10 Remove the heat shield (three bolts) from the cylinder
Remove the front engine lifting bracket. head at the turbocharger.
11 (TWD) 14

Remove the front water pipe between the charge air


cooler and the radiator hose connection.

Remove the camshaft position sensor (1) and the


clamps.

86
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

15 17

Remove the toothed wheel.


18
Remove the valve cover nuts using an ordinary rat-
chet wrench and remove the valve cover.

NOTE: Do not use air-assisted tools when removing


the valve cover as this could damage the unit injector
wiring harness and the studs.

16

Remove the camshaft gear (1). Use a suitable puller if


necessary.

Remove the upper timing cover.

87
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

19 22

Remove the oil pipe connected to the rocker arm bridge. Fit turning tool 9993590.
20 23
Undo the rocker arm bridge retaining bolts evenly over
the entire bridge to avoid uneven stress.
21

Rotate the flywheel until the piston in cylinder no. 1 is


at top dead center 0 ° on the flywheel and the cam-
shaft marking is midway between the marks on the
bearing cap.
Lift away the rocker arm bridge using lifting tool
24
9998255.
Check that the camshaft bearing caps are factory
marked 1–7 in accordance with the relevant bearing
WARNING! To avoid injury and material dama-
bracket. Remove the camshaft bearing caps by tap-
ge, the rocker arm bridge should be lifted away
ping them carefully with a rubber mallet. Keep the
by two persons if no lifting device is available.
camshaft bearing caps and bearing halves together in
The rocker arm bridge weighs about 27 kg (60
a suitable place with the bolts in the order they were
lbs).
removed and will later be refitted.
NOTE: The camshaft bearing caps are held in place
with guide pins.

88
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

25 27
Fit new camshaft bearing shells in the bearing brack-
ets and caps as necessary. Make sure that bearings
of the correct size are used and that they are fitted
correctly in their seats.
28
Lubricate the bearing surfaces with engine oil.
29

Lift the camshaft away using lifting tool 9998264.

WARNING! Bear in mind that the camshaft


cams are extremely sharp.

WARNING! To avoid injury and material dama-


ge, the camshaft should be lifted away by at
least two persons if no lifting device is available.
The camshaft weighs about 35 kg (77 lbs). Carefully lift the camshaft into position using lifting
tool 9998264.
26
WARNING! Bear in mind that the camshaft
cams are extremely sharp.

WARNING! To prevent injury and material dam-


age, the camshaft should be lifted into place by
at least two persons if no lifting device is avail-
able. The camshaft weighs about 35 kg (77 lbs).

Remove the lower bearing halves.

89
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

30 33

NOTE: See the location of the bearing cap bolts at far


right. Fit the remaining bolts as on the bearing cap to Rotate the flywheel using turning tool 9993590 until
the left the 0 ° mark is opposite the arrow.

Fit the caps on the relevant bearing brackets. Fit the NOTE: Do not forget to remove turning tool 9993590
bolts but do not tighten them. from the flywheel housing and refit the covers.
31 34

Check that the camshaft marking for top dead center


(TDC) is midway between the markings on the bearing
Insert 7 bolts (M10 x 90) in the holes for the rocker cap.
arm bridge having no guide sleeves.
Tighten these bolts to M10 standard torque.
32

90
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

35 38

Fit the camshaft gear and use suitable sockets so


that the bolts can be tightened down hard. NOTE: Loosen all adjusting screws for the valves and
unit injector before fitting the rocker arm.
36
Check or adjust the flank clearance according to the in- Oil the valve yokes and camshaft cams with engine
structions under the heading “Timing gear, changing”. oil. Lift the rocker arm bridge into place using
9998255. Check that the valve yokes and rocker arms
37 are correctly positioned relative to each other.
Fit the toothed wheel and tighten according to the
tightening diagram below. WARNING! To avoid injury and material dama-
ge, the rocker arm bridge should be lifted away
IMPORTANT! If the toothed wheel or any of its by two persons if no lifting device is available.
teeth are damaged or deformed, it must be chan- The rocker arm bridge weighs about 27 kg (60
ged. The same applies if any of the holes for the lbs).
toothed wheel retaining bolts are damaged.

91
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

39 41
Adjust the valves and unit injectors. See “Valves and
unit injectors, adjusting”.
42
Clean the upper timing cover and the contact surfaces.
43

Fit the rocker arm bridge bolts and tighten them by


hand.
Tighten the retaining bolts for the rocker arm bridge
and camshaft bearing caps to the torque specified in
the tightening diagram. See ”Cylinder head, fitting”
step 26.
40

Apply a 2 mm thick bead (see illustration) of sealant,


part no. 11612314, to the timing cover and in the cor-
ners between the lower timing cover and the timing
plate.
Mount the oil pipe for the rocker arm shaft. Wipe all oil
off the oil pipe, making sure it is completely dry. Oil NOTE: The timing cover must be fitted within
the hole in the rocker arm bridge. 20 minutes of applying the sealant.
Use a 1/2" short extension bar and a 12 mm socket.
Insert the pipe in the socket and fit a new seal on the
other end of the pipe.
Press the pipe into the rocker arm bridge. Make sure
that the sealing ring ends up in the right place.

92
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

44 45

A = clearance mm C = toothed wheel


B = shim D = camshaft position
sensor
Rotate the flywheel until a tooth on the camshaft’s
toothed wheel is opposite the sensor’s hole in the tim-
ing cover. Fit the camshaft position sensor and mea-
sure the distance A using a feeler gauge between the
sensor’s tip and the toothed wheel. Permissible clear-
ance A: 0.6 ± 0.4 mm. To obtain a correct signal from
the camshaft position sensor, the clearance between
the sensor and toothed wheel must lie within these
limits. Adjust the sensor by means of shims in accor-
dance with the table below.

Fit the upper timing cover. Insert the bolts in the cov- A B
er’s slotted holes. Tighten the bolts finger-tight but not Measured clearance Shim
to the specified torque.
Quantity Part no.
Fit press tools 9998602 and 9998628. Screw the tools
down so that the seal face of the timing cover against 0.2–1.0 mm – –
the valve cover is level with the seal face on the cylin- –0.3 till 0.3 mm 1 1677894
der head. Fit the other bolts and tighten to the speci- –0.6 till –0.3 mm 2 1677894
fied torque. See ”Cylinder head, fitting” step 33.

NOTE: Leave the press tools in place. Allow the seal-


ant to solidify for about 30 minutes. Do not forget that
NOTE: Do not forget to fit the two clamps on the
one of the bolts also secures the radiator fan drive.
camshaft position sensor wiring.

93
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

46 48

Fit the valve cover and tighten the bolts to 20±2 Nm


according to the tightening diagram.

NOTE: Do not use air-assisted tools when fitting the


valve cover as this could damage the studs and the
unit injector wiring harness.
Clean the threaded holes for the removed studs in the
cylinder head. Clean the studs, coat them with Volvo
NOTE: It is important that the valve cover bolts are
Penta locking fluid 1610532 and tighten them to
tightened to the torque specified in the diagram to pre-
40±3 Nm.
vent cracks in the cover and loosening of the studs.
Fit the wiring by means of straps round the studs.
If any of the valve cover studs loosened from the cy-
IMPORTANT! Meticulously wipe off all surplus linder head when the bolts were removed, the wiring
locking fluid after tightening the studs. harness to the unit injectors must be checked. The
wire holder on the stud may have followed in the rota-
47 tion and damaged the wiring harness.
Apply a 2 mm thick bead of sealant, part
49
no. 11612314, in the joint between the upper timing
cover and the cylinder block.

NOTE: The valve cover must be fitted within 20 minu-


tes of applying the sealant.

Fit the front engine lifting bracket.

94
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

50 52
Pull the hose between the pipes to the crankcase
breather and secure the clamps.
51

Fit the water pipe to the coolant pump and the radiator
Mount the upper radiator hose connection on the cylin- hose connection using a new seal.
der head with new seals. 53 (TWD)

Fit the front water pipe between the charge air cooler
and the radiator hose connection.

95
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

54 55

Fit the pulley and spacer.

NOTE: Center the holes for the studs with the pulley
and spacer.

56

Fit the radiator fan drive.

NOTE: The upper bolt also secures the upper timing


cover.

Fit the radiator fan (six studs) and drive belt. See
“Drive belts, changing”.

96
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

57
Fit the protective plates round the drive belts.
58
Fit the radiator assembly, see “Radiator element,
changing”.
59
Fit the heat shield on the cylinder head.
60

Fit the exhaust pipe on the turbocharger.


61
Fill up with the requisite quantities of oil and coolant.
The coolant should be already mixed and of the cor-
rect quantity so that it will be known for certain that
the cooling system is completely full.
62
Bleed the fuel system. See “Fuel system, bleeding”.
63
Start the engine and perform a functionality check.

97
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Camshaft, inspecting and Reconditioning


reconditioning 1
Inspection as in A-D
See ”Crankshaft, inspecting and reconditioning”.
2
NOTE: The axial bearing surface of the camshaft
must not be grinded. Grinding to undersize in accordance with specifica-
tions. When grinding, it is importance that hole fillet
See ”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, radii and transitions from hole fillet radii lie with given
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE” regarding over- specifications.
sizes of camshaft bearings.
IMPORTANT! Grinding of the center crankpin
requires special attention as it concerns mea-
surement ”A”. See ”Technical data TAD1240GE,
Crankshaft, inspecting and TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
reconditioning TWD1240VE”, ”broad axial bearing journal”.

The crankshaft is induction hardened


3
If grinding causes sharp edges to form at the inlet
Inspecting holes of the oil channels, they can be removed with a
Inspect the crankshaft very carefully to avoid unnec- grinding pin or emery cloth.
essary reconditioning.
4
The following is involved in determining the need for
Check that the shaft is free from grinding burns.
reconditioning:
5
A. The crankshaft must be thoroughly cleaned. Mea-
sure the ovality, wear and conicity of the crankpins. Check the longitudinal curvature (runout) of the shaft;
see point C.
See ”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”. 6
B. Examine the bearing races for external damage. Check for cracks; see point D.
Any surface damage requires regrinding of the shaft. 7
C. Measure the longitudinal curvature (runout) of the Overlapping of bearing races. Check that smoothness
crankshaft. requirements for bearing races and radii are fulfilled.
The shaft is placed in a pair of V-blocks under the See ”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
main bearing journals of no. 1 and no. 7. TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”.
Or mount the crankshaft between centers. 8
The measurement should be taken on the fourth main
After grinding, the shaft, including oil channels, must
bearing.
be thoroughly cleaned from grindings and impurities.
See ”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, For efficient cleaning of all oil channels, the crank-
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE” regarding max. shaft is equipped with threaded plugs. The plugs are
permissible values. removed during cleaning and refitted afterwards.
Straightening of the crankshaft is not allowed.
D. Check for cracks both before and after grinding.
Use magnetic powder to perform the check, i.e. fluo-
rescent powder that is visible in ultraviolet light.

98
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

4
Big-end bearings, changing all
Check the dimensions of the crankpins in regard to
Special tool: 9993590 maximum conicity and ovality. If any values exceed
the maximum permitted, the crankshaft must be
removed and remedied.
Prior conditions: See “Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
Cylinder head and oil sump removed. TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”.
1 If uncertain, also check whether the crankshaft is
standard or undersize.
5

Fit turning tool 9993590 and rotate the flywheel until


the big-end cap on connecting rods no. 1 and no. 6
come into position for removing the bolts.
2 Fit new bearing shells, checking that they are of the
right size. Make sure that the bearing shell guide pins
Remove the big-end caps on connecting rods no. 1
are correctly located in the connecting rod big-end and
and no. 6. Remove the bearing shells and clean the
that the oil holes in connecting rod and bearing shell
bearing seat in the connecting rod and cap.
coincide.
NOTE: The bearing caps are numbered according to 6
their respective connecting rod. Oil the bearing shells and crankpins. Fit the bearing
caps and tighten the bolts to 275±12 Nm.
3
7
Inspect the crankpins and bearing shells. Rotate the flywheel until connecting rods no. 5 and 2
If any bearing has seized, the cause must be deter- are in position and repeat points 2–6.
mined before new bearing shells are fitted.
8
Rotate the flywheel until connecting rods no. 3 and 4
are in position and repeat points 2–6.
9
Check that no big-end bearing binds.
10
Remove turning tool 9993590 from the flywheel hous-
ing and refit the covers.

99
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

4
Main bearings, changing all
This method describes changing main bearings
with the crankshaft in situ.
Prior conditions:
Oil sump removed.

Special tool: 9993590


1

Remove the upper bearing shell. Insert a dowel in the


crankshaft oil hole and roll out the bearing shell by ro-
tating the crankshaft in the direction of rotation using
turning tool 9993590.
5
Clean and inspect the bearing seat, cap, journal and
shells.
Fit turning tool 9993590. If the bearing has seized the cause must be determi-
ned before a new bearing is fitted.
2
Remove the oil suction pipe and oil delivery pipe.

NOTE: The oil pump need not be removed.

3
Remove one main bearing cap at a time.

100
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

6 10
Make sure that the right size is used when changing Change the other main bearings, one at a time, the
bearings. same way as the first one. After changing each main
bearing, check that the crankshaft does not bind. This
NOTE: If uncertain, check the specifications to see is done by rotating it with turning tool 9993590.
which oversizes occur. See “Technical data 11
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and Check the axial clearance of the crankshaft and
TWD1240VE”. change the axial bearing washers if the clearance is
excessive or if the washers are damaged.
7
NOTE: Measure the axial clearance using a dial indi-
cator. In regard to axial clearance, see ”Technical
data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE
and TWD1240VE”.

12

Oil the journal and the new bearing shells.


8
Fit the upper bearing shell by using turning tool
9993590 to rotate the crankshaft against the direction
rotation with the dowel in the oil hole. The crankshaft axial bearing is located in the center
main bearing seat.
NOTE: Check that the shoulder of the bearing shell
fits correctly in the bearing seat. NOTE: The axial bearing washers are available in a
number of oversizes, see “Technical data
Note that the upper bearing shells (those that are to TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
be fitted in the cylinder block) incorporate oil holes. TWD1240VE”.
9
Fit the main bearing cap together with the lower bea-
ring shell. Tighten in two stages.
Stage 1 150±20 Nm.
Stage 2 angle tighten to 120°±5°

101
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

13 14
Once all main bearing caps have been tightened to the
specified torque, check the axial clearance of the
crankshaft. See “Technical data TAD1240GE,
TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”.
15
Fit the oil suction pipe and oil delivery pipe. See the
instructions in the Service Manual.
16
Remove turning tool 9993590 from the flywheel hous-
ing and refit the covers.

Use a thin plastic or wood stick to remove the axial


bearing washers in the cylinder block bearing seats.

NOTE: The axial bearing washers are fitted in grooves


in the main bearing cap.

102
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Flywheel, changing
Special tool: 9998629
1

Attach 2 lifting eyes 9998629 and lift away the fly-


wheel (see illustration) with a lifting strap threaded th-
rough the lifting eyes.

Remove the flywheel sensor. NOTE: The flywheel weighs about 60 kg (132 lbs).
2 4
Thoroughly clean the crankshaft flange’s contact sur-
face against the flywheel.
5
Thoroughly clean the flywheel’s contact surface
against the crankshaft flange and check that the sur-
face at the location of the sensor grooves is comple-
tely free from impurities.
6
Check that the flywheel’s guide pin in the crankshaft
sits correctly in place and is free from damage.

Remove the flywheel.

103
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

7 9

A = clearance mm
Attach 2 lifting eyes 9998629 and lift in the new fly- B = shim
wheel (see illustration) with a lifting strap threaded th-
rough the lifting eyes.
A B
NOTE: The flywheel weighs about 60 kg (132 lbs).
Measured clearance Shim
8
Quantity Part no.

0.2–1.0 mm – –
–0.3 till 0.3 mm 1 1677894
–0.6 till –0.3 mm 2 1677894

Rotate the flywheel until a tooth on the camshaft’s


toothed wheel is opposite the sensor’s hole in the fly-
wheel housing.
Fit the flywheel sensor and measure the distance A
between the sensor’s tip and the flywheel.
Permissible clearance A: 0.6 ± 0.4 mm
To obtain a correct signal from the flywheel sensor,
the clearance between the sensor and the flywheel
must lie within these limits. Adjust the sensor by
means of shims in accordance with the above table.
Mount the flywheel and tighten the bolts to 245±0+2.5
Nm in accordance with the tightening diagram.

104
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

Stationary engines
Flywheel bearings, changing
1
Special tools, Mobile engines: 9991801, 9991821,
Due to the tight fit, the flywheel must be removed to
9992564 Stationary engines: 9992269
be able to remove the flywheel bearing. Use a suitable
Mobile engines drift to pry out the bearing.
1 2

Fit a new flywheel bearing using 9992269 and a plas-


tic mallet.
Remove the flywheel bearing with tool 9991821.
2

Fit the new flywheel bearing with drift 9992564 and


handle 9991801.

105
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

2
Flywheel, marking
Checking axial runout
Special tool: 9993590
Other special equipment: 9989876, 9999696
1

Fit turning tool 9993590.


3
Rotate the flywheel with tool 9993590 and note the
max. value on the dial indicator.
4
See ”Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
Mount a dial indicator 9989876 in magnetic stand TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE” for measurement
9999696 and reset the dial to zero with the tip against values.
the flywheel. If the axial runout is excessive, remove the flywheel
and check to see if there is any dirt or unevenness
between the flywheel and the contact surface of the
crankshaft.
5

NOTE: Do not forget to remove turning tool 9993590


from the flywheel housing and refit the covers.

106
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Gear ring, changing
1

Heat the new gear ring with a welding torch or in an


oven. The gear ring must be heated evenly. Heat the
ring to 180-200º C (365-392º F), stopping when the po-
lished surfaces become blue. Be careful not to heat
the gear ring too much, as this will result in runout.
Check the heating by polishing the ring until glossy at
some spots.
4

Drill 1-2 holes in a tooth gap on the gear ring.


Use a chisel to split the gear ring at the drilled hole
and lift the gear ring from the flywheel.
2
Clean the contact surface of the flywheel with a steel
brush.

Place the warmed gear ring on the flywheel and tap it


into position with a soft drift and hammer.
Allow the gear ring to cool.

107
Group 21 Engine Repair instructions

3
Crankshaft seal, rear, changing
Special tools: 9992000, 9998238

Remove the seal and the screws from the tool.


4
Clean the seal’s place in the flywheel housing and the
seal face against the crankshaft.
5

Fit tool 9998238 in the seal by turning the tool while


pressing it inwards.
Drill two 4 mm holes in the metal edge of the seal by
using the tool’s locating holes as a template.
2

Spread sealant, part no. 11612314 on the outer sur-


face of the new seal and oil the seal lip.
Carefully tap in the new seal with tool 9998238 and
handle 9992000 until the tool bottoms against the fly-
wheel housing.

Screw two self-tapping screws (M5x35) in the seal


through the tool’s locating holes. Fit two screws
(M10x60) with a long thread in the tool’s threaded
holes and withdraw the seal.

108
Index

B G
Bearing housing for camshaft, changing ................. 84 Gear ring, changing ................................................ 107
Before/after lifting the engine ................................. 19 General information ................................................ 5
Big-end bearings, changing .................................... 99
I
C Instructions for running the starter motor ................ 18
Camshaft ............................................................... 16
Camshaft, changing ............................................... 84 M
Camshaft, inspecting and reconditioning ................ 98 Main bearings, changing ........................................ 100
Compression test ................................................... 20
Connecting rod small-end bush, O
checking measurements ........................................ 69 Other special equipment ........................................ 12
Crankshaft seal, rear, changing .............................. 108
Crankshaft ............................................................. 16
P
Crankshaft, inspecting and reconditioning .............. 98
Piston, changing .................................................... 70
Cylinder block/cylinder liners .................................. 15
Pistons .................................................................. 15
Cylinder head ......................................................... 14
Cylinder head, fitting .............................................. 37
R
Cylinder head, fitting/removing jig 885316 .............. 35
Repair instructions ................................................. 6
Cylinder head, leakage check ................................ 49
Rocker arm mechanism, changing ......................... 59
Cylinder head, removing ......................................... 21
Cylinder head, valves removing/fitting .................... 53
Cylinder liner seat, reconditioning ........................... 66 S
Cylinder liners and pistons, inspecting ................... 65 Safety information .................................................. 2
Cylinder liners and pistons, removing ..................... 64 Special tools .......................................................... 9
Cylinder liners, fitting ............................................. 67
T
E Timing drive ........................................................... 17
Engine jig, attaching ............................................... 20 Timing gear, changing ............................................ 72
Engine ................................................................... 13
V
Valve guides, changing .......................................... 56
F
Valve guides, inspecting ........................................ 55
Flywheel bearings, changing .................................. 105
Valve seat, changing ............................................. 57
Flywheel, changing ................................................ 103
Valve seat, grinding ............................................... 58
Flywheel, marking .................................................. 106
Valves and unit injectors, adjusting ........................ 60
Valves, grinding ..................................................... 59

W
When work involves chemicals,
fuel and lubricating oil ............................................ 19

109
Notes
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Date: ...........................................................
Name: .........................................................

AB Volvo Penta
Customer Support
Dept. 42200
SE-405 08 Gothenburg
Sweden
7741102-3 English 10-2001
Workshop Manual
(Group 22-26)

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE
Industrial Engines
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE
Contents
GROUP 20 GENERAL INFORMATION Fuel system, bleeding ........................................ 41
Safety Information ............................................... 2 Bypass valve, changing .................................... 42
General Information ............................................. 5 Fuel pressure, checking .................................... 43
General repair instructions .................................. 6 Unit injectors, changing ..................................... 44
Draining condensate water ................................ 48
GROUP 22 LUBRICATING SYSTEM Fuel pre-filter with water monitor, changing ........ 48
General ................................................................ 8
Special tools ........................................................ 9 GROUP 25 INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Design and Operation General ............................................................. 49
Lubrication system ............................................. 10 Design and Operation
Repair instructions Turbocharger ..................................................... 50
Working with chemicals, fuel and Repair instructions
lubricating oil ...................................................... 12 Working with chemicals, fuel and
Oil filter, changing .............................................. 12 lubricating oil ...................................................... 51
Oil sump gasket, changing ................................. 13 Intake manifold (gasket), changing ..................... 51
Oil filter bypass valve, replacing ........................ 14 Exhaust manifold gasket, changing ................... 57
Safety valve, changing ...................................... 15 Turbocharger, changing ...................................... 60
Reducing valve, changing .................................. 15 Pressure drop indicator, checking ...................... 63
Piston cooling valve, changing ........................... 16
Bypass filter (turbocharger) bypass valve, GROUP 26 COOLING SYSTEM
changing ............................................................ 17 General .............................................................. 64
Bypass valve (pressure valve) oil cooler, Special tools ...................................................... 65
changing ............................................................ 17 Design and Operation
Piston cooling nozzle, changing ......................... 18 Cooling system (TAD) ........................................ 66
Oil pump, changing ............................................ 19 Cooling system (TWD) ....................................... 67
Oil pressure, checking ....................................... 21 Charge air cooler ................................................ 68
Engine oil, changing ........................................... 22 Repair instructions
Oil cooler element, changing .............................. 22 Cooling system, draining .................................... 69
Oil cooler element, leakage test ......................... 26 Cooling system, filling ........................................ 69
Coolant pump, changing ..................................... 70
GROUP 23 FUEL SYSTEM Coolant filter, changing ...................................... 73
General .............................................................. 28 Piston thermostat, changing .............................. 74
Instructions for working with electronic Piston thermostat, functional check ................... 75
fuel injection ....................................................... 28 Drive belts, changing ......................................... 76
Special tools ...................................................... 29 Cooling system, cleaning ................................... 79
Design and Operation Charge air cooler, changing (TAD) ...................... 80
Unit injectors, overview ...................................... 31 Charge air cooler, changing (TWD) ..................... 81
Unit injectors, working phases ........................... 32 Charge air cooler, leakage test (TAD)................. 84
Repair instructions Charge air cooler, cleaning ................................. 85
Control module (EDC III), changing ................... 34 Radiator core, changing ..................................... 86
Fuel system, draining ........................................ 36 Cooling system, leakage testing ........................ 90
Fuel filter, changing ............................................ 37 Extra coolant pump, changing (TWD) ................. 92
Fuel pump, changing ......................................... 38
Fuel pump, rebuilding ......................................... 39
Index .................................................................... 94

1
Group 20 Safety Information

Safety Information

Introduction
The Service Manual contains descriptions and service When working near a running engine, remember
instructions for the Volvo Penta products and versions that a careless movement or a dropped tool
of products listed in the list of contents. This manual could, in the worst case, lead to bodily harm. Be
should be used in conjunction with the Service Manual careful of hot surfaces (exhaust pipes, the tur-
Technical Data for the engine in question. Make sure bocharger, turbocharger air ducts, starter etc.)
that the right service literature is used. and hot liquids in lines and hoses on a running
Read the available safety information and the General engine or one that has just been stopped.
information and Repair instructions sections in the Before starting the engine, replace all guards
Service Manual carefully before starting service work. and protections that were removed during servi-
ce work.

Make sure that the warning and information dec-


als on the product are always in plain sight. Re-
Important place decals that are damaged or that have
been painted over.
The following special warning symbols occur in the
Service Manual and on the products.
Never start the engine unless the air filter is in
WARNING! Warns of the danger of injury, exten- place. The rotating impeller in the turbocharger
sive damage to the product or to property, or could cause serious injuries. Foreign objects in
that serious functional failure could happen if the the intake could also damage the machinery.
instructions are not followed.
Never use a starter spray or the like to help start
IMPORTANT! Used to draw attention to any- the engine. It could cause an explosion in the
thing that could cause injury or malfunction of a intake manifold with the danger of injury.
product or damage to property.
Start the engine in well-ventilated spaces only.
NOTE: Used to draw attention to important information If the engine is run in a confined space, exhaust
that will facilitate repairs or other operations. gases and crankcase gases should be vented
To provide an overview of the dangers you should al- away from the engine room or shop area.
ways be aware of and the precautionary measures
that should always be taken, we have listed them Avoid opening the coolant filler cap while the
here. engine is still hot. Steam or hot coolant could
boil out when the cooling system’s pressure is
lost. If necessary open the filler cap slowly and
Make it impossible for the engine to start. Turn release the pressure in the cooling system. Be
off the power at the main switch (or switches) extremely careful if a valve, plug or coolant line
and lock it (them) in the OFF position before has to be removed while the engine is still hot.
starting service work. Place a warning sign in Steam or hot coolant could squirt out in an un-
the operator’s area. expected direction.

As a rule, all service work should be carried out Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid getting hot oil on
when the engine is not running. However, some your skin. Make sure that pressure in the lubri-
tasks, such as certain adjustments, need the cating system is released before starting any
engine to be running. Approaching a running work on it. Never start or run the engine with the
engine can be dangerous. Keep in mind that loo- oil filler cap removed because oil under pressure
se-fitting clothes or long hair may get caught in could then escape.
rotating parts and cause severe injury.
Stop the engine before doing any work on the
cooling system.

2
Group 20 Safety Information

If other equipment attached to the engine chan- Most chemicals intended for the products (such
ges its center of gravity, special lifting devices as engine and transmission oils, glycol, gasoline
may be needed to obtain the right balance and and diesel fuel) or chemicals for shop use (such
ensure safe handling. as degreasers, paints and solvents) are
dangerous to your health. Carefully read the ins-
Never work on an engine that is only suspended tructions on the container. Always follow the
from a lifting device. prescribed safety rules (for the use of respira-
tors, protective goggles, gloves, etc.). Make
Never work alone when heavy components are sure that other personnel are not accidentally
to be removed, not even when a safe lifting de- exposed to substances that are dangerous to
vice like a lockable block and tackle is used. health—by breathing vapors, for example. Make
Two people will generally be required, one to provision for good ventilation. Dispose of used
handle the lifting device and the other to make and surplus chemicals in the prescribed way.
sure that the components are clear and are not
damaged during the lift. Take great care when looking for leaks in the
fuel system or testing fuel nozzles. Wear pro-
Always make sure in advance that there is tective goggles. The jets from a fuel nozzle are
enough room to work in with no danger of cau- under very high pressure and have great pene-
sing injury or material damage. trating power; the fuel can penetrate deep into
body tissues and cause serious injury, including
WARNING! The electrical system and fuel sys- the risk of blood poisoning.
tem on Volvo Penta products are designed and
manufactured to minimize the risk of explosion WARNING! Under no circumstances should the
and fire. The engine must not be run in an envi- engine’s high-pressure tubing be bent or resha-
ronment where it will be exposed to explosive ped. Damaged tubing must be replaced.
liquids or vapors.
All fuels and many chemicals are flammable.
Always use the fuel recommended by Volvo Make sure that they cannot be ignited by an
Penta. See the Owner’s Manual. The use of a open flame or spark. Gasoline, certain solvents
poorer grade of fuel could damage the engine. and hydrogen from batteries, when mixed with
On a diesel engine, a poor grade of fuel could air in the right proportions, are highly flammable
lead to binding of the control rod and overrev- and explosive. No smoking! Arrange for adequa-
ving of the engine with a consequent risk of inju- te ventilation and take the necessary safety pre-
ry and damage. Poor fuel can also cause higher cautions before starting welding or grinding in
maintenance costs. the vicinity. Always keep a fire extinguisher ea-
sily accessible at the workplace.
When cleaning with high-pressure equipment, re-
member: never direct the jet of water on seals, Make sure that rags contaminated with oil or
rubber hoses, electrical components or the radi- fuel, as well as used fuel or oil filters, are kept in
ator. Never use the high-pressure function when a safe place prior to their disposal. Under certain
cleaning the engine. conditions, spontaneous combustion can occur
in oily rags. Used fuel and oil filters, along with
Always use protective goggles when working used lubricating oil, contaminated fuel, left-over
where splinters, grinder sparks or splashes of paint, solvents, degreasers and detergents are
acid or other chemicals could occur. Eyes are all environmentally hazardous waste and should
especially sensitive and an injury could result in be taken to a recycling facility for proper treat-
loss of sight. ment.

Avoid getting oil on your skin. Prolonged or re-


curring contact with oil can remove the skin’s
natural moisture with irritation, dehydration, ec-
zema and other skin disorders as a result. Used
oil is more harmful than fresh oil. Wear protecti-
ve gloves and avoid clothes and rags contami-
nated with oil. Wash regularly, particularly before
meals. Use skin lotion intended for this purpose
to avoid dehydration and to help cleanse the
skin.

3
Group 20 Safety Information

Batteries should never be exposed to open fla- Stop the engine and cut off the power at the
mes or electric sparks. Never smoke near batte- main switch (or switches) before starting to work
ries. When batteries are being charged they give on the electrical system.
off hydrogen gas, which combines with air to
form a mixture that is highly flammable and ex- The clutch should be adjusted with the engine
tremely explosive. If batteries are connected in- switched off.
correctly a spark can occur that could cause a
battery to explode with injury and damage as a Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine
result. Do not disturb the connections when at- when lifting it. Always check that all lifting
tempting to start an engine (risk of sparks) and equipment is in good condition and that it has
do not lean over a battery. the right capacity for the job (weight of engine
plus gearbox and extra equipment, if any).
Never mix up the positive and negative termin-
als when installing batteries. A wrong connec- To ensure safe handling and to avoid damaging
tion could cause serious damage to the electri- components mounted on the top of the engine,
cal equipment. Check against the wiring dia- the engine should be lifted using a special-pur-
gram. pose fixture or an adjustable one set up for the
engine. All chains or cables should run parallel
Always wear protective goggles when charging to each other and be as perpendicular as pos-
and handling batteries. The battery electrolyte sible to the top of the engine.
contains highly corrosive sulfuric acid. If it gets
on your skin, wash the area with soap and
plenty of water. If the electrolyte gets in your
eyes, rinse them at once with plenty of water
and see a doctor as soon as possible.

4
Group 20 General

General Information

About the Service Manual Certificated engines


This Service Manual contains descriptions of and For engines that are certificated for national and regi-
repair instructions for the standard versions of the onal environmental legislation, the manufacturer un-
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TA1242GE/VE and dertakes to ensure that the environmental require-
TWD1240VE model engines. ments are met both in new engines and in those al-
The Service Manual may show procedures performed ready in use. The product must correspond to the
on any of the engines listed above so the illustrations sample product that was approved for certification.
and photographs showing certain details may not be For Volvo Penta to be answerable as the manufactu-
completely accurate in some cases. However, the rep- rer for ensuring that engines in use meet the stipula-
air methods are all essentially the same. The engine ted environmental requirements, the following require-
model and serial number are given on the data plate ments regarding service and spare parts must be ful-
(see “Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, filled:
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”). The engine mo- The service intervals and maintenance measures
del and serial number should always be given in all recommended by Volvo Penta must be followed.
correspondence concerning any of the engines. Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended
The Service Manual is primarily produced for Volvo for the certificated version of the engine may be
Penta service facilities and their qualified personnel. It used.
is therefore assumed that persons using the manual Service affecting injection pumps, pump settings
have the necessary basic knowledge and can carry or unit injectors must always be carried out by an
out the mechanical and electrical tasks that occur in authorized Volvo Penta facility.
their profession.
The engine must not be rebuilt or modified in any
Volvo Penta is continuously developing its products way, except for the accessories and service kits
and we therefore reserve the right to introduce chan- that Volvo Penta has developed for the engine in
ges and modifications. All the information in this ma- question.
nual is based on product data available at press time.
Any significant changes that have been introduced in Modifications made to exhaust pipes and air inta-
the product or service methods after that date will be ke ducts to install an engine in an engine room
announced in the form of Service Bulletins. (ventilation ducts) must not be made indiscrimina-
tely as this could affect exhaust emissions. Secu-
Spare parts rity seals, if present, must not be broken by
unauthorized personnel.
Spare parts for the electrical and fuel systems are
subject to different national safety requirements. IMPORTANT! When spare parts are required,
Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts meet these require- use only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts.
ments. All types of damage occurring as a result of
using non-original Volvo Penta spare parts for the pro- If non-original spare parts are used, AB Volvo
duct in question will not be covered under the terms Penta will no longer be responsible for ensuring
of warranty as provided by Volvo Penta. that the engine corresponds to the certificated
version.

All types of injury, damages or costs arising


from the use of non-original Volvo Penta spare
parts for the product in question will not be co-
vered by Volvo Penta.

5
Group 20 General repair instructions

General repair instructions

The working methods described in the Service Manual


apply to a shop environment where the engine is lifted
Our common responsibility
out of place and mounted on an engine stand. Unless Every engine consists of numerous interacting sys-
otherwise stated, reconditioning work that does not re- tems and components. The deviation of a component
quire the engine to be removed can be carried out from its technical specification could dramatically in-
onsite using the same work methods. crease the environmental impact of an otherwise good
The warning symbols that are used in the Service Ma- engine. It is therefore extremely important for speci-
nual (see Safety information for their meaning) fied wear tolerances to be maintained, for systems
with provisions for adjustment to be correctly set and
for Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts to be used. The
WARNING!
service intervals in the engine maintenance schedule
must be followed.
IMPORTANT! Certain systems, such as fuel system components,
may require special competence and special testing
NOTE: equipment. For environmental and other reasons, cer-
tain components are sealed at the factory. Work on
are by no means comprehensive because we naturally these components must not be done by persons who
cannot foresee everything that could happen when are not authorized for such work. Keep in mind that
service work is being carried out under the most wide- most chemical products, if incorrectly used, are ha-
ly varying conditions. So we can only point out the zardous to the environment. Volvo Penta recommen-
risks that we consider could arise as a result of incor- ds the use of biologically degradable degreasers for all
rect handling when working in a well-equipped shop cleaning of engine components unless otherwise ex-
using methods and tools that have been tested by us. pressly stated in the Service Manual. Take care to en-
All work operations for which there are special Volvo sure that oils and residual detergent etc. are properly
Penta tools are described in the Service Manual using destroyed and do not inadvertently end up in the envi-
these tools. Special tools have been developed to en- ronment.
sure working methods that are as safe and efficient as
possible. It is therefore the obligation of anyone using
tools or working methods other than those recommen-
ded by us to make sure that no danger of injury or ma-
Tightening torques
terial damage exists and that malfunctions cannot re- Tightening torques for vital fasteners that should be
sult from such use. tightened using a torque wrench are listed in “Techni-
cal Data: Tightening torques” and are also given in the
In a number of cases there may be special safety ru-
Service Manual’s work descriptions. All tightening tor-
les and user instructions for the tools and chemicals
ques refer to clean threads, bolt heads and contact
mentioned in the Service Manual. Such rules and ins-
surfaces and lightly oiled or dry threads. If lubricants,
tructions must always be followed and no special ins-
thread locking compounds or sealants are required for
tructions for this are given in the Service Manual.
certain fasteners, the type to be used is stated in the
The majority of risks can be avoided by taking certain work description and in “Tightening torques.” The tor-
elementary precautions and using common sense. A ques in the table below are applicable to fasteners for
clean workplace and a clean engine eliminate many which no special torque is specified. These torques
risks of injury and malfunction. are for guidance only and the fastener in this case
It is extremely important, especially in working on fuel need not be tightened with a torque wrench.
systems, lubrication systems, intake systems, tur-
bos, bearings and seals, to keep out dirt and other
kinds of foreign particles. If this is not done, malfunc- Size Tightening torque
tions or a shortened repair life could result. Nm lbf.ft.
M5 6 4.4
M6 10 7.4
M8 25 18.4
M10 50 36.9
M12 80 59.0
M14 140 103.3

6
Group 20 General repair instructions

Torque-angle tightening Sealants


In torque-angle tightening the fastener is tightened to Several different types of sealants and locking fluids
a specified torque and then further tightened through a are used on the engines. Their properties differ and
specified angle. Example: for 90° angle tightening the they are intended for fasteners of different strengths,
fastener is tightened an additional ¼ turn after the temperature ranges, resistance to oil and other chemi-
specified torque has been reached, all in the same cals, and for the various materials and clearances in
operation. the engine.
For service work to be fully satisfactory it is therefore
important that the right sealants and locking fluids are
used on the fasteners where they are needed.
Lock nuts In the appropriate sections of the Service Manual we
have indicated the agents used in the assembly of our
Lock nuts that have been removed must not be reu-
engines.
sed. New ones must be used because the locking
characteristics of the old nuts deteriorate if they are The same agents or agents with equivalent properties
used again. For lock nuts with a plastic insert, but from a different manufacturer should be used in
Nylock®, for example, the tightening torques in the service work.
table should be reduced if the Nylock® nut has the When using sealing agents and locking fluids it is im-
same depth as a standard all-metal hex nut. Reduce portant for the mating surfaces to be free of oil, grea-
the tightening torque by 25% for 8 mm or larger thread se, paint and rust inhibitor. They must also be dry. Al-
sizes. For deeper Nylock® nuts, where the all-metal ways follow the manufacturer’s directions regarding
thread is as deep as that of a standard hex nut, the temperature, hardening time and other instructions for
tightening torques in the table are applicable. the product.
Two different basic types of agent are used on the
engines:
RTV agents (Room Temperature Vulcanizing). Used
Strength classes mostly as a sealant coating (“dope”) on gaskets. RTV
Nuts and bolts are divided into different strength clas- agents are easily visible when the gasket is removed
ses; the strength class is marked on the bolt head. A and the old RTV agent must be cleaned off before the
higher number indicates a stronger material. For ex- new gasket is installed.
ample, a bolt marked 10-9 is stronger than one mar- The following agents are of RTV type: Loctite® 574,
ked 8-8. When reassembling components it is therefore Volvo Penta 8408791, Permatex® No. 3, Volvo Penta
important to make sure that bolts are reinstalled in 11610995, Permatex® No. 77. Old sealant can be
their original places. When installing new fasteners, removed in all cases with denatured alcohol.
check the spare parts catalog to make sure that the Anaerobic agents These harden in the absence of air.
correct type is used. They are used when two solid parts like castings are
fitted together without a gasket. They are also com-
monly used to secure and seal plugs, the threads of
studs, valves, oil pressure monitors etc.
Hardened anaerobic agents are glassy; they are usu-
ally colored to make them more visible. Hardened
anaerobic agents are highly resistant to solvents and
old agent cannot be removed. When reinstalling a
component, thorough degreasing is required followed
by application of fresh sealant,
The following agents are anaerobic: Loctite® 572
(white), Loctite® 241 (blue).
Note: Loctite® is a registered trademark of the Loctite
Corporation, Permatex® is a registered trademark of the
Permatex Corporation.

7
Group 22 Lubricating System General

Group 22 Lubricating System

8
Group 22 Lubricating System Tools

Tools

Special tools

9992873 9993590 9996398

9996662 9996845 9998487

Tool Name, use 9996662 Leakage tester


9992873 Connector nipple 9996845 Clamp
9993590 Twist tool 9998487 Filter wrench
9996398 Pressure gauge

9
Group 22 Lubricating System Design and Operation

Design and Operation


Lubrication system
The engine is pressure-lubricated via a gear pump oil is passed to the engine block and distributed th-
coupled to the engine transmission. The oil flow is re- rough passages to the engine lubrication points.
gulated by six valves. The oil cooler is of the plate type and is located under
The oil pump pumps the oil to two full-flow filters and a cast-iron cover on the right-hand side of the engine
one by-pass filter, where the oil to the turbocharger is block.
also filtered by about 5%. From the full-flow filter the

1 Safety valve 4 Piston cooling valve


2 Bypass valve for oil cooler 5 Bypass valve for bypass filter
3 Bypass valve for oil filter (turbocharger)
6 Reducing valve

10
Group 22 Lubricating System Design and Operation

1 Safety valve 3, 5 Bypass valve for oil filter/bypass (turbo-


When the oil pressure across the safety valve ex- charger)
ceeds 8.6 bar (125 psi), the valve opens and returns The bypass valve opens (>2.1 bar, 30 psi) to maintain
the oil to the oil pan. lubrication when the filter is clogged.

2 Bypass valve for oil cooler 4 Piston cooling valve


When the pressure across the oil cooler is low, for ex- The piston cooling valve opens (3.0 bar, 45 psi) when
ample, when the oil temperature is low immediately af- the engine speed reaches just above idle. The oil
ter start-up, the bypass valve opens and the oil by- flows through the piston cooling passages to the six
passes the cooler. When the oil temperature rises and piston cooling nozzles, where oil is sprayed onto the
the pressure drop across the oil cooler falls (<3.0 bar, underside of the pistons.
45 psi), the valve closes and the oil flows through the
oil cooler before being pumped into the lubrication
system. 6 Reducing valve
The reducing valve controls the oil pressure by ope-
ning at high pressure (5.7 bar, 80 psi) and returns the
excess oil to the oil pan.

11
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

Repair instructions
4
Working with chemicals, fuel
Spread a thin layer of engine oil onto the gasket of the
and lubricating oil new oil filter and install filter.
Important! Apply barrier cream to hands and always 5
wear protective gloves for work where there is a risk Install the new oil filters, see oil filter installation ins-
of contact with oil, fuel or the like. Continual skin con- tructions.
tact with engine oil dries out the skin and can be
harmful. 6
Top up engine oil and run the engine with the starter
until the lubricating oil pressure appears on the pres-
sure gauge. See “Instructions for running the starter
Oil filter, changing motor”.
Special Tool: 9998487 7
Start the engine and check for leaks around the oil
1 filters.
Clean the oil filter canister.
2

Remove all oil filters with filter wrench 9998487.


3
Clean the sealing surface, check that no gasket resi-
due remains.

12
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

4
Oil sump gasket, changing

1
Pump out the engine oil.
See “Engine oil, changing”.
2

Remove the old gasket. Carefully clean the sealing


groove on the lip of the oil pan and the contact surfa-
ce on the engine block.
Install the new gasket in the groove on the lip of the
oil pan.
5

Remove the oil filler pipe and pull out the dipstick from
the oil pan.

Reinstall the oil pan.

Remove the oil pan.

13
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

6
Oil filter bypass valve,
replacing
1

Install the oil filler tube and replace the dipstick.


7
Add engine oil according to specifications. See “Tech-
nical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.
8
Start the engine and check for leaks. Clean the oil filter bracket and remove the cover from
the bypass valve.
2
Remove the valve stem and spring.
3
Clean and check the valve seat. If the valve seat is
damaged, the entire bracket must be replaced.
4

Install the new valve stem (1) and spring (2).


Use a new sealing washer (3), install and tighten the
bypass valve cover.
5
Start the engine and check for leaks.

14
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

Safety valve, changing Reducing valve, changing


Special tool: 9998487 1
1
Remove the right-hand oil filter with the filter wrench
9998487.
2

Clean around the cover on the engine block. Remove


the cover and take out the reducing valve.
NOTE: The safety valve cover takes a 50 mm
wrench.
2
Clean and check that the old O-ring is not still in pla-
ce.
Clean around the cover on the engine block. 3
Remove the cover and take out the safety valve.
NOTE: The safety valve cover takes a 50 mm
wrench.
3
Clean and check that the old O-ring is not still in pla-
ce.
4
Check that the new safety valve is marked with a yel-
low mark.
5
Install the new safety valve with new O-rings onto the Check that the new reducing valve is marked with a
engine block. blue mark.

6 4

Install a new oil filter, see oil filter installation instruc- Install the new reducing valve with new O-rings onto
tions. the engine block.

7 5

Start the engine and check for leaks. Start the engine and check for leaks.

15
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

4
Piston cooling valve, changing
1

Install the new valve with new O-rings in the oil filter
bracket.
5
Screw on the piston cooling valve cover.
6
Start the engine and check for leaks.
Clean the oil filter bracket and remove the cover from
the piston cooling valve, take out the O-ring.
2
Take out the piston cooling valve, clean it and check
that the old O-ring is not still in the oil filter bracket.
3

Check that the new piston cooling valve is marked


with an orange mark.

16
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

Bypass filter (turbocharger) Bypass valve (pressure valve)


bypass valve, changing oil cooler, changing
1 1

Clean the oil filter bracket and remove the cover from Clean the oil filter bracket and remove the bypass val-
the bypass valve. ve cover; take out the O-ring.
2 2
Remove the valve stem and spring. Take out the bypass valve, clean it and check that
3 the old O-ring is not still in the oil filter bracket.
Clean and check the valve seat. If the valve seat is 3
damaged the entire bracket must be replaced.

4
Install the new valve seat (1) and spring (2). Check that the new bypass valve is marked “124.”
Reinstall the bypass valve cover. Use a new 4
washer (3). Install the new bypass valve with new O-rings in the
5 oil filter bracket and screw on the cover.
Start the engine and check for leaks. 5
Start the engine and check for leaks.

17
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

4
Piston cooling nozzle, changing
Remove the piston cooling nozzle.
Special tool: 9993590 5
Install the new piston cooling nozzle with a new
1
screw.
Remove the oil pan. See “Oil pan gasket, replacing.”
NOTE: The setscrew for the piston cooling nozzle is
provided with a friction coating and can be used only
2 once.

WARNING: Faulty piston cooling means piston


damage.
If there is any suspicion that a piston cooling
nozzle may be damaged or deformed, it must be
replaced even if it is a new nozzle. Always
check that the piston cooling nozzle is seated
properly in the engine block and that the se-
curing plate lies flat against the engine block.

If the piston cooling nozzle is not properly instal-


led, the engine can be wrecked immediately
upon starting.

6
Remove the twist tool and replace the cover.
7
Install the twist tool 9993590.
Make a thorough check of the installation before the
3 oil pan is replaced.
8
Replace the oil pan with a new gasket. See “Oil pan
gasket, replacement.”
9
Start the engine and check for leaks.

Turn the crankshaft so that the piston cooling nozzle


that is to be replaced is accessible.

18
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

5
Oil pump, changing

1
Pump out the engine oil.
See “Engine oil, changing”.
2
Remove the oil pan. See “Oil sump gasket, changing”.
3

Remove the idler gear from the oil pump housing.


6
Clean the oil strainer. Check that the strainer is not
damaged.
7
Clean and inspect the bearing and teeth on the idler
gear.
Remove the bolts for the front main bearing cap and
8
lift down the lubricating oil pump together with the
main bearing cap.
4

Oil the bearing with engine oil and install the idler gear
on the new oil pump.
Torque the bolts to 24 ± 4 Nm (18 ± 3 ft-lbf).

Remove the lubricating oil pump from the main bea-


ring cap.

19
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

9 13
Install new O-rings for the oil strainer and oil pressure
tube.
NOTE: Check that there are no cracks on the oil strai-
ner.
14
Attach the oil strainer to the lubricating oil pump and
install the associated clamp. Tighten the bolts on the
lubricating oil pump to 27 ± 4 Nm (20 ± 3 ft-lbf).
15

Install the new lubricating oil pump on the main bea-


ring cap and tighten the bolts to 25 Nm (20 ft-lbf) and
then tighten a further 90°.
NOTE: Remember to install the main bearing cap
bolts before the lubricating oil pump is tightened onto
the cap.
10
Clean the main bearing shell and oil it with engine oil.
Install the oil pressure tube.
11
16

Snug up the oil pressure tube bolts, then tighten th-


rough an additional 180° for a new tube or 60° for a
Install the lubricating oil pump and check that the te- used tube.
eth on the idler gear mesh with the crankshaft gear te-
eth.
Tighten the main bearing cap:
Step 1. 150 ± 20 Nm (110 ± 15 ft-lbf).
Step 2. Tighten through a further 120° ± 5°.
12
Check the oil pressure tube for cracks in the flange at
the bolt points.

20
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

17
Oil pressure, checking
Install the oil pan with a new gasket. See “Oil sump
gasket, changing”. Special Tools: 9992873, 9996398
18
Add engine oil according to specifications. See 1
“Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, The lubricating oil pressure is checked by attaching
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”. pressure gauge 9996398 and nipple 9992873 to the rear
19 plug (M16 x 1.5) on the left-hand side of the engine.
Run the engine with the starter according to instruc- 2
tions until oil pressure appears on the pressure gauge.
See “Instructions for running on starter”.
20
Start the engine and check for leaks.

Carefully clean and remove the plug. Install nipple


9992873 and connect pressure gauge 9996398.
Ensure that the engine has reached operating tempe-
rature and measure the oil pressure at idle and at ope-
rating speed.
3
Compare the oil pressure measured with that given in
the table below:

Oil pressure:
Operating speed, 1100 RPM 400-550 kPa
or higher (60-80 psi)
Idle, minimum 175 kPa (25 psi)

21
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

Engine oil, changing Oil cooler element, changing


Note: The oil should be changed with the engine 1
warm. Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system,
Draining”.
1 2
Connect the drain hose to the oil pump and make sure Open the main switch(es) and check that power to the
there are no leaks. engine is off.
3
WARNING! Hot oil can cause burns.

2
Pump out the oil.

NOTE: Collect all old oil and hold it for recycling.

3
Remove the drain hose.
4
Add engine oil according to specifications. See “Tech-
nical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.

Remove the pipe between the coolant pump and the


cover of the oil cooler element.

NOTE: Cover the hole to the coolant pump.

Release the clamp on the turbocharger and remove


the air filter from the bracket. Remove the air filter and
air hose.

22
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

5 (TAD Engine) 6

Remove the turbo intake duct at the turbo.


5 (TWD Engine)

Remove the oil pipe from the turbocharger.


7

Remove the turbo intake duct.

Remove the turbocharger.

23
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

8 11

Remove the rear cover plate (four bolts). Two of the- Remove the sealing rings on the engine block and re-
se are installed on the cover of the oil cooler element. move the seals in the cover. Clean all contact sur-
faces.
9
12

Clean and install new sealing rings in the engine


block. Tighten the oil cooler element to 27±4 Nm
(20±2 ft-lbf).

Loosen the remaining bolts and remove the cover of


the oil cooler element.
10

Remove the oil cooler element.

24
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

13 15

NOTE: The rear cover plate is mounted together with


the cover of the oil cooler element (1).

Install a new seal in the cover, lift it into place and


tighten the bolts to 24±4 Nm (18±3 ft-lbf) as specified
in the torque table. Always use new drift pins when in-
stalling the cover on the engine.
Install the water pipe between the cover of the oil coo-
ler element and the coolant pump. Use new seals.
16
Install the turbocharger, see “Turbocharger, changing”.
17
Add engine oil to specification. See “Technical data
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
TWD1240VE”.
18
Add coolant to specification. See “Technical data
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and
1 Install bolts A and B for alignment. TWD1240VE”.
2 Tighten bolts C and D.
3 Install all bolts, tighten them in numerical order from NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to ensure
the center outwards as shown in the figure (1-4). that the system is filled.
4 Check the torque on bolts C and D.
19
14
Start the engine and check for leaks.

Install the rear cover plate (four bolts). Two of these


are mounted together with the cover for the oil cooler
element.

25
Group 22 Lubricating System Repair instructions

4
Oil cooler element, leakage
test
Special tools: 9996662, 9996845
1
Remove the oil cooler element, see “Oil cooler ele-
ment, changing.”
2
Rinse off the coolant side and the oil side of the oil
cooler with degreaser.
3

Check that the knob on the reduction valve on the


pressure gauge is turned all the way counter-clock-
wise and that the gauge is at 0. Connect the pressure
gauge to clamp 9996845 to test the oil cooler element
for leaks. Immerse the oil cooler element in a room-
temperature water bath.
Turn the knob to increase the pressure to 250 kPa
(35 psi).
Wait at least one minute.
If a steady stream of bubbles comes out of the oil
cooler element it leaks and must be replaced.

Tighten clamp 9996845 to test the oil cooler element


for leaks and check that it seals properly.

26
Group 23 Fuel System General

Group 23 Fuel System

27
Group 23 Fuel System General

General
IMPORTANT! Ensure maximum cleanliness IMPORTANT! If the engine is turned over using
when working with the fuel system. Always cle- the starter, for valve adjustment, for example,
an the engine before starting repair work. To pre- first disconnect the cables at the junction boxes
vent contamination of the fuel system, always for the engine control system and turn the igni-
install protective plugs when connections are tion key to “0” to avoid any risk of accidentally
removed. Parts removed should be kept in a starting the engine. Check the wiring diagram to
closed plastic bag until they are reinstalled. be sure that the correct cables are disconnec-
ted. See “Instructions for running on starter”.
NOTE: For specifications, see “Technical Data,
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE
and TWD1240VE”.

Instructions for working with electronic fuel injection

• Never remove the control module connectors or • Only batteries should be used for starting. Starter
any electrical cable from the sensors when the packs can cause voltage surges and damage the
engine is running. The ignition key should be in electronics.
the “0” position and the engine stopped. • For quick battery charging, disconnect the battery
• Never disconnect any battery cables when the cables. (This does not apply to normal maintenan-
engine is running. ce charging.)
• Disconnect the control module connector from the • If any connectors are disconnected, be sure that
control module when doing any electrical welding they are reconnected properly and that they are
work on the engine. free from oil and other contamination which can
cause poor contact.
NOTE: The main power must be turned off before
the connectors are disconnected.

28
Group 23 Fuel System Tools

Tools
Special Tools

9995028 9996626 9998249 9998250 9998251 9998255

9998339 9998494 9998511

Tool Name, use 9998251 Protective plug


9995028 Drift pin 9998255 Lifting bar
9996626 Sleeve pin 9998339 Pressure gauge
9998249 Protective sleeve 9998494 Connector nipple

9998250 Ring seal 9998511 Pry bar

29
Group 23 Fuel System Tools

Other special tools

981 2546 998 6173 998 6177

981 2546 Cleaning brush 998 6177 Extractor


998 6173 Puller

30
Group 23 Fuel System Design and Operation

Design and Operation

Unit injectors, overview

1. Camshaft
2. Rocker arm
3. Electrical connection for injector unit
4. Fuel passage

31
Group 23 Fuel System Design and Operation

Unit injectors, working phases

Filling phase
During the filling phase, the pump piston (2) is moving
up to its top position.
The camshaft high point is passed and the cam follo-
wer is moving towards the base of the cam.
The fuel valve (1) is open and fuel can flow into the
pump cylinder from the lower fuel passage in the cy-
linder head and into the injector unit pump cylinder.
Filling continues until the pump piston reaches its top
position.

1 Fuel valve
2 Pump piston

Spill phase
The spill phase begins when the camshaft is turned to
the position where the cam, via the rocker arm, begins
to press the piston (2) down.
Fuel can now flow through the fuel valve (1), through the
hole in the injector and out through the fuel passage.
The spill phase continues as long as the fuel valve (1)
is open.

1 Fuel valve
2 Pump piston

32
Group 23 Fuel System Design and Operation

Injection phase
The injection phase begins when the fuel valve (1) clo-
ses. The cam on the camshaft continues to press the
piston (2) down via the rocker arm and injection takes
place as the passage through the fuel valve is closed.
The injection phase continues as long as the fuel val-
ve (1) is closed.

1 Fuel valve
2 Pump piston

Pressure release phase


Injection stops when the fuel valve opens and the
pressure in the injector falls below the opening pressu-
re of the atomizer.
The fuel flows through the open valve, through the in-
jector hole and out through the fuel passage.
Note that it is the position of the fuel valve (closed or
open) which determines when injection begins and
ends.
The duration for which the fuel valve is closed deter-
mines the quantity of fuel injected on each pump stro-
ke.

33
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

Repair instructions
4
Control module (EDC III),
changing

1
Disconnect power to engine.
2

Remove the control unit.


5
Transfer the four rubber mounts to the new control
module.
Remove the fuel cooling loop and the clamps on the
fuel lines from the control module. Fold the cooling
loop to one side.
3

Disconnect the wiring connector from the control mo-


dule. Push out on the latch (1) and pull the connector
(2) upward.

34
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

6 8

Install the new control module.


7
Connect the connector to the control module. Plug the
connector (2) into the control module so that the safe-
ty latch (1) can be engaged.
9
Start the engine and perform a leakage and functional
check.

Connect the fuel cooling loop and the clamps for the
fuel lines on the control module.

NOTE: The mounting screws for the fuel cooling loop


are self-tapping: there are no threads in the control
module.

35
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

3
Fuel system, draining
Open the vent nipple on the cylinder head. Allow fuel
1 to drain into a container.
Clean carefully around the cylinder head vent nipple NOTE: For fuel filter, changing. Only perform steps
and fuel filter bracket draining nipple. 1–3 in the fuel draining procedure.
2 4

Connect a plastic hose to the fuel filter bracket drain- When the fuel has finished flowing out, open the vent
ing nipple and open the nipple (2). nipple (1) on the fuel filter bracket and allow the fuel to
drain into a container.
NOTE: Be careful when handling fuel and make sure
that it is disposed of properly.

36
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

5
Fuel filter, changing
Spread a thin layer of engine oil onto the gasket and
NOTE: Do not fill the new filter with fuel before instal-
install the new fuel filter. Tighten the fuel filter accor-
ling as there is a risk of contamination entering the
ding to the instructions on the filter.
system and causing running problems or damage.
6
1 Bleed the fuel system at the filter, see “Fuel system,
bleeding”.
Clean around the fuel filter.
7
2
Run the engine at fast idle for about 10 minutes to
Drain the fuel filter, see “Fuel filter, draining”. evacuate any remaining air from the system. Perform
3 a leakage and functional check.

Remove the filter using an appropriate filter wrench.


4
Clean the filter contact surface on the filter housing.

37
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

4
Fuel pump, changing
1

NOTE: Spread a thin layer of graphite grease around


the O-ring on the drive shaft before installing the fuel
Clean around the fuel pump. Disconnect fuel lines 1, 2 pump.
and 3.
Check that the new fuel pump drive shaft fits into the
2 transmission. Install the fuel pump with a new gasket
and apply thread tape to the bolt (1).
NOTE: The bolt (1) comes with thread tape, see fuel
pump packaging.
5

Remove the fuel pump.


3
Clean the contact surface on the transmission plate.

Connect fuel lines 1, 2 and 3 with new gaskets.


6
Bleed the fuel system and filter, see “Fuel system,
bleeding”.
7
Run the engine at high idle for about 10 minutes to
evacuate any remaining air from the system.
8
Carry out a leakage and functional check.

38
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

Fuel pump, rebuilding 4

The instructions below refer to the parts locations


numbers shown in the figures.

Check all parts for damage and wear.


Always replace any parts that are damaged or worn.
Parts that are not replaced must be cleaned very tho-
roughly.

Special tools: 9996626, 9995028


Other special equipment: 9986173, 9986177

Remove the seals (2 and 3) from the impeller shafts


with puller 9986173 and extractor 9986177. Use
sleeve pin 9996626.
5

1
Remove the valves (4 and 7).
2
Remove the bolts (1) and take apart the housing.
3
Remove the pump impellers (6 and 8) and the gas-
ket (5).

The instructions below refer to the parts locations


numbers shown in the figures above.

39
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

6 7

Install a new gasket (5).


Press in the inner and outer seals (3 and 2) for the 8
pump drive shaft with pin 9995028. Dip the pump impellers (6 and 8) in diesel oil and in-
The inner seal should be pressed down to the bottom sert them into the housing.
and the outer seal flush with the housing. 9
NOTE! The seals should be positioned with their seal- Check that the gasket (5) is seated properly in its
ing lips away from one another. groove and bolt the housing back together.
10
Install the valves (4 and 7). Use new sealing washers.
11
Insert protective plugs into the openings of the fuel
pipes.

40
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

4
Fuel system, bleeding
1
Clean the vent nipples on the cylinder head and on the
fuel filter bracket.
2

Transfer the hose to the cylinder head bleeder nipple


and bleed in the same way as at the fuel filter bracket.
5
Run the engine at fast idle for about 10 minutes to
evacuate any remaining air from the system.
6
Perform a leakage and functional check.

Bleed the fuel system and filter. Connect a transpa-


rent plastic hose from the bleeder nipple (1) to a con-
tainer.
Open the bleeder nipple on the fuel filter bracket.
Pump with the manual pump until fuel flows without air
bubbles. Tighten the bleeder nipple while fuel is flo-
wing.
3
Remove the hose and replace the protective cap on
the bleeder nipple.
NOTE: When changing the fuel filter only, no further
bleeding is necessary.

41
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

Bypass valve, changing 4

1 Clean the connectors on the fuel hoses.

Clean thoroughly around the bypass valve. Install a new bypass valve and gaskets. Torque to
55 ± 5 Nm (40 ± 4 ft-lbf)
2
5
Drain the fuel system, See “Fuel system, draining.”
Bleed the fuel system. See “Fuel system, bleeding.”
3 (TAD)
6
Run the engine at fast idle for about 10 minutes to
evacuate any remaining air from the system.
7
Perform a leakage check.

Remove the bypass valve.


3 (TWD)

Remove the bypass valve.

42
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

Fuel pressure, checking


Special tools: 9998339, 9998494 5
When the check is completed, remove the measure-
1
ment equipment and bleed the fuel system. See “Fuel
Clean the fuel filter bracket carefully. system, bleeding.”
2

Remove the bleed nipple and install connector nipple


9998494. Connect pressure gauge 9998339.
3
Start the engine and run it at 1000 RPM until the fuel
pressure on the pressure gauge has stabilized.
4
Compare the measured pressure with the fuel pressu-
re given in the table below.

Fuel pressure
After fuel filter at 1000 RPM, min 350 kPa
(50 psi)
After fuel filter at full load, min 350 kPa
(50 psi)

43
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

3
Unit injectors, changing
Special tools: 9998249, 9998250, 9998251, 9998255,
9998511
Other special equipment: 9812546
1

Lift out the rocker arm bridge using lifting bar 9998255.

NOTE: If no lifting bar is available, the rocker arm


bridge should be lifted by two persons to avoid injury
and damage.

4
Drain the fuel from the cylinder head as instructed.
Remove valve cover. See “Fuel system, draining”.
5
NOTE: Do not use air tools as the studs can come
loose and the injector wiring insulation can be dama- Clean very carefully around the injectors to be repla-
ged. ced.

Remove all the adjustment bolts for the rocker arms


and the valves. Remove all the bolts on the rocker
arm bridge.

NOTE: Loosen the bolts on the rocker arm bridge


evenly along the entire bridge to avoid distortion.

44
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

6 8

Install 2 ea. ring seals 9998250 in the cylinder head


fuel groove.

NOTE: Be sure that the sealing rings are well cleaned


and correctly seated.

9
Disconnect electrical wires from the injector.

IMPORTANT! Be careful when connecting or


disconnecting the wiring to the injectors.

Clean the copper sleeve. Use a hand drill and clea-


ning brush 9812546.
Remove the injector using pry bar 9998511 if requi-
red.
Check that no contamination gets down into the fuel
chamber in the cylinder head.
Install protective sleeve 9998249 onto the injector.

45
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

10 12
Clean the injector hole in the cylinder head very care-
fully and remove sealing rings 9998250.
11

If the injector is not installed immediately, insert a pro-


tective plug 9998251 into the cylinder head hole.
13

Install new sealing rings on the injector and check


that they are correctly seated.
Lubricate the rings with engine oil.
Install the injector, forcing it down until it seats and
center it between the valve springs.
Tighten the injector to the torque and angle specified.
See “Technical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.

NOTE: Different tightening torques apply depending


on whether or not the injector’s copper sleeve has
been replaced.

Connect the electrical wires to the injector and tighten


the nuts to max. torque 1.5 Nm (1 ft-lbf).

NOTE: If the nuts are overtightened, the solenoid val-


ve can be damaged and the entire injector will have to
be replaced.

46
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

14 16
Adjust the valves and injectors. See “Valves and unit
injectors, adjustment”.
17

Install the valve cover and torque the nuts to 20 ± 2


Nm (15 ± 2 ft-lbf) in the order shown in the diagram.

Oil the valve yokes and cams with engine oil.


Lift the rocker arm bridge into position using lifting bar NOTE: It is important to torque the valve cover nuts
9998255. as shown in the diagram to avoid cracking the cover
Be sure that the valves and rocker arms mate correctly. and to prevent the studs from loosening in the cylinder
head.
NOTE: If no lifting bar is available, the rocker arm
bridge should be lifted by two persons to avoid injury If any stud in the valve cover came loose from the cy-
and damage. linder head when the nuts were removed, check the
wiring insulation by the injectors. There is a risk that
15 the cable holder on the stud will twist and damage the
wiring insulation.

Tighten the bolts on the rocker arm bridge evenly


along the entire bridge to avoid distortion.
Be sure that the rocker arm shaft fits correctly into the
guide sleeves on the camshaft bearing blocks and
tighten the bolts so that the shaft is snug against the
bearing blocks.
Then tighten the bolts on the rocker arm bridge to the
torque specified in the tightening instructions. See
“Technical Data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”.

47
Group 23 Fuel System Repair instructions

18
Fuel pre-filter with water
If any stud has come loose, it must be removed, clea-
ned and coated with locking compound item no. monitor, changing
1610532 before being replaced and tightened.
Do not loosen the stud bolts or nuts until the locking
1
compound has set.
Clean around the fuel filter.
NOTE: Install the studs within 20 minutes after apply-
ing the locking fluid. 2
19
Bleed the fuel system. See “Fuel system, bleeding”.
20
Run the engine at fast idle for about 10 minutes to
evacuate any remaining air from the system.
21
Perform a leakage and function check.

Draining condensate water


1

Disconnect the water monitor.


3
Drain the fuel filter, see “Fuel system, draining”.
4
Remove the fuel filter with an appropriate filter wrench.
NOTE: Place a container under the fuel pre-filter to
NOTE: Unless the entire filter unit with water monitor
collect the condensate water and fuel.
is to be replaced, the water monitor should be trans-
Open the drain nipple at the bottom of the fuel pre-fil- ferred to the new fuel filter.
ter and let the condensate water run out.
5
2
Clean the filter contact surface on the filter housing.
Tighten the drain nipple when water-free fuel runs out.
6
3
Spread a thin layer of engine oil onto the sealing ring
Start the engine and let the engine fill the water sepa- and install the new fuel filter according to the instruc-
rator with fuel. Let the engine run for 10 minutes at tions on the filter.
idle so that any air remaining is forced out of the fuel
7
system.
Connect the water monitor.
4
8
Shut down the engine and check for leaks.
Start the engine and check for leaks.

48
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems General

Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems

49
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Design and Operation

Design and Operation

Turbocharger
The turbocharger is driven by exhaust gases which
pass through the turbine housing on their way out to
the exhaust system.
The exhaust gas flow causes the turbine wheel in the
housing to rotate. The compressor wheel is mounted
on the same shaft as the turbine wheel. The compres-
sor wheel is placed in a housing which is connected
between the air filter and the engine intake manifold.
When the compressor wheel rotates, air is drawn from
the air filter. The air is compressed and forced into the
engine cylinders after first being cooled while passing
through the charge air cooler.

50
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

Repair instructions

Working with chemicals, fuel and Intake manifold (gasket),


lubricating oil changing
TWD: Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system,
IMPORTANT! Apply barrier cream to hands and al- draining ”.
ways wear protective gloves for work where there is a
risk of contact with oil, fuel or the like. Continual skin
1
contact with engine oil dries out the skin and can be
harmful. Turn off the main switch(es) and check that there is
no power to the engine.
2 (TAD)

Release the clamps and remove the turbo delivery


pipe.
2 (TWD)

Release the turbo delivery pipe from the charge air


cooler.

51
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

3 (TAD) 4 (TWD)

Remove the bypass valve from the intake manifold.

NOTE: If the fuel connections to the cylinder head


must be removed, the fuel system must first be drai- Remove the charge air temperature/boost pressure
ned. See “Fuel system, draining”. sensor.
4 (TAD)
3 (TWD)

Cut the ties and remove the charge air temperature/


boost pressure sensor.

Remove the bypass valve from the intake manifold.

52
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

5 8 (TAD)

Remove the cover from the wiring box. (Torx bolts).


6 Remove intake manifold.

NOTE: The intake manifold may be stuck tight if the


sealing compound has hardened.

8 (TWD)

Remove the intermediate bracket (Torx bolts).


7 (TWD)

Remove the intake manifold.

NOTE: The intake manifold/charge air cooler is heavy.


If no lifting device is available, avoid injury and dama-
ge by having two persons ready to lift the intake mani-
fold/charge air cooler.

Remove the water pipes on both ends of the charge


air cooler.

53
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

Installation 11 (TWD)
9
Carefully clean the contact surfaces on the intake ma-
nifold and cylinder head.
TAD: Scrape away the gasket with a wooden or plas-
tic scraper.
10 (TAD)

Reinstall the water pipes on both ends of the charge


air cooler using new sealing rings.
12

Apply a 2 mm (¾") wide bead of sealant item


no. 1161231-4 on the intake manifold.

NOTE: The intake manifold must be installed and tor-


qued within 20 minutes from applying the sealant.

NOTE: Sealant should be applied as shown in the pic-


ture above, 3 mm (1¼") from the inside edge of the in-
take manifold contact surface.

10 (TWD)

Reinstall the intermediate bracket (Torx bolts).

Reinstall the intake manifold/charge air cooler with a


new gasket.

NOTE: The intake manifold/charge air cooler is heavy.


If no lifting device is available, avoid injury and dama-
ge by having two persons ready to lift the intake mani-
fold/charge air cooler.

54
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

13 14 (TAD)

Replace the cover on the wiring box (Torx bolts).


14 (TWD) Reinstall the bypass valve on the intake manifold.
15 (TWD)

Reinstall the bypass valve on the intake manifold.


Reinstall the charge air temperature/boost pressure
sensor on the intake manifold.

55
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

15 (TAD) 16 (TAD)

Reinstall the charge air temperature/boost pressure Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe.
sensor on the intake manifold and attach the wiring
with new ties. 17
16 (TWD) Start the engine and perform a functional test and leak
check.

Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe on the charge air coo-


ler with a new gasket.

56
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

Exhaust manifold gasket, 3 (TWD)

changing

1
Turn off the main switch(es) and check that there is
no power to the engine.
2

Remove turbo delivery pipe.


4

Release the clamp on the turbocharger and remove


the air filter from the bracket. Remove the air filter and
air duct.
3 (TAD)

Remove the oil pipe from the turbocharger.

Remove the turbo delivery pipe at the turbo.

57
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

5 Installation
9
Carefully clean the contact surfaces on the exhaust
manifold and cylinder head.
10

Install the exhaust manifold using new gaskets and


torque as shown below:
Remove the turbocharger.
Step 1: Torque bolts (1) to 10 Nm (7 ft-lbf) (max)
6
Step 2: Torque bolts (2) to 10 Nm (7 ft-lbf) (max)
Step 3: Torque bolts (3) to 52 ± 4 Nm (38 ± 3 ft-lbf)
Step 4: Torque bolts (2) to 54 ± 4 Nm (38 ± 3 ft-lbf)
Step 5: Torque bolts (4) to 54 ± 4 Nm (38 ± 3 ft-lbf)
Step 6: Torque bolts (1) to 54 ± 4 Nm (38 ± 3 ft-lbf)
11

Remove the rear protective plate and the front heat


shield.
7

Replace the rear protective plate and the front heat


shield.

Remove the exhaust manifold.

58
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

12 14 (TAD)

Install the turbocharger using a new gasket. Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe on the turbo.
13 14 (TWD)

Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe.

Reinstall the oil pipe with new seals.

59
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

15
Turbocharger, changing
Always troubleshoot and repair any cause of damage
to the turbo before installing a new unit.

The engine’s lubrication system and intake system


must be maintained properly for the turbo to work well;
the oil and the oil filter must be changed at the speci-
fied intervals, the correct type of oil must be used and
the air filter must be maintained correctly. The first
step in installing a new turbo should therefore be be to
check the engine oil and change the filter if necessa-
ry, then run the engine for a few minutes before instal-
ling a new turbo.

When changing the turbo, blow out any flakes of rust


or soot from the exhaust manifold as these flakes can
Reinstall the air filter and air hose. damage the turbine on the new unit.
16
Check the oil level and if necessary add engine oil ac- It is also important to clean out the intake duct from
cording to specifications. See “Technical data the air filter. Fragments from a damaged compressor
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE, wheel, for example, can remain and cause immediate
TWD1240VE” damage to the new turbo.

17
1
Start the engine and perform a functional test and leak Open the main switch(es) and check that there is no
check. power to the engine.
2

Release the clamp on the turbocharger and remove


the air filter from the bracket. Remove the air filter and
air duct.

60
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

3 (TAD) 4

Remove the turbo delivery pipe from the turbo.


3 /TWD

Remove the oil pipe from the turbocharger.


5

Remove the turbo delivery pipe.

Remove the turbocharger.

61
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

Installation 9 (TAD)

6
Clean the contact surfaces carefully.
7

Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe on the turbo.


9 (TWD)

Install the turbocharger with a new gasket.


8

Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe.

Reinstall the oil pipe with new seals.

62
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems Repair instructions

10
Pressure drop indicator, checking

1
Remove the pressure drop indicator. Check the pres-
Reinstall the air filter and air duct. sure drop indicator by applying a vacuum (reduced
pressure) until the indicator shows red. Press the but-
11
ton on top of the pressure drop indicator to reset.
Check the oil level and if necessary add engine oil
2
according to specifications. See “Technical data
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE, When the air filter is clogged, for example, and the pres-
TWD1240VE”. sure falls, the pressure drop indicator indicates this by
showing red. If the pressure drop indicator is not wor-
12
king as described in step 1, it should be changed.
Start the engine and perform a functional test and leak
3
check.
Reinstall the pressure drop indicator.

63
Group 26 Cooling System General

Group 26 Cooling System

64
Group 26 Cooling System Tools

Tools
Special tools

885231 885232 9992412 9996315 9996433

9996662 9996858 9996998 9998304 9998305

885231 Pressure plug with connection nipple 9996858 Gauge pin


885232 Pressure plug 9996998 Gauge pin
9992412 Gauge pin 9998304 Gauge
9996315 Gauge pin 9998305 Holder
9996433 Cap, leak testing
9996662 Leak testing equipment

65
Group 26 Cooling System Design and Operation

Design and Operation


Cooling system (TAD)
The cooling system is a closed fresh-water system
with a piston thermostat which controls the water tem-
perature.

1 Expansion tank 4 Thermostat housing


2 Coolant pump 5 Radiator
3 Coolant filter

66
Group 26 Cooling System Design and Operation

Cooling system (TWD)


The cooling system is a closed fresh-water system An extra coolant pump supplies the charge air cooler
with a piston thermostat which controls the water tem- and is installed on the generator.
perature.
The TWD engine has a water-cooled charge air cooler
that is integrated into the engine cooling system.

1 Expansion tank 4 Charge air cooler (water-cooled)


2 Coolant pump 5 Thermostat housing
3 Coolant filter 6 Radiator

67
Group 26 Cooling System Design and Operation

Charge air cooler


On TAD engines, the charge air cooler is located with
the radiator and is air cooled. On TWD engines, the
charge air cooler is located at the intake manifold on
the left-hand side of the engine and is water cooled.
The purpose of the charge air cooler is to cool the in-
take air, which means that the specific volume of the
air is reduced so that larger quantities of air can be
forced into the combustion chamber. This means bet-
ter combustion of fuel and hence better fuel efficien-
cy.
Cooling the engine charge air gives a power increase
of about 10%, increased torque and reduced fuel con-
sumption.
A diesel engine with turbocharger and charge air coo-
ler has the best efficiency of all internal combustion
engines.

Charge air cooler TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE,


TAD1242GE

Charge air cooler TWD1240VE

Charge air cooler TAD1241VE

68
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

Repair instructions
2
Cooling system, draining
Check that all coolant runs out. There may be depo-
sits inside the valve/plug which must be cleaned out.
WARNING! Open the filler cap very carefully
Otherwise there is a risk that water can be trapped
when the engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant
and cause serious damage.
can spray out.
Check whether the system has any other valves or
NOTE: Before draining the cooling system, remove plugs on the lowest points of the coolant lines.
the expansion tank cap. 3
TAD
Close the valves and reinstall plugs.

Cooling system, filling

WARNING! Open the filler cap very carefully


when the engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant
can spray out.

NOTE: Only use Volvo Penta recommended coolant


and mixtures.
2
NOTE: Fill the system only with the engine shut
P = fresh water drainage valve/plug down.
Mix the correct volume of coolant in advance to be
TWD sure that the system is filled. Fill slowly to avoid the
formation of air locks in the system. The air must be
allowed to flow out through the filler opening and vent
valves.
3
When filling an empty system or if the coolant level
has for some reason fallen so low that it is not visible
through the filler opening, open the vent valves on the
turbocharger and the valves on the front of the heat
exchanger during filling.
4
NOTE: The engine must not be started until the sys-
tem has been bled and completely filled. If a space
heater is connected to the engine cooling system, the
heater control valve should be opened and the system
vented during filling.
P = fresh water drainage valve/plug
5
1 Fill with coolant to approx. 50 mm (2") below the seal-
Open all drain locations. Drain the coolant from the ra- ing surface of the filler cap.
diator using drain hoses. The drain nipple is located 6
under the radiator.
Start the engine and let it run for about 1 hour.
Switch off the engine, check the coolant level and add
coolant if required.

69
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

4
Coolant pump, changing

1
Open the main switch(es) and check that there is no
power to the engine.
2
Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
ing”.
3

Remove the water pipe between the coolant pump


and thermostat housing.
5

Remove the water pipe from the coolant pump and


from the radiator hose connection.

Remove the water pipe between the oil cooler ele-


ment and the coolant pump.

70
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

6 8

Remove the coolant filter with a suitable wrench.


7 (TAD)

Remove the coolant pump.


9

Remove the radiator hose at the coolant pump.


7 (TWD)

Remove the gear unit from the coolant pump.

Remove the water pipe from the coolant pump.

71
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

10 12
Lubricate the sealing rings with a thin layer of engine
oil and install the new coolant filter. See installation
instructions on the filter canister.

Install the new gear unit in the coolant pump with new
sealing rings.

NOTE: Lubricate the sealing rings to make it easier to


13 (TAD)
fit the gear unit in the coolant pump.
Reinstall the radiator hose between the coolant pump
11 and the radiator.
13 (TWD)

Reinstall the water pipe to the coolant pump using a


new gasket.

Install the coolant pump.

NOTE: Be sure that the coolant pump is correctly se-


ated and that all bolts are screwed in before being
tightened.

72
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

15 17

Reinstall the water pipe to the coolant pump and to


the radiator connection.
18
Reinstall the water pipe between the oil cooler ele- Add coolant according to specifications. See “Tech-
ment and the coolant pump. Use new gaskets. nical data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
16 TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.
NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure
that the system is filled.
19
Start the engine and check for leaks.

Coolant filter, changing


NOTE: Turn the valve at the coolant pump 90 degrees
before removing the coolant filter. Do not forget to turn
the valve back after the new coolant filter has been in-
stalled.
See “Coolant pump, changing” steps 6 and 12.

Reinstall the water pipe between the oil cooler ele-


ment and thermostat housing. Use new gaskets.

73
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

4
Piston thermostat, changing

1
Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
ing”.
2

Install the new piston thermostat with a new sealing


ring and hand-tighten the bolts.
5

Remove the thermostat housing and take out the


thermostat.

NOTE: Two bolts must be removed from the exhaust


manifold in order to be able to remove the thermostat
housing.

3
Clean all contact surfaces.

Install a bolt (M8 x 20) with nut, washer and spacer


between the flange of the exhaust manifold and the
finished surface of the thermostat housing. Tighten
the nut so that the spacer braces the thermostat hou-
sing against the gasket for the piston thermostat.
Then tighten the thermostat housing bolts in the order
shown in the picture. Remove the brace bolt.

74
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

6
Piston thermostat, functional
Reinstall the two bolts on the exhaust manifold.
7
check
Add coolant according to specifications. See “Techni-
cal data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, 1
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”. Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure ing.”
that the system is filled. 2
8 Remove the piston thermostat, see “Piston thermo-
Start the engine and perform functional and leakage stat, changing.”
checks. 3

Closed thermostat

75
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

Drive belts, changing


Special tools: 9998304, 9998305

1
Open the main switch(es) and check that there is no
power to the engine.
2

Open thermostat

Place the piston thermostat in a large pan of water


and heat it to the temperature at which it should open:
TAD 1240-42GE, TAD1241-42VE at 82° C (187° F)
and TWD 1240VE at 75° C (165° F).
4
If the piston thermostat does not open at the proper
temperature, replace it with a new one.

Remove the protective grille around the cooling fan.


3
Remove the protective plates around the drive belts.

76
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

4 (TAD) 5
Install the new drive belt and tension the drive belt
with the tensioning screw (3) so that the slack is
about 5 mm (0.2").
6 Checking belt slack

4 (TWD)

Place holder 9998305 with the hole halfway between


the pulleys where the drive belt is longest.
7
Push down the O-ring on the gauge 9998304 so that it
lies below the graduated scale.
8
Keeping the holder in position, insert the gauge into
the hole and push it in so that the end of the pin is
flush with the upper part of the gauge (push with
thumb or finger).
Remove the gauge carefully and read it.
Loosen the inner mounting bolt (1) a few turns. The slack should be 3 mm (0.1") for a new belt, 3-4
mm (0.10-0.15") for an old belt.
Loosen the locking bolt (2) so that the tensioning bolt
(3) can operate freely. Screw down the tensioning bolt NOTE: Tighten the tensioner before making the mea-
and remove the drive belt. surement because the belt will become tighter when
the tensioner is snugged up.

77
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

Fit a 1/2" socket wrench handle in the belt tensioner.


Pull up on the handle and remove the drive belt.
10
Check that the belt pulleys are clean and undamaged.
11

Pull up on the 1/2" wrench handle and install the new


drive belt.
12
Reinstall the protective plates around the drive belts.
13
Reinstall the protective grille and outer fan shrouds
around the fan.
14
Start the engine and perform a functional check.

78
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

6
Cooling system, cleaning
If any contamination remains, repeat the cleaning until
Part no.: 1141658-3 the system is free from contamination.
7
1 When the cooling system is completely free from con-
Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain- tamination, fill with fresh coolant. In areas where
ing”. Volvo Penta concentrated coolant is not available,
2 use water with a corrosion protection additive.

NOTE: If the cooling system is cleaned regularly by NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure
draining and refilling with a rust-protection fluid, less that the system is filled.
cleaning additive or simply flushing with pure water
may be sufficient.
3
Flush the cooling system with fresh water.
4
Fill the cooling system with radiator cleaner, item no.
1141658-3 (see instructions on package).
Then run the engine up to normal working temperatu-
re and allow it to run for at least another 2 hours.
NOTE: Alternatively, fill the system with 15–20% con-
centrated coolant and drain it out after 1–2 days’ ope-
ration.
5
Drain the cooling system and then flush it out with a
mixture of neutralizer, part no. 1141658-3 (see instruc-
tions on package).

79
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

5
Charge air cooler, changing
(TAD)

1
Open the main switch(es) and check that there is no
power to the engine.
2
Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
ing ”.
3
Remove the radiator assembly, see “Radiator, chang-
ing”.
4
Remove the fan cowling (10 bolts) from the charge air
cooler.
6
Install the fan cowling (10 bolts) on the new charge air
cooler.
7
Install the charge air cooler on the radiator.
8
Install the radiator, see “Radiator, changing”.
9
Add coolant according to specifications. See “Techni-
cal data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.
NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure
that the system is filled.

Release the charge air cooler from the left and right
sides of the radiator assembly.

Charge air cooler TAD1241VE

80
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

4
Charge air cooler, changing
(TWD)

1
Open the main switch(es) and check that there is no
power to the engine.
2
Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
ing ”.
3

Remove the charge air pipe.

Remove the water pipes on the ends of the charge air


cooler.

81
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

5 7
Lift out the charge air cooler element.

NOTE: The charge air cooler element is heavy. If no


lifting device is available, avoid injury and damage by
having two persons ready to lift the charge air cooler
element.

Remove the water pipe connectors on the ends of the


charge air cooler.
6

Carefully clean the contact surfaces. Install a new


gasket on the charge air cooler and install the new
charge air cooler element.

NOTE: The charge air cooler element is heavy. If no


lifting device is available, avoid injury and damage by
having two persons ready to lift the charge air cooler
element.

Remove the cover from the charge air cooler.

Reinstall the cover on the charge air cooler. Use a


new gasket.
Torque the bolts in two steps as described below:

Step 1. Insert all bolts and screw then down into con-
tact with the surface.
Step 2. Torque the bolts to 20 ± 2 Nm (15 ± 2 ft-lbf)
in the order shown in the diagram.

82
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

10 12

Reinstall the water pipe connectors on the ends of the


charge air cooler using new sealing rings.
11

Reinstall the turbo delivery pipe. Use new sealing


rings.
13
Add coolant according to specifications. See “Techni-
cal data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.
NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure
that the system is filled.
14
Start the engine and perform leakage and functional
checks.

Reinstall the water pipes on the ends of the charge


air cooler using new sealing rings.

83
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

Leakage test
Charge air cooler, leakage test
3
(TAD)
Special tools: 9996662, 885231, 885232

Checking test equipment


1

Remove the charge air pipe between the turbo com-


pressor and the connector. Install pressure plug
995232 and tighten the clamp.
4

Check that the knob on the reducing valve (A) is tur-


ned all the way counter-clockwise and connect
9996662 to a compressed air source. Open valve (B)
and adjust the reducing valve (A) until the pressure
gauge shows a pressure of 100 kPa (14.5 psi).

NOTE: The knob on the reducing valve can be locked


by pressing in on the knob.

NOTE: Always follow the applicable safety rules.

Remove the charge air pipe between the intake pipe


and the connector. Install pressure plug 885231 on the
Close valve (B). If the pressure does not fall within connector and tighten the clamp.
two minutes, the equipment is considered reliable.
Check that the valve on the reducing valve (A) is tur-
ned all the way counter-clockwise and connect
9996662 to the nipple on pressure plug 885231.

84
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

6
Charge air cooler, cleaning
Connect 999662 to a compressed air source. Open
valve (B) and adjust the reducing valve (A) until the Part no.: 1141658-3
pressure gauge shows a pressure of 100 kPa
(14.5 psi). Close valve (B). 1 (TWD)
7 Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
If the pressure does not fall within two minutes, the ing.”
charge air cooler and the connections are tight. 2
NOTE: If the pressure falls, check that there is no le- Remove the charge air cooler, see “Charge air cooler,
akage at the connections to the charge air pipe. Spray changing.”
or brush water with a little detergent added around the 3
connections to determine if they are leaking.
Clean the charge air element/cooler on the outside.
8 Rinse the air passages with fresh water. Clean the in-
If the pressure falls and the connections are not lea- side with cleaner part no. 1141658-3 and blow dry with
king, the charge air cooler should be replaced with a compressed air (or allow to stand and drain).
new one. Repeat the leakage test to be sure that the (TWD)
charge air cooler is leaking. Alternatively, the entire cooling system can be filled
9 with 15-20% concentrated coolant and drained after
After the leakage test is complete, shut of the com- 1-2 days of operation. Then remove the charge air ele-
pressed air supply, turn the knob on the reducing val- ment and clean the air passages separately as requi-
ve (A) fully counter-clockwise and release the com- red.
pressed air. 4
10 Rinse out the charge air cooler with neutralizer part
Remove the leakage tester 9996662 and the pressure no. 1141658-3 and blow dry with compressed air (or
plug 885231. Reinstall the charge air pipe on the inta- allow to stand and drain).
ke pipe using new gaskets and tighten the clamp. 5
11 Reinstall the charge air element/cooler.
Remove the pressure plug 885232. Reinstall the char- 6 (TWD)
ge air pipe between the turbo compressor and the con- Fill with coolant as specified. See “Technical data
nection and tighten the clamp. TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE,
12 TWD1240VE”.
Start the engine and perform a leakage check. NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure
that the system is filled.

7
Start engine and perform functional and leakage
checks.

85
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

6
Radiator core, changing

1
Open the main switch(es) and check that there is no
power to the engine.
2
Drain the cooling system, see “Cooling system, drain-
ing”.
3

Disconnect the coolant level sensor from the outlet


(1) and remove the expansion tank. Place the expan- Remove the protective grille around the fan.
sion tank on the engine. NOTE: The protective grille is mounted with the outer
4 fan shroud.
Remove the upper coolant hose and the hose to the 7 (TAD)
expansion tank from the radiator.
5 (TAD)

Remove the upper turbo delivery pipe from the char-


ge air cooler.
Remove the lower turbo delivery pipe from the charge
air cooler.

86
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

8 12
Remove the lower coolant hose from the radiator.
9

Remove the radiator assembly from the engine sup-


port.
10
Carefully lift the radiator assembly forward ensuring
that it does not catch. Then lift the radiator assembly
out to a place where the radiator core can be changed.
11 (TAD)

Remove the frames and lift away the cover. Remove


the radiator core.

Loosen the charge air cooler at the left and right sides
of the radiator.

87
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

13 14 (TAD)

Install the new radiator core, reinstall the frames and Reinstall the charge air cooler and tighten on the left
cover, tighten the bolts (16x). and right sides.

88
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

15 18 (TAD)

Carefully lift the radiator assembly onto the engine


support.

NOTE: Do not forget the outer fan shroud. Clamp the lower turbo delivery pipe to the charge air
cooler.
NOTE: Fit the lower radiator hose and turbo delivery 19
pipe in before attaching the radiator to the engine sup-
port.

16
Tighten the lower radiator hose clamp.
17

Reinstall the expansion tank on the radiator, connect


the coolant level sensor (1) and clamp the hose to the
expansion tank.

Reinstall the protective grille and outer fan shroud.

89
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

20 (TAD)
Cooling system, leakage
testing
Special tools: 9996433, 9996662

Checking test equipment


1
Check that the knob on the reducing valve (A) is tur-
ned all the way counter-clockwise and connect
9996662 to a compressed air source.

Clamp the upper turbo delivery pipe to the charge air


cooler.
21
Add coolant according to specifications. See “Techni-
cal data TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE,
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE”.
NOTE: Mix the correct volume in advance to be sure
that the system is filled.
Open valve (B) and adjust the reducing valve (A) until
22
the pressure gauge shows a pressure of 100 kPa
Start the engine and check for leaks. (14.5 psi).

NOTE: The knob on the reducing valve (A) can be


locked by pressing in on the knob.

NOTE: Always follow the applicable safety rules.

Close valve (B). If the pressure does not fall within


two minutes, the equipment is considered reliable.

90
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

Leakage test 6
3 Connect leak tester 9996662 to the air nipple on cap
9996433.
7

Screw off the filler cap on the expansion tank and


screw on cap 9996433. Check that the drain opening
(1) on the expansion tank is plugged.
4
Check all hoses and clamps for damage.
5

Turn the knob on the reducing valve (A) clockwise un-


til the pressure gauge shows a pressure of 50 kPa (7
psi). Close valve (B). The pressure should not show
any decrease for two minutes if the system has no le-
aks.

NOTE: If there is any doubt that the cooling system is


not leaking, repeat the leak test until the test gives a
clear result.

8
Remove the leak tester and open the drain on the ex-
pansion tank.
9
Check the coolant level in the expansion tank.
Connect the leak tester 9996662 to a source of com- 10
pressed air and check that the knob on the reducing Start the engine and perform a leak check.
valve (A) is turned fully counter-clockwise.

91
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

Extra coolant pump, overhaul


(TWD)
Special tools: 9992412, 9996315, 9996858, 9996998

Note! All numbers in parenthesis refers to the picture 7


above. Remove the plugs (16), check that the draining holes
1 are clean and not blocked (should be Ø 7 mm).
8
Note! Mark the fitting position of the gable (3) on the
coolant pump housing (2) before removing. Clean all the coolant pumps parts well and check for
damages and wear.
Remove the gable (3) and the O-ring (13). 9
2 Apply bearing grease on the bearing axis (5A) and
Press out the shovel wheel (12) together with the axle press on the new bearing (6), use gauge pin 9992412.
(5), use gauge pin 9996858. 10
3 Apply bearing grease in the bearing housing. Press
Remove the pulley (4), use a suitable puller. Remove the new bearing (6) and the bearing axis (5A) in the
the spacer washer (10). bearing housing, use gauge pin 9992412.
4 11
Remove the clamp washer (9), spacer washer (8) and Mount the guard washer (7), the spacer washer (8)
the guard ring (7). and the clamp ring (9).
5 Note! The phase edge of the spacer washer and the
Remove the sealing washer (11). heads of the clamp ring must be mounted facing the
6 bearing.

Press out the bearing (6) together with the bearing


axis (5A), use gauge pin 9996858.

92
Group 26 Cooling System Repair instructions

12 15
Mount the spacer washer (10) on the bearing axis Put a piece of metall that is wider then the coolant
(5A). pump housing (2) between the axle (5) and the mount
13 ing tool. When pressing in the axle (5) in the bearing
axis (5A) it will be mounted in line with the edges of
Press the pulley (4) on the axle (5), use gauge pin the coolant pump housing (2).
9992412. Place a pipe with a inner diameter of 27 mm
and a outer diameter of 34 mm to support the bearing Apply bearing grease on the axle (5) and press it in
axis (5A) from behind. the bearing axis (5A).

14 16
Mount gauge pin 9996315 in the bearing axis (5A)
Note! The sealing ring (11) is delivered as one unit then tighten the nut with your hands.
and not as the picture shows. Put a washer on the shovel wheel (12) so that the axle
(5) will come out 2 mm from the shovel wheel.
Press the new sealing ring (11) in to the coolant pump
The washer must be 2 mm thick and have a inner di-
housing (2), use gauge pin 9996998.
ameter that is wider then the axle (5).
Press the shovel wheel (12) on the axle (5).

Note! Let coolant pump rest on the nut on the gauge


pin 9996315 during the entire mounting operation.

17
Mount the gable (3) with a new O-ring (13).

93
Index
B I
Bypass filter (turbocharger) bypass valve, Intake manifold (gasket), changing ........................ 51
changing ............................................................... 17
Bypass valve (pressure valve) oil cooler, L
changing ............................................................... 17 Lubrication system ................................................ 10

C O
Charge air cooler ................................................... 68 Oil cooler element, leakage test ............................ 26
Charge air cooler, changing (TAD) ......................... 80 Oil filter bypass valve, replacing ........................... 22
Charge air cooler, changing (TWD) ........................ 81 Oil filter, changing ................................................. 12
Charge air cooler, cleaning .................................... 85 Oil pressure, checking .......................................... 21
Charge air cooler, leakage test (TAD) .................... 84 Oil pump, changing ............................................... 19
Control module (EDC III), changing ....................... 34 Oil sump gasket, changing .................................... 13
Coolant filter, changing .......................................... 73
Coolant pump, changing ........................................ 70 P
Cooling system (TAD) ........................................... 66 Piston cooling nozzle, changing ............................ 18
Cooling system (TWD) .......................................... 67 Piston cooling valve, changing .............................. 16
Cooling system, cleaning ...................................... 79 Piston thermostat, changing ................................. 74
Cooling system, draining ....................................... 69 Piston thermostat, functional check ...................... 75
Cooling system, filling ........................................... 69 Pressure drop indicator, checking ......................... 63
Cooling system, leakage testing ........................... 90
R
D Radiator core, changing ........................................ 86
Design and Operation, Lube oil system ................. 10 Reducing valve, changing ..................................... 15
Design and Operation, Fuel system ...................... 31
Design and Operation, Intake & exhaust system .. 50 S
Design and Operation, Cooling system ................. 66 Safety Information .................................................. 2
Drive belts, changing ............................................ 76 Safety valve, changing .......................................... 15
Special tools, Cooling system ............................... 65
E Special tools, Fuel system .................................... 29
Exhaust manifold gasket, changing ...................... 57 Special tools, Lube oil system ................................ 9
Extra coolant pump, overhaul (TWD) ...................... 92
T
F Turbocharger ......................................................... 50
Fuel filter, changing ............................................... 37 Turbocharger, changing ......................................... 60
Fuel pressure, checking ........................................ 43
Fuel pump, changing ............................................. 38 U
Fuel pump, rebuilding ............................................ 39 Unit injectors, changing ......................................... 44
Fuel system, bleeding ........................................... 41 Unit injectors, overview ......................................... 31
Fuel system, draining ............................................ 36 Unit injectors, working phases ............................... 32

G W
General Information ................................................. 5 Working with chemicals, fuel and
General repair instructions ...................................... 6 lubricating oil .................................................... 12, 51
Group 22 Lubricating System .................................. 8
Group 23 Fuel System .......................................... 27
Group 25 Intake and Exhaust Systems ................. 49
Group 26 Cooling System ..................................... 64

94
Notes
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95
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..............................................................................................................................................................................

Date: ...........................................................
Name: .........................................................

AB Volvo Penta
Customer Support
Dept. 42200
SE-405 08 Gothenburg
Sweden
7741302-9 English 10-2001
Workshop Manual
(Group 23) EDC III

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE
TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE
EDC III

TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE, TWD1240VE

Contents
Safety information ................................................ 2 Repair instructions .............................................. 22
Introduction ......................................................... 2 When working with EDC III ................................. 22
Control unit (ECU), replacement ........................ 23
General information ............................................. 5 Start with booster batteries ................................ 24
About the Service Manual ................................... 5
Spare parts ......................................................... 5 Functionality check ............................................. 25
Certified engines ................................................. 5 PC diagnostics program ..................................... 25

Repair instructions ............................................... 6 Fault detection .................................................... 26


Our common responsibility .................................. 6 Symptoms and possible causes ........................ 26
Tightening torques .............................................. 6
Torque-angle tightening ....................................... 7 Diagnostic function .............................................. 27
Lock nuts ............................................................ 7 The role of diagnostic function ........................... 27
Strength classes ................................................. 7 Diagnostic function affects the engine ............... 27
Sealants ............................................................. 7 Reading out error codes ..................................... 27
Erasing error codes ............................................ 28
General ................................................................. 8 Error codes EDC III ............................................ 29
Location of engine plates .................................... 8
Electronic fault detection .................................... 46
Tools ..................................................................... 9 General .............................................................. 46
Special tools ....................................................... 9 Functionality check of cables and connectors .... 46
Fault detection on cables and connectors .......... 47
Technical data ..................................................... 10 Splicing electrical cable for cable glove .............. 48
Check/fault detection of components ................. 49
Design and operation .......................................... 12
System description EDC III ................................ 12 Electrical system ................................................. 62
Component description, sensors and monitors .. 14 Important about the electrical system ................ 62
Electronic Control unit (ECU) ............................ 16 Electrical system, overview ............................... 63
Control Interface Unit (CIU) ............................... 16 Wiring diagram TAD1240–42GE/VE .................. 66
Unit injectors ..................................................... 17 Wiring diagram TWD1240VE ............................. 67
Generator .......................................................... 17 Wiring diagram, Control Interface Unit (CIU) ..... 68
Starter motor ..................................................... 17 Wiring diagram, Control Interface Unit (CIU) –
Component diagram and location ...................... 18 Power pack ........................................................ 69

Limit values ......................................................... 19 Index .................................................................... 70


Limit values, control unit (ECU)
TAD1240–42GE/VE .......................................... 19
Limit values, control unit (ECU)
TWD1240VE ...................................................... 20
Limp-home values .............................................. 21

1
Group 23 EDC III Safety information

Safety information
If work is performed near a running engine, an
Introduction incautious movement or dropped tool could in
This Service Manual contains descriptions and repair the worst case lead to bodily harm. Be mindful
instructions for the Volvo Penta products or product of hot surfaces (exhaust pipes, the turbochar-
versions listed in the table of contents. This manual ger, charge air pipes, starter elements, etc.) and
should be used together with the Service Manual hot liquids in lines and hoses on an engine that
Technical data for the relevant engine. Be sure to is running or has just been stopped. Before star-
use the correct service literature. ting the engine, refit all guards and protective
elements that were removed in the course of
Carefully read the safety information and General
performing service work.
information and Repair instructions in the Service
Manual before starting service work.
Make sure that the warning and/or information
decals affixed to the product are always in plain
sight. Replace any decals that have been dama-
Important ged or painted over.
The following special warning symbols are found in
the Service Manual and on the engine. Never start the engine unless the air filter is fitted.
The rotating impeller in the turbocharger could
WARNING! Warns for the risk of injury, damage cause serious injuries. Foreign objects in the inlet
to the product or property or that serious mal- line could also cause machinery damage.
functions could arise if the instructions are not
followed. Never use starter spray or the like to help start
the engine. It could cause an explosion in the
IMPORTANT! Used to draw attention to any- intake manifold. Danger of injury.
thing that could cause injury or the malfunction
of a product or property. Start the engine in well ventilated areas only. If
the engine is running in a confined space, ex-
NOTE: Used to draw attention to important information haust gases and crankcase gases should be
to facilitate work operations or handling. conducted away from the engine compartment
or workshop area.
To provide an overview of the dangers of which you
should always be aware and the precautionary measu- Avoid opening the coolant filler cap when the
res that should always be taken, we have listed them engine is still hot. Steam or hot coolant could
here. squirt out while the built-up pressure is lost. If
necessary, open the filler cap slowly and relea-
Make it impossible for the engine to start. Turn se pressure in the cooling system. Be extremely
off the current by means of the main switch (or careful if a cock, plug or coolant line must be
switches) and lock it (them) in the off position removed while the engine is still hot. Steam or
before starting service work. Affix a warning hot coolant could squirt out in an unexpected di-
sign in the driver’s area. rection.

As a rule, all service work should be performed Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid getting hot oil on
when the engine is switched off. However, some your skin. Make sure that the lubricating system
work, such as certain adjustments, requires the is depressurized before starting any work on it.
engine to be running. Approaching a running Never start or run the engine with the oil filler
engine could be dangerous. Bear in mind that cap removed as oil under pressure could then
loose-fitting clothes or long hair could get caught escape.
in rotating parts and cause serious injury.
Stop the engine before doing any work on the
cooling system.

2
Group 23 EDC III Safety information

If other equipment connected to the engine Most chemicals intended for the product (such
changes its center of gravity, special lifting devi- as engine and transmission oils, glycol, gasoline
ces may be needed to obtain the right balance and diesel oil) or chemicals for workshop use
and ensure safe handling. (such as degreasers, paints and solvents) are
injurious to health. Read the instructions on the
Never perform any work on an engine that is package carefully. Always follow prescribed sa-
suspended solely from a lifting device. fety rules (such as the use of respirators, pro-
tective goggles, gloves, etc.). Make sure that
Never work alone when heavy components are other personnel are not unknowingly exposed to
to be removed, even if a safe lifting device such substances that are injurious to health such as
as a lockable block and tackle is used. Even if through the air they breathe. Make provision for
a lifting device is used, two people are generally good ventilation. Deal with used and surplus
required; one to handle the lifting device and the chemicals in the prescribed manner.
other to make sure that the components go cle-
ar and are not damaged when lifting. Exercise great care when detecting leaks in the
fuel system and testing fuel nozzles. Wear pro-
Always ensure in advance that there is suffi- tective goggles. The jets from a fuel nozzle are
cient space for dismantling to be done without under very high pressure and have great pene-
risk of injury or material damage. trative power; the fuel can penetrate deep into
body tissues and cause serious injury. Risk of
WARNING! Electrical system and fuel system blood poisoning.
components of Volvo Penta products are desig-
ned and manufactured to minimize the risk of All fuels and many chemicals are flammable.
explosion and fire. The engine must not be run Make sure that they cannot be ignited by an
in environments in which they will be surrounded open flame or spark. Gasoline, certain dilutants
by explosive media. and hydrogen from batteries, when mixed with
air in the right proportions, are highly flammable
Always use fuel recommended by Volvo Penta. and explosive. No smoking! Provide for adequa-
See the Owner’s Manual. Use of a lower grade te ventilation and take the necessary safety me-
fuel could damage the engine. On a diesel engi- asures prior to the start of welding or grinding
ne, a poor grade of fuel could lead to overrev- work in the vicinity. Always keep a fire ext-
ving of the engine, causing risk of injury and da- inguisher easily accessible at the workplace.
mage. Poor fuel can also give rise to higher
maintenance costs. Ensure that rags saturated with oil and fuel, used
fuel and oil filters are kept in a safe place prior to
Bear in mind the following when cleaning with their disposal. Under certain conditions, sponta-
high-pressure equipment: never direct the jet of neous combustion can occur in oil-ingrained rags.
water on seals, rubber hoses, electrical compo- Used fuel and oil filters are environmentally hazar-
nents or the radiator. dous waste and, together with used lubricating oil,
contaminated fuel, residual paint, solvents, deg-
Always use protective goggles when performing reasers and residual detergents, should be taken
work in which splinters, grinding sparks and to a suitable plant for destruction.
splashes of acid or other chemicals could occur.
The eyes are especially sensitive and an injury Batteries should never be exposed to open fla-
could result in loss of sight. mes or electric sparks. Never smoke near the bat-
teries. When the batteries are being charged, they
Avoid getting oil on your skin. Prolonged or re- give off hydrogen which, when mixed with air,
curring contact with oil can damage the skin, re- forms oxyhydrogen gas. This gas is highly flam-
sulting in irritation, dehydration, eczema and mable and very explosive. A spark, which can oc-
other skin disorders. From a hygienic point of cur if the batteries are connected incorrectly,
view, used oil is more harmful than fresh oil. could cause a battery to explode, resulting in inju-
Wear protective gloves and avoid clothes and ry and damage. Do not disturb the connections
rags ingrained with oil. Wash regularly, particu- when attempting to start (risk of sparks) and do
larly before mealtimes. Use skin lotion intended not lean over any of the batteries.
for this purpose to avoid dehydration and facili-
tate cleansing of the skin.

3
Group 23 EDC III Safety information

Never mistake the positive and negative poles The engine should be switched off when adjus-
for each other when installing the batteries. This ting the clutch.
could cause serious damage to the electrical
equipment. Compare with the wiring diagram. Use the lifting eyes mounted on the engine
when lifting it. Always check that all lifting
Always wear protective goggles when charging equipment is in good condition and that it has
and handling batteries. The battery electrolyte the right capacity for the job (engine weight plus
contains highly corrosive sulfuric acid. If it gets transmission and extra equipment, if any).
on your skin, wash the area with soap and
plenty of water. If the electrolyte gets in your To ensure safe handling and avoid damaging
eyes, rinse them at once with plenty of cold wa- components mounted on the top of the engine, it
ter and seek medical attention immediately. should be lifted using an adjustable lifting beam or
one adapted to the engine. All chains or cables
Stop the engine and cut off the current with the should run parallel to each other and as perpendi-
main switch (or switches) before starting work cular as possible to the top of the engine.
on the electrical system.

© 2001 AB VOLVO PENTA


We reserve the right to make modifications.
Printed on environmentally friendly paper.

4
Group 23 EDC III General information

General information

About the Service Manual Certified engines


This Service Manual contains descriptions and repair For engines certified for national and regional environ-
instructions for the standard versions of the mental legislation, the manufacturer undertakes to en-
TAD1240GE, TAD1241GE/VE, TA1242GE/VE and sure that the environmental requirements are fulfilled
TWD1240VE engines. both in new engines and those already in use. The
The Service Manual may show work operations perfor- product must correspond to the specimen product that
med on any of the engines listed above. Consequently, was approved for certification. For Volvo Penta as the
the illustrations and photographs showing certain details manufacturer to be answerable for ensuring that engi-
may not be completely accurate in a number of cases. nes in use meet the stipulated environmental require-
The repair methods, however, are essentially the same. ments, the following requirements as regards service
The engine designation and number are given on the and spare parts must be fulfilled:
type plate (see “Technical data TAD1240GE,
TAD1241GE/VE, TAD1242GE/VE and TWD1240VE”).
The engine designation and number should always be
• The service intervals and maintenance measures
recommended by Volvo Penta must be followed.
quoted in all correspondence concerning any of the eng-
ines.
The Service Manual is primarily produced for Volvo
• Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended
for the certified engine version may be used.
Penta’s service workshops and their qualified person-
nel. It is therefore assumed that persons using the
manual have the necessary basic knowledge and can • Service involving injection pumps, pump settings
or unit injectors must always be performed by an
perform work of a mechanical/electrical nature that oc- authorized Volvo Penta workshop.
curs in their profession.
Volvo Penta is continuously developing its products
and we therefore reserve the right to introduce chan- • The engine must not be rebuilt or modified in any
way, except with accessories and service kits
ges and modifications. All the information in this ma- that Volvo Penta has developed for the engine in
nual is based on product data available up to the time question.
of printing. Any vitally important changes to the pro-
duct or service methods that are introduced after that
date are announced in the form of Service Bulletins. • Installation changes to exhaust pipes and supply
air ducts for the engine compartment (ventilation
ducts) must not be made indiscriminately as this
could affect exhaust emissions. Any security seals
must not be broken by non-authorized personnel.
Spare parts
Spare parts for the electrical and fuel systems are IMPORTANT! When spare parts are required,
subject to different national safety requirements. Vol- use only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts.
vo Penta Original Spare Parts meet these require-
ments. Any type of damage occurring as a result of If non-original spare parts are used, AB Vol-
using non-original Volvo Penta spare parts for the pro- vo Penta will no longer be responsible for
duct in question will not be covered under the terms of ensuring that the engine corresponds to the
the warranty as undertaken by Volvo Penta. certified version.

Any injury, damage or cost arising due to the


use of non-original spare parts for the product in
question will not be covered under the terms of
warranty as undertaken by Volvo Penta.

5
Group 23 EDC III Repair instructions

Repair instructions
The work methods described in the Service Manual
apply to a workshop environment. The engine is there-
Our common responsibility
fore lifted out of place and mounted on an engine Every engine consists of numerous interacting sys-
stand. Unless otherwise stated, reconditioning work tems and components. The deviation of a component
that does not require the engine to be removed can be from its technical specification could dramatically in-
performed in situ using the same work methods. crease the environmental impact of an otherwise good
See the ”Safety information” chapter for a closer ex- engine. It is therefore extremely important for speci-
planation of the warning symbols found in the Service fied wear tolerances to be maintained, for systems
Manual. with facilities for adjustment to be correctly set and for
Volvo Penta Original engine spare parts to be used.
The intervals in the engine maintenance schedule
WARNING!
must be followed.
Certain systems, such as fuel system components,
IMPORTANT! may require special competence and special testing
equipment. For environmental and other reasons, cer-
NOTE: tain components are sealed at the factory. Work on
these components must not be performed by persons
are by no means all embracing as we cannot of cour- not authorized for such work.
se foresee everything that could happen as service
work is performed under the most widely varying con- Bear in mind that the majority of chemical products, if
ditions. So we can only point out the risks we feel incorrectly used, are hazardous to the environment.
could arise as a result of incorrect handling when wor- Volvo Penta recommends the use of biologically de-
king in a well-equipped workshop using methods and gradable degreasers for all cleaning of engine compo-
tools that have been tested by us. nents unless otherwise expressly stated in the Servi-
ce Manual. Take care to ensure that oils and residual
All work operations for which there are Volvo Penta detergent, etc. are dispatched for destruction and do
special tools are described in the Service Manual not inadvertently end up in the environment.
using these tools. Special tools have been developed
to ensure as safe and efficient methods of working as
possible. It is therefore the obligation of anyone using
tools or work methods other than those recommended Tightening torques
by us to ensure that there is no risk of injury or materi-
al damage and that such use does not result in mal- Tightening torques for vital bolted joints that should be
function. tightened using a torque wrench are listed in ”Techni-
cal Data: Tightening torques” and are also given in the
In a number of cases, there may be special safety ru- Service Manual’s work descriptions. All tightening tor-
les and user instructions for the tools and chemicals ques refer to cleaned threads, bolt heads and contact
mentioned in the Service Manual. Such rules and ins- surfaces as well as lightly oiled or dry threads. If lubri-
tructions must always be followed and there are no cants, thread locking compounds or sealants are re-
special instructions for them in the Service Manual. quired for bolted joints, the type concerned is stated in
The majority of risks can be avoided by taking certain the work description and in ”Tightening torques”. The
elementary precautions and using common sense. A general tightening torques in the table below are appli-
clean workplace and a clean engine eliminate many cable to bolted joints for which no special tightening
risks of injury and faulty operation. torque is specified. The tightening torque is a guiding
It is extremely important, especially in connection to value and the joint need not in such case be tightened
work on fuel systems, lubrication systems, inlet sys- using a torque wrench.
tems, turbochargers, bearings and seals, to keep out
dirt and foreign particles of other kinds. If this is not
done, malfunction or a shorter repair life could be the Size Tightening torque
result. Nm lbf.ft.
M5 6 4.4
M6 10 7.4
M8 25 18.4
M10 50 36.9
M12 80 59.0
M14 140 103.3

6
Group 23 EDC III Repair instructions

Torque-angle tightening Sealants


In torque-angle tightening, the bolted joint is tightened Several different types of sealants and locking fluids
to a specified torque and then additionally tightened are used on the engine. Their properties differ and
through a predetermined angle. Example: at 90° angle they are intended for joints of different strengths, tem-
tightening the joint is tightened an additional 1/4 turn perature ranges, resistance to oil and other chemicals,
after the specified tightening torque has been reached, and for the various materials and clearances in the
all in the same operation. engine.
For service work to be fully satisfactory it is important
that the right types of sealants and locking fluids are
used on the joints where such are required.
Lock nuts In the appropriate sections of the Service Manual, we
have indicated the agents used in the production of
Lock nuts that have been removed must not be reu- our engines.
sed. New ones must be fitted instead as the locking
Similar agents or agents with corresponding properties
characteristics of the old nuts deteriorate or are lost if
but from a different manufacturer should be used in
used several times. For lock nuts with a plastic insert,
connection with service work.
e.g. Nylock®, the tightening torques in the table should
be reduced if the Nylock® nut has the same height or When using sealing agents and locking fluids, it is im-
thickness as a standard all-metallic hex nut. Reduce portant for the surfaces concerned to be dry and free
the tightening torque by 25% for 0,32’’ or larger bolt si- from oil, grease, paint, rust inhibitor and residue from
zes. For higher or thicker Nylock® nuts, where the all- old sealant. Always follow the directions of the manu-
metallic thread is as high as that of a standard hex facturer regarding temperature, hardening time and
nut, the tightening torques in the table are applicable. other instructions relating to the product.
Two different basic types of agent are used on the
engine. These are characterized by:
1. RTV agent (Room Temperature Vulcanizing). Used
Strength classes mostly on gaskets, e.g. sealing gasket joints or coa-
ted on gaskets. RTV agent is perfectly visible when
Nuts and bolts are divided into different strength clas- the component has been dismantled and old RTV
ses; the strength class is marked on the bolt head. A agent must be removed before the joint is sealed
higher number indicates a stronger material. For ex- afresh.
ample, a bolt marked 10-9 is stronger than one mar- The following agents are of RTV type: Loctite® 574,
ked 8-8. When undoing bolted joints, it is therefore im- Volvo Penta 8408791, Permatex® No. 3, Volvo Penta
portant to make sure that the bolts are refitted in their 11610995, Permatex® No. 77. In all cases, old sea-
original places. When fitting new bolts, check the spa- lant can be removed with denatured alcohol.
re parts catalogue to ensure that the correct type is
used. 2. Anaerobic agents. These harden in the absence of
air. They are used when two solid parts like cast com-
ponents are fitted together without a gasket. They are
also commonly used to secure and seal plugs, the th-
reads of studs, cocks, oil pressure monitors, etc.
Hardened anaerobic agents are glass-like; they are
therefore colored to make them more visible. Harde-
ned anaerobic agents are highly resistant to solvents
and old agent cannot be removed. When refitting a
component, thorough degreasing is required followed
by application of fresh sealant.
The following agents are anaerobic: Loctite® 572
(white), Loctite® 241 (blue).
Note Loctite® is a registered trademark of the Loctite Corporation;
Permatex® is a registered trademark of the Permatex Corporation.

7
Group 23 EDC III General

General
Location of engine plates
The plate below shows:
1 Engine designation The plate below shows:
2 Serial number 1 Engine designation
3 Specification number 2 Specification number
3 Serial number (last six digits) engine block

The plate below shows:


A Engine designation
B Net engine output (without fan)
C Max. rpm
D Computer kit number
E Product number

The above plate shows:


(K) Engine family
Explanation of engine designation:
(J) Swept volume
Ex. TAD1240GE/TWD1240VE
(A) Engine designation
T – Turbo
(F1)Valve clearance, inlet
A – Air-to-air Charge air cooler
(F2)Valve clearance, outlet
W – Water to air, intercooler
(I) Emission Control devices
D – Diesel engine
(P) Only constant RPM
12 – Swept volume, liter
(E) Part number – decal
4 – Generation
(B) Engine code (in engine family)
0 – Version
(C) Output/RPM
G – Gen Set engine
(D) Fuel quantity
V – Stationary and mobile operation
(M) Engine speed
E – Emissions check
(H) Certification approval number (EU)

8
Group 23 EDC III Tools

Tools
Special tools
The following special tools are used when working with the engine. Special tools can be ordered from AB Volvo
Penta using the given number.

874427 885337 951 2636

999 8482 999 8505 999 8534

999 9324 951 0060 774 1383

Tool Name - use


874427 T-coupling, diagnostic 999 9324 Cable shoe pliers, repair
885337 Cable, PC diagnostics program 951 0060 Multimeter, fault detection/check
951 2636 Pin tool, connector 774 1383 CD, parameter setting tool

999 8482 Gauge, connector


999 8505 36-pin adapter, diagnostics
999 8534 4-pin adapter, diagnostics

9
Group 23 EDC III Technical data

Technical data
Control unit
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 2 x 36-pin

Water monitor, fuel pre-filter


Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 3-pin
Contact type .......................................................... Closed in the presence of water

Monitor, fuel pressure


Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Work area pressure: .............................................. 0–217,5 psi (0–15 BAR)
Contact type .......................................................... Closed upon low fuel pressure

Camshaft sensor/flywheel sensor


Inductive sensor Connector .................................... 2-pin

Combined sensor, oil pressure/temperature


Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 4-pin
Work area pressure: .............................................. 0–101,5 psi (0–7 BAR)
Pressure signal ..................................................... 0.5–4.5 V
Work area temperature: .......................................... -40°C / -40°F to +140°C / 284°F
Type ...................................................................... NTC* (Negativ Terminal Coefficient)

Combined sensor, charge air pressure/temperature


Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 4-pin
Work area pressure: .............................................. 5,8–58 psi (0,4–4 BAR)
Pressure signal ...................................................... 0.5–4.5 V
Work area temperature: .......................................... -40°C / -40°F to +125°C / 257°F
Type ...................................................................... NTC* (Negativ Terminal Coefficient)

* Decreased Resistance with increased temp.

10
Group 23 EDC III Technical data

Sensor, coolant temperature


Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Work area temperature: .......................................... -40°C / -40°F to +150°C / 302°F
Type ...................................................................... NTC* (Negativ Terminal Coefficient)

Monitor, coolant level


Connected to ground. The switch is closed when
the coolant level is loo low
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Contact type .......................................................... Closed when coolant level is low

Unit injector
Voltage .................................................................. 90 V
Connection ............................................................. 2 poles
Injection pressure ................................................... 26100 psi

Generator
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connection ............................................................. 2 poles
Capacity ................................................................ 60 A

Starter motor
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connection ............................................................. 2 poles
Capacity ................................................................ 6 KW

* Decreased Resistance with increased temp.

11
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Design and operation


System description EDC III
EDC III, ”Electronic Diesel Control”, is an electronic system with CAN communication for diesel engine manage-
ment. The system is developed by Volvo Penta and covers fuel management, diagnostic function, etc. The sys-
tem consists of a control module, six unit injectors, a number of sensors that provide information to the control
module, and a data link connector for diagnostics and functionality checks. The EDC III system also has a ”stand
alone” interface that can be linked directly to the engine control module on the engine. The engine can be linked to
a ”CAN” interface and a ”Control Interface Unit” (CIU), which is an interface to the operator area.

Control module Fuel management


The EDC III system processor is located in the con- The engine’s fuel need is analyzed up to 100 times
trol module, protected from moisture and vibrations. per second (depending on engine speed). The quantity
The processor continually receives information regar- and timing of fuel injection into the engine are control-
ding: led completely electronically via fuel valves on the
unit injectors.
• Engine speed
This means that the engine always receives the cor-
• Charge air pressure rect amount of fuel under all operating conditions,
• Charge air temperature providing benefits including improved fuel economy
and minimized exhaust emissions.
• Coolant temperature
The control module checks and controls the unit injec-
• Oil pressure
tors so that the correct amount of fuel is injected into
• Oil temperature each cylinder. It calculates and sets the injection ang-
• Fuel alarm, combined alarm for ”water in fuel” and
”fuel pressure”
le. This control is done primarily with the help of the
tachometer sensors and the combined sensor for
charge air pressure/temperature.
• Coolant level
The control module actuates the unit injectors via an
electronic signal to the unit injectors’ electromagneti-
This information is used to make exact determinations cally controlled fuel valve, which can then be opened
on current operating conditions and allows the proces- or closed.
sor to calculate the correct amount of fuel, check the
When the fuel valve is open, fuel streams by, through
condition of the engine, etc.
the unit injector holes and out through the fuel chan-
nel. Fuel is not injected into the cylinder at this stage.
When the fuel valve is closed, pressure is built up by
the mechanically driven pump piston of the unit injec-
tor. Once enough pressure is built up, fuel is injected
into the cylinder via the injector portion.
The fuel valve is reopened and pressure in the unit in-
jector sinks while fuel injection to the cylinder ceases.
To determine when the fuel valve should be opened or
closed, the control module has access to signals from
sensors and switches.

12
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Calculation of fuel quantity


The amount of fuel injected into a cylinder is calcula-
ted by the control module. The calculation gives the
amount of time the fuel valve is closed (as fuel is in-
jected into the cylinder when the fuel valve is closed).
The parameters that determine the amount of fuel in-
jected are:
• Requested RPM
• Engine protection functions
• Temperature
• Charge air pressure

Cylinder balance
When idling, the control module can provide the cylin-
ders with different amounts of fuel. This makes the
engine idle more evenly. At higher RPM, all cylinders
receive an equal amount of fuel.

Diagnostic function
The EDC III system has an internal diagnostic func-
tion that makes it possible to detect faults in the engi-
ne and sensor.
The role of the diagnostic function is to detect and lo-
calize disruptions in the EDC III system, protect the
engine and ensure that the machine remains in wor-
king order during serious disturbances.
If a disturbance arises, the diagnostic indicator on the
indicator panel begins blinking. When the diagnosis
button is pressed, an error code is given as guidance
for any fault detection. The diagnostic function can be
read out via the display using the PC diagnostics pro-
gram.

Idle adjustment (low idle)


Idle can be adjusted to a value between 600 and
1200 RPM.

13
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Component description
The digits after the headings refer to ”Component dia-
gram and location”.

Water monitor, fuel pre-filter (19)


The monitor is located on the bottom of the fuel pre-
filter.
Its role is to guard against water in the fuel system.
The monitor consists of two copper pins between
which resistance is measured. When resistance falls
below the limit value, which indicates that there is wa-
ter in the fuel, a warning signal is sent to the control
module.

Tachometer sensor, camshaft (2)


The tachometer sensor is located on the upper timing
cover. The tachometer sensor, which is linked to the
camshaft, is an inductive sensor. It reads a toothed
wheel with seven pins. The impulses from the cams-
haft sensor provide the control module information on
which cylinder is next in line for injection and when it
receives it.

Oil pressure/temperature sensor


(10)
Oil pressure and oil temperature are measured by a
combined sensor that is located on the left-hand side
of the engine, next to the control module.
The sensor is mounted in the engine block so that
measurement is taken from the oil system’s main
channel. The sensor consists of a non-linear resistor
whose resistance is dependant on the temperature of
the resistor body. Resistance decreases as tempera-
ture increases. The pressure signal is a voltage signal
proportional to the pressure. The reference voltage for
the sensor is 5 Volts.

14
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Tachometer sensor, flywheel (18)


This sensor is located on the left-hand side of the fly-
wheel housing.
The tachometer sensor on the flywheel is an inductive
sensor. It reads the crankshaft position and engine
speed using grooves in the flywheel. The signal is
sent to the control module, which calculates the injec-
tion angle and amount of fuel.

Charge air pressure/temperature


sensor (6)
Charge air pressure and charge air temperature are
measured with a combined sensor located on the inta-
ke manifold.
The charge air pressure sensor measures absolute
pressure, which is the sum of the charge air pressure
and atmospheric pressure. The sensor sends a signal
to the control module in the form of voltage that is pro-
portional to the absolute pressure. The sensor receives
a reference voltage of 5 Volts from the control module.
The charge air temperature sensor consists of a non-
linear resistor whose resistance depends on the tem-
perature of the resistor body. Resistance decreases
as temperature increases.

Coolant temperature sensor (15)


The sensor is located on the left-hand rear portion of
the cylinder head.
The sensor reads the temperature of the engine coo-
lant and sends the information to the control module.
It consists of a non-linear resistor whose resistance
depends on the temperature of the resistor body. Re-
sistance decreases as temperature increases.

Fuel pressure monitor (12)


The monitor is located on the left-hand side of the
engine, mounted in the fuel filter bracket.
Its task is to detect if the fuel pressure falls below
29 psi (2 BAR). The monitor is set to shut off when
pressure falls below 29 psi (2 BAR).

15
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Coolant level monitor (1)


This monitor is located in the expansion tank.
Its task is to detect if the coolant level in the cooling
system (expansion tank) is too low. The monitor con-
sists of a contact that can be actuated magnetically.
A hull located around the monitor actuates the contact
differently depending on the coolant level. An alarm
signal is sent if the coolant level is too low.

Electronic Control Unit (ECU) (11)


The control module (EMS) checks and controls the
unit injectors so that the correct amount of fuel is in-
jected into each cylinder. It calculates and sets the in-
jection angle. This control is done primarily with the
help of the tachometer sensors and the combined
sensor for charge air pressure/temperature.
The EDC III system processor is located in the con-
trol unit, protected from moisture and vibrations.
The processor continually receives information regar-
ding:
• engine speed
• charge air pressure
• charge air temperature
• coolant temperature
• oil pressure
• oil temperature
• fuel alarm, combined alarm for ”water in fuel” and
”fuel pressure”
• coolant level
This information is used to make exact determinations
on current operating conditions and allows the proces-
sor to calculate the correct amount of fuel, check the
condition of the engine, etc.

Control Interface Unit (CIU)


The CIU is a control unit that handles all interaction
with the operator.
It communicates with the engine over two serial com-
munication buses. J1939 is used for controlling and
monitoring the engine. J1587 is used for diagnostics
and backup.
The CIU loads a number of switches and speed re-
quests and forwards them to the engine. It also con-
trols four analogue instruments and up to nine warning
lamps. Using a diagnosis button and diagnostic lamp,
the operator can read out error codes from the system.

16
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Unit injectors (20)


The unit injectors are located under the valve cover,
mounted in the cylinder head.
The engine’s fuel need is analyzed up to 100 times
per second (depending on engine speed). The quantity
and timing of fuel injection into the engine are control-
led completely electronically via the unit injectors’
electromagnetically operated fuel valves. This means
that the engine always receives the correct amount of
fuel under all operating conditions, providing benefits
including improved fuel economy and minimized ex-
haust emissions.

Generator (8)
The belt-driven generator is located on the left-hand
front edge of the engine.
The voltage regulator of the generator is equipped with
a sensor system. The sensor system compares the
charging voltage between the generator connections,
B+ and B-, with the actual voltage between the positi-
ve and negative poles of the batteries. The voltage re-
gulator then compensates for any voltage drop in the
lines between the generator and the battery by increa-
sing the charging voltage from the generator as
needed.

Starter motor (16)


The starter motor is mounted on the flywheel housing
on the right-hand side of the engine.
When the motor is cut in, a gear on the armature shaft
of the starter motor is moved along the axis so that it
meshes with the gear ring of the engine’s flywheel.
The actuator solenoid of the starter motor controls
both the axial movement of the gear and connection
of the starter motor.
In turn, the actuator solenoid of the starter motor is
cut in via the start relay, which is activated when the
ignition key is turned to position III or the start button
is depressed.
The starter motor relay (1) is mounted next to the star- 1
ter motor solenoid.

17
Group 23 EDC III Design and operation

Component diagram and location


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

15

16

17
20 18

19

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

1. Coolant level monitor 11. Control unit (ECU)


2. Tachometer sensor, camshaft 12. Fuel pressure monitor
3. Connection, diagnostic tool* 13. 8–pin connection (Data bus)
4. Programming plug* 14. 23–pin connection (Stand alone)
5. Charge air pressure/temperature sensor 15. Coolant temperature sensor
6. Extra stop 16. Starter motor
7. Main relay* 17. Starter motor relay
8. Generator 18. Tachometer sensor, flywheel
9. Fuse 10A 19. Water monitor, fuel filter
10. Oil pressure/temperature sensor 20. Unit injectors (one per cylinder)

* Inside the Cover

18
Group 23 EDC III Limit values

Limit values
Limit values, electronic control unit (ECU) TAD1240GE,
TAD1241-42GE/VE
Alarm values
The maximum permissible values for charge air and coolant temperatures, for example, can be adjusted with the
parameter setting tool and can thus vary within alarm limits.
If the alarm values are exceeded, the system reduces the amount of fuel until the value is once again within the
permissible interval.
This function is a customer parameter that can be completely disengaged.
Alarm limits TAD1240–42GE:
Coolant temperature: Alarm lamp lights Engine is switched off Engine output 50%
Standard value Volvo Penta 98°C / 208°F 100°C / 212°F
Parameter setting (can be set
by the customer) 95–101°C / 203-214°F +2°C / 36°F over the alarm value

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.


Coolant level:
Alarm lamp lights when the contact is activated and
the engine is switched off
Alarm switch is activated

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.


Charge air temperature:
Standard value Volvo Penta 83°C / 181°F 85°C / 185°F
NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Oil pressure:
Standard value Volvo Penta Idle: 0.7 bar (10,2 psi) For oil pressure 0.3 bar (4,4 psi)
lower than alarm value
>1500 RPM: 2.5 bar For oil pressure 0.3 bar (4,4 psi)
(36,3 psi) lower than alarm value
NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Oil temperature:
Standard value Volvo Penta 125°C / 257°F 127°C / 261°F
Parameter setting (can be set
by customer) 120–130°C / 248-266°F+2°C / 36°F over alarm value

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Fuel pressure:
Standard value Volvo Penta <2 bar (<29 psi) Engine not switched off

Monitor, water in fuel: Alarm lamp lights

RPM:
Standard value Volvo Penta Max. operational RPM + 20%
Activates upon operational RPM +15%.
Parameter setting (can be set by customer)
Max. operational RPM + 10–20%

NOTE: Engine protection is switched off as standard.

19
Group 23 EDC III Gränsvärden

Limit values, electronic control unit (ECU) TWD1240VE


Alarm limits:
Coolant temperature: Alarm lamp lights Engine is switched off Engine output 50%
Standard value Volvo Penta 98°C / 208°F 100°C / 212°F
Parameter setting (can be
set by the customer) 95–101°C / 203-214°F +2°C / 36°F over the alarm value

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Coolant level: Alarm lamp lights when the contact is activated


and the engine is switched off

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Charge air temperature:


Standard value Volvo Penta 100°C / 212 °F 102°C / 216°F

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Oil pressure:
Standard value Volvo Penta Idle: 0.7 bar (10,2 psi) For oil pressure 0.3 bar (4,4 psi)
lower than alarm value
>1500 RPM: 2.5 bar For oil pressure 0.3 bar (4,4 psi)
(36,3 psi) lower than alarm value
* See diagram: ”Oil pressure” below.

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Oil temperature:
Standard value Volvo Penta 125°C / 257°F 127°C / 261°F
Parameter setting (can be
set by the customer) 120–130°C / 248-266°F +2°C / 36°F over
alarm value

NOTE: Engine protection can be switched off.

Fuel pressure:
Standard value Volvo Penta <2 bar (<29 psi) Engine not switched off
Monitor, water in fuel: Alarm lamp lights

*Oil pressure

Alarm limit

Engine is switched off

rpm

20
Group 23 EDC III Limit values

Limp-home values (emergency control


values)
The control unit uses these bases value to be able to
run the engine if a technical error arises in the system
or its peripheral equipment, sensors, etc.
The following values (Limp-home values) are stored
in the control unit:
Charge air temperature +45°C / 113°F
Coolant temperature -15°C / 5°F
Charge air pressure See diagram below
Engine speed:
TAD1240–42GE/VE RPM frozen
TWD1240VE Idle

3.0
Charge air
pressure

2.5

2.0
bar

1.5

1.0

rpm

21
Group 23 EDC III Repair instructions

Repair instructions
When working with EDC III
Follow the instructions below so as not to damage the control unit of the EDC system:

• Never cut off the main current when the engine is running.

• Never disconnect battery cables when the engine is running.

• When quick charging the batteries, the main switch must be turned off or the battery cables must be discon-
nected.
During normal maintenance charging, the main switch does not need to be turned off.

• Only batteries should be used for jumping. Jumping devices may cause a surge and damage the
control unit.

• Cut off power to the EDC III system before disconnecting the 2 x 36-pin cable glove from the control unit.

• If damage to the wiring harness is detected, the cable glove should be disconnected from the control unit.

IMPORTANT! The cable glove should be disconnected from the control unit when welding.

• When removing a connector from a sensor, be careful not to expose the contact pin to oil or any
other fluid.
This could cause a contact problem or, if oil runs down to the pressure sensing membrane, the sensor could
show an incorrect value.

22
Group 23 EDC III Repair instructions

Electronic Control unit (ECU),


replacement
1. Cut off power to the engine.
2. Remove the fuel cooling coil and fuel line clamps
from the control unit.
Bend aside the cooling coil.
3. Disconnect the cable glove from the control unit.
Press in the catch (1) and push the cable glove (2)
upwards.
4. Remove the control unit.
5. Transfer the rubber cushions to the new control
unit.
6. Fit the new control unit.
7. Connect the cable glove to the control unit.
When connecting the cable glove (2) to the
control unit, make sure that the safety catch (1) is
set.
8. Fit the cooling coil and fuel line clamps to the
control unit.

NOTE: The retaining bolts of the fuel cooling coil are


self-tapping as there are no threads in the control unit.

9. Start the engine and perform leakage and


functionality checks.

23
Group 23 EDC III Repair instructions

Start with booster batteries


WARNING! Be sure to have good ventilation.
The batteries build oxyhydrogen gas, which is
very flammable and explosive. A short-circuit,
open flame or spark could cause an explosion.

WARNING! Never confuse the position of the


cables on the battery. Confusing battery poles
when jumpstarting with battery cables causes
short-circuits and sparks, which can cause ex-
plosion and greatly damage electrical engine
components.

1. Check that the voltage of the booster battery is


the same as the engine’s system voltage.
2. First connect the red (+) jumper cable to the
positive pole (+) of the discharged batteries and
then to the positive pole (+) of the booster
battery.
3. Then connect the black (-) jumper cable to the
negative pole (-) of the booster battery and a
spot a bit away from the negative pole (-) of the
discharged batteries, such as by the negative
lead’s connection to the starter motor.

WARNING! The black (-) jumper cable must ab-


solutely not come in contact with the positive
lead’s connection to the starter motor.

4. Start the engine and run at high idle about


10 minutes to charge the batteries.

WARNING! Approaching or working on a running


engine is a safety risk.
Beware of rotating parts and hot surfaces.
Do not touch the connections during the start at-
tempt.
Risk of sparks.
Do not lean over any of the batteries.

5. Switch off the engine.


Remove the jumper cables in reverse order from
fitting. One cable at a time!

24
Group 23 EDC III Functionality check

Functionality check
PC diagnostics program
• This program can read error codes that are stored in the engine control unit, check input and
output signals, read current values from engine sensors and then store and print test results.

• The program enables service and workshop personnel to quickly localize and remedy errors in the
EDC III system.

• A data link connector is used to connect to the engine control unit.

• User information is included in the program.

• Contact your Volvo Penta dealer to order software.

• The role of the diagnostic function is to detect and localize disturbances in the EDC III system, protect the
engine and ensure that the machine remains in working order during serious disturbances.

• If a disturbance arises, the diagnostic indicator on the indicator panel begins blinking.
When the diagnosis button is pressed, an error code is given as guidance for any fault detection.

25
Group 23 EDC III Fault detection

Fault detection
A number of symptoms and possible causes for engine problems are described in the table below. Always contact
your Volvo Penta dealer if problems occur that you are not able to solve on your own.

WARNING! Read through the safety instructions for maintenance and service work in the chapter ”Safety in-
formation” before starting to work.

Symptoms and possible causes


Diagnosis button’s indicator is blinking See the chapter ”Diagnostic function”
The engine cannot be stopped 2, 5
The starter motor does not rotate 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 25
The starter motor rotates slowly 1, 2
The starter motor rotates normally, but the engine does not start 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
The engine starts, but stops again 9, 10, 11, 12, 14
The engine does not reach the correct operating speed at full throttle 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29
The engine runs unevenly 11, 12,13
High fuel consumption 13, 14, 16, 26
Black exhaust smoke 13, 14
Blue or white exhaust smoke 15, 16, 23
Low oil pressure 17
High coolant temperature 18, 19, 20, 21
Low coolant temperature 21
No or poor charging 2, 24

1. Discharged batteries 11. Air in fuel system 20. Faulty circulation pump
2. Poor contact/interruption on 12. Water/contaminates in the fuel 21. Defective thermostat
electrical line
13. Faulty unit injectors 22. Clogged intercooler
3. Main switch turned off
14. Insufficient air supply to 23. High oil level
4. Fuse on wiring box blown engine:
24. Generator drive belt is slipping
– clogged air filter
5. Faulty starter switch
– air leak between turbo- 25. Water in engine
6. Faulty main relay charger and engine’s intake 26. Great counterpressure in
manifold exhaust system
7. Faulty starter motor relay
– fouled compressor
8. Faulty starter motor/solenoid in turbocharger 27. Interruption, cable ”Pot+” to
– faulty turbocharger pedal
9. Fuel shortage:
– fuel cocks closed – poor engine compartment 28. High oil temperature
– fuel tank empty/wrong tank ventilation
29. High charge-air temperature
connected 15. High coolant temperature
10. Clogged fuel fine filter/pre-filter 16. Low coolant temperature
(due to contaminates or
17. Low oil level
paraffin deposits in the fuel at
low temperature) 18. Low coolant level
19. Air in coolant system

26
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

Diagnostic function
Diagnostic function
The diagnostic function checks that the EDC III sys-
tem is functioning normally.
The diagnostic function performs the following
tasks:
• Detects and localizes disturbances
• Notifies when disturbances are detected
• Provides guidance for fault detection
• Protects the engine and ensures that the machine
remains in working order when serious disturbances
are detected.
Notification of disturbance If the diagnostic function
detects a disturbance in the EDC III system, the opera-
tor is notified by the diagnostic lamp (1), which begins
to blink.
Guidance for fault detection If the diagnosis button
(2) is depressed and then released the diagnostic lamp
(1) blinks out an error code. The code is found in the
error code list, with information on cause, response and
corrective action.
The diagnostic function affects the engine in the
following manner when:
1 The diagnostic function has detected a minor
disturbance that will not damage the engine:
Response: The engine is not affected.
2. The diagnostic function has detected a serious
disturbance that will not immediately damage the
engine:
Response: TAD1240–42GE/VE: Engine is
switched off.
TWD1240VE: Engine is switched off or engine
torque is lowered until the value is normalized.
3. The diagnostic function has detected a serious
disturbance that makes it impossible to control
engine operation:
Response: TAD1240–42GE/VE: RPM maintained.
TWD1240VE: The engine goes to idle. Idle or
freezing of RPM can be set using the Volvo Penta
Parameter Tool.

If the diagnosis button’s


indicator blinks
1. Reduce RPM to idle.
2. Press the diagnosis button (2) to acknowledge the
message.
3. Release the diagnosis button and note the error
code that blinks out. (1) See ”Reading out error
codes”.
4. Look up the error code in the error code list and
follow the recommended course of action.

27
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

NOTE: If the warning lamps and other instruments


show normal function and the control is working nor-
mally, the operator can choose to continue operating
and remedy the disturbance later. If the engine is swit-
ched off, certain error codes could disappear.

Reading out error codes


If the diagnosis button 2 is depressed and then rele-
ased, an error code blinks out (1).
The error code consists of two groups of blinks sepa-
rated by a two-second pause. The error code is read
by counting the number of blinks in each group.
Example: pause = Error code 2.4
The error code is stored and can be read as long as
the disturbance remains. The error code list contains
information on cause, response and corrective action.
Read out as follows:
1. Press in the diagnosis button (2)
2. Release the diagnosis button and note the error
code that blinks out (1).
3. Repeat points 1–2. A new error code blinks out if
more codes are stored. Repeat until the first error
code reappears.

NOTE: When the first error code reappears all error


codes have been read out.

Erasing error codes


The error code memory of the diagnostic function is
reset when power to the engine is cut off.

NOTE: The power must be completely disconnected.

When the power is turned on, the diagnostic function


checks to see if there are any disturbances in the
EDC III system. If disturbances are present, new error
codes are set.
This means that:
1. Error codes for disturbances that have been
corrected or that have disappeared are erased
automatically.
2. Error codes for disturbances that have not been
corrected must be acknowledged and read out
every time the power is turned on.
If the diagnosis button is pushed after the error has
been corrected and saved error codes are erased the
code 1.1 (”No errors”) will blink out.

28
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

Error codes EDC III


WARNING! Read the safety instructions for maintenance and service work in the chapter ”Safety informa-
tion” before starting to work.

NOTE: The readout of the error codes below, such as 175 Code 2.1, means that 175 is read using the diagnostic tool.
2.1 is the blink code that is shown on the instrument box’s diagnostic lamp. See ”Reading out error codes”.

175 Code 2.1 18 Code 2.4


Cause: Water in the fuel or low fuel pressure. Cause: RPM sensor, flywheel. Abnormal frequency.
Response: Alarm lamp lights. Response: The engine is extremely hard to start and
Corrective action: runs unevenly if it does.
Corrective action:
• Check the fuel dehumidification filter (drain the
fuel tank). • Check that the tachometer sensor connector is fit-
ted correctly.
• Check if it is possible to increase the pressure
using the hand pump. • Check that the wiring to the tachometer sensor is
not damaged.
• Check the fuel filter.
• Check the fuel pre-filter • Check that the tachometer sensor is correctly fit-
ted in the flywheel housing.
• Check the function of the tachometer sensor.
191 Code 2.2
Cause: Low coolant level.
101 Code 2.4
Response: Engine is switched off (if this protective
feature has not been disabled by the parameter set- Cause: Tachometer sensor, flywheel. Intermittent signal.
ting tool). Response: The engine is extremely hard to start and
Alarm lamp lights. runs unevenly if it does.
Corrective action: Corrective action:
• Check the coolant level. • Check that the tachometer sensor connector is fit-
ted correctly.
• Check the function of the coolant level monitor.
• Check that the wiring to the tachometer sensor is
not damaged.
15 Code 2.4
• Check that the tachometer sensor is correctly fit-
ted in the flywheel housing.
Cause: Tachometer sensor, flywheel. No signal.
Response: The engine is extremely hard to start and • Check the function of the tachometer sensor.
runs unevenly if it does. • Check the contact pressure in sleeves 30 and 31
Corrective action: in the black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).
• Check that the sensor connector is fitted correctly.
• Check that the wiring to the tachometer sensor is
not damaged.
• Check that the tachometer sensor is correctly fit-
ted in the flywheel housing.
• Check the function of the tachometer sensor.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeves 30 and 31
in the black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).

29
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

102 Code 2.5 24 Code 2.7


Cause: RPM sensor, camshaft. No signal. Cause: RPM potentiometer connected to the engine
Response: The engine takes longer than normal to control unit (ECU). Short to negative (-).
start. The engine runs normally once underway. Response: The engine goes to idle. If the pedal is re-
Corrective action: leased and then depressed again, the engine can
”limp home” using the idle contact.
• Check that the tachometer sensor connector is fit-
Corrective action:
ted correctly.
• Check that the wiring to the tachometer sensor is • Check that the potentiometer is connected cor-
not damaged. rectly.

• Check that the tachometer sensor is correctly fit- • Check that the wiring to the potentiometer is not
damaged.
ted in the upper timing cover.
• Check the function of the tachometer sensor. • Check the function of the potentiometer.

• Check the contact pressure in sleeves 7 and 18


in the black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU). 21 Code 2.8
Cause: RPM potentiometer connected to CIU.
Short to negative (-).
103 Code 2.5
Response: The engine goes to idle. If the pedal is re-
Cause: RPM sensor, camshaft. Abnormal frequency. leased and then depressed again, the engine can
Response: The engine takes longer than normal to ”limp home” using the idle contact.
start. The engine runs normally once underway. Corrective action:
Corrective action: • Check that the potentiometer is connected cor-
rectly.
• Check that the tachometer sensor connector is fit-
ted correctly. • Check that the wiring to the potentiometer is not
damaged.
• Check that the wiring to the tachometer sensor is
not damaged. • Check the function of the potentiometer.
• Check that the tachometer sensor is correctly fit-
ted in the upper timing cover.
22 Code 2.8
• Check the function of the tachometer sensor.
Cause: RPM potentiometer connected to CIU.
Interrupted or shorted to positive (+).
23 Code 2.7 Response: The engine goes to idle. If the pedal is re-
Cause: RPM potentiometer connected to engine con- leased and then depressed again, the engine can
trol unit (ECU). ”limp home” using the idle contact.
Interrupted or shorted to positive (+). Corrective action:
Response: The engine goes to idle. If the pedal is re- • Check that the potentiometer is connected cor-
rectly.
leased and then depressed again, the engine can
”limp home” using the idle contact.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the potentiometer is not
damaged.
• Check the the control’s connector is fitted correctly.
• Check the function of the potentiometer.
• Check that the wiring to the sensor is not damaged.
• Check the function of the sensor.
• Check that the 23-pin connector is fitted correctly.
• Check pin C and sleeve C in the 23-pin connector.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 3 in the red
cable glove of the engine control unit (ECU).

30
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

181 Code 3.1 26 Code 3.2


Cause 1: Oil pressure sensor. Short to positive (+). Cause: Charge air temperature sensor. Short to
Response: None. negative (-).

Corrective action: Response: None.


Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the oil pressure sensor is
not damaged. • Check that the wiring to the charge air temperatu-
re sensor is not damaged.
• Check that the oil pressure sensor is connected
correctly. • Check that the charge air temperature sensor is
fitted correctly.
• Check the function of the charge air temperature
sensor.
182 Code 3.1
Cause: Oil pressure sensor. Interrupted or shorted to
negative (-).
27 Code 3.3
Response: None.
Cause: Coolant temperature sensor. Interrupted or
Corrective action: shorted to positive (+).
• Check that the wiring to the oil pressure sensor is
not damaged.
Response: Preheating is activated even if the engine
is warm.
• Check that the oil pressure sensor is connected
correctly.
Corrective action:

• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 14 in the • Check that the connector of the coolant tempera-
ture sensor is fitted correctly.
black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU). • Check that the wiring to the coolant temperature
sensor is not damaged.

25 Code 3.2
• Check that the coolant temperature sensor is fit-
ted correctly.
Cause: Charge air temperature sensor. Interrupted or
shorted to positive (+).
• Check the function of the coolant temperature
sensor.
Response: None.
Corrective action:
28 Code 3.3
• Check that the connector of the charge air tempe-
rature sensor is fitted correctly. Cause 1: Coolant temperature sensor. Short to negati-
ve (-).
• Check that the wiring to the charge air temperature
sensor is not damaged. Response: Preheating is activated even if the engine
is warm.
• Check that the charge air temperature sensor is
fitted correctly. Corrective action:

• Check the function of the charge air temperature • Check that the wiring to the coolant temperature
sensor is not damaged.
sensor.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 2 in the • Check that the coolant temperature sensor is fit-
ted correctly.
black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU). • Check the function of the coolant temperature
sensor.

31
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

67 Code 3.4 185 Code 3.7


Cause: Charge air pressure sensor. Short to positive (+). Cause: Oil temperature sensor. Short to negative (-).
Response: The engine smokes more than it usually Response: None.
does when accelerating/under loading. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the oil temperature sen-
• Check that the wiring to the charge air pressure sor is not damaged.
sensor is not damaged.
• Check that the oil temperature sensor is correctly
• Check the function of the charge air pressure sen-
sor.
connected.

200 Code 4.1


68 Code 3.4 Cause: Oil pressure alarm, circuit interrupted.
Cause 1: Charge air pressure sensor. Interrupted or Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is
shorted to negative (-). interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
Response: The engine smokes more than it usually vated.
does when accelerating/under loading. Corrective action:
Corrective action: • Check the alarm lamp.
• Check that the connector of the charge air pressu-
re sensor is fitted correctly.
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not da-
maged.
• Check that the wiring to the charge air pressure
sensor is not damaged.
• Check sleeve ”L” in the 23-pin connector.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 35 in the
• Check that the charge air pressure sensor is fitted
correctly.
red cable glove of the engine control unit (ECU).

• Check the function of the charge air pressure sen-


201 Code 4.1
sor.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 3 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit
Cause: Oil pressure alarm. Short to negative (-).
Response: Alarm lamp lights constantly
(ECU).
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
lamp are not damaged.
184 Code 3.7
Cause: Oil temperature sensor. Interrupted or shorted
to positive (+). 202 Code 4.1
Response: None. Cause: Oil pressure alarm. Short to positive (+).
Corrective action: Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is
• Check that the wiring to the oil temperature sen-
sor is not damaged.
interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
vated.
• Check that the oil temperature sensor is correctly
connected.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 1 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit
lamp are not damaged.

(ECU).

32
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

35 Code 4.2 221 Code 4.3


Cause: Alarm for high coolant temp. Linked to Stand Cause: Lamp to indicate operation. Short to
Alone interface. Short to negative (-). negative (-).
Response: Alarm lamp lights constantly. Response: The indicator lamp shines constantly.
Corrective action: Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not • Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
damaged. lamp are not damaged.
• Check that the alarm lamp is fitted correctly.

222 Code 4.3


36 Code 4.2 Cause: Lamp to indicate operation. Short to
Cause: Alarm for high coolant temp. Linked to Stand positive (+).
Alone interface. Short to positive (+). Response: Indicator lamp does not work. If the circuit
Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is is interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti- vated.
vated. Corrective action:
Corrective action: • Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
lamp are not damaged.
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not
damaged.
• Check that the alarm lamp is fitted correctly.
223 Code 4.4
Cause: Overspeed alarm. Circuit interruption.
226 Code 4.2 Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is
Cause: Alarm for high coolant temp. Circuit interrup- interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
tion. vated.

Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is Corrective action:
interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
vated.
• Check the alarm lamp.

Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not da-
maged.
• Check the alarm lamp for high coolant
temperature.
• Check sleeve ”O” in the 23-pin connector.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 36 in the
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not black cable glove of the engine control unit
damaged. (ECU).
• Check sleeve ”N” in the 23-pin connector.
224 Code 4.4
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 33 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit Cause: Overspeed alarm. Short to negative (-).
(ECU). Response: Alarm lamp lights constantly.
Corrective action:

220 Code 4.3 • Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
lamp are not damaged.
Cause: Lamp to indicate operation. Interruption
Response: Indicator lamp does not work. If the circuit
is interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti- 225 Code 4.4
vated. Cause: Overspeed alarm. Short to positive (+).
Corrective action: Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is
• Check the alarm lamp. interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
vated.
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not
damaged. Corrective action:

• Check sleeve ”N” in the 23-pin connector. • Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
lamp are not damaged.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 33 in the
black connector of the engine control unit (ECU).

33
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

203 Code 4.5 42 Code 4.6


Cause: Low coolant alarm. Circuit interruption. Cause: Start relay on starter motor.
Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is Short to negative (-).
interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti- Response: Engine will be started -> The starter motor
vated. engages, but no start request is made when the igni-
Corrective action: tion is switched on.
Engine running -> The starter motor engages, but no
• Check the alarm lamp. start request is made.
• Check that the wiring to the alarm lamp is not
damaged.
Engine being started -> The starter motor does not di-
sengage once the engine is started.

• Check sleeve ”N” in the 23-pin connector. Corrective action:

• Checkthe contact pressure in sleeve 33 in the • Check that the wiring to the relay is not damaged.
black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).
• Check the function of the relay.

107 Code 4.6


204 Code 4.5
Cause: Starter motor relay. Circuit interruption.
Cause: Low coolant alarm. Short to
negative (-). Response: Engine will not start.

Response: Alarm lamp lights constantly. Corrective action:

Corrective action: • Check that the cable to the starter motor (yellow/
black) is correctly connected.
• Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
lamp are not damaged. • Check that the cable to the starter motor (yellow/
black) is not damaged.
• Check that the relay on the starter motor is whole.
205 Code 4.5
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 31 in the
Cause: Low coolant alarm. Short to positive (+). red cable glove of the engine control unit (ECU).
Response: Alarm lamp does not work. If the circuit is
interrupted during start-up, diagnostics are deacti-
108 Code 4.7
vated.
Corrective action: Cause: Start input, engine control unit (ECU).
Short to negative (-).
• Check that the wiring and connection to the alarm
lamp are not damaged. Response: Engine will not start.
Corrective action:

41 Code 4.6
• Check that the wiring to the ignition key/start but-
ton is not damaged.
Cause: Start relay on starter motor.
Short to positive (+).
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve ”E” in the
23-pin connector.
Response: Engine will not start. • Check the contact pressure in sleeve 17 in the
Corrective action: connector on the engine.

• Check that the wiring to the relay is not damaged.


• Check the function of the relay.

34
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

109 Code 4.8 209 Code 5.3


Cause: Stop input engine control unit (ECU). Cause: Stop input on CIU. Short to negative (-).
Short to negative (-). Response: The engine can only be stopped using the
Response: The engine can only be stopped using emergency stop on the engine.
the emergency stop on the engine. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the connections to the ignition key are
• Check that the wiring to the ignition key/start but- not damaged.
ton is not damaged.
• Check that the wiring to the ignition key is not
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve ”H” in the
23-pin connector.
damaged.

• Checkthe contact pressure in sleeve 6 in the con-


nector on the engine. 211 Code 5.3
Cause: Stop input on CIU. Short to positive (+) or ac-
tivated too long.
43 Code 5.1
Response: The engine stops. After 40 seconds an er-
Cause: Main relay. Short to positive (+). ror code is shown. During this time, the engine cannot
Response: The instrument panel loses power when be started. When the error code is blinked out on the
the key is twisted to start position. The engine will not diagnostic lamp, the engine can be started but not
start. stopped.

Corrective action: Corrective action:

• Check that the wiring to the relay is not damaged. • Check that the connections to the ignition key are
not damaged.
• Check the function of the relay.
• Check that the wiring to the ignition key is not
damaged.
208 Code 5.2
Cause: Start input on CIU. Short to negative (-). 214 Code 5.3
Response: The engine cannot be started. Cause: Stop input on CIU. Interrupted or activated too
Corrective action: long.

• Check that the connections to the ignition key are


not damaged.
Response: The engine stops. After 40 seconds an er-
ror code is shown. During this time, the engine cannot
be started. When the error code is blinked out on the
• Check that the wiring to the ignition key is not
damaged.
diagnostic lamp, the engine can be started but not
stopped.
Corrective action:
210 Code 5.2 • Check that the connections to the ignition key are
not damaged.
Cause: Start input on CIU. Short to positive (+)
or activated too long. • Check that the wiring to the ignition key is not
damaged.
Response: The engine starts immediately when the
ignition is turned on.
Corrective action:
• Check that the connections to the ignition key are
not damaged.
• Check that the wiring to the ignition key is not
damaged.

35
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

74 Code 5.4 31 Code 6.1


Cause: Preheating relay. Connection interruption Cause: High coolant temperature.
Response: Preheating cannot be activated. Response: TAD1240–42GE: Limited engine output (if
Corrective action: this protective feature has not been disabled by the
parameter setting tool). Alarm lamp lights.
• Check that the wiring to the input on the relay is
TWD1240VE: Engine is switched off (if this protective
not damaged.
feature has not been disabled by the parameter set-
• Check the function of the relay. ting tool). Alarm indicator lights.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 36 in the
red cable glove of the engine control unit (ECU).
Corrective action:
• Check the coolant level.
• Check the intercooler (cleanness).
75 Code 5.4 • Check to see if there is air in the coolant system.
Cause: Preheating relay. Short to negative (-). • Check the pressure cap on the expansion tank.
Response: Preheating is constantly activated. • Check the function of the coolant temperature
sensor.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the input on the relay is • Check the function of the thermostat.
not damaged.
• Check the function of the relay. 60 Code 6.2
Cause Intake air temperature is too high.
76 Code 5.4 Response: Engine output is limited to 50% (if this
protective feature has not been disabled by the para-
Cause: Preheating relay. Short to positive (+). meter setting tool).
Response: Preheating cannot be activated. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check the coolant level.
• Check that the wiring to the input on the relay is
not damaged. • Check the intercooler (cleanness).

• Check the function of the relay. • Check the function of the charge air temperature
sensor.
• Check the function of the thermostat.
183 Code 5.8
Cause Oil temperature is too high. 213 Code 6.4
Response: Limited engine output (if this protective Cause Datalink (CAN) error, CIU.
feature has not been disabled by the parameter set- Response: Instruments and alarm lamps stop working.
ting tool). Alarm lamp lights.
Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check the oil level. • Check that the 8-pin connector is not damaged.
• Check that the wiring between the CIU and the
• Check the oil temperature. engine control unit (ECU) is not damaged.
• Check the oil system thermostat. • Check that sleeves 11 and 12 in the CIU connec-
tor are not damaged.
• Check the function of the oil temperature sensor.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeves 1 and 2 in
the red cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).

36
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

38 Code 6.5 106 Code 6.5


Cause Datalink (CAN) error, engine control module Cause: Datalink error (CAN).
(EMS). Response: Engine not running -> The engine cannot
Response: Engine not running: the engine cannot be be started. Engine running -> Engine goes to idle and
started. can only be stopped with the emergency stop.
Engine running: engine goes to idle and can only be Corrective action:
stopped using the emergency stop.
Corrective action: • Check that the 8-pin connector is not damaged.

• Check that the 8-pin connector is not damaged. • Check that the 8-pin cable between the CIU and
the engine control unit (ECU) is not damaged.
• Check that the wiring between the CIU and the
engine control unit (ECU) is not damaged. • Check that sleeves 11 and 12 in the CIU connec-
tor are not damaged.
• Check that sleeves 11 and 12 in the CIU connec-
tor are not damaged. • Check the contact pressure in sleeves 1 and 2 in
the red cable glove of the engine control unit
• Check the contact pressure in sleeves 1 and 2 in
the red cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).

(ECU).
180 Code 6.6

105 Code 6.5 Cause: Oil pressure is too low.

Cause: Datalink error (CAN). Response: Engine is switched off (if this protective
feature has not been disabled by the parameter set-
Response: Engine not running -> The engine cannot ting tool).
be started. Engine running -> Engine goes to idle and Alarm lamp lights.
can only be stopped with the emergency stop.
Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the 8-pin connector is not damaged.
• Check the oil level.

• Check that the wiring between the CIU and the


• Check that the oil filter is not clogged.

engine control unit (ECU) is not damaged. • Check the system pressure valves and the safety
valve in the oil system.
• Check that sleeves 11 and 12 in the CIU connec-
tor are not damaged. • Check the function of the oil pressure sensor.

• Check the contact pressure in sleeves 1 and 2 in


the red cable glove of the engine control module
110 Code 7.1
(EMS).
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #1. Electronic error.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

37
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

111 Code 7.1 115 Code 7.1


Cause: Unit injector cylinder #1. Electronic error. Cause: Unit injector cylinder #1. Electronic error.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance. uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action: Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not • Check the contact pressure in sleeve 11 in the
damaged. black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged. • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
112 Code 7.1
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #1. Electronic error.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
120 Code 7.2
Corrective action:
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #2. Electronic error.
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged. Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
113 Code 7.1
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #1. Electronic error.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
121 Code 7.2
Corrective action:
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #2. Electronic error.
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged. Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
114 Code 7.1
Cause: Error in compression or the unit injector on cy-
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
linder #1.
Response: Cylinder balance is adversely affected ->
Uneven running at low RPM and low load. 122 Code 7.2
Corrective action: Cause: Unit injector cylinder #2. Electronic error.
• Check the fuel feed pressure. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
• Check the valve clearance.
Corrective action:
• Check that the unit injector and connection cable
are not damaged. • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
• Do a compression test and check cylinder #1.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

38
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

123 Code 7.2 130 Code 7.3


Cause: Unit injector cylinder #2. Electronic error. Cause: Unit injector cylinder #3. Electronic error.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance. uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action: Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged. damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

124 Code 7.2 131 Code 7.3


Cause: Error in compression or the unit injector on Cause: Unit injector cylinder #3. Electronic error.
cylinder #2. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Response: Cylinder balance is adversely affected -> uneven and has decreased performance.
Uneven running at low RPM and low load. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
• Check the fuel feed pressure. damaged.
• Check the valve clearance. • Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
• Check that the unit injector and connection cable
are not damaged.
• Do a compression test and check cylinder #2.
132 Code 7.3
• Check the fuel feed pressure.
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #3. Electronic error.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
125 Code 7.2 uneven and has decreased performance.

Cause: Unit injector cylinder #2. Electronic error. Corrective action:

Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action: • Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 22 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

39
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

133 Code 7.3 140 Code 7.4


Cause: Unit injector cylinder #3. Electronic error. Cause: Unit injector cylinder #4. Electronic error.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance. uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action: Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged. damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

134 Code 7.3 141 Code 7.4


Cause: Error in compression or the unit injector on cy- Cause: Unit injector cylinder #4. Electronic error.
linder #3. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Response: Cylinder balance is adversely affected -> uneven and has decreased performance.
Uneven running at low RPM and low load. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
• Check the fuel feed pressure. damaged.
• Check the valve clearance. • Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
• Check that the unit injector and connection cable
are not damaged.
• Do a compression test and check cylinder #3.
142 Code 7.4
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #4. Electronic error.
135 Code 7.3 Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #3. Electronic error. uneven and has decreased performance.

Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds Corrective action:


uneven and has decreased performance. • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
Corrective action:
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 23 in the • Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
143 Code 7.4
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #4. Electronic error.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
not damaged.
uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

40
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

144 Code 7.4 151 Code 7.5


Cause: Error in compression or the unit injector on cy- Cause: Unit injector cylinder #5. Electronic error.
linder #4. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Response: Cylinder balance is adversely affected -> uneven and has decreased performance.
Uneven running at low RPM and low load. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
• Check the fuel feed pressure. damaged.
• Check the valve clearance. • Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
• Check that the unit injector and connection cable
are not damaged.
• Do a compression test and check cylinder #4.
152 Code 7.5
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #5. Electronic error.
145 Code 7.4 Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #4. Electronic error. uneven and has decreased performance.

Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds Corrective action:


uneven and has decreased performance. • Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
Corrective action:
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 34 in the • Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
black cable glove of the engine control unit
(ECU).
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
153 Code 7.5
damaged.
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #5. Electronic error.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action:
150 Code 7.5
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #5. Electronic error.
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged.
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.

41
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

154 Code 7.5 161 Code 7.6


Cause: Error in compression or the unit injector on cy- Cause: Unit injector cylinder #6. Electronic error.
linder #5. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds uneven and has decreased performance.
uneven and has decreased performance. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injector is not da-
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not maged.
damaged.
• Check that the connection to the unit injector is
• Check that the connections to the unit injector are
not damaged.
not damaged.

• Do a compression test and check cylinder #5.


162 Code 7.6
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #6. Electronic error.
155 Code 7.5
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #5. Electronic error. uneven and has decreased performance.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds Corrective action:
uneven and has decreased performance.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injector is not da-
maged.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 35 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit
• Check that the connection to the unit injector is
not damaged.
(ECU).
• Check that the wiring to the unit injectors is not
damaged. 163 Code 7.6

• Check that the connections to the unit injector are Cause: Unit injector cylinder #6. Electronic error.
not damaged. Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
160 Code 7.6 Corrective action:
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #6. Electronic error. • Check that the wiring to the unit injector is not da-
maged.
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance. • Check that the connection to the unit injector is
not damaged.
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the unit injector is not da-
maged.
• Check that the connection to the unit injector is
not damaged.

42
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

164 Code 7.6 254 Code 9.8


Cause: Error in compression or the unit injector on cy- Cause: Controller failure, CIU
linder #6. Response: The engine cannot be started, if the engi-
Response: Cylinder balance is adversely affected -> ne is running -> Idle.
Uneven running at low RPM and low load. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Replace the CIU unit.
• Check the fuel feed pressure.
• Check the valve clearance.
255 Code 9.9
• Check the unit injector and the connection cable.
Cause: Memory error in the engine control module
• Do a compression test and check cylinder #6.
(EMS).
Response:The engine cannot be started (varies).
165 Code 7.6 Corrective action:
Cause: Unit injector cylinder #6. Electronic error. • Replace the engine control module (EMS).
Response: The engine runs on 5 cylinders, sounds
uneven and has decreased performance.
32 Code -
Corrective action:
Cause: Diagnostic lamp (linked to the Stand Alone
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 35 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit interface). Interruption.
(ECU). Response: The diagnostic lamp does not light during
a lamp test. No error codes can be read out.
• Check that the wiring to the unit injector is not da-
Corrective action:
maged.
• Check that the connection to the unit injector is • Check that the lamp is not damaged.
not damaged.
• Check that the wiring to the lamp is not damaged.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve ”J” in the
23-pin connector.
82 Code 9.8
Cause: EEPROM error, CIU. • Check the contact pressure in sleeve 21 in the
red cable glove of the engine control unit (ECU).
Response: CIU returns to factory settings.
Corrective action:
33 Code -
• Replace the CIU unit.
Cause: Diagnostic lamp (linked to the Stand Alone
interface). Short to negative (-).
212 Code 9.8 Response: The diagnostic lamp shines constantly.
Cause: Flash memory error, CIU. Corrective action:
Response: The engine goes to idle. • Check that the wiring to the lamp is not damaged.
Corrective action: • Check that the lamp is correctly mounted.
• Replace the CIU unit.

43
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

34 Code - 64 Code -
Cause: The diagnostic lamp (linked to the Stand Alone Cause: Voltage feed to sensor. Short to negative (-).
interface). Short to positive (+). Response: Several error codes for sensor error.
Response: The diagnostic lamp does not light during Corrective action:
a lamp test. No error codes can be read out.
Corrective action: • Check the contact pressure in sleeve 4 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit
• Check that the wiring to the lamp is not damaged. (ECU).
• Check that the lamp is correctly mounted.

173 Code -
57 Code - Cause Datalink (J1708) error, engine control unit
Cause: The charge air pressure is too high. (ECU).

Response: None. Response: Diagnostic lamp shows only CIU internal


errors.
Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check the function of the turbocharger.
• Check that the 8-pin connector is not damaged.
• Check the function of the charge air pressure sen-
sor. • Check that the 8-pin cable between the CIU and
the engine control unit (ECU) is not damaged.
• Check the fuel quantity/unit injector.
• Check that pin/sleeve 22 and 37 in the connector
on the CIU are not damaged.
58 Code - • Check the contact pressure in sleeves 25 and 26
in the red cable glove of the engine control unit
Cause: The charge air pressure is too low. (ECU).
Response: The engine has decreased performance.
Corrective action:
176 Code -
• Check the function of the air filter.
• Check the function of the turbocharger. Cause: Monitor for water in the fuel or low fuel pressure.
Short to positive (+).
• Check the function of the charge air pressure sen-
sor. Response: None.

• Check the fuel feed pressure. Corrective action:


• Check that the wiring is not damaged.

63 Code -
Cause: Voltage feed to sensor. Short to positive (+). 186 Code -
Response: Several error codes for sensor error. Cause: Memory error in the engine control module
(EMS).
Corrective action:
Response: Engine will not start.
• Check the contact pressure in sleeve 5 in the
black cable glove of the engine control unit Corrective action:
(ECU).
• Replace the engine control unit (ECU).

44
Group 23 EDC III Diagnostic function

187 Code - 231 Code -


Cause: Memory error in the engine control module Cause: Input for preheating request. Short to negative (-).
(EMS). Response: Pre-heating can not be activated.
Response: Engine will not start. Corrective action:
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring and the connection to the
• Replace the engine control unit (ECU). preheating switch are not damaged.

188 Code - 233 Code -

Cause: Programming plug (EOL). Short to positive (+). Cause: Datalink error (J1708), CIU.

Response: Engine will not start; engine control unit Response: Diagnostic codes from the engine cannot
(ECU) is in programming mode. be read from the diagnostic lamp.

Corrective action: Corrective action:

• Check that the EOL contact is not strapped. • Check that the 8-pin connector is not damaged.

• Check that the wiring to the EOL contact is not • Check that the wiring between the CIU and the
engine control unit (ECU) is not damaged.
damaged.
• Check pin/sleeve 22 and 37 in the connector on
the CIU.
189 Code -
Cause: Programming plug (EOL). Short to negative (-).
• Check the contact pressure in sleeves 25 and 26
in the red cable glove of the engine control unit
Response: None. (ECU).
Corrective action:
• Check that the wiring to the EOL contact is not
damaged.

192 Code - IMPORTANT! If error numbers 115, 125 and


135 are active simulatneously, check the con-
Cause: Coolant level monitor. Short to positive (+). tact pressure in sleeve 12 in the black cable
Response: None. glove of the engine control unit (ECU).
Corrective action:
IMPORTANT! If error numbers 145, 155 and
• Check that the wiring to the coolant level monitor
is not damaged.
165 are active simulateously, check the contact
pressure in sleeve 24 in the black cable glove of
• Check that the coolant level monitor is fitted cor-
rectly.
the engine control unit (ECU).

45
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Electronic fault detection


General Functionality check of lines
Check the following before starting electronic and connectors
fault detection:
First check that the fuse is not loose.
• Error codes
Use multimeter
• Fuel level and filter 9510060-8 to take a reading from the wiring.
• Air filter Connect adapter 9998505 between the engine’s cable
• Battery glove and the control unit (ECU).
Use the wiring diagram to check that you are taking a
• Wiring (visually)
reading from the correct spot.
• Main switch, fuses, connectors Use multimeter 9510060-8 to take the reading.
• Connections to relays
NOTE: Never take a reading by puncturing
the insulation.
Electronic fault detection can be performed on the fol-
lowing components: Check the reading value with that which is noted in
the wiring diagram.
• Charge air/charge pressure sensor.
If the reading can not be determined from the wiring
• Coolant temperature sensor. diagram, check the lines separately.
• Water monitor for fuel pre-filter. Tool 9998534 should always be used when taking a
• Camshaft and flywheel sensors. reading from a 4-pin connector of type DIN contact.

• Oil pressure/temperature sensor. Contact problems


• Coolant level sensor. Defective contacts or occasional recurring errors
• Unit injector (PC diagnostics program) could be difficult to detect and arise often from oxida-
tion, vibrations or poorly connected lines.
• Starter motor.
Wear can also cause errors. Avoid disconnecting a
• Relays.
connector unless absolutely necessary.
• Generator.
Other contact problems can arise, such as through
damaged pins, sleeves or connectors.
Shake the line and pull on the connections while mea-
suring to find where the line is damaged.
The resistance in the contacts, lines and connections
should be 0 Ohm.
There is some resistance, however, due to oxidation
on the connections.
If resistance is too great, there will be disturbances in
the function. How large resistance can be without dis-
turbances arising varies depending on the size of the
load in the circuit.

46
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Check the following: Interruption


• Look for oxidation, which can deteriorate
the contact in the connections.
Chafed or worn lines or loose connections could be
possible causes of error.
• Check that the cable shoes are not damaged, that
they are correctly fitted in the connector and that
Use the wiring diagram to check which wiring harnes-
ses are used for the function. Begin with the most pro-
the line is correctly connected to the cable shoe. bable wiring harness in the circuit.
• Test that the sleeves provide good mechanical Check the following:
contact.
Use a loose pin to test. • Disconnect the relevant connectors from both
ends of the wiring harness.
Important! The cable glove of the control unit • Measure the resistance using multimeter
9510060-8 between the ends of the line. Desired
(ECU) should only be checked using gauge
9998482. value R ~ 0 Ω.

• Carefully insert gauge 9998482 in the cable glove. • Shake the line if possible and pull on the connec-
Move the gauge back and forth a few times until tions while measuring to find where the damage is.
you feel that the cable glove clamps around the • If you cannot find the error, check the next wiring
harness following the wiring diagram.
gauge. If the cable glove does not clamp or
clamps weakly, the cable shoe must be replaced.
See ”Splicing electrical cable for cable glove”.
• Fill the sleeves that have been checked with low Contact resistance and oxidation
temperature grease (1161417-9). The resistance in the contacts, lines and connections
Important! DIN contacts to pressure sensors should be 0 Ω.
must not be filled with grease. There is some resistance, however, due to oxidation
on the connections.
• Check that the lines are really clamped. Avoid
clamping the lines too close to the contacts.
If resistance is too great, there will be disturbances in
the function. How large resistance can be without dis-
turbances arising varies depending on the size of the
load in the circuit.
Fault detection on cables and Check the following:
connectors • Look for oxidation, which can deteriorate the con-
tact in the connections.
Visually check the connections.
Check the following:
• Check that the cable shoes are not damaged, that
they are correctly fitted in the connector and that
• Look for oxidation, which can deteriorate the con-
tact in the connections.
the line is correctly connected to the cable shoe.
• Test that the sleeves provide good mechanical
• Check that the cable shoes are not damaged, that
they are correctly fitted in the connector and that
contact.
Use a loose pin to test.
the line is correctly connected to the cable shoe.
Important! DIN contacts to pressure sensors
• Test that the sleeves provide good mechanical
contact.
must not be filled with grease.

Use a loose pin to test.


• Shake the line if possible and pull on the connec-
tions while measuring to find where the damage is.

47
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Splicing electrical cable for


cable glove
Special tools: 951 2636, 9999324
Repair kit: 1078054

1. Disconnect the cable glove from the control module.


See ”Control module, replacement”. Remove the
cable glove in such a way that the cable to the pin
that is to be replaced is accessible.
2. Remove the pin using tool 9992636 or a very
small instrument screwdriver.

NOTE: Remove only one pin at a time.

3. Clip off the electrical cable at the pin that is to be


replaced. Splice the new one using repair kit
1078054. Use cable shoe pliers 9999324.
4. Carefully warm the splice with a hot air gun so
that the insulation shrinks and forms a seal.
5. If replacing several pins, put the first pin back into
the correct spot in the cable glove before remo-
ving the next pin. Check that the pin’s lock catch
securely locks the pin in the cable glove.
6. Attach the electrical cables with insulation and
cable tie in the cable glove in reverse order from
removal.
7. Refit the cable glove in reverse order from removal.
8. Make sure that the cable glove and the connection
to the control module are clean and dry.
9. Fit the cable glove to the control module. See
”Control module, replacement”.
10. Start the engine and check that no error codes
arise.

48
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking the combined Checking the coolant


sensor for charge air pressure/ temperature sensor
temperature

Checking charge air pressure


1. Switch off the engine
2. Disconnect the connector from the charge air 1. Disconnect the connector and remove the
pressure sensor and connect 4-pin adapter sensor from the engine.
9998534 between the sensor connector and the
2. Use mulitmeter 9510060-8 to measure between
engine wiring. Then connect multimeter 9510060-8
both contact pins of the sensor.
between measurement points 1-4.
The multimeter should show the following values at:
3. Switch on the operating voltage.
4. Measure using a multimeter set to measure voltage. 0°C / 32°F 4930 Ω ± 440 Ω
Check that the multimeter reads 5.0 volts. 20°C / 68°F 1870 Ω ± 140 Ω
5. Then connect the multimeter between 40°C / 104°F 800 Ω ± 50 Ω
measurement points 2-4. The voltage should be
about 1.2 V at normal atmospheric pressure. 60°C / 140°F 370 Ω ± 20 Ω
80°C / 176°F 190 Ω ± 8 Ω
100°C / 212°F 104 Ω ± 4 Ω
Checking charge air temperature
1. Disconnect the connector from the charge air NOTE: The sensor is extremely sensitive to changes
pressure sensor. in temperature. When measuring in the lower tempera-
ture interval 0–40°C / 32-104°F, holding the sensor in
2. Connect 4-pin adapter 9998534 between the
your hand is sufficient to make the value quickly go to
sensor connector and multimeter 9510060-8.
the lower resistance value.
3. Measure with the multimeter set to measure resis-
tance between the measurement points of the
adapter.
The multimeter should show the following values:
Measurement points Desired values
3–4 R~6.2 kΩ (20°C / 68°F)
3–4 R~ 2.5 kΩ (40°C / 104°F)

NOTE: Even if resistance values follow those in the


above table, it is no guarantee that the sensor is fault-
free.

49
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking water monitor, fuel Checking the camshaft and


pre-filter flywheel sensors

1. Red cable in connector.


2. Yellow cable in connector.
3. Black cable in connector.

1. Disconnect the connector and remove the water


monitor from the fuel pre-filter. The tachometer sensors for the camshaft and the fly-
wheel are identical. For a visual check, first remove
2. Connect the red cable (1) to a 24V power source. the sensors from the engine. Then disconnect the
Connect a light bulb (1W) between the yellow ca- connector and check that the sensors are not dama-
ble (2) in the connector and a +24V power source. ged and that no debris has fastened on the sensors.
Connect the black cable (3) in the connector to
ground (-). An induction test is performed as follows:

3. Submerge the sensor’s contact pins in a bowl of 1. Set multimeter 9510060-8 to measure
water. resistance. Use the multimeter to measure on the
The light bulb should light when the water connector pins. Resistance should lie between
is between the sensor’s contact pins. 775–945 Ω.

4. When the sensor is removed from the water, 2. Quickly pass a metal object close to the sensor.
the light bulb should go out. Check that the multimeter gives a reading. When
replacing and fitting a sensor, make sure that any
adjusting shims are refitted.
3. Check that the sensor is securely mounted
and that the distance between sensor and wheel
is correct.
Sensor Distance
Flywheel 0.75–2.1 mm (0.03–0.83’’)
Camshaft 0.3–1.0 mm (0.012–0.039’’)
NOTE: For adjustment of the sense clearence, plea-
se see Workshop Manual (Group 21).

50
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking the combined sensor Checking the coolant level


for oil pressure/temperature sensor

Checking the function of oil pressure 1. Empty the coolant from the expansion tank.
1. Switch off the engine
Warning! NEVER open the expansion tank’s
2. Disconnect the connector from the oil pressure pressure cap when the engine is warm. Hot coo-
sensor and connect 4-pin adapter 9998534 bet- lant could spray out, causing burns.
ween the sensor connector and the engine wiring.
Then connect multimeter 9510060-8 between me- 2. Disconnect the connector from the coolant
asurement points 1-4. sensor.
3. Switch on the operating voltage. 3. Check that the contact is activated and sends
4. Measure using a multimeter set to measure volta- a signal when the expansion tank is empty.
ge. Check that the multimeter reads 5.0 volts. 4. Then fill the expansion tank with coolant and
5. Then connect the multimeter between measure- check that resistance remains the same.
ment points 2-4. The voltage should be about 0.5 V.

Checking the function of oil temperature


1. Disconnect the connector from the oil pressure
sensor.
2. Connect 4-pin adapter 9998534 between the
sensor connector and multimeter 9510060-8.
3. Measure with the multimeter set to measure resis-
tance between the measurement points of the
adapter.
The multimeter should show the following values:
Measurement points Desired values
3–4 R~1.9 kΩ (20°C / 68°F)
3–4 R~ 0.1 kΩ (100°C / 212°F)

NOTE: Even if resistance values follow those in the


above table, it is no guarantee that the sensor is fault-
free.

51
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Fault detection on unit


injectors
Error symptoms
The engine runs unevenly or has decreased perfor-
mance.

Error causes
The above error symptoms can have several causes:
• False sensor signals
• Worn piston rings
• Clogged air filter
• Poor quality fuel
• Water in fuel
• Air in fuel
• High exhaust counterpressure
• Clogged fuel system
• Low fuel pressure
• Incorrect valve clearance
• Defective unit injector
• Incipient shearing (breakdown)

Determine or rule out error causes


using the PC diagnostics program
NOTE: Read the instructions in the user manual for
the ”PC diagnostics program” before each test.

1. Perform a relative compression test on the cylin-


ders.
Read the bar graph in the program. One or more
bars will be at 100%. If any of the bars show a va-
lue lower than 80% relative compression, there is
probably a compression error. Perform the test th-
ree times. If compression is within the limit values
(80% - 100%), continue with the next point. There
is a risk that all cylinders have poor compression.
2. Perform an injector test. Switch off one injector at a
time. When a functional injector is switched off, the
noise level of the engine will change. If that does
not happen, there is probably an injector error.
3. Perform a relative acceleration test. Bear in mind
that high engine speed gives inaccurate measure-
ment results. Lower the engine speed when mea-
suring. The test will calculate the average value of
the relative cylinder acceleration from all cylin-
ders. If the results from one cylinder differs from
the other, it is probably an injector error or a
symptom of poor compression.

52
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Fault detection on starter


motor and lines
General
If the voltage level of the battery is under 24.7V as
measured from the battery, the starter motor does not
have enough power to rotate the engine at normal
speed.

Checking voltage feed


1. Check that the voltage in the battery is at least
24.7V when unloaded by measuring between the
battery poles with multimeter 9510060-8.
2. Turn on the main switch.
3. Check that the voltage between positions 30 and 31
on the starter motor are the same as the battery.

Check
1. That error code 4.6 is not set.
2. That a start request is sent (using the PC
diagnostics program).
3. That the starter motor is activated (using the PC
diagnostics program).

Carbon brushes
Specifications for carbon brushes in the starter motor
are described below.
Carbon brush appearance
New = 23 mm (0.91’’)
Replace at 13 mm (0.51’’)

53
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Functionality check of relays


Multimeter 9510060-8 is used for fault detection.
Two different symbols are used to represent the line
connection. Symbol 1 indicates an interruption or ex-
tremely high resistance (~). The multimeter does not
emit an alarm.
Symbol 2 indicates a contact or extremely low resis-
tance. The multimeter emits an alarm.
Check the function of the relays as follows:

NOTE: Disconnect the main relay from the engine be-


fore beginning fault detection.

1. Use the multimeter set to measure high frequen-


cies. Measure between pins 87a and 30 of the re-
lay. The multimeter should then emit an alarm
sound.
2. Use the multimeter set to measure high frequen-
cies. Measure between pins 87 and 30 of the re-
lay. The multimeter should not emit an alarm.
3. Use the multimeter set to measure resistance.
Measure between pins 85 and 86 of the relay. The
multimeter should read 240–270 Ω.
4. Connect 24V between pins 85 and 86. Use the
multimeter set to measure high frequencies. Mea-
sure between pins 87 and 30 of the relay. The
multimeter should then emit an alarm sound.
5. Connect 24V between pins 85 and 86. Use the
multimeter set to measure high frequencies. Mea-
sure between pins 87a and 30 of the relay. The
multimeter should not emit an alarm.
6 Replace the relay if test results do not match
those listed above.

54
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Fault detection on the


generator
First remove the generator so that measurement
points are accessible.
1. Pry loose the plastic cover of the generator with a
screwdriver.
2. Remove the regulator’s four screws.
3. Remove the bracket’s two screws and remove the
bracket and the regulator.

55
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Carbon brushes
The length of carbon brushes is measured between
the contact surface and the brush holder. If the size of
the projecting portion is less than 0,2’’ or if the brushes
are damaged, they must be replaced.

NOTE: When soldering, make sure that the solder


does not penetrate too far in the line to the brushes.
The line would then become stiff, hindering flexibility.

Regulator
Checking the regulator:
1. Measure with a multimeter set for diode measure-
ment.
2. Connect the probes between the carbon brushes.
3. Switch the probes.
4. Check that there is no short-circuit.

NOTE: If you suspect a regulator error, it is best to fit


a new regulator on the generator and test run the char-
ging system.

56
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking positive output diodes


1. Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2. Connect the negative test probe to B+ and the po-
sitive test probe to each of the three stator win-
dings.
3. Take readings of the three stator windings.
4. Switch the test probes and take three more
readings.
5. One time, the instrument should read 400–1200mV
(conducting direction). The other time, it should
read OL.
The diodes obstruct.

NOTE: The entire diode package is insulated from the


body of the generator.

57
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking negative output diodes


1. Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2. Connect the negative test probe to B- and the po-
sitive test probe to each of the three stator win-
dings.
3. Take readings of the three stator windings.
4. Switch the test probes and take three more
readings.
5. One time, the instrument should read 400–1200mV
(conducting direction). The other time, it should
read OL.
The diodes obstruct.

NOTE: The entire diode package is insulated from the


body of the generator.

58
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking excitation diodes


1. Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2. Connect the negative test probe to D+ and the po-
sitive test probe to each of the three stator win-
dings.
3. Take readings of the three stator windings.
4. Switch the test probes and take three more
readings.
5. One time, the instrument should read 400–1200mV
(conducting direction). The other time, it should
read OL.

59
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking stator windings


1. Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2. Connect the test probes between the phase con-
nections.
3. Take three readings.
4. The instrument should show the same value for
all three readings.

Overload test on stator


1. Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2. Connect the test probes between the stator body
and one of the three stator windings.
3. The instrument should read OL.
If any other value is shown, the stator is short-cir-
cuited.

60
Group 23 EDC III Electronic fault detection

Checking the rotor


1 Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2 Connect the test probes to the slip rings.
3 The instrument reading should be nonexistent
or very weak.
4 At the same time, check that the slip rings are not
burned or otherwise damaged.

Overload test on rotor


1. Set the multimeter for diode measurement.
2. Connect the test probes between the stator body
and one of the three stator windings.
3. The instrument should read OL.
If any other value is shown, the stator is short-cir-
cuited.

61
Group 23 EDC III Electrical system

Electrical system
3. See ”Start with booster batteries” on how to jump
Important about the electrical start using booster batteries.
system 4. Connecting extra equipment
All extra equipment must be connected to a sepa-
Important! Stop the engine and cut off the po- rate junction box and fused.
wer with the main switch before working with the Extra outlets directly from the instrument boards
electrical system. should be avoided. Extra outlets are permissible
1. Main switch only up to a max. total of 5A (applies for all in-
Never open the circuit between the generator and strument boards together).
the batteries when the engine is running. Electric welding
The main switch/switches must never be swit-
ched off before the engine has stopped. Remove the positive and negative cables from the
If the circuit is opened when the engine is running, batteries.
the voltage regulator can be ruined and the gene- Then remove all connections to the generator.
rator can be badly damaged. Then remove the cable glove from the control module
For the same reason, charging circuits must not (EDC III). See the instructions in ”Control module
be switched when the engine is running. For si- (EMS), replacement”.
multaneous charging of two independent battery
circuits, a Volvo Penta charge distributor can be Always attach welding clamps to the part that is to be
mounted on the standard generator (accessory). welded as close to the welding area as possible. The
clamps must never be attached to the engine or in
2. Batteries
such a way that current can pass over any bearing.
Never mistake the positive and negative poles for
each other when installing the batteries. Important! After welding, the removed compo-
This could cause serious damage to the electrical nents, such as cable glove, generator cable and
equipment. battery cables, must be refitted in the correct or-
Compare with the wiring diagram. Battery poles der.
should be well cleaned and cable shoes should al-
ways be secured and well greased.
Avoid quick charging the batteries. If quick char-
ging must be used, the ordinary battery cables
must first be disconnected.
NOTE: Follow applicable safety regulations when
charging the batteries.
When charging, the cell plugs should be loosened but
remain in the cell hole. Ventilate well, especially if the
batteries are being charged in a confined area.
Never cut off the charging current before disconnec-
ting the charge clamps.

Warning! The battery compartment must never


be exposed to open flames or electric sparks.
Never smoke near the batteries. When the bat-
teries are being charged, they give off hydrogen
which, when mixed with air, forms oxyhydrogen
gas. This gas is highly flammable and very ex-
plosive.
Always wear protective goggles when charging
and handling batteries.
The battery electrolyte contains highly corrosive sulfu-
ric acid.
If it gets on your skin, wash the area with soap and
plenty of water. If the electrolyte gets in your eyes,
rinse them at once with plenty of cold water and seek
medical attention immediately.

62
Group 23 EDC III Electrical system

Electrical system, overview


TWD1240VE Stand alone

TWD1240VE with CIU, CAN based SAE J1939

63
Group 23 EDC III Electrical system

TWD1240VE Power pack

TAD1240–42GE with CIU, CAN based SAE J1939


TAD1241–42VE with CIU, CAN based SAE J1939

64
Group 23 EDC III Electrical system

TAD1240–42GE Stand alone


TAD1241–42VE Stand alone

65
66

Group 23 EDC III


Cable colors TAD1240–42GE, TAD124142VE
BL = Blue P = Pink (24 V system voltage, 2-pin)
LBL = Light blue R = Red
BN = Brown SB = Black 1. RPM potentiometer
LBN = Light brown VO = Violet 2. 1500/1800 contact
GN = Green W = White 3. Starter contact
GR = Gray Y = Yellow 4. Idle contact
OR = Orange 5. Stop contact
6. Diagnostics
7. Low oil pressure alarm
8. High coolant temperature alarm
9. Indicator, engine running
10. Overspeed alarm
11. Voltage after key
12. Battery, negative
13. Battery, positive
14. Nyckelbrytare
15. J1587 (bus)
16. J1939 CAN (bus)
17. Battery, negative
18. Battery, positive
19. Voltage after key
20. Connector
21. Programming connector
22. Diode
23. Monitor, water in fuel
24. Relay socket
25. Main relay
26. Monitor, fuel pressure
27. Monitor, coolant level
28. Stop
29. Programming plug
30. Connector 2 (red)
31. Connector 1 (black)
32. Control unit, EDC III (ECU)
33. Unit injector
34. Coolant temperature sensor
35. Sensor, charge air temperature/
pressure
36. Preheat function (NOT available for
Genset application)
37. Camshaft (RPM) sensor
38. Flywheel (RPM) sensor

Electrical system
39. Generator
40. Starter motor
41. Sensor, oil temperature/pressure
42. Battery (24 V)
Group 23 EDC III
Cable colors TWD1240VE (24 V system
BL = Blue P = Pink voltage, 2-pin)
LBL = Light blue R = Red
BN = Brown SB = Black 1. RPM potentiometer
LBN = Light brown VO = Violet 2. Droop contact
GN = Green W = White 3. Starter contact
GR = Gray Y = Yellow 4. Idle contact
OR = Orange 5. Preheating contact
6. Stop contact
7. Diagnostics
8. Low oil pressure alarm
9. High coolant temperature alarm
10. Low coolant level alarm
11. Preheating indicator
12. Voltage after key
13. Battery, negative
14. System to (key)
15. Battery, positive
16. J1587 (bus)
17. J1939 CAN (bus)
18. Battery, negative
19. Battery, positive
20. Voltage after key
21. Connector
22. Programming connector
23. Diode
24. Stop button
25. Monitor, water in fuel
26. Relay, socket
27. Relay
28. Programming plug
29. Monitor, fuel pressure
30. Monitor, coolant level
31. Connector 2 (red)
32. Connector 1 (black)
33. Control unit EDCIII (ECU)
34. Unit injectors (Cyl. 1–6)
35. Coolant temperature sensor
36. Sensor, Charge air temperature/
pressure
37. Preheating
38. Relay, preheating
39. Camshaft (RPM) sensor

Electrical system
40. Flywheel (RPM) sensor
41. Generator
42. Starter motor
43. Sensor, oil temperature/
pressure
44. Battery (24 V)
67
Group 23 EDC III Electrical system

Cable colors Wiring diagram, Control


BL = Blue P = Pink Interface Unit (CIU)
LBL = Light blue R = Red 1. Key breaker operating power
BN = Brown SB = Black (15+)
LBN = Light brown VO = Violet 2. RPM potentiometer
GN = Green W = White 3. Tachometer code 14
GR = Gray Y = Yellow 4. Oil pressure, instrument
OR = Orange 5. Oil temperature, instrument
6. Coolant temperature, instrument
7. Instrument illumination
8. Idle contact, two-position
(Genset)
9. 1500/1800 contact, two-position
(Genset)
10. Starter contact, non-locking
11. Stop contact, non-locking
12. Diagnosis contact, non-locking
13. Alarm, low oil pressure
14. Alarm, high oil temperature
15. Alarm, high coolant temperature
16. Alarm, coolant level
17. Fuel alarm
18. Diagnostic lamp
19. Overspeed indicator (Genset)
20. Operation indicator (Genset)
21. Preheating indicator
(Versatile)
22. Preheating contact,
non-locking (Versatile)
23. 8-pin Deutsch connection
pin
24. Regulator (contact), two-position
25. Charge indicator
26. Termination 120 W
27. 8-pin Deutsch connection
sleeve
28. Control Interface Unit (CIU)

68
Group 23 EDC III Electrical system

Wiring diagram, Control Interface Unit (CIU) – Cable colors


Power pack BL = Blue P = Pink
1. Activating operating power, contact (15+) LBL = Light blue R = Red
2. RPM potentiometer BN = Brown SB = Black
3. Tachometer code 14 LBN = Light brown VO = Violet
4. Oil pressure, instrument GN = Green W = White
5. Coolant temperature, instrument GR = Gray Y = Yellow
6. Instrument illumination OR = Orange
7. Starter contact, non-locking
8. Stop contact, non-locking
9. Diagnosis contact, non-locking
10. Charge indicator
11. Alarm, high oil temperature
12. Alarm, high coolant temperature
13. Alarm, coolant level
14. Fuel alarm
15. Diagonotic lamp
16. Preheating indicator
17. 8-pin Deutsch connection pin
18. 8-pin Deutsch connection sleeve
19. Horn total alarm
20. Preheating contact, non-locking function (option)
21. 42-pin connector
22. Termination 120 W
23. Extra outlet for 24 V and stop
24. Control Interface Unit (CIU)

69
Group 23 EDC III Index

Index
A O
About the Service Manual ...................................... 5 Our common responsibility ..................................... 6

C P
Certified engines .................................................... 5 PC diagnostics program ........................................ 25
Check/fault detection of components .................... 49
Component description, sensors and monitors ...... 14 R
Component diagram and location .......................... 18 Reading out error codes ........................................ 27
Control Interface Unit (CIU) ................................... 16 Repair instructions ................................................. 6
Control module (EMS) ........................................... 16 Repair instructions ................................................ 22
Control module (EMS), replacement ...................... 23
S
D Safety information .................................................. 2
Design and operation ............................................ 12 Sealants ................................................................ 7
Diagnostic function affects the engine .................. 27 Spare parts ............................................................ 5
Diagnostic function ............................................... 27 Special tools .......................................................... 9
Splicing of electrical cable for cable glove ............. 48
E Start with booster batteries ................................... 24
Electrical system .................................................. 62 Starter motor ......................................................... 17
Electrical system, overview .................................. 63 Strength classes .................................................... 7
Electronic fault detection ....................................... 46 Symptoms and possible causes ........................... 26
Erasing error codes ............................................... 28 System description EDC III ................................... 12

F T
Fault codes EDC III .............................................. 29 Technical data ...................................................... 10
Fault detection of cables and connectors .............. 47 The role of diagnostic function .............................. 27
Fault detection ...................................................... 26 Tightening torques ................................................. 6
Functionality check of lines and connectors .......... 46 Torque-angle tightening ........................................... 7
Functionality check ............................................... 25
U
G Unit injectors ......................................................... 17
General .................................................................. 8
General information ................................................ 5 W
General ................................................................. 46 When working with EDC III .................................... 22
Generator .............................................................. 17 Wiring diagram TAD1240-42GE/VE ..................... 66
Wiring diagram TWD1240VE ................................ 67
I Wiring diagram, Control Interface Unit (CIU) -
Important about the electrical system ................... 62 Power pack ........................................................... 69
Introduction ............................................................ 2 Wiring diagram, Control Interface Unit (CIU) .......... 68

L
Limit values .......................................................... 19
Limit values, control unit (ECU)
TAD1240-42GE ..................................................... 19
Limit values, control unit (ECU)
TWD1240VE ......................................................... 20
Limp-home values ................................................. 21
Location of engine plates ....................................... 8
Lock nuts ................................................................ 7

70
Notes

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71
Notes

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